Psychology Chapter 1,2, and 3

Psychology Chapter 1,2, and 3

Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization?
Psychoanalysis
Humanism
Cognitive perspective
Behaviorism
Humanism
Who claimed that behavior is affected by reinforcement?
William James
Sigmund Freud
B. F. Skinner
Wilhelm Wundt
B.F. Skinner
A variable that the experimenter manipulates is called an?
Coefficient of correlation
Dependent variable
Control Condition
Independent Variable
Independent variable
Pavlov’s research demonstrated that?
Involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell)
As a project for a psychology course a student correlated weight and intelligence scores for 250 students. The computed correlation coefficient was.00. What did the scatter plot look like?
A random distribution of points
Which treatment approach did Sigmund Freud develop for treating his patients?
Psychoanalysis
The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on ones behavior is part of what early field of psychology?
Psychoanalysis
A correlation coefficient is represented by the symbol
small letter r
According to present research on psychologists 34% are in the _____ subfield of psychology
Clinical
How our minds help us adapt to the world around us was a primary question addressed by which early movement of psychology?
Functionalism
“The whole is greater than the sum of the parts” statement associated with the ________ perspective
Gestalt psychologists
A correlation coefficient represents two things ___ and ____
Strength and direction of the relationship
What is one of the major reasons the psychologists use operational definitions?
So that effects can be measured
The goals of psychology are to ____?
Describe, explain, predict, and control behavior
“All or none” is the principle stating that ________.
a neuron either fires or does not fire
After a head injury a person reports that she is unable to see, although her eyes are uninjured. A doctor would suspect an injury in the ________ lobe.
Occipital
Eating, drinking, sexual behavior, sleeping, and temperature control are most strongly influenced by the ________.
Hypothalamus
Endocrine glands______
secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
GABA functions as
an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
How acetylcholine removed from the synapse
Broken down by an enzyme
If you have a problem remembering things that happened a year ago, doctors might check for damage to the ________ area of the brain.
Hippocampus
Involuntary muscles are controlled by the ________ nervous system.
autonomic
Jerry loves the smell of the grass after it rains. This is a result of his ________ which have received signals from neurons in his sinus cavity.
olfactory bulbs
Neurons that carry information from the senses to the spinal cord are called ________.
sensory neurons
Pain-controlling chemicals in the body are called____
endorphins
Since Norma is a split-brain patient we can infer that she likely has a history of
severe epilepsy
The ________ is a structure in the brain stem responsible for life-sustaining functions, such as breathing and heart rate.
medulla
The area of the fontal lobe that is devoted to the production of fluent speech is
Broca’s
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands is called the ________.
parasympathetic nervous system
The branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons are called____
Dendrites
The charge that a neuron at rest maintains is due to the presence of a high number of ________ charged ions inside the neuron’s membrane.
Negatively
The outermost part of the brain that is made up of tightly packed neurons and is only a tenth of an inch thick is called the ________.
cortex
The thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the ________.
corpus callosum
Function of myelin?
Speed up the neural impulse
According to the opponent-process theory of color vision, the correct pairings of opposite colors are ________.
red vs green and blue vs yellow
Activation of the receptors by stimuli is called
sensation
Illusion
a perception that does not correspond to reality
Analyzing smaller features and building up to a complete perception is called
bottom up processing
Continuity
to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
Each retina of the eye has about _____ million rods
120
Ernest weber provided formulation that is used to determine the
Smallest detectable difference between two stimuli
Figure-ground concern
The tendency to perceive objects or figures on some background
If an artist were to blend red, green, and blue lights together by focusing lights of those three colors on one common spot, the result would look ________.
like white light
If you were to take a sparkler at a July 4th picnic and “draw” your name in the air, your ability to see the light trail after the initial stimulus is facilitated by:
persistence
In the process known as ________, sensory receptors become less sensitive to repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
sensory adaptation
Nerve hearing impairment can be best treated with
cochlear implants
Perception is the
process by which people take all the sensations they experience at any given moment and interpret them in some meaningful fashion
Pitch is to frequency as
loudness is to amplitude
Somasthetic senses involve all of the following except ________.
taste
The ability to see the world in three dimensions is called
depth perception
the best explanation of the moon illusion is
the apparent distance hypothesis
The average threshold for human vision is a candle flame seen from ____ on a dark clear night
30 miles
The fovea is made up of
all cones and no rods
The lowest stimulus intensity required for detection is the ________ and the smallest noticeable difference between a standard stimulus intensity and another stimulus value is the ________.
absolute threshold and just noticeable difference
What are the hammer anvil and stirrup
tiny bones located in the middle ear
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Psychology
Outward or overt actions and reactions
behavior
internal, covert activity of our minds
mental processes
focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind
structuralism
Margaret Washburn
first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology
how the mind allows people to adapt live work and play
Functionalism
The science of behavior the focuses on observable behavior only must be directly seen and measured
Behaviorism
modern version of psychoanalysis
psychodynamic perspective