Psychology’s Early History Practice

Psychology’s Early History Practice

__________ relies on introspection to reduce conscious experiences into basic elements.
Structuralism
Which of the following statements is not true about what John Locke believed?
A.
Sensations and reflections are the two sources for ideas.
B.
Knowledge is acquired through our experiences.
C.
Science should rely on observations and experiments.
D.
Knowledge is present in an individual from birth.
D Knowledge is Present in an Individual from birth.
Define behaviorism and explain who founded this school of thought.
Founded by John B. Watson, behaviorism is a school of thought that defines psychology as “the scientific study of observable behavior.
Which two philosophers believed that innate knowledge is discovered through logic?
A.
John Locke and Aristotle
B.
Socrates and John Locke
C.
Hippocrates and René Descartes
D.
Socrates and Plato
D: Socrates and Plato
T or F: René Descartes was the first person to describe a reflex.
T
Summarize the difference between structuralism and functionalism.
Structuralism is the school of thought that studies the basic elements or structure of consciousness. It focuses on objective sensations, such as sight and taste, and subjective feelings, such as emotional responses. Functionalism, on the other hand, is a school of thought that studies the function and purpose of consciousness and behavior. Functionalists study how cognitive processes help people and animals adapt to their environment and develop habits.
Ivan Pavlov introduced the concept of __________ when he taught a dog to salivate at the sound of a tuning fork.
A.
reinforcement
B.
unconsciousness
C.
conditioning
D.
reward
C: Conditioning
Who is considered the father of psychology in the United States?
A.
William Wundt
B.
John B. Watson
C.
William James
D.
René Descartes
C: William James
Summarize in a complete paragraph how psychology has its roots in philosophy, and provide examples of two philosopher’s contributions.
Many of the questions asked in psychology today about the mind and how we acquire knowledge can be traced back through human history. Numerous philosophers have contributed to the field of psychology. For example, in Aristotle’s numerous works, he discussed several psychological topics, such as memory, perception, and dreams. He suggested that the mind is where thinking takes place, and he also described the mind’s individual capacities. Rene Descartes believed that the mind and body are separate but that a link exists between them, an idea in which many people still believe.
The philosopher who believed that the mind operated on the three levels of reason, will, and desire was __________.
Plato