Psychology’s Early History

associationism
Theory that the mind is composed of elements organized by means of association.
structuralism
School of thought that studied the basic elements or structures of consciousness.
functionalism
School of thought that studies the function and purpose of consciousness and behavior.
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behaviorism
School of thought that defines psychology as the study of observable behavior.
psychoanalytic theory
School of thought that stresses the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts in determining human behavior.
Which two philosophers believed that innate knowledge is discovered through logic?
Socrates and Plato
Which of the following statements is not true about what John Locke believed?
Knowledge is present in an individual from birth.
Ivan Pavlov introduced the concept of __________ when he taught a dog to salivate at the sound of a tuning fork.
conditioning
Who is considered the father of psychology in the United States?
William James
Define behaviorism and explain who founded this school of thought.
Founded by John B. Watson, behaviorism is a school of thought that defines psychology as “the scientific study of observable behavior.”
Summarize in a complete paragraph how psychology has its roots in philosophy, and provide examples of two philosopher’s contributions.
Many of the questions asked in psychology today about the mind and how we acquire knowledge can be traced back through human history. Numerous philosophers have contributed to the field of psychology. For example, in Aristotle’s numerous works, he discussed several psychological topics, such as memory, perception, and dreams. He suggested that the mind is where thinking takes place, and he also described the mind’s individual capacities. Rene Descartes believed that the mind and body are separate but that a link exists between them, an idea in which many people still believe.
Summarize the difference between structuralism and functionalism.
Structuralism is the school of thought that studies the basic elements or structure of consciousness. It focuses on objective sensations, such as sight and taste, and subjective feelings, such as emotional responses. Functionalism, on the other hand, is a school of thought that studies the function and purpose of consciousness and behavior. Functionalists study how cognitive processes help people and animals adapt to their environment and develop habits.
__________ relies on introspection to reduce conscious experiences into basic elements.
Structuralism
The philosopher who believed that the mind operated on the three levels of reason, will, and desire was __________.
Plato
René Descartes was the first person to describe a reflex–T or F?
True
For centuries, philosophers have explored questions about how the mind works and acquires knowledge–T or F?
True
Which school of thought focused on objective sensations, such as sight and taste, and subjective feelings, such as emotional responses, to study the conscious mind?
structuralism
According to Freud, slips of the tongue __________.
represent a meaningful unconscious thought
__________ is the systematic self-observation and analysis of one’s conscious experience.
Socrates developed the laws of associationism–T or F?
False
Functionalism is the school of thought that studies the function and purpose of consciousness and behavior–T or F?
True
Chloe read an essay that claims the body and mind, which are made up of different substances, interact both harmoniously and competitively in a living person. Which philosopher’s work is she most likely reading?
René Descartes
The first formal laboratory for research in psychology was established by B. F. Skinner–T or F?
False
Which philosopher suggested that the mind and body are separate but that a link exists between them?
René Descartes
Psychology is a combination of the Greek words psyche, which means “soul” or “mind,” and logos, which means “the study of.” T or F?
True

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