Public Administration HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
MPA – 014 : HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 1. Discuss the scope and implications of SHRM. The model just described represents an expansion on the more typical model that has been implied in the SHRM literature, in which HR practices are presumed to be associated with performance through their influence on employee skills, attitudes, and motivation IMPLICATIONS: SHRM Implies accepting the HR function as an integral part to the formulation of the companies strategies and Implementation of the same through specific HRM practices like recruiting, selecting, training and rewarding personnel ? SHRM encourages managers to be proactive which means to think ahead. ? Attainment of organization objectives through human capital. ? It enhances individual performance by development of commitment at all levels. It enables development of need based personnel policy/HR policy as a prerequisite for optimum use of human resources. ? Integration of HRM policy with business goals or objectives. ? Developing supportive work culture in order to encourage creativity, team work, TQM as well as innovation and a sense of belonging. ? Creation of flexible environment because in flexible environment employees can easily adapt to changing competitive environment. ? Creation of flexible working hours/ function. ? Integration of people related issues with business issues. SHRM Implies a logically connected approach to the design and management of personnel systems based on employment policy and manpower strategy underpinned by Philosophy * SHRM implies the use of Planning to maximise the advantage from HRM * Implies that HRM activities and polices are aspects of explicitly formulated business strategy * It Recognises HR’s partnership role in the strategising process * Incorporates Ethical and legal considerations, which in turn have complex implications for the achievement of a wide range of business objectives like Equity; Consideration ; Commitment and Working Conditions . Discuss the Advantages and Shortcomings of HR Planing. Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. HR Planning is the formal process of linking organisational strategy with Human resource Practices. HR Planning is also known as Manpower Planning. It is a technique of correcting imbalances between manpower demand and supply in an organisation at a micro level and in the economy at the macro level.
The two aspects of manpower planning are Quantitative and Qualitative. HR Planning Occurs at several levels: Aggregated Workforce planning at the strategic level… it is needed to counteract pulls and pressures of Globalisation Career Planning of Homogenous group of employees at the Tactical Level… addresses the career planning and development needs of personnel in the organisation Posting and deployment planning of individuals at the operational level… assists the HR managers to formulate optimal personnel posting and deployment plan for the employees ADVANTAGES:
Human resources planning anticipate not only the required kind and number of employees but also determine the action plan for all functions of personnel management. a) Human resource planning is necessary of all organization . The cooperate pal of the organization regarding expansion, diversification, technological change, should be backed up by the availability of human resources. It suggests modification in the plan when the expected manpower is not available. b) It offsets uncertainty and change. Sometime the organization may have machines and money but not men and consequently the production cannot be started.
It offsets such uncertainly and changes to the maximum possible and enables the society to have right men at right time and in the right place. c) It provides scope for advancement and development of employees through training, development etc. d) It helps to satisfy the individual needs of the employees for the promotions transfers, salary enhancement, better benefits etc. e) It helps in anticipating the cost of salary, benefits and all the cost of human resources facilitating the formulation of budgets in a society. ) It helps to foresee the need for redundancy and plans to check of human resources and to change the techniques of management. g) It helps in planning for physical facilities, working conditions, the volume of fringe benefits like canteen, schools, hospitals, conveyance, child care centers, quarters, company stores etc. h) It causes the development of various sources of human resources to meet the organizational needs. i) It helps to take steps to improve human resource contributions in the form of increased productivity, sales, turnover etc. ) It facilitates the control of all functions, operations, contribution and cost of human resources SHORTCOMINGS: 1. The future is uncertain :- The future in any country is uncertain i. e. there are political, cultural, technological changes taking place every day. This effects the employment situation. Accordingly the company may have to appoint or remove people. Therefore HRP can only be a guiding factor. We cannot rely too much on it and do every action according to it. 2. Conservative attitude of top management :- Much top management adopts a conservative attitude and is not ready to make changes.
The process of HRP. 3. Problem of surplus staff :- HRP gives a clear out solution for excess staff i. e. Termination, layoff, VRS,. However when certain employees are removed from company it mostly affects the psyche of the existing employee, and they start feeling insecure, stressed out and do not believe in the company. This is a limitation of HRP i. e. it does not provide alternative solution like re-training so that employee need not be removed from the company. 4. Time consuming activity :- HRP collects information from all departments, regarding demand and supply of personnel.
This information is collected in detail and each and every job is considered. Therefore the activity takes up a lot of time. 5. Expensive process :- The solution provided by process of HRP incurs expense. E. g. VRS, overtime, etc. company has to spend a lot of money in carrying out the activity. Hence we can say the process is expensive. 6. Define TQM and differentiate it from the Traditional management Total quality management or TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes. 1] TQM can be applied to any type of organization; it originated in the manufacturing sector and has since been adapted for use in almost every type of organization Total Quality Management (TQM) is a comprehensive and structured approach to organizational management that seeks to improve the quality of products and services through ongoing refinements in response to continuous feedback TQM is based on the premise that the quality of products and processes is the responsibility of everyone involved with the creation or consumption of the products or services offered by an organization, requiring the involvement of management, workforce, suppliers, and customers, to meet or exceed customer expectations. Nine common TQM practices: 1. cross-functional product design 2. process management 3. supplier quality management 4. customer involvement 5. information and feedback 6. committed leadership 7. strategic planning 8. cross-functional training 9. employee involvement TQM processes are divided into four sequential categories: plan, do, check, and act (thePDCA cycle).
In the planning phase, people define the problem to be addressed, collect relevant data, and ascertain the problem’s root cause; in the doing phase, people develop and implement a solution, and decide upon a measurement to gauge its effectiveness; in the checking phase, people confirm the results through before-and-after data comparison; in the acting phase, people document their results, inform others about process changes, and make recommendations for the problem to be addressed in the next PDCA cycle. Total quality management vs traditional management style Total quality management has changed the traditional management style forever. It was a very radical movement those days. Some of these changes are radical even today. Few of these changes are discussed below. Traditional way of management focused on internal activities. Quality had a meaning which was totally internally defined.
Products or services provided by organization were assumed to be good in quality, if this organization has done its best in producing that product or service. But in total quality management, focus is the customer. So that ultimate decider of the quality is the customer. Fitting to the customer requirement was the least requirement while delighting them is the ultimate goal. Traditionally people thought bad quality products are due to the workers who do not perform their job correctly. One of the major differences between total quality management and traditional management style is the assignment of the responsibility of the quality to the management.
Especially responsibility of the quality goes into the middle level management in the operational level. Total quality management is an organization wide movement. All the organization has to be in unity to apply TQM principles. Total quality management, unlike traditional management calls for high amount of team working. Team building, specially cross functional teams are feature of TQM. These teams will provide the necessary momentum to the implementation process and will propel the system forward, with very less resistance. TQM believes in quality assurance rather than checking. Quality is inbuilt to the system, so that products are assured to be in good quality.
Some decision like narrowing down the supplier base is total quality management concepts used for this purpose, which is revolutionary still today. Unlike in traditional management style, total quality management makes decisions on facts and figures. Therefore problems are identified correctly. Therefore solutions are well planned. TQM depends on cyclic thinking. Also it is continuous. Therefore improvements are small, stable and continuous in nature. This is also known as Kaizen. These events are used in teambuilding, brain storming and decision making. There are many other differences between the old or the traditional way of management to the total quality management.
In the bigger picture, TQM has basically changed the culture and the thinking patterns of the organization. TQM challenges Traditional Management * TQM is a direct challenge to traditional management. Because it is so different, it simply cannot be an “add-on” to traditional management. Nor can it be combined with traditional management structures when a corporation is restructuring. Trying to combine techniques will result in failure. Decision-Making Differences * In the traditional management model, decisions are centralized or made from the top down. This means a manager makes the decisions, and the lower levels are supposed to follow. It is very much like the military. In TQM, the lower levels have a hand in making decisions.
For example, a machine operator notices his machine is making bad parts. In a traditional model, he calls the supervisor over, who makes the decision to call the maintenance department. In TQM, the employee makes the decision to call the maintenance department. Responsibility for Quality * In the traditional model, a quality control department or person assumes responsibility for the quality of the product. In the TQM model, the individual machine operator assumes responsibility for quality. In the traditional model, the quality control department spots bad products. It investigates and discovers a machine is worn out. In TQM, the machine operator herself inspects every part coming out of the machine.
If all the operators inspect the product as it is being built, the entire crew becomes the quality control department. Focus * In traditional management, the focus is internalized, whereas in TQM the focus is external. This means in traditional management, the focus is on a “doing the best we can” philosophy. In TQM, the focus is on the customer, who may demand more than what the company expects of itself. In TQM, the customer is the final quality control inspector. Fault Finding * In traditional management, when something goes wrong with quality, the fault is usually directed at the employee. In TQM, the fault is placed on management, who did not perform their duties correctly. 4. Write a note on MBO
Management by objectives (MBO) is a systematic and organized approach that allows management to focus on achievable goals and to attain the best possible results from available resources It refers to the process of setting goals for the employees so that they know what they are supposed to do at the workplace. Management by Objectives defines roles and responsibilities for the employees and help them chalk out their future course of action in the organization. Management by objectives guides the employees to deliver their level best and achieve the targets within the stipulated time frame. Some of the important features and advantages of MBO are: 1.
Motivation – Involving employees in the whole process of goal setting and increasing employee empowerment. This increases employee job satisfaction and commitment. 2. Better communication and coordination – Frequent reviews and interactions between superiors and subordinates helps to maintain harmonious relationships within the organization and also to solve many problems. 3. Clarity of goals 4. Subordinates tend to have a higher commitment to objectives they set for themselves than those imposed on them by another person. 5. Managers can ensure that objectives of the subordinates are linked to the organization’s objectives. Need for Management by Objectives (MBO) The Management by Objectives process helps the employees to understand their duties at the workplace. * KRAs are designed for each employee as per their interest, specialization and educational qualification. * The employees are clear as to what is expected out of them. * Management by Objectives process leads to satisfied employees. It avoids job mismatch and unnecessary confusions later on. * Employees in their own way contribute to the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. Every employee has his own role at the workplace. Each one feels indispensable for the organization and eventually develops a feeling of loyalty towards the organization.
They tend to stick to the organization for a longer span of time and contribute effectively. They enjoy at the workplace and do not treat work as a burden. * Management by Objectives ensures effective communication amongst the employees. It leads to a positive ambience at the workplace. * Management by Objectives leads to well defined hierarchies at the workplace. It ensures transparency at all levels. A supervisor of any organization would never directly interact with the Managing Director in case of queries. He would first meet his reporting boss who would then pass on the message to his senior and so on. Every one is clear about his position in the organization. * The MBO Process leads to highly motivated and committed employees. The MBO Process sets a benchmark for every employee. The superiors set targets for each of the team members. Each employee is given a list of specific tasks. Limitations of Management by objectives Process * It sometimes ignores the prevailing culture and working conditions of the organization. * More emphasis is being laid on targets and objectives. It just expects the employees to achieve their targets and meet the objectives of the organization without bothering much about the existing circumstances at the workplace. Employees are just expected to perform and meet the deadlines. The MBO Process sometimes do treat individuals as mere machines. The MBO process increases comparisons between individuals at the workplace. Employees tend to depend on nasty politics and other unproductive tasks to outshine their fellow workers. Employees do only what their superiors ask them to do. Their work lacks innovation, creativity and sometimes also becomes monotonous. 4. Write a note on Judicial Approach to Discipline Judicial Approaches To Discipline: In our last lecture we have discussed Grievance and Redress Mechanism. In our lecture of date we will discuss the Judicial Approaches to Discipline. You are aware that DISCIPLINE is must for the progress of any organisation and failure to maintain discipline created a number of problems.
By having discipline in any organisation there shall be optimum utilization of the sources, which are available in the hands of entrepreneur. Beside what is stated above, effective discipline is a sign of sound human and industrial relations and Organisational health. Need for Disciplinary Measure Rules and regulations are necessary to maintain peace, prevent anarchy, and regulate conduct and behaviour of the people. The rules are made for those people who are not interested to maintain the basic principles of discipline. By enactment of the code of conduct of discipline, the behaviour of the people is regulated Meaning of Discipline Orderliness Training corrects, moulds and strengthens discipline Punishment enforces the discipline Aspects of Discipline
Positive Aspect – Employees believes in discipline and maintain their conduct as per code of as prescribed for maintaining discipline Negative Aspect – The employees some time do not adhere to the rules and regulations for maintaining discipline where they work. The failure to maintain the prescribed rules and regulations may invite disciplinary actions against the delinquent employees Objectives of Discipline 1. Willing acceptance of rules and regulations; 2. To impart elements of certainty 3. To develop spirit of tolerance and desire for adjustment; 4. Give and seek direction and responsibility; 5. Create an atmosphere of respect for human relations6. To increase working efficiency and morale Constructive Programme of Discipline – It has been observed that some of the employees deviate from the expected standard of behaviour.
To have control over the behaviour of such persons, it has become essentialto have constructive programme of disciple to deal with such people who violates theseprinciples of discipline. This Programme can be based on the following principles: – 1. Formulation of a set of clear and reasonable rules 2. Impartial enforcement of these rules 3. Uniformed supervisory skills on disciplinary matters And its strict adherence 4. Impartial and uniform system of investigation INDISCIPLINE Disorderliness Insubordination and not to follow the code of conduct. Causes of Indiscipline i) Non- placement of right persons on the right job according to qualification and experience ii) Undesirable behaviour of senior officials iii) Faulty evaluation of persons iv) Lack of communication v) Lack of communication v) Weak leadership vi) Defective supervision and absence of good supervisors Viii) Lack of properly drawn rules and regulations ix) Illiteracy and low intellectual level of knowledge. x)Workers reaction to rigidity and multiplicity of rules xi)Workers personal problems like fear, lack of confidence xii)Bad working conditions xiii)Absence of enlighten, sympathetic and scientific approach of management xiv)Errors of judgements .xv)Discrimination xvi)Undesirable management practices xvii)Improper coordination, delegation of powers/authority xviii)Psychological reasons ix)Misunderstanding Approaches to Discipline 1.
Human relations approach 2. Human resources approach 3. Group discipline approach4. The Leadership approach 5. The Judicial Approach The principles indicated by the Supreme Court for proceedings against thedelinquent employee are known as “Principles of a Natural Justice” these include: 1. The delinquent employee must be indicated in unambiguous terms about charge levelled against him; 2. The delinquent employee must be given an opportunity for conducting his defence, I. e. by cross examination of the witness. 3. The enquiry should be fair and enquiry officer should be impartial 4. The evidence should be put forward in the presence of the employed charged; 5.
Punishment should be proportionate to misconduct committed Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946 We have, while having discussions of the above act, described the act of omission and commissions, which are alleged to have been committed by the delinquent employees. However, to revise the same, the same are given as under : i. Wilful insubordination or disobedience (whether alone or in combination with others) of any lawful and reasonable orders, rules or regulation; ii. Refusal to work on a job or machine which has been assigned to him; iii. Refusal to accept or reply charge sheet within the prescribed period of time ; iv.
Theft, fraud or dishonesty in connection with the property of the company; v. Theft of another employee’s property inside the industrial area or company premises vi. Causing wilful damage to or loss of , the employer’s goods or property; vii. Causing damage to product in process or property; viii. Sabotage of, or interference with safety devices ix. Disregard of any operational or maintenance instructions or carelessness in the performance of operational and maintenance job; x. Non-observance of safety precautions and rules; xi. Taking or giving bribe or any illegal gratification. xii. Acceptance of gifts from subordinates xiii.
Habitual late coming; xiv. Absence from duty without leave; xv. Overstay when on leave without prior authorized permission; xvi. Absence from work without permission for more than consecutive days xvii. Leaving the work premises with authorized permission; xviii. Entering or leaving, or attempting to enter or leave, the work premises except through authorized entrance; xix. Assaulting or abusing or in any way insulting an officer of the company inside or outside the premises of the organisation; xx. Drunkenness, or coming to work under the influence of drink; xxi. Gambling on company property and company premises; xxii.
Fighting or indulging in riotous, disorderly or indecentbehaviour in the company premises or indulging in any act which subversive of discipline; xxiii. Smoking in prohibited area xxiv. Gross negligence of duty; xxv. Sleeping while on duty; xxvi. Threatening or intimating any employee inside or outside the company premises; xxvii. Unlawful interference in the work of other employees; xxviii. Tardiness, slow tactics or neglecting to perform properly xxix. Striking or inciting other to go on strike; xxx. Collecting any money or canvassing the collection of money inside the premises; xxxi. Holding of unauthorized meeting in the premises. xxxii.
Distribution or exhibition with the premises of the establishment of any news paper, notice, pamphlets or poster without prior permission; xxxiii. Unauthorized use of company quarters or land for any purposeother than lawful purpose; xxxiv. Conduct in private life which is prejudicial to the reputation of the company; xxxv. Conviction in any court of law of any criminal offence or an offence involving moral turpitude; xxxvi. Approaching the higher authority through outside agency orpersons for promotion, transfer etc. ; xxxvii. Unauthorized communication of official documents xxxviii. Giving false information about his name father’s name age, qualification, pervious experience. , at the time of appointment; xxxix.
Writing of anonymous letters or letters written under differentnames criticizing management xl. Spreading false rum ours or giving false information or making defamatory statements (written or oral) xli. Failure on the part of the employee to inform medical officer regarding infectious disease of his family members xlii. Carrying on money of other business xliii. Speculation of any commodity; xliv. Insolvency; xlv. Abetment or attempt any attempt to commit act of misconduct; xlvi. Breach of any rules of the company xlvii. Preaching or inciting people to violence; xlviii. Illegal strike xlix. Failure or refusal to wear any protective equipment given by the company .