Rader World History – Hinduism/Buddhism

Rader World History – Hinduism/Buddhism

HINDUISM
Monism
belief that there is one essence or ultimate reality, which is within many forms (Brahman, in the form of Deites)
Deites
gods/goddesses

1) Brahma the creator (sets world in motion)
2) Vishnu the sustainer (keeps world in motion)
3) Shiva the destroyer (rejects dharma)

Sruti
scriptures divinely revealed to holy men, includes Vedas and Upanishads
Smriti
attributed to human creation, include stories or gods, civil code, mythology, royal families
Vedas
Rig Vedas – creation of universe
Yajur Vedas – ceremonial
Sama Vedas – chants
Artharva Vedas – practical prayers
Upanishads
– ways to worship the gods with hearts and minds
– basic understanding of the universe
– how people should live
Brahman
includes human soul (atman), greater reality
Samsara
cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth
Karma
universal law of action, driving behavior based on individual dharma
– positive and negative things happen in one’s life and past lives
– how they have observed religious duty (dharma)
Dharma
duty or responsibility in life, can gain positive karma and minimize negative karma by following dharma
Moksha
elimination of negative kharma, atman released from samsara
Maya
illusion, one should not become too attached to the physical world and lose sight of the interconnectedness of existence (all is Brahman)
Mandir
temple, have one deity. Images of deites are dressed but not worshipped, the concept of Brahman is worshipped
Puja
simple prayers, meditation to bathing, and dressing of deites
Household shrines
Specific families determine deity of shrine, usually only one, but can have additional based on need
Yoga
pathway to union with Brahman
– Karma yoga: charity or action union
– Jñana yoga: acknowledging truth of reality
– Raja yoga: meditation and mental focus
– Bhakti yoga: temple and home puja
Diwali
festival of lights, recognition of light within, exchange gifts
Holi
spring festival, youthful and joyous spirit
Caste System
1) Priests (Brahmans)
2) Warriors (Kshatriyas)
3) Merchants (Vaishyas)
4) Laborers (Shudras)
5) Untouchables
BUDDHISM
Birth
by King and Queen in Warriors/Rulers caste (Shudras) in Northern India, Queen had a dream that white elephant stabbed her belly, Siddhartha could walk and talk at birth
Naming Ceremony
master of universe, if endured suffering he’d be spiritual leader. Dad gave him no suffering
Leaving Wealth
grew up, was rich with family, felt something missing. Saw suffering outside and a happy old guy. Decided to try and be like him
Renunciant/Asceticism
no possessions, extreme ascetic disciplinary practices to achieve enlightenment. Almost died, realized extremes are not the answer
Enlightenment
under Bodhi tree, confronted image of ego as an “illusion”, achieved Nirvana, shared what he learned
The Three Marks of Existence
Universal truths that apply to all being
1) Anatta: No personal or eternal soul, only consciousness
2) Anicca: everything is always changing
3) Dukkha: since nothing lasts forever, we suffer when they are gone
The Four Noble Truths
1) Life includes suffering
2) The cause of suffering is desire
3) In order to eliminate suffering, eliminate desire
4) The Eightfold path will help you eliminate suffering and desire
The Eightfold Path
Right understanding, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration
Thervada “The Way of the Elders”
orthodox, Tripitaka, monks and nuns
Mahayana “The Great Vehicle”
widespread and diverse, Bodhisattvas are “enlightened beings” who have achieved nirvana and help others, Buddha is greater
Vajraraya “The Diamond Vehicle”
Tibetan, Dalai Lama is reincarnation of Avalokiteshvara, who found nirvana. TENZIN GYATSO is 14th. Mystical traditions and magical practices.