RELS 312 – Islam

Islam
Youngest of the worlds major religions but it is also one of the largest.
“Peace” “Surrender”
The peace that comes from surrendering one’s life to god.
The basic belief of Islam is that there is only one God, Allah.
Islam teaches that a person has just one life to live.
Birthplace – what is now Saudi Arabia
Allah
“The God”; Not a god, for there is only one. The God.
This is the same god worshiped by the Jews and Christians.
He is the same God worshiped by the Jews and Christians.
He is the sole and sovereign ruler of the universe.
Muhammad
Born c.570AD in Mecca
Not the creator of the religion but the restorer.
The prophet through whom Islam reached its definitive form
– The Seal of the Prophets
– Born into the leading tribe of Mecca
– The name muhammad means “Highly Praised”
– Both his parents died when he was small
-Became convinced that he was the last series of God’s prophets, who included Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. He thought that these former prophets had had only a incomplete revelation of Allah, but that he had the complete and final revelation.
Went to Ka’ba and destroyed the ideals and images thus becoming the sole leader of the Arabian people.
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“La ilaha illa ‘llah”
“There is no god but God!”
Muhammad in Medina
Lived in Ordinary clay house
Milked his own goats
Was accessible night & day
Qur’an
means recitation
-Bible of Islam
-The created Qur’an is the material crystallization of the infinite reality of the uncreated Qur’an.
– The words of the Qur’an came to Muhammad in segments over 23 years through voices that identified itself as Gabriel.
-In addition to being a spiritual guide, it is a legal compendium. It joins faith and politics, religion and society, inseparably.
The four most important basic theological concepts
God
Creation
The Human Self
The Day of Judgement
The Five Pillars of Islam
1. Islam’s Creed
2. Canonical Prayer
3. Charity
4. Observance of Ramadan
5. Pilgrimage
1. Islam’s Creed (Shahadah)
Also known as confession of faith known as the Shahadah.
“There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.”
These are the first words a muslim child hears and are likely to be the last uttered by the dying muslim.
-At least once during his or her lifetime, a muslim must say the Shahadah correctly, slowly, thoughtfully, aloud, with full understanding, and with heartfelt conviction.
2. Canonical Prayer (salaht)
The obvious reason to pray is to give voice to the gratitude one feels for life itself, but a deeper reason is to keep human life in perspective.
Expected to pray five times a day (dawn,midday, mid-afternoon, sunset, and nightfall).
Properly cleansed worshipers face Mecca and offer their prayers.
Men and women may not pray together because of the possibility of inappropriate physical contact.
3. Charity/Almsgiving (zakaht)
Those who are comfortable should share with the unfortunate.
Annually, 2.5% to 10% of one’s holdings should be distributed to the poor.
Receiving as well as giving alms is considered a source of God’s blessing.
4. Observance of Ramadan/fasting (sawm)
Ramadan is the holy month in the Islamic calendar, because during it the Qur’anic Revelation commend and (ten years later) Muhammad effected his migration from Mecca.
To commemorate these two great occasions, able-bodied muslims (who are not sick, mothers nursing infants, travelers and small children) fast during Ramadan.
From the first moment of dawn to the setting of the sun, neither food, drink, smoke passes their lips, nor are sexually active.
Ramadan varies from year to year.
Ramadan concludes with a celebratory feast that lasts three days. It is believed that Allah will pardon the sins of all who complete the fast.
5. Pilgrimage (hajj)
Once during his or her lifetime, every muslim who is physically and economically able to do so is expected to journey to Mecca where God’s climatic revelation first descended.
The basic purpose of the journey is to heighten the pilgrim’s commitment to God and his revealed will, but the practice carries fringe benefits.
During the month of Dhu al-Hijrah, in the Muslim calender, pilgrims from all over the world arrive at Mecca.
During the hajj, pilgrims must abstain from food drink during the daylight hours, they must abstain from sexual intercourse, and they must not cut their hair and nails.
While in Mecca, they take seven trips around the Ka’ba and kiss the sacred black stone. Then a sheep or goat is sacrificed on the tenth day of hajj to commemorate Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his own son to obey God’s command. After they fulfill their duties, they may travel and visit to pay respect to the grave of the Prophet Muhammad and to visit his mosque.
They may have the title haji attached to their names so all the world will know they have fulfilled this religious obligation.
Social Teachings
Economics
The status of Women
Race Relations
The use of force
Mecca
“Sanctuary”
Hijrah
The journey from Mecca to Yathrib
Hijrah = “migration”
abu-Bakr
agreed that he should be the caliph (Khalifa), or “successor”, “deputy”, “representative”
Jinn
creation that is halfway between humans and angels.
The good Jinn are believed to be Muslims and the evil ones are unbelievers.
Ilbis
Leader of the evil jinn
Surahs
the 114 chapters in the Qur’an
arranged according to length.
– 287 verses is the longest
– 3 verses is the shortest
ayas
6,000 verses contained in the Surah’s
Predestination
All things leads one to believe that people have no choice in life.
Humans have the ability to choose from among a set of divinely created acts.
Allah in his wisdom and mercy allows human beings to make choices in areas in which they will be judged.
Eschatology
The Qur’an says that when a person dies, the body returns to the earth and the soul goes into a state of sleep until resurrection day. On this day, the angel of Allah will sound his trumpet, the earth will split, and the bodies will rejoin their souls. The resurrected are then judged by Allah. Those who have been faithful and virtuous will be rewarded; those who have been evil will be punished.
madrashas
Islam religion’s educational institutions
imam
(Islam) the man who leads prayers in a mosque
Islamic Taboos
No Pork (most unclean of all the meats), birds, donkey, mules, and beast of prey. Also no alcohol or gambling.
jihad
“struggle in the path of God”
Muslim scholars teach that only defensive wars are truly jihad.
The Spread of Islam
1. Islam is a universal religion – All people were created by God and all are accepted as Muslims.
2.Islam is a religion with wide appeal – Islam is simple, one who repeats the creed is Muslim and a person who keeps the five pillars of Islam is a good Muslim.
3.The world that surrounded the early Muslims was confused and corrupt – Muslim conquerers were frequently received not as an invading army but as deliverers.
The Caliphate
Islam is not highly structured. Most duties of a good Muslim can be done at home, without a priest. Muhammad never clearly left a successor or a plan for the succession of his leadership.
First four caliphates: abu-Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali.
The Sunnis
85% of all Muslims are Sunnis (traditionalists).
See themselves as the guardians of Islamic orthodoxy and tradition. They base their practice of Islam on the Qur’an and on traditions concerning the early Muslim community.
The Shi’ites
Means “partisans of all” (Twelvers and Seveners)
Basic rupture in the body of the religion. It began as a political dispute over the leadership of Islam. Only believe that the descendant of the 4th caliph, Ali, should be recognized. It is estimated between 10-15% of all Muslims are Shi’ites.
The Hadith
the words and acts of the Prophet Muhammad and his close companions.
Sufis
word that means “woolen” and refers to the coarse wool garments worn by early Muslim mystics as a symbol of poverty and the rejection of worldly pleasures. Sufis claim they have always been a part of the Islamic tradition and trace their origins back to the Prophet and Qur’an.
teaches that people can find gods love by having a personal relationship with god.
The mystical path in Islam.
Muhammad’s Family
Abdallah – Father
Amina – Mother
Abu Talib – Uncle/Guardian
Khadija – First Wife
The Ummal Kitab
The mother of all books – Qur’an.
Hafiz
term used to describe people that have completely memorized the Qur’an
Hagar
has a child with Abraham, Ishmael. Abraham then casts Hagar and Ishmael out. Hagar travels 7 times between two hills to provide for her son. The well of ZamZam (sacred well).
Gabriel
gave Muhammad his first revelation from God.
Who is the angel that appeared to Joseph Smith?
Moroni
“The Last Jewel in the Triple Crown”
Islam is the last Abrahamic Faiths.
One continuously unfolding historical tradition
Muslims way of seeing the three Abrahamic traditions
Who was the seal?
Muhammad was seen as the seal because he was the last of the prophets to hear God’s word and complete it.
The Night of Power and Excellence
Muhammad has his first revelation in a cave from the angel Gabriel.
The Night Journey
Muhammad is taken from Mecca and brought up to the base of the celestial ladder that leads to heaven. God tells him to pray 5 times a day.
iman
The faith
hijra
withdrawal
din
Practice
Sunna
combination of the Qur’an and the Hadith make up the Sunna.
means “path” or “muslim way of life”
The Caliphate
the one central unifying office in the history of Islam.
Imam Mahdi
rightly guided one
Ishads
chain links

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