Research Methodology

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY I. Analysis of the problem The requirements like functional rooms and land area are given in the problem. The problem given must be analyzed to generate creative ideas spontaneously, group discussion, and analytical thinking will give you some architectural solutions. II. Data Gathering After you get some concept on your problem, gathering data which can help to complete the requirements and solve the problem is then made. There are many sources that can be use in gathering of data. 1.

Interviews – taking surveys and interviews will help to get some ideas to solve a problem, knowing the opinions, experience and knowledge of some people regarding the problem can help. 2. Research on books, periodicals etc. –researching through books can also help, getting some information and data about the problem will give you an idea for your solution. 3. Internets – with the breakthrough of technology, internet access can provide so many relative data on different topics in just a click. III. Architectural Solutions

Making alternative solutions will then be derived to your final plan. Think of a design and concept form. First, make a bubble diagram then, make the preliminary sketches of the possible plan then developed the plans to your final plan and presentation drawings. IV. Synthesis and Design Solutions Providing the presentation drawings and models, derive your final plan from the preliminary sketches will be the last step in Architectural solution. Basic Theories Of Hotel Planning Before an architectural office begins planning and designing a hotel, it should know exactly how a hotel operates.

Every type of building must function smoothly to achieve the end result that the client is seeking. The primary function of a hotel has not changed from the earliest recorded hostelry to tire present-day hotel, whether that be a hotel of 100 rooms or 3,000 rooms, whether it be an in-city hotel or a resort hotel, whether it be a convention hotel or a fairly-type hotel. The earliest hostelry offered ‘ bed and board’ as well as pleasant surroundings in which to enjoy both commodities. The earliest hostelries and caravansaries worked on the same principle.

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The guest arrived at the front door, where he was greeted and arrangements were made for his lodging and food. A stable for horses and carriages, nor a compound for cartels and cargo, were provided at the rear of the establishment. A rear yard was used by the innkeeper’s wife and her assistants to prepare food which was then cooked in a kitchen. We therefore had a house divided in two. The front half of the house included the reception area arid the public rooms, or the covered arcades in the caravansaries, where the guests gathered to dine and to socialize.

The other half of the house, or to use a terns which is still applicable, the back of the house, was where food was prepared arid where the guests’ service amenities were taken care of, such as laundering, the shoeing of horses, or the repair of harness and traveling gear. This duality of a hotel must be thoroughly understood by an architect before pencil is put to paper to start the design. For convenience’s sake and for ease in preparing a preliminary study, we will assume that all these services take place on one level.

Figure 1 indicates the flow of services and hotel personnel. For the time being, we will ignore tire actual rooms arid concern ourselves only with the level where the “greeting” takes place and where the services are rendered. The ‘greeting area,” for future reference, will be known as the front of the house, and the place where services occur will be known as the back of the house. It must be borne in mind that, as far as planned circulation is concerned, there must never be a mingling of the front-of the-house services with those of the back of the house.

At no time should the guest be aware of everything that is taking place at the back of the house, but, at the same time, the smooth operation of the front of the house is completely dependent upon what is taking place at the back of the house. The two functions must be kept separate and yet so interrelated that both function smoothly and efficiently. Hotels are designed and built so that the client, owner, or operator of the hotel will get a satisfactory financial return on his investment. In order to achieve the greatest return for each dollar invested, we again face a dual problem. In the first instance. he guest must feel completely comfortable and at ease from the moment lie steps through the entrance doorway, checks in, goes to his room, avails himself of the food and beverages available, 870 spends a comfortable night in a well-appointed, scrupulously clean room, and returns the next day to a room which is as fresh and inviting as it was the moment he first entered it after checking in . Everything for the guests creature comforts should be carefully considered, whether it be the ease of finding the registration desk, the cashier, the bars and dining rooms, the elevators that will take hint up to his room, and finally the room itself.

The service at the registration desk, in the bars and dining rooms, arid in the guest room itself as well as in the corridors must be such that the guest finds his every want courteously and efficiently taken care of . The physical environment becomes an important part of the guest’s creature comfort . These factors include color and decor, lighting, proper air temperature, comfortable furnishings and, above all, a pleasant and relaxed atmosphere. Everything that the guest expects and should get will be a result of what takes place at the back of the house .

It is only in this area that everything that will keep a guest contented during his stay is arranged for and so ordered that everything the guest is seeking is accomplished unobtrusively and, what is most important, economically. Economic operation of a hotel depends entirely upon the back-of-the-house services. Since these services are primarily concerned with hotel personnel, the plan must be so arranged that maximum efficiency from each hotel employee can be achieved without taxing the employee and without allowing the guest to feel the drive for efficiency that dictates every phase of hotel planning.

Hotel Economics The economics of a profitable hotel venture brings us to the third duality of which the architect should be extremely conscious or aware during every phase of the planning stage. This involves the economics of a new hotel, which will center upon the cost of construction and furnishing. These costs represent, together with the cost of the land, the amount of money that is to be invested. They are the base upon which the hotelier will figure his financial return. A rule of thumb devised many years ago by a prominent hotel architect still seems to be a sound rule to follow.

At that time, it was stated that for every dollar of income per room, $1,000 should be spent in the construction of that room. We must bear in mind, of course, that when we speak of a room we are speaking figuratively, with the knowledge that the cost of a room would also carry its proportionate share of every other part of the structure, such as the hotel lobby, the dining rooms, the bars, the corridors, the offices, the laundry, the kitchens, and all the other facilities that will be found in a hotel.

Using that rule of thumb (that is, $1 income per $1,000 invested), a room that costs $10,000 to build should bring in $10 for a night’s lodging. Unfortunately, with rising costs of operation, this balance of $1 per rule of thumb . With hotel rooms now going at from $10,000 to $40,000, we find that a $10- per-night room is a rarity and an average of $20 and $30 is more common, while luxury hotels run as high as $40 arid even $50 per night’s lodging.

From the above, it becomes obvious that the architect should know approximately what type of hotel his client wants, as expressed in terms of cost per room per night, in order to establish some sort of rough budget for the cost of the hotel. At this point, it should be pointed out that we are talking of cost of construction, which does not include furnishing and equipping the hotel. Another fact which does not really affect the planning of the hotel but which the architect should be keenly aware of is that preopening expenses are sizable.

They are, in fact, a part of the original investment and should be charged to cost per room. More will be said of this at an appropriate place. The second part of the financial consideration in the design of a hotel is the cost of operation. We now know what it will cost to build the hotel, and so some sort of preliminary budget becomes feasible . The architect may not know what it will cost to operate the hotel, but he should understand every facet of hotel operation and develop his plans to achieve maximum economies in the operation of the hotel .

This includes the hours spent by such personnel as maids, porters, housekeepers, chefs, cooks, dishwashers, laundry workers, bellmen, receptionists, bookkeepers, reservations clerks, banquet managers, and executive staff . If we would, for a moment, think of a hotel as a plant which turns out a finished product, we would think of the finished product as the creature comforts of the guests (be and board) and of the kitchens, laundries, and service areas as the machines . The hotel personnel would be the workers who operate the machines in order to achieve a fine product at the lowest possible cost .

With these thoughts in mind, we can now take up each facet of hotel operation-front of the house and back of the house-which will be discussed in detail and illustrated with diagrams and drawings so that each part of the jigsaw puzzle which forms a hotel can be fitted into place to achieve a smoothly functioning, pleasingly desirable, and financially profitable operation. First let us clear up the question of preopening expenses, which should be considered as a part of the total cost of the hotel.

Before a hotel is put into operation–in fact, months before the first guest arrives– certain hotel personnel are employed who will eventually be charged with the operation of the hotel. Such employees would include a manager, a chief chef, a controller, advertising and/or a public relations firm, and an engineer who will be operating the mechanical equipment of the hotel. These people will usually be found on the site of the hotel under construction anywhere from six months to one year before the hotel is completed.

Their salaries are part of preopening expenses. Another factor in preopening expenses would include stationery and other supplies that various key personnel will need before the opening of the hotel as well as, ultimately, the cost of hotel stationery, typewriters, bookkeeping machinery, and office supplies. Another preopening expense will be a cost allocated for opening ceremonies which often include cocktail parties and banquets for people from the news media and civic organizations as well as for civic authorities.

All these costs are considered preopening expenses. One other item that must be considered in preopening expenses is the training of the personnel that will service the hotel. This will include maids, housekeepers, chefs and cooks, waiters and waitresses, and front-office and clerical personnel. There also will be others, such as maintenance men. bellmen, and porters . These can add at least 30 percent to the construction cost.

Another facet of costs, which the architect may or may not be involved in, involves furnishings for the hotel. In this category will be found not only the actual beds, dressers, chairs, tables, and floor coverings in the guest rooms but also the furnishings, floor coverings, special lighting fixtures, and decor items needed for all public, spaces. These fall into the categories of lobbies, dining rooms, bars, cocktail lounges, coffee shops, meeting rooms, banquet rooms, and a host of other facilities which will be found in hotels.

Another large portion of the costs which normally would not be a cost of construction would be the equipment for all kitchens and bars as well as the equipment, if such a facility is to be included, of laundries and valet service . Going further, we will need lockers for employees and other amenities for the service personnel. Finally, we come to a group of items which will include glassware, china, silver, pots and pans, linens, pillows, and uniforms for outids, bellmen, waiters, etc.

When we lump preopening expenses together with all the items enumerated above, we will find ourselves adding anywhere from 50 to 75 percent more to the actual construction costs . All these figures will not influence the budget for construction, but it would be wise for an architect designing a hotel to be conscious of these additional expenditures. Back Of The House Though rarely seen by a guest, the back of the house is the most crucial part of the plan . It must be laid out with two paramount objectives : control and efficiency .

Foodstuffs, housekeeping supplies, and a great many other items must be received out of sight of the hotel guests . Such receiving is usually done at a loading dock, which should be covered so that deliveries can be made regardless of the weather. An operating hotel, even a small one, will have deliveries going on throughout the day . The receiving of shipments as well as the checking of whatever comes into the hotel and, finally, sending the various items received to their proper destination must be under tight control .

This is usually the function of a receiving department that should be located directly on or adjacent to the loading dock . Tight control must be exercised in two directions . In one direction, it is not uncommon for material to be delivered and, within a short time of its having been left on the dock unchecked, for the management to find that this material has disappeared or that some parts of the shipment have gone astray . The second part of the control is to make sure that, once these shipments have arrived, they go directly to their destination without a chance- of becoming lost on the way .

As an example, lot us say that a shipment of liquor is delivered to the hotel . It is a very simple thing to pick up a case and remove it from the loading dock before the receiving clerk has checked the shipment through his control point . It is also a very simple thing to have a case of liquor disappear on its route, once it has been checked in and before it gets to the liquor storage room . This type of pilferage will apply not only to liquor but to almost every item, including linens, foodstuffs, and even iterns of furnishings .

A good back-ofthe- house plan will be worked out in such a way that the flow of supplies is tightly controlled by the security that the architect works into his plan . Another example will suffice : It would be poor planning to have a valuable item such as liquor carted through a passageway and past an employees’ locker room on its way to the liquor storage room . It would take but a rooment for a case to disappear from the cart into the locker room . A tight, well-planned back of the house will have circulation patterns that will provide the utmost in control .

It is this type of planning that is definitely the province of the architect . There is one further item in the control area which, at first glance, might seem highly unimportant : namely, the movement of garbage out of the hotel to a point where it will be picked up by garbage trucks. Experience has indicated that a good deal of pilferage in hotels is accomplished through the medium of garbage removal. Well-wrapped steaks and cans of food can be concealed in garbage and removed by an accomplice before the garbage haulers pick up the refuse .

In the larger hotels, garbage destructors or compressors may be used, in which case tight surveillance is necessary only in the garbage receiving area . Where garbage is shipped out, it is wise to have the garbage rooms so placed (and, incidentally, refrigerated) that the receiving office has this space in full view to discourage an outside accomplice or an employee who is leaving the hotel from entering the garbage room to filch what was placed there previously by someone in the kitchen or the supply areas.

Another form of control which must be exercised and which becomes a part of the architect’s planning is the flow of personnel into and out of the hotel . Hotel personnel usually come through at a point close or adjacent to the receiving area . This is not necessarily a must, but it is advisable because the same control office can observe the coming and going of the help . Usually time control is through the medium of a time clock, which is punched by the employees. It is not uncommon for thieves to attempt entry through the service area and to work their way up through service elevators to accomplish what they came for.

A tight control at the point of entry and egress of all employees is highly desirable and can easily be accomplished if it is the same point as that at which food and other hotel supplies are brought in . Once again, the architect’s careful planning will make it possible for employees to reach their various dressing and locker areas with a minimum of travel time lost . It must be borne in mind that there is class distinction in hotels and, as an example, that dishwashers and porters are not placed in the same locker rooms as head waiters and reception clerks .

The distinction here is for from a fine line . The mix of hotel employees will be dictated by the hotel operator, and he may determine whether waiters and bellmen are to be placed together or separated. Maids and waitresses may or may not be in the same locker room, depending on the hotel operation . Locker rooms should be provided with ample toilet facilities and showers. Once the personnel have changed into their uniforms, the plan of the back of the house will make it possible for the people to get to their work stations with little time lost .

Maids and porters will want to get to service elevators along the shortest possible route. Chefs, cooks, and dishwashers should get to their work areas without going through long, tortuous passages . It is usual to issue uniforms in an area as close to the locker rooms or the point of entry as possible . In this phase of planning, it should be borne in mind that uniforms are usually under the control of the housekeeper, so that the proximity of the uniform issuing room to the housekeeping department becomes a most important consideration .

It should also be borne in mind that the housekeeper controls soiled and clean laundry as well as clean uniforms ready for reissue. The interplay of all of these activities will dictate a finesse in planning to bring all these activities together and to achieve as little loss in time and motion as possible . At this point, let us sum up this portion of the back of the house. A flow diagram for a typical back of the house will indicate that the service entrance is located out of view of the main entrance to the hotel but has direct access to a street or road capable of handling truck traffic.

The loading dock should be protected from weather so that food, laundry, and supplies will be offloaded and stored and not get rain-soaked while waiting to be checked in . All personnel will enter the hotel at this point. At least two small offices will probably be located here, one for the steward (or receiving clerk) and another for the timekeeper . Outside the steward’s office there should be a floor scale to check the weight of produce as it enters . If the food storage and preparation kitchens are located on a different level, a sidewalk lift or conveyor belts should be provided .

The timekeeper will check the employees in and out and help to discourage those who may be tempted to steal. Immediately past the timekeeper, the employees should be separated into two different traffic flows, one for the food service personnel, the other for everyone also. Once food service personnel enter their traffic flow, they should have no contact with either guests or other house personnel with the obvious exception of waiters. All this is simply a matter of security . If there is any deep dark secret of successful hotel service design, it is a built-in security system, which is a direct utgrowth of the architect’s plans. Uniform issue is related to the housekeeper, the housekeeper to the laundry room, and the laundry room to the soiled linen room . The soiled linen room connects by vertical linen chute to the service room on every typical floor, and every typical floor is connected by a service elevator that opens to the lower-floor service area convenient to the scrutinizing gaze of the steward and the timekeeper. For convenience, a trash chute going from every typical floor service area, should be located next to the linen chute.

This will force an arrangement where the trash room is close or adjacent to the soiled linen room and both of these are near the service entrance for ease in pickup. Administrative Area The administration of a hotel operation depends entirely upon its size . A small hotel will most likely have an office for a manager, who may have his secretary working in the same room with him. The door to his office faces the public lobby, and an additional door is provided so that he can go from his office to the front desk . This is the simplest operation and is found only in the smaller hotels .

A larger, medium-sized hotel will have a manager and an assistant manager and, as a rule, there will be e reception office where one or two typist receptionists will be acting as a buffer between the public and the manager. As a hotel project grows larger, the administrative area grows more complex. Aside from the manager and the assistant manager, there may be an office for a food and beverage manager and a banquet manager. A larger hotel, with sizable convention facilities, will also have an office for the convention manager and his assistants .

Obviously, the complexity of office and administrative area grows, a more careful and detailed study is, perforce, made to arrange smoothly functioning suite of administrative offices together with secretarial pools, bookkeepers, teletype machines, a mailroom for incoming mail and for voluminous outgoing mail, etc. The accompanying illustrations show how these areas have been handled in various hotels . It must be borne in mind that this front of the house works closely with the back of the house.

Many of the people in the administrative area will deal with guests as well as hotel customers seeking to arrange for luncheons, banquets, and conventions . Accessibility to the public, therefore, is of the utmost importance . Restaurant Facilities Every hotel, whether it has 50 rooms or 2,000, must consider the feeding of guests . Small hotels may get by with a pleasant coffee shop restaurant . This type of unit is becoming more popular in the smaller hotel where feeding facilities are kept to a minimum.

Such a facility would be the type where quick coffee shop service could be offered a guest, either at a counter or at a table, and where, within the same apace, more leisurely dining could be provided . The difference between the two is achieved primarily through decor end atmosphere rather than any physical or structural arrangement. In such a facility, it is possible to take care of e large breakfast business using the entire facility . There are occasions when a visual separation between coffee shop and restaurant is made movable, so it can be taken away during the breakfast-hour rush .

For luncheon, the division is reestablished, making it possible to serve quick meals for those in a hurry in the coffee shop area and more leisurely luncheons in the restaurant portion. In the evening, it is possible to get a more permanent type of separation between coffee shop end restaurant by pushing the coffee shop separator around the counter area, thus allowing for maximum table and seating arrangements in the so-called restaurant area when the coffee shop is doing a minimum business.

Under normal situations there will be a cocktail lounge or beverage bar even in the smallest dining facility . The larger hotel will have a pleasant coffee shop for quick service and for simpler meals, whereas a restaurant, with its appropriate decor for more leisurely dining, will offer a more varied menu with probably higher cost per meal than in the coffee shop . The cocktail lounge will usually be found close to the dining room so that hotel guests can pause for a cocktail before lunch or dinner, or while waiting, before going to the dining root”, to meet friends or other guests .

Where convention facilities are offered within a hotel, it is wise to have a bar placed close to the convention facilities . Conventioneers seem to have a propensity for a cocktail before or after meetings . This impulse-type of beverage buying is boosted tremendously if beverage facilities are placed in the normal path of traffic. Large convention and banquet facilities usually provide a fixed or portable bar arrangement in the preassembly or foyer areas to take care of pauses between meetings and seminars and to fill those pauses with a facility that will provide a “pause that refreshes. There is no special requirement for the design of hotel restaurants, bars, cocktail lounges, and coffee shops which are in any way different from the standard requirements for any such facility . Attention is called to the fact that people staying at hotels have a tendency to seek out highly touted specialty restaurants within an area rather than eating their meals in the hotel. This is especially true for evening dining . Toward that end, hotels more and more are turning to specialty restaurants whose specialty is not only food but also decor, so that they can compete favorably with individual restaurants in the general area of the hotel.

The same hotel kitchen can prepare almost any type of special food including Chinese, Polynesian, seafood, or gourmet dishes . The important thing to remember in laying out these spaces is that the decor must be developed to entice the hotel guests to eat in the hotel rather than outside in other specialty restaurants. Continuing in this vein of specialized feeding, some hotels are installing rooftop restaurants where a view of the city or the general area is available and in which fairly limited menus are offered-mostly open-hearth kitchen service which includes steaks, chops, and cuts of roast beef .

Such a menu requirese very small kitchen and obviates the need for creating large, expensive facilities on a roof for specialty cooking . Wherever a rooftop restaurant is created, the architect must beer in mind that there will be increased traffic in the elevators taking diners from both in and outside the hotel to this specialized rooftop facility . And don’t forget that, because of public assembly requirements, the stairs must be sized larger . Supper clubs or nightclubs will also be found in the larger hotels .

When faced with this type of dining and entertainment feature, the plans must include not only a stage of sorts, together with the attendant stage lighting, but also dressing rooms for performers and a room for the orchestra . It is highly desirable to keep such an adjunct es close to the main kitchen as possible . In the planning of large hotels that encompass all the dining facilities already mentioned, it may not be possible to operate out of one central kitchen.

In this case there may be several kitchens, preferably on a horizontal core, so that there is the possibility of vertical distribution of food from the preparation areas which would probably be on the lower level. Lobbies Every hotel, regardless of its size, must have a public lobby. The size of the lobby is largely determined by the number of guest rooms as well as by the type of hotel that is on the architect’s drawing boards . It goes without saying that the larger the hotel, the larger the lobby . The lobby will also have to be larger in a resort or convention hotel.

A resort hotel will require a large lobby because guests will congregate there in the evening . A hotel catering to conventions needs a large lobby because here again there is a constant gathering of conventioneers before they go off to lectures, seminars, meetings, luncheons, and dinners. There is no rule of thumb to determine the size of a lobby. One must proceed by making a careful study of similar types of hotels and arrive at decisions after discussions with hotel operators and managers . A hotel lobby sets the mood for a hotel.

This apace, more than any other, will create the first and usually the most lasting impression . Furnishings, color, finishing materials, lighting, and decor must create the proper ambience regardless of whether the hotel is large or small, in a city or a resort, moderately priced or expensive. The interior designer plays a most vital part in planning and designing hotel lobbies . Guest Rooms Everything that has been said about hotels thus far may be considered peripheral to the prime product that a hotel has to offer, namely, the guest rooms. This is the final product that is to be sold .

In connection with this thought, it is well to remember (although this may not have any influence on the planning or the architecture of a hotel) that, unlike an item on a merchant’s shelf, a guest room that is not sold one night means a complete loss . It would be as if a grocer were forced to throw out each day’s unsold supply of boxed cereal and to lay in a fresh supply every morning . That is a precise analogy to the situation of the hotel man and his guest rooms . The room that is not sold and the revenue that is lost can never be recovered. Space Allotments

In designing hotels, architects are frequently handicapped by the lack of factual data on space requirements . Too much space results in excessive investment and building-maintenance costs . Too little space makes it difficult for the hotel owners to realize satisfactory profits and, in service areas, causes crowding, reduces speed, and increases payroll . Information on a few hotels can probably be obtained by the architect . However, the data may apply to hotels of the wrong size, possibly of a different type, or designed to meet unusual requirements.

Even with a set of complete plans, there is no assurance that the areas shown are the right size or that the building will be well suited to the complex business of hotel operation . Generally, the data collected from the sources usually available are incomplete, unrepresentative, or otherwise inadequate. in order to obtain space-allotment figures that would be reasonably reliable, the plans of more than 40 hotels were examined. These ranged up to 500 guest rooms in size, were of wide geographic distribution, and all were built within the last 25 years .

They were predominantly of the transient, commercial type and were believed to be representative . Although several were in resort communities, this had little influence on the space allotments for the working areas . Residential hotels and apartment houses were not included . General Data Certain general data warrant consideration to give an approximate over-all idea of the typical hotel with any given number of guest rooms . Building height is indicated by the number o’ stories abov ground . The results of a survey of 125 hotels are shown on the graph, plotted with logarithmic coordinates.

The curve rises rapidly, showing the typical 200-room hotel to be 10 stories high, and then tends to level off, showing the typical hotel of 2,000 to 3,000 rooms to be about 25 stories high . Ground-floor area is shown with the plotted points widely scattered on the graph . The available ground area and the number of guest rooms to be placed on it account for the wide dispersion . In general, the more guest rooms, the greater the ground-floor area . (“M” is the abbreviation for 1,000 . ) Typical guest-floor area usually covers about 55 per cent of the ground-floor area, according to the data presented.

The guest floor area may vary greatly, however, depending upon individual circumstances . Guest rooms per typical floor are shown with a wide dispersion of the plotted points . If there were a standard average- size guest room and a standard percentage addition for corridors, stairways, and the like, then the points on this graph would follow a pattern similar to the graph for the typical guest floor area, because the area for each data point would be divided by a constant value representing each guest room plus allowances .

No such standards exist, however, and therefore the two patterns show no marked resemblance. Usually each maid is assigned to about 16 rooms, which should all be on the same floor . If feasible, the number of guest rooms on the typical floor should be a multiple of 16 or quite close to it On the graph, the horizontal bands indicate that one maid would handle from 14 to 18 rooms, two maids twice this number or from 28 to 36 rooms, and three maids three times the number or from 42 to 54 rooms .

In more than half the hotels studied, the housekeeper apparently has some difficulty in arranging maid assignments. Guest-floor stairways tend to increase in number with the number of guest rooms on the typical floor . Regulations limiting the distance from the guest-room door to the nearest stairway entrance usually require a minimum of two stairways on the typical floor . The graph shows that two stairways are usually enough if there are no more than 40 guest rooms per floor . In general, there are about 15 to 20 rooms per stairway.

Elevators are provided according to the number of guest rooms . The number of elevators is of course also influenced by other factors such as the height of the building, the speed of the elevators, and the desired average frequency of service . The total number of guest and service elevators is presented on the graph . A special study of elevators in 100 hotels showed the distribution between guest elevators and service cars (including shortlift cars) to be as follows : Number of Guest cars Service cars rooms in per 100 per 700 hotel rooms rooms 50-150 1 . 3 1 . 0 150-550 0 . 7 0 . Expressed another way, about 60 per cent of the elevators are guest cars and about 40 per cent are service cars . The typical hotel has six main space divisions, classified according to function : (1) Public space, (2) Concession space, (3) Subrental space, (4) Food and beverage service space, (5) Guest-room space, and (6) General-service space . Each division will be considered separately . The percentage of the total area that is productive (revenue producing) space is of special significance . Preferably, at least 50 per cent of the total area should be productive space . Public Space

Public space comprises those areas that are open to the public as necessary auxiliaries but that generally do not yield a direct profit . Typical inclusions in these areas promoting guest convenience ore the lobby, lounge, public toilets, and entertainment rooms . The lobby including front office is usually assigned about 11 sq ft per guest room . The tendency in recent years has been to reduce the size of this nonproductive area . Formerly, 14 sq it was not uncommon, but now 9 sq it is often considered ample . About 40 per cent of the points on the graph do not exceed 9 sq ft per guest room .

The front office is the nerve center or control point for many of the activities of the hotel . The front office, or front desk, has guest-contact stations for the registry, cashier, information, and mail . The average allotment is 1 sq it per guest room . The specialist in front-office operation and equipment may recommend the dimensions desired for best results . A straight-line counter is generally preferred, with a length of 10 ft for a 50-room hotel, 15 ft for 100 rooms, 20 ft for 200 rooms, and 26 ft for 400 rooms . The lounge is usually allotted about 6 sq 1t per guest room .

The graph shows, however, that half the hotels studied use only 4 sq ft and a few even cut this area to 2 sq ft per guest room . The lounge usually adjoins the lobby so that guests waiting in the lobby can overflow into the lounge . Some designers simply designate the area “Lobby-Lounge” with no demarcation between them . Public corridors adjoining the lobby are often designed so that the lobby is set back from the street entrance and is reached by one or more corridors flanked by stores, restaurants, or other areas . This nonproductive area is justified if it permits a high return from street-frontage areas .

Some layouts require no such corridors . The space allotment is dependent more on design than on the number of guest rooms . The combined lobby, lounge, and odjoining corridors are quite flexible in the allotment of space. To bring these three nonproductive areas into proper perspective, the sum of the areas is given on the graph . The combined areas show a close correlation with the size of the hotel, with an average allotment of about 16 sq ft per guest room . Some hotels, however, have reduced this nonproductive area to 12 sq ft per guest room . The men’s foilet(s) for guests should be adequate in number, but not excessive .

The required space may be divided into two widely separated rooms or simply provided in one location . The convenience of guests and of restaurant and bar patrons should be the chief consideration in planning the location . This facility should not be too accessible to the man on the street . The women’s toilet(s) for guests should be provided on the same basis as the men’s toilet facilities . In addition, the entrance should be inconspicuous . The women’s restroom(s) for guests frequently precedes the women’s toilet . It is an appreciated convenience . The restroom is generally of about the same area as the adjoining women’s toilet .

The combined allotment for the women’s toilet and restroom is typically 1 sq ft per guest room . Some recently planned hotels have cut this figure in half to reduce the nonprofit area. Entertainment quarters and game rooms are properly classified as public space because they seldom yield an annual profit . Thus, if a ballroom were used only for dances and other entertainment, it would be included under public space . However, since a ballroom is also used for banquets, it is more suitably included under food and beverage service space and will therefore be considered later .

Food And Beverage Service Space This division includes all areas used for the receiving, storage, preparation, and service of food and beverages for guests, the general public, and employees . It includes the receiving area, storerooms for food and beverage supplies, china, glassware, and silver, and also the kitchen, restaurants, banquet hall, private dining rooms, employees’ dining area, food service pantries, bar, cocktail lounge, and garbage room (sometimes with an incinerator) . The main dining room area should not be determined merely on the basis of average data .

The probable demand for a main dining room should be estimated with care, for, at best, profitable operation is especially difficult . The difficulty is due to the necessity of long hours of operation at slack load together with competition from other restaurants . About 16 sq it per seat is required for the dining room . The allotment varies from 18 sq ft for de luxe dining rooms to 14 sq ft for popular priced places . The typical allotment of 16 sq ft of main dining-room area per guest room is not especially helpful in planning . The main kitchen should be sized for the work load .

In addition to the main dining room, the main kitchen may also have to service the coffee shop, the banquet hall, private dining rooms, employees’ meals, and room service to guests . Such conditions apply to the Hartford Stoller, for example, where the kitchen is 33 per cent larger than the main dining room . If the kitchen is to service only the main dining room, however, its area is customarily 40 to 45 per cent of the dining room area . In two of the hotels studied the kitchen serviced only the coffee shop ; in two other hotels, it serviced the

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