Birth and Family Life Jose Rizal was born on June 19, 1861. It was a Wednesday evening in Calamba, Laguna, and his mother nearly died in the process. He was baptized three days later, on June 22, by the parish priest of the Catholic church in his town, Fr. Rufino Collantes from Batangas. His godfather, Fr. Pedro Casanas, was a close family friend. Rizal’s mother named him after St. Joseph, to whom she was ardently devoted. He was born in Calamba, Laguna (a few kilometers south of Manila) on June 19, 1861 and spent most of his childhood days in Calamba.
At the age of 8 in 1869 he wrote his first known poem “To my Fellow Children” (in Tagalog) where he encourages the love for one’s native language. On June 10, 1872 he started his secondary education in Manila at the Ateneo de Letran. On November 14, 1874 he wrote a poem titled “Felicitation” as a birthday greeting to the husband of his sister Narcisa. On December 5, 1875 he wrote 3 more poems for which at the end of the school year in March 1876 won him five medals for his talent in poetry.
On April 1, 1876 (age 15) he writes 2 more poems namely “Intimate Alliance of Religion and good Education” and “Education gives Luster to the Country”. During the summer months while on vacation he wrote a poem called “San Eustaquio, a Martyr”. On December 3, 1876 he writes 3 more poems “El cautiverio y el triunfo” or “The Captivity and the Triumph”, “Entrada triunfal de los Reyes Catolicos en Granada” or “The Triumphant entrance of the Catholic Kings in Granada”, and “La Conquista de Granada” or ” The Conquest of Granada”. On March 14, 1877 he received his Bachelor of Arts degree.
On November 22, 1879 his poem “A la Juventud Filipino” (“To the Filipino Youth”) won first prize in a poetry contest and an honorable mention from the organization loosely translated “Association of the Friends of the Fatherland”. Notably also he wrote an essay or prose entitled “The Council of Gods” which was about the Greek/Roman mythological “gods and goddesses” which showed his deep knowledge of the subject. He started his medical studies at the University of Santo Tomas in Manila (the oldest university in the Far East) but stopped because of the unfair treatment by the Dominican Friars of Filipino students.
On May 3, 1882 he left the Philippines for Spain where he studied to be a doctor at the Universidad de Madrid. While in Europe he lived in Spain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Austria until July 3, 1887 when he returned to the Philippines for a brief period. RIZAL’S FAMILY Francisco Mercado Rizal was born on May 11, 1818 in Binan, Laguna. He was a graduate of the College of San Jose in Manila, studying Latin and Philosophy. Francisco moved to Calamba to become a tenant-farmer of a hacienda owned by the Dominicans. He died at the age of 80 on January 5, 1898 in Manila.
About his father, Jose Rizal says that he is “a model of fathers. ” Teodora Alonso Realonda was born on November 8, 1926 in Manila. She was a graduate of the College of Santa Rosa. She died at the age of 85 on August 16, 1911 in Manila. About his mother, Jose Rizal says, “My mother is a woman of more than ordinary culture; she knows literature and speaks Spanish better than I. She corrected my poems and gave me good advice when I was studying rhetoric. She is a mathematician and has read many books. ” Rizal is the seventh of eleven children: 1. Saturnina 2. Paciano 3. Narcisa 4. Olimpia 5. Lucia 6.
Maria 7. Jose 8. Concepcion 9. Josefa 10. Trinidad 11. Soledad Rizal’s family was a mixture of races. They were a combination of Negrito, Malay, Indonesian, Japanese, Chinese, and Spanish, though Jose was predominantly Malayan. THE SURNAME Mercado was the original surname of the Rizal family. Domingo Lamco, Jose’s great-great-grandfather, adopted the name Rizal in 1731 and it became a second surname of the family. In Jose’s letter to Ferdinand Blumentritt, he says: “I am the only Rizal in because at home my parents, my sisters my brother, and my relatives have always preferred our old surname Mercado.
Our family name was in fact Mercado, but there were many Mercados in the Philippines who are not related to us. It is said that an alcalde mayor, who was a friend of our family added Rizal to our name. My family did not pay much attention to this, but now I have to use it. In this way, it seems that I am an illegitimate son. ” THE MERCADO (RIZAL) FAMILY The Rizals is considered as one of the biggest families during their time. Researchers revealed that the Mercado-Rizal family had also traces of Japanese, Spanish, Malay and Even Negrito blood aside from Chinese.
Jose Rizal came from a 13-member family consisting of his parents, Francisco Mercado II and Teodora Alonso Realonda, and nine sisters and one brother. FRANCISCO MERCADO (1818-1898) Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirila Mercado. Born in Binan, Laguna on April 18, 1818; studied in San Jose College, Manila; and died in Manila. TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913) Mother of Jose Rizal who was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. She studied at the Colegio de Santa Rosa. She was a business-minded woman, courteous, religious, hard-working and well-read.
She was born in Santa Cruz, Manila on November 14, 1827 and died in 1913 in Manila. SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913) Eldest child of the Rizal-Alonzo marriage. Married Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas . PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930) Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child. Studied at San Jose College in Manila; became a farmer and later a general of the Philippine Revolution. NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939) The third child. married Antonio Lopez at Morong, Rizal; a teacher and musician. OLIMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887) The fourth child. Married Silvestre Ubaldo; died in 1887 from childbirth.
LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919) The fifth child. Married Mariano Herbosa. MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945) The sixth child. Married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Binan, Laguna. JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896) The second son and the seventh child. He was executed by the Spaniards on December 30,1896. CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865) The eight child. Died at the age of three. JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945) The ninth child. An epileptic, died a spinster. TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951) The tenth child. Died a spinster and the last of the family to die. SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929) The youngest child married Pantaleon Quintero.