Role In Health Sector Reform Health And Social Care Essay

Role In Health Sector Reform Health And Social Care Essay

Thailand ‘s economic construction is altering toward more industrialisation and the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) increased about 7-9 % yearly from the late 1980s until 1996. The Thai economic system took an unexpected downswing in 1996. The Bank of Thailand forecast the growing rate of Thai economic system would spread out at a rate of 2.0-3.0 per centum merely, caused by the hapless public presentation of exports and private sector investing. Import growing besides declined during 1996. Decelerating the growing in imports entirely can non better the state ‘s current history shortage significantly. The shortage remains an economic job of major concern.A However, the economic stableness believes to be improved as a consequence of abrasiveness policies or outgo cuts and nest eggs acceleration. The budget shortage will be about 40,000 million tical.

Factors Determining Health

Health and Health Status are influenced by assorted factors viz. the state of affairss and tendencies of economic, societal, political, administrative, physical environment, substructure development and engineering development.

In amount, the economic growing and construction have made alterations in the ingestion form of Thai people. Peoples need more wellness attention and pass more for wellness services, both necessary and unneeded attention. The national wellness outgo has been increasing bit by bit, at a rate faster than the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) , from 3.5 % of GDP in 1979 to 6.3 % of GDP in 1991. In the twelvemonth 2000 it ‘s expected to be at a rate of 8.1 % of GDP. With the worst scenario of Thai economic system it is expected to be more than 10 % of GDP in future. The outgo largely covered by the family and the hapless have a higher portion of outgo to income than the rich. The disbursal is for remedy instead than preventative and crude attention. Furthermore, the engineerings for medical services are freely imported with some particular revenue enhancement freedom. This consequences in greater purchase and competition in importing the high cost equipment and imbalanced use of this equipment nationally.

The Thai economic construction has changed from agribusiness based industry to more fabrication and service based industries. This caused people to travel to industrially based countries or to migrate from rural to urban countries and society faces many societal jobs including occupational wellness. There is a great economic loss due to route accidents and accidents in the mill because of unequal attending to industrial safety. The job of air, H2O, noise and sight pollution in mill and environment and under standard working conditions is increasing. The increasing rate of utilizing modern engineering and chemicals in agricultural activities, i.e. , pesticides, weedkillers, unreal fertiliser has resulted in people having substances toxic to their wellness.

Income disparity between the hapless and the rich, the rural and the urban countries, the agricultural and manufacturing sectors affect the wellness system in footings of unfairness in wellness resource allotment. The free trade system besides has impact on pharmaceutical industry: higher monetary value of drugs because of the patent ordinances.

Due to the job of alterations in instruction many people have limited abilities to set to the information received through the assorted media. Some change their wellness behavior to follow more hazard to their wellness. There are besides the jobs of catching diseases, chronic disease, and aged disease among the people.

Economic Crisis from mid-1997

The current economic crisis has tremendous impact on the state and this impact will prevail for at least 4-5 old ages. The immediate effects are unemployment, reduced household income and decreased ingestion outgo. These have societal and wellness effects.

Economic Crisis and Health Impacts

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Some Elementss of Reforms in Health Sector

Soft loans from World Bank ( WB ) and Asian Development Bank ( ADB ) were offered to the Government to refill the foreign militias, and to back up indispensable plans. These loans came with certain conditions to continue the safety cyberspace to salvage the vulnerable groups, particularly those unemployed. Under the recent loan from the Asian Development Bank ( ADB ) , there are besides elements of reforms in the wellness sector as conditions of the loan, viz.

Redeployment of wellness forces to the rural countries

Reform of the referral systems

Development of independent infirmaries

Policy reform of assorted wellness insurance strategies, i.e. , Civil Service Medical Benefit Scheme ( CSMBS ) , Free Medical Care for the Low Income Household Scheme ( FC/L ) , Free Medical Care for the Aged Scheme ( FC/E ) , Workmen Compensation Scheme ( WCS ) , the Social Security Scheme ( SSS ) and the Voluntary Health Card Scheme ( VHCS ) ( Wibulpolprasert, et Al, 1998 ) .

Social Impact and Responses

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Economic Crisis:

Necessity and Opportunity to reevaluate precedences of Health Services Resources

What the crisis has already told us:

The most carefully laid programs are all of a sudden undermined by unannounced national economic loss

We have all of a sudden to do new precedences

Health sector versus other sectors

Within wellness sector


Health services installations

Capital investing

Disease control / preventative activities

Health instruction / media

Short term versus long term

Local, national, regional

New enterprises, i.e. , Health Care Financing, Health Care Investment, etc.

Equity, i.e. , the rich and the hapless, between sectors, between parts.

Major displacements:

Fiscal crisis

Private infirmaries, some are running out of money, bankruptcy.

Drain of work force from public to private:

Private wellness sector interrupted consequences in the possible betterment of manpower state of affairs in public sector conditional upon the handiness of money to pay them.

Shift of patronage from private to public wellness sector services, due to fall in income or unemployment of people.

Attendant overloading of public wellness sector services.

Short versus long term deduction issues:

Can equilibrate between public and private wellness sector be legislated based on experience of instability of private sector concern methods exposed by crisis.

Debt direction, i.e. , local and foreign investing

Investing ordinances

Work force policy accommodation

Equity consideration

Can disease controls / preventative activities are

Streamlined, so

Protected against cuts in crisis so to safeguard against dearly-won additions in disease out interruptions ( catching diseases ) which would ensue in increasing debt load.

Time toA readdressA affair of comprehensive national wellness insurance embracing all sectors. This might distribute costs equitably.

This would likely ask cut downing the benefits of CSMBS, i.e. , co-payment mechanism, keeping the rule of the wellness card strategy and presenting a compulsory wellness insurance strategy overall etc.

The urgency of this is highlighted by the rise in unemployment with loss of employee contributed benefits and sudden addition in the figure of eligible individuals for Social public assistance wellness services to the hapless.

Health Economicss: Thai Experience

This list summarizes on traveling and completed wellness economic sciences research throughout Thailand.

National Health System Research, i.e.

Social Motions and Economic Transformation: to analyze the historical development of Thai wellness attention system.

Private Hospital Survey

Cigarettes and Excise Tax: to analyze the impact of a alteration in the rate of coffin nail excise revenue enhancement.

Political Economy of Tobacco Products and Optimal Cigarette Taxation

Diagnostic Related Group Study

Information System for Health Improvement

Computer System for Health Care Providers

Government Information Network ( GINet )

Rapid Provincial Health Survey

Law and Regulation

Decentralization and Health Systems Change

Public-Private Mix

Essential Health Package

Thai Burden of Diseases

The Economics of Traffic Accidents: to cipher the economic sciences loss and causes of accident.

Beginnings of Economic Growth in Thailand

Development, Environment and Health in the Eastern Seaboard Area

Healthy City Project

Health Financing Research

Health insurance in assorted strategies, i.e. ,

Voluntary Health Insurance.

Social Security Scheme.

Civil Service Medical Benefit Scheme ( CSMBS ) .

National Health Account

National Drug Account

Hospital Costing: assorted degrees

Resource Allotment: Confluent Beginnings of Finance and Reforming Payment Mechanisms for Health Servicess

Cost, Resource Use and Financing of District Health Services in Thailand

Technology Appraisal

Quality Improvement Research, i.e.

Assessment the Health Welfare ( Low income ) Card Scheme of Thailand

Economicss of Social Welfare Project Management

Entire Quality Management Study

Health Manpower Development Research, i.e.

Scientific and Technical Manpower for Economic Growth: to analyze the human resource development impinges upon proficient capacity in many sectors including those which straight and indirectly affect wellness.

Future Pattern of Health Manpower Needed at each degree

Forecast the Disease Pattern in Thailand

Health Behaviour Research, i.e.

Economic Evaluation alongside WHO Antenatal Care Trial

Cost Effectiveness, Cost / Performance techniques in assorted wellness programmes

Quality of Life Study

Alcohol Consumption Study

Elderly Care

Health Situation and Trend Research, i.e.

The diseases control plan, i.e. ,

Economicss of Leprosy

Social and Economic Impact of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

Economic Evaluation of Village Malaria Volunteer Programme

Economic Analysis of Malaria Diagnostic Technology

Economicss of Screening for Thalassemia

Demographic Impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Thailand

Survey of Elderly in Thailand

General Agreement on Trade in Services and the Effects on Health System and Services in Thailand

Quantitative Approaches to Analysis and Redefinition of Market Roles in Changing Options for Health Servicess

Scheme for Research in Health Economicss: Present and Future ” in Enabling Mechanisms for Health

Summary of Health Economics Research Targets





Health Insurance

Universal Health Insurance

Accessibility to Health Care

Health Care Behaviour and Utilization

Types of Health Care Financing Impact on Utilization and Health Expenditure

Essential Package and Outgo

Resource Allocation at Various Levels

Assess the Standard for Quality of Care

Technology Appraisal

Technology Diffusion and Distribution

Cost-effectiveness for Drug, Medical Equipment and Technology

Consumer Protection for Using Health Care/ and Health Servicess

Health Manpower

Health Manpower Distribution

Cost and Number of Health Manpower

Quality of Personnel Standard of Providing Care

Role of Private and Public

Impacts of GATS on Prices and Accessibility

Earmarked Taxs

Public-Private Mix

Optimum usage of Assorted coaction, i.e. , Joint-venture, Contract out

Referral System and Network

Assess the Standard and its Applications

Health impacts of rapid economic alterations in Siam

The economic crisis in Thailand in July 1997 had major societal deductions for unemployment, under employment, household income contraction, altering outgo forms, and child forsaking. The crisis increased poorness incidence by 1 million, of whom 54 % were the ultra-poor. This paper explores and explains the short-run wellness impact of the crisis, utilizing bing informations and some particular studies and interviews for 2 old ages during 1998A±99.

The wellness impacts of the crisis are mixed, some being negative and some being positive. Household wellness outgo reduced by 24 % in existent footings ; among the poorer families, institutional attention was replaced by self- medicine. The pre-crisis lifting tendency in outgo on intoxicant and baccy ingestion was reversed.

Immunization disbursement and coverage were sustained at a really high degree after the crisis, but studies of additions in diphtheria and whooping cough indicate worsening programme quality. An addition in malaria, despite budget additions, had many causes but was chiefly due to cut down programme effectivity.

STD incidence continued the pre-crisis downward tendency. Ratess of HIV hazardous sexual behavior were higher among draftees than other male workers, but in both groups there was lower rubber usage with insouciant spouses. HIV sero-surveillance showed a continuance of the pre-crisis downward tendency among commercial sex workers ( CSW, both whorehouses and non-brothel based ) , pregnant adult females and donated blood ; this tendency was somewhat reversed among male STD patients and more among endovenous drug users. Condom coverage among whorehouses based CSW continued to increase to 97.5 % , despite a 72 % budget cut in free rubber distribution.

Poverty and deficiency of insurance coverage are two major determiners of absence of or unequal prenatal attention, and low birth weight. The Low Income Scheme could non adequately cover the hapless but the voluntary Health Card Scheme played a wellness safety net function for maternal and child wellness. Low birth weight and scraggy among school kids were observed during the crisis.

The impact of the crisis on wellness was minimal in some sectors but non in the others if the pre-crisis status is efficient and healthy and frailty versa. We demonstrated some cardinal wellness position parametric quantities during the 2-year period after the 1997 crisis but do non hold decisions on the impact of the economic crisis on wellness position, as our observation is excessively short and there is uncertainness on how long the crisis will last.

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Siam has good positioned itself to go the medical hub of Asia, with more than four 100 infirmaries offering the most advanced interventions by an internationally trained medical staff. The state boasts the largest infirmary in Southeast Asia and the first of all time to have ISO 9001 enfranchisement, and the first infirmary in Asia to be granted the esteemed Joint Commission International Accreditation ( JCIA ) .

In 2005, the figure of foreign patients geting in Thailand, alleged medical tourers, topped one million and reached 1.4 million in 2006. The state has set a mark of 2 million medical tourers by the twelvemonth 2010. With 1000000s of people without wellness insurance in some states, or those merely seeking the best service and attention available, medical touristry continues to be a growing industry for Thailand. The one-year growing rate for the sector has been 14 % , with major surgical processs increasing, every bit good as those seeking standard medical attention. Thai Airways has taken medical touristry one measure farther by boxing medical check-ups as portion of its Royal Orchid Holidays plan.

Acknowledging the available market and the state ‘s ability to present medical intervention at international criterions, in 2004 Thailand ‘s authorities adopted a five-year strategic program to develop the state ‘s capacity into the “ Center of Excellent Health of Asia ” .

This strategic program, advanced by the Ministry of Public Health, focuses on three chief countries of health care: medical services, health care services, which includes watering place, traditional massage and long-stay health care merchandises and services, and 3rd is Thai herbal merchandises.

There is a serious committedness on behalf of health care suppliers and the authorities to guarantee that international criterions are met. “ More late, infirmaries in Thailand have opted to besides use for Joint Commission International ( JCI accreditation, which is the international accreditation arm of the U.S. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations ( JCAHO ) ” , says Mr. Denis Meseroll of Asset Management Systems ( Thailand ) , a company that provides healthcare direction services.

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Skyrocketing costs of health care in many western states, along with overladen medical installations in many others, has added great attractive force to Thailand ‘s high quality low cost medical service industry. For illustration, elected surgery in Thailand ‘s best private infirmaries is frequently one tenth the cost of the same process if performed in the United States. With the value of OECD states ‘ wellness attention sector holding been estimated to be every bit high as US $ 3 trillion and the United States at US $ 2 trillion, the potency for Thailand is important.

BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina and Blue Choice of South Carolina, US based health care insurance suppliers, have formed an confederation with one of Bangkok ‘s premier infirmaries to advance medical touristry to its 1.3 million members.

In add-on to the cost economy, there is besides the added benefit that intervention and aftercare services are frequently performed in resort like scenes, with a degree of cordial reception non found in other of the universe ‘s medical centres. Doctors are experts in their Fieldss and nurses are registered and good trained. But beyond the medical attractive force, patients are treated to personal service characterized by Thailand ‘s excellence. Patients are non left to linger in infirmary waiting suites for hours, left unattended and uninformed. Some infirmaries will even delegate patients a personal helper who will walk them through the full procedure from the front door, to their assignment with the physician, to the onsite pharmaceutics to make full prescriptions, and to uncluttering all grosss for insurance reimbursement. Patients are kept informed throughout their stay. In fact one of Bangkok ‘s premier infirmary installations boasts a staff of physicians that can talk English, French, Spanish, German, Dutch, Japanese, Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hainan, Arabic, Urdu and others, and has 60 translators on its staff. While another has translators in over two twelve linguistic communications, all in order to ease the increasing Numberss of international patients. And many of the state ‘s infirmaries have the most advanced medical equipment, including one which late purchased the MRI 3 Tesla, the first in Asia, which offers better diagnosing without injection of contrast media.

While Thailand excels in the medical attention it delivers on a day-to-day footing to patients from over 190 states, the Kingdom is besides deriving acknowledgment as a location for research and for clinical tests of advanced medical specialty and for root cell interventions. Thailand is puting in research and development for tropical diseases, such as dandy fever febrility and malaria, among others ; countries broad unfastened for farther investing.

With the exponential growing of Thailand into going a medical hub in the part, considerable chances in related Fieldss are being created. The medical device sector, for one, will go on to see healthy growing to run into the demands of health care installations for new and upgraded medical machinery and devices. Thailand ‘s health care industry is genuinely turning in springs and bounds.


The bulk of wellness attention services in Thailand is delivered by the populace sector, which includes 1,002 infirmaries and 9,765 wellness Stationss. Universal wellness attention is provided through three plans: the civil service public assistance system for civil retainers and their households, Social Security for private employees, and the Universal Coverage strategy theoretically available to all other Thai subjects. Some private infirmaries are participants in these plans, though most are financed by patient self-payment and private insurance. Harmonizing to the World Bank, under Thailand ‘s wellness strategies, 99.5 % of the population has wellness protection coverage.

The Ministry of Public Health ( MOPH ) oversees national wellness policy and besides operates most authorities wellness installations. The National Health Security Office ( NHSO ) allocates funding through the Universal Coverage plan. Other health-related authorities bureaus include the Health System Research Institute ( HSRI ) , Thai Health Promotion Foundation ( “ Thai Health ” ) , National Health Commission Office ( NHCO ) , and the Emergency Medical Institute of Thailand ( EMIT ) . Although there have been national policies for decentalisation, there has been opposition in implementing such alterations and the MOPH still straight controls most facets of wellness attention.

Thailand introduced cosmopolitan coverage reforms in 2001, going one of merely a smattering of lower-middle income states to make so. Means-tested wellness attention for low income families was replaced by a new and more comprehensive insurance strategy, originally known as the 30 tical undertaking, in line with the little co-payment charged for intervention. Peoples fall ining the strategy receive a gold card which allows them to entree services in their wellness territory, and, if necessary, be referred for specializer intervention elsewhere. The majority of finance comes from public grosss, with support allocated to Contracting Units for Primary Care yearly on a population footing. Harmonizing to the WHO, 65 % of Thailand ‘s wellness attention outgo in 2004 came from the authorities, while 35 % was from private beginnings. Thailand achieved cosmopolitan coverage with comparatively low degrees of disbursement on wellness but it faces important challenges: rise costs, inequalities, and duplicate of resources.

Although the reforms have received a good trade of unfavorable judgment, they have proved popular with poorer Thais, particularly in rural countries, and survived the alteration of authorities after the 2006 military putsch. Then Public Health Minister, Mongkol Na Songkhla, abolished the 30 tical co-payment and made the UC strategy free. It is non yet clear whether the strategy will be modified farther under the alliance authorities that came to power in January 2008.

Public Health Issues

Although infective diseases, most notably HIV/AIDS and TB, remain serious public wellness issues, non-communicable diseases and hurts have besides become of import causes of morbidity and mortality. Major infective diseases in Thailand besides include bacterial diarrhoea, hepatitis, dandy fever febrility, malaria, Nipponese phrenitis, hydrophobias, and swamp fever.

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune lack syndrome ( HIV/AIDS ) is a serious job in Thailand. The United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS ( UNAIDS ) reported in November 2004 that the Thai authorities had launched a well-funded, politically supported, and matter-of-fact response to the epidemic. As a consequence, national grownup HIV prevalence has decreased to an estimated 1.5 per centum of all individuals aged 15 to 49 old ages ( or about 1.8 per centum of the entire population ) . It was besides reported that 58,000 grownups and kids had died from AIDS since the first instance was reported in 1984. The authorities has begun to better its support to individuals with HIV/AIDS and has provided financess to HIV/AIDS support groups. Public plans have begun to change insecure behaviour, but favoritism against those septic continues. The authorities has funded an antiretroviral drug plan and, as of September 2006, more than 80,000 HIV/AIDS patients had received such drugs.

Food Safety

Food safety panics, like the remainder of developing Asia, are non uncommon to Thailand. Furthermore besides the of all time common microbic taint of street side nutrient left out in the hot Sun and dust-covered roads, every bit good as shop nutrient, taint by banned or toxic pesticides and forge nutrient merchandises is besides common. 3-MCPD, a genotoxic and carcinogenic substance, was found in utmost sums ( 100s to 1000s of times bounds ) in an Asia-wide ( ex Japan and Korea ) acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce dirt in 2001, including exports to Western states, cyanuramide in Thai nutrient merchandises along with 2008 Chinese milk dirt, and July 2012 consumer action groups demanding 4 unlisted toxic pesticides found on common veggies ( which are banned in developed states ) be banned. Chemical companies are bespeaking to add them to the Thai Dangerous Substances Act so they can go on to be used, including on exported Mangifera indicas to developed states which have banned their usage.

Medical and Healthcare Services Currently Provided in Thailand:

Medical Servicess

Medical Examination ( Chulalongkorn Hospital )

Outpatient Department

Nursing Department


Extended Service Clinics

Social Security Services ( Chulalongkorn Hospital/Somdej Na Sriracha Hospital )

On-line Consultancy

Anonymous Clinic

Nurses at Home Project

Medical Certificate Services ( Chulalongkorn Hospital/Somdej Na Sriracha

Hospital )

Rabiess Clinic

Immunological Clinic

New Tract Medicine Services

Immunological Clinic and Tourist


Biological Merchandises

Chula Excimer Laser Center

Ostomy Clinic

Community Medicine/Community Health

Wednesday Club

Anti-AIDS Campaign in Slum Communities

Elderly Care Project, Klong Toey Slum


Educational Servicess

Nursing College

Other Health related Servicess

First Aid Training

Knowledge for Life Project

Home Nursing Training

Health Education for the Disadvantaged,

Including inmates, no educated kids

Rabiess Hot Line

Health Restorative

Service at Home

Consultancy for HIV

AIDS infected and household

Catastrophe Relief Services Consumable and Life Pack Aids

Mobile Medical Unit of measurements

First Aid Unit, Medical Supplies and Vehicles

Service Coverage ( Map )

“ Princess Pa Project ” voluntary Project, the Thai Red Cross


Blood Servicess

Blood Bags manufactured by the National Blood Service Center

Eye Bank

Eye Bank procedure

Cornea in Optisol

Cornea in Glycerine

Eye Whites

Amniotic membrane

Fair and Equal-Opportunity Eye


Organ Donation Heart,

Lung, Liver Allocation

Kidney Allocation

Child Aids Biological Family Tracking

Family Finding

Child Follow-Through

Adoption Process

Chalerm Phrakiat Child Development Center ( For Thai Red Cross Personnel )

Human-centered Relief

Consumable AIDSs and life battalions

Mobile Medical Unit of measurements

First Aid Units

Specialized Medicine

Unit of measurements

Other Services Dissemination of Red Cross Principles and

Human-centered Laws in young persons

Chalerm Prakiat 72 Pansa Iodine Nutrition Project

Community Service Activities

Strong industry growing mentality several cardinal supportive factors

We believe Thailand ‘s health care sector has bright chances in visible radiation of the undermentioned supporting factors:

Low health care incursion.

An ageing population and a lifting decease rate from complex unwellnesss.

A limited supply menace due to high entry barriers.

Thailand ‘s competitory market place in medical touristry.

The first three factors guarantee quickly lifting demand for health care from local people in Thailand. However, we see greater demand chances from provincial countries than from the Bangkok Metropolitan Region ( BMR ) due to the turning urbanization tendency and lower incursion.

Local Government Policies and Major Measures to Promote

The Thai authorities began strategic programs since 2004 to advance Thailand as a premier medical touristry finish. Since so, the state has enjoyed a big figure of visitants in this class. The Department of Export Promotion and the Department of Health Service Support reported a rapid growing of 16.48 % during 2001-2009 for wellness services bringing to aliens:

Year No. of Foreign Patients Estimate Income ( Million Baht )

2007 1,373,807 106,640

2008 1,380,000 107,419

2009 1,390,000 108,197

Thailand is now widely acclaimed among the international community as the medical hub in Asia, with important advantages including the handiness of modern equipment and fortes, easy entryway, competitory monetary values, and great cordial reception from service operators and forces. These, when coupled with the well-established fact that Thailand is a brilliant tourer finish with calm beaches and mountains, fascinating humanistic disciplines and civilization, nutrient, amusement, and shopping, make Thailand a great medical touristry finish.

The policies and schemes to advance Thailand as a medical hub of Asia

1 ) . Most healthcare service suppliers peculiarly infirmaries participate in travel marketplaces, travel carnivals, trade carnival, exhibitions, seminars, conferences.

2 ) . Using advertizements in travel magazines in states with the back uping from the authorities. With the cooperation from the Ministry of Public Health, Tourism Authority of Thailand ( TAT ) , Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Department of Export Promotion ( DEP ) organized these activities for advancing health care services to international markets.

3 ) . Other enlightening stuffs are provided such as booklets, brochures, video-cds, paper bags and jersey with Sons were besides used to make consciousness of the available health care services

4 ) . Some healthcare service suppliers build up cooperation with the local institutes, universities, medical schools in other states to set up coaction in instruction, exchange of cognition and preparation every bit good as to advance their option health care services.

5 ) . Advertising about medical and nonmedical services in both local and international media are used by healthcare service suppliers. The advertizement has to be based on Thai Torahs and ordinances about how to publicize health care services. Media such as magazines, newspaper ( both in Thai and English ) , telecasting etc. are used to aim local people and exiles who work in Thailand.


Harmonizing to the KASIKORN RESEARCH CENTER, ASEAN wellness service liberalisation will heighten the chances for Thai medical attention concern investing into ASEAN states. This is because of ASEAN cancellation of all pre-conditions to wellness service markets and enlargement of ASEAN investors ‘ shareholdings of up to 70 per centum beginning in 2010. Positive factors that would back up Thai entry into ASEAN medical concern would include the possible in the first-class direction of Thai infirmaries that have attracted the highest figure of foreign patients in ASEAN.

Furthermore, the impact of ASEAN trade and investing liberalisation and the development of transit logistics into the Indochina part will assist ease travel within the part via land transit ; hence, offering greater chances to Thai private sector infirmaries to spread out into other metropoliss in Thailand and back up a turning figure of foreign patients wishing to utilize medical attention services in Thailand.

However, the enlargement of Thai medical attention services may confront some challenges in forces deficits within ASEAN, an investing finish – including. It is expected that the effectivity of liberalisation in the motions of medical forces within ASEAN in 2015 will be rather limited and may confront challenges caused by competition with and that besides aim to spread out such investings within ASEAN and would wish to go hubs for medical attention within this part, every bit good.

Meanwhile, the enlargement of Thai private infirmaries into other ASEAN states may worsen forces shortages domestically and impact our ability to go a major Asian medical service hub pulling foreign patients to. It is expected that the job of competition in pulling medical forces between service suppliers domestically, authorities and private sector, will go on to escalate, peculiarly if there is an unequal authorities budget for medical Personnel development.

Thailand Health Profile study

Health is related to legion factors.

Indispensably, analysis of state of affairs and tendency of the Thai wellness system requires comprehensive consideration on alterations in both single and environmental contexts that influence wellness, e.g. economic system, instruction, human ecology, household characteristic and migration, genetic sciences, value and belief, civilization, political relations and authorities, environment, substructure and engineering, every bit good as wellness services system itself.

This inspires the thought of making the Thailand Health Profile study, a study that offers information on Thailand ‘s wellness system integrally connected with its determiners.

Siam can be proud to hold achieved most of the eight UN Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) , in peculiar the three health-related ends.

In 1970, Thailand had an infant mortality rate of 68 per 1,000 unrecorded births, while today it is estimated at 13 per 1,000 unrecorded births.

Harmonizing to a 2008 survey published in the medical diary Lancet, Thailand enjoyed the highest one-year rate of decrease in child mortality among 30 low- and middle-income states between 1990 and 2006.

The maternal mortality ratio has besides shown a similar decreasing tendency.

In add-on, Thailand has been successful at controling new HIV infection rates by 83 per cent since 1991, thanks to the backbreaking attempts made by authoritiess and NGOs.

Such impressive wellness results did non happen in isolation from its socio-economic development context.

From 1969 to 2009, its gross national income ( GNI ) grew from US $ 210 to $ 3,760 in current figures, or 17 times over 40 old ages.

During the 1970s and 1980s, Thailand invested to a great extent in main roads that connect the stray and destitute Northeast and North to Bangkok ; electrification throughout the state ; every bit good as enlargement of school registration for both male childs and misss.

As a consequence, the positive spillover effects besides benefited the public wellness sector.

As economic growing accelerated in the mid-1980s and 1990s, the state continued to finance substructure undertakings which brought greater connectivity, wider entree to electricity and safe imbibing H2O and clean sanitation, primary and secondary schools, and primary wellness Centres in rural countries across the state.

Four decennaries ago when Thailand was still a low-income state, it invested early in wellness attention substructure that has reached the most distant rural communities.

Alternatively of concentrating resources to urban third infirmary development, public wellness leaders placed more funding to rural countries from 1982 onwards, which has encouraged greater and low-cost entree to healthcare at the most local degrees.

Such investings have paid off. In a survey carried out by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and released in Bangkok last month, Thailand featured as one of the states to accomplish “ good wellness at low cost ” .

Harmonizing to the World Health Organization ( WHO ) , its entire wellness outgos ( THE ) is estimated at 4.1 per cent of its GDP or $ 328 per capita, which is comparatively low for the wellness outcomes achieved.

The extended web of primary health care installations implemented through territory wellness systems supplemented by some of the first-class research outfits doubtless played a important function in bettering wellness results particularly for the rural population.

In add-on, Thailand has been successful in preparation nurses and physicians for its wellness system, innovatively administering human resources to rural countries by prosecuting new medical alumnuss to function for three old ages in a rural infirmary, and supplying extra pecuniary inducements.

In add-on, wellness voluntaries recruited from local communities besides play of import support, bar and sensing functions, and thereby heightening community engagement.

Thailand ‘s wellness accomplishments are non limited to impressive indexs, but extend to achieving cosmopolitan wellness coverage ( UHC ) .Globally, the figure of states that have attained UHC is comparatively little, and comprises largely of OECD states.

Within Asian, Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand have achieved UHC, with the Philippines, Vietnam, and Indonesia nearing full coverage as they embark on reforms.

Yet, harmonizing to the International Labour Organization ( ILO ) , merely 5 to 10 per cent of people are covered in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, while in middle-income states, coverage rates vary between 20 to 60 per cent.

Annually across the universe, about 150 million people suffer fiscal calamity and 100 million are pushed below the poorness line due to regressive payment systems for health care and absence of UHC.

In 2002 when Thailand was still a lower-middle income state with a GDP/capita of $ 1,900, the state achieved UHC.

This did non go on overnight but bit by bit since the 1970s through the creative activity of three wellness insurance strategies:

the Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme ( CSMBS ) ,

Social Security Scheme ( SSS )

Subsequently the Universal Coverage ( UC ) Scheme – once referred to as the “ Bt30 ” Scheme.

Achieving a coverage rate of 99 per cent of the population is more than merely run intoing a national aim ; it represents a beginning of inspiration to other low- and middle-income states.

As a affair of fact, functionaries from assorted wellness ministries and NGOs from Asia and Africa frequently request a visit to Thailand ‘s public wellness establishments such as the National Health Security Office, International Health and Policy Programme, Health Systems Research Institute and the Ministry of Public Health to “ analyze how Thailand did it ” .

As of now, 99 per cent of the Thai population is covered through a comprehensive health care bundle that ranges from wellness bar and primary attention, to hospitalization due to traffic accidents to renal replacing therapy and entree to ART intervention for HIV.

It has been shown that the UC Scheme has contributed significantly to cut downing cases of ruinous health care outgos, particularly in destitute countries of the state.

Based on the recent rating of the 10 old ages of the Scheme, the figure of destitute families dropped from 3.4 per cent in 1996 to 0.8-1.3 per cent between 2006 and 2009, therefore lending to poverty decrease, edifice greater fiscal stableness to vulnerable families and improved long-run support security.

In add-on, it helps Thailand to achieve the rule of the right to wellness for all.

In a state with high income inequality as measured by the Gini Coefficient, entree to low-cost health care is a span that helps extenuate many of the socio-economic unfairnesss that still plague this state.

Thailand has demonstrated that UHC may non be an unachievable dream to be experienced by merely the rich states.

Low-income states such as Ghana and Rwanda have already made much advancement towards UHC, and states such as India and Bangladesh are working towards developing effectual UHC systems.

The biggest individual determiner in this is political committedness.

In a round-table conference in Bangkok in November, 2011, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon declared that no states rich or little would hold “ adequate ” resources to transport out UHC reform but the challenge for every state is how shortly they can travel into it.

This was echoed at the recent Prince Mahidol Award Conference with the subject of UHC.

Attended by participants from 68 states, none said that UHC is impossible to accomplish in their contexts.

With the right policies – societal, economic and political, it is possible for a low- or middle-income state to ship on the route towards UHC.

Although Thailand has achieved cosmopolitan coverage, large challenges remain.

These include:

how to include foreign migratory workers into the health care system

how to unify the three strategies to cut down unfairnesss in benefit bundles

how to guarantee sufficient and highly-trained human resources in wellness to run into current deficits

how to pull off Thailand ‘s passage into a “ Grey ” society in the following decennaries

what are the germinating fiscal mechanisms that can be used to better function the population?

UHC after all is non an end point in itself, but a journey that moves us closer to better wellness for all.

Mushtaque Chowdhury and Natalie Phaholyothin are based at the Rockefeller Foundation ‘s Asia Regional Office in Bangkok.

The article reflects the positions of the writers, which do non needfully represent those of the Rockefeller Foundation.

Healthcare in Thailand


One of the most popular Asiatic states for resettlement is Thailand.

The state has a rich historical and cultural background.

However, there are some concerns that exiles should be cognizant of, and one of these is the issue of health care.

The health care system

Most of the physicians in Thailand are specializers ; that is why it may be difficult to happen a dependable all-around general practician to handle you for minor medical jobs.

As an exile, you will hold to travel to a general infirmary, where you will most probably be examined by a physician who is a specializer in one field or another.

Since it may be common to hold a figure of smaller medical conditions, it may be hard for a medical specializer to cover with these.

The best manner, particularly if you are non rather certain of your job ( s ) , is merely to seek an internist as your first port of call.

However, it should be noted that there are still some major infirmaries in Thailand that have household physicians or medical practicians.

Most physicians in Thailand do non hold one specific topographic point of work.

Thai sawboness and doctors have different working agendas at different infirmaries thatA can beA spread over the whole of Bangkok.

Because of this, physicians are likely to travel from one infirmary to another to make their unit of ammunitions.

Additionally, these physicians may besides hold private clinics.

In visible radiation of this, they tend to work really long hours.

It is non hard to conceive of the jobs that this could do.

For illustration, if you merely had surgery and a job arises, there is the possibility that your sawbones might be executing another surgery in a different infirmary, or he may be at his private clinic.

This may ensue in your physician seeking to work out the state of affairs over the phone.

Obstacles in medical exigencies

Emergency conveyance installations in Thailand are non yet to the full developed.

Large infirmaries in Thailand have mobile intensive attention units where you can be hold immediate intervention in exigency state of affairss.

However, you will seldom see an ambulance rushing the streets of Bangkok.

Although traffic accidents are attended to, voluntary organisations are usually the 1s to supply deliverance units.

Passers-by will besides help in exigencies.

For traffic accidents, you can ever seek aid from the Police Hospital at the Ratchaprasong Intersection ( if you are in the country ) .

In footings of exigency conveyance, the chief obstruction in medical exigencies is the traffic in Bangkok.

Unwanted holds are ineluctable, unless you are in close propinquity to a infirmary.

By and large talking, autos do non automatically give manner to reacting ambulances.

Therefore, if you have a medical status that may necessitate immediate attending, where possible, remain in a topographic point which is near to a suited infirmary.

Having a wellness service that is able to handle controlled and stable conditions is one thing, but being capable of covering with exigency processs is another.

Unfortunately, Thailand needs some major betterments in this respect.

Money is of import

When you are in Thailand, it is of import to hold your medical insurance paperss with you ; either that or another signifier of payment.

In the instance of a infirmary admittance, you will be required to pay up forepart for the interventions.

It appears thatA moneyA plays an even larger portion than normal when discoursing the health care system of Thailand.

In most European states, jobs like these are usually avoided because the patients have compulsory medical insurance and infirmaries can be confident about acquiring paid.

It is recommended that you avail of private wellness insurance when sing Thailand as a topographic point to see or populate.

Making Business in Thailand

India has many chances for making concern with Thailand.

Priority countries are:

aˆ? Advanced Engineering

aˆ? Agribusiness

aˆ? Education and preparation

aˆ? Environment

aˆ? Food and Beverage

aˆ? Railway

aˆ? Power

aˆ? Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts

aˆ? Healthcare and Pharmaceutical, Medical Hub is targeted for Thailand

aˆ? Petro

aˆ? Renewable Energy

aˆ? Tourism, athleticss and leisure equipment

Healthcare Sector in Thailand

Thailand had a population of 69.51 million at the terminal of 2011.Life anticipation is 71 old ages for work forces and 77 old ages for adult females has increased.

With a population growing rate of around 0.4 % , Thailand is confronting an aging society.

Proportion of the population over age 60 in 2020 is expected to make 17.51 % .

Market Overview

The entire health care market in 2012 is expected to make U.S. $ 13.13bn, while the pharmaceutical and medical devices market forecast market for U.S. $ 4.1bn U.S. $ 9.36bn.

However, some medical equipment produced for domestic ingestion in Thailand, the state imported from abroad, 70 % of medical devices.

Due to increasing demand from international and local patients, Thailand ‘s first medical substructure in developed states and at a fraction of the cost of similar processs provides the highest possible quality of attention.

Thailand is ready to take a serious involvement in this dynamic market ; this is an exciting concern chance for companies.

Key chances

Thailand in cardinal and emerging chances for Indian companies in the health care include:

Medical equipment and instruments

Specialist intervention engineering

Aging Population

Standard Certification

Accident Emergency


Geting into the market

Medical equipment and instruments

The most popular finishs for medical touristry in Thailand, more than 1,000 public infirmaries and 400 private infirmaries with international criterions are powered on.

Turning medical touristry market with a 10-20 % one-year growing in the sector has played an of import function.

Both foreign and domestic patients Thai wellness installations continue to spread out due to the increasing demand for wellness intervention.

We are besides seeing a new tendency of amalgamations between private infirmaries.

Therefore, both private and public infirmaries for medical machinery and equipment, including a turning demand continues to upgrade their installations.

Purchase of major medical equipment in public infirmaries, accounting for 60 % of the consumers live.

Specialist intervention engineering

Demand for particular intervention in Thailand, non merely because of the figure of foreign patients in Thailand but besides increased health-conscious consumers.

Aging Population

Harmonizing to the analysis of a decease certification, major and increasing cause of decease among Thai citizens of non-communicable diseases, accidents, and HIV / AID.

The impact of an aging population opens up many chances.

Due to the increasing aging population, we besides take attention of the aged by both the populace and private sector to see an increasing figure of advanced characteristics.

The Thai authorities is cognizant of the aging society and provides support for the aged life.

The National Science and Technology Development Projects Agency ( NSTDA ) besides on new engineering in these countries are done by collaborating with international organisations.

Standard Certification

An indispensable tool for pulling foreign patients is an internationally recognized commissioned infirmary.

Consequently, the Joint Commission International ( JCI ) to better its services to international criterions scheme has gained big private infirmary.

However, some private infirmaries to seek other options which allow more flexibleness in the execution procedure of the want.

Accident Emergency

Emergency Response therapy has progressively become a precedence in Thailand, as the state ‘s natural catastrophes and political agitation in recent old ages experienced a figure.

National Institute of Emergency Medical Services Emergency Medical System is to develop international criterions in this country and has played a major function in natural catastrophes.

More preparation and guidance every bit good as experts in the country, include the demand for devices that generate chances.


Thailand is one of a turning figure of smart phones and tablet computing machines have followed the planetary tendency.

Some e – wellness undertakings, wellness informations aggregation, wellness position monitoring, etc.

In the past few old ages has been the usage of the hand-held device.

Commercially available from Q1 2013 due to 3G service, local infirmaries, which will let them to function in distant vitamin E – are cognizant of the wellness benefits.

National Health Information System, tele-medicine, for smart places and independent life, the Thai Government Smart Health ‘s National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, with focal point on 3 countries ( NECTEC ) has supported the undertaking launched by.

Thailand Health Care Industry

Local Government Policies and Major Measures to Promote

The Thai authorities began strategic programs since 2004 to advance Thailand as a premier medical touristry finish. Since so, the state has enjoyed a big figure of visitants in this class. The Department of Export Promotion and the Department of Health Service Support reported a rapid growing of 16.48 % during 2001-2009 for wellness services bringing to aliens:


No. of Foreign Patients

Estimate Income

( Million Baht )










Beginning: The Royal Thai Embassy, Washington

Thailand is now widely acclaimed among the international community as the medical hub in Asia, with important advantages including the handiness of modern equipment and fortes, easy entryway, competitory monetary values, and great cordial reception from service operators and forces. These, when coupled with the well-established fact that Thailand is a brilliant tourer finish with calm beaches and mountains, fascinating humanistic disciplines and civilization, nutrient, amusement, and shopping, make Thailand a great medical touristry finish.

The policies and schemes to advance Thailand as a medical hub of Asia

1 ) . Most healthcare service suppliers peculiarly infirmaries participate in travel marketplaces, travel carnivals, trade carnival, exhibitions, seminars, conferences.

2 ) . Using advertizements in travel magazines in states with the back uping from the authorities. With the cooperation from the Ministry of Public Health, Tourism Authority of Thailand ( TAT ) , Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Department of Export Promotion ( DEP ) organized these activities for advancing health care services to international markets.

3 ) . Other enlightening stuffs are provided such as booklets, brochures, video-cds, paper bags and jersey with Sons were besides used to make consciousness of the available health care services

4 ) . Some healthcare service suppliers build up cooperation with the local institutes, universities, medical schools in other states to set up coaction in instruction, exchange of cognition and preparation every bit good as to advance their option health care services.

5 ) . Advertising about medical and nonmedical services in both local and international media are used by healthcare service suppliers. The advertizement has to be based on Thai Torahs and ordinances about how to publicize health care services. Media such as magazines, newspaper ( both in Thai and English ) , telecasting etc. are used to aim local people and exiles who work in Thailand.

History of Development

Modern medical system in Thailand day of the months back over 100 old ages, during the reigns of King Rama III and King Rama IV when American and British missionaries introduced modern medical specialty in Thailand. However, the promotion of modern medical specialty truly took a immense measure during reign of King Rama V and began to lift steadily from so on.

King Rama V initiated the thought to establish Siriraj Hospital to suit people ‘s demands for health care. He founded the Royal Medical School that would subsequently put the foundation of modern medical schools. These enterprises led to constitutions of other infirmaries in Bangkok and big metropoliss. His Royal Highness Prince Mahidol of Songkhla was one of the drive forces that have given Thai modern medical specialty its topographic point among that of developed states.

HRH Princess Mahidol of Songkhla received certification in Public Health and subsequently graduated M.D. semen laude from Harvard University, USA. He became the innovator in the Thai modern medical specialty and has been regarded as the “ Father of Thailand ‘s Modern Medicine. ” Even though he passed off at the early age of 38 due to deteriorating wellness, he has greatly contributed in modern medical specialty of Thailand.

His Majesty King Bhumibol has granted permission to set up the Prince Mahidol Award as a planetary award in award of His Royal Highness Prince Mahidol of Songkhla. The Award is granted to persons or organisations around the universe with outstanding work for humanity in the Fieldss of medical specialty and public wellness.

During 1950s, many Thai medical physicians graduated or completed their preparation abroad, in the United States in peculiar. In 1970s and 1980s, a big figure of Thai physicians continued their surveies and preparations in the United States. A big figure of medical physicians moved from public infirmaries to work in private infirmaries.

At the same clip, many Thai physicians practising or holding medical licences abroad moved back to Thailand to and other states. During this clip, private infirmaries with international accreditation emerged in work in private infirmaries. One of the major drive forces behind the promotion of Thai modern medical specialty is the constitution of the “ Thai Red Cross Society. ”

During the economic roar of the 1990s in Thailand, as the economic status improved and personal income degree increased, public demand for good quality wellness attention besides increased consequently. Leading private infirmaries expanded their capacity to suit such demand. Harmonizing to the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand, the entire figure of infirmaries increased from 422 in 1991 to 491 in 1997, and the figure of beds more than doubled, from 14,927 to 38,275 during the same period.

However, when the 1997 fiscal crisis hit, the domestic market was significantly affected. Personal wellness outgos were curtailed as economic status declined. Private infirmaries had to do up for the loss of their domestic patients by switching their focal point outside of Thailand and ask foring patients from abroad.

Because of the local currency devaluation, every bit good as the low labour and other factor costs, the entire monetary value of the medical intervention in Thailand was less than half that in the United States, even after adding in the costs of travel and adjustments.

In the face of worsening gross, Bumrungrad Hospital in Bangkok brought in a new direction squad from outside the state to pull off its plan for international patients and to take the infirmary out of its fiscal troubles. Under this new direction, Bumrungrad became the first internationally commissioned infirmary in Southeast Asia in 2002 and pioneered the medical touristry concern. Its 50,000 international patients in 1997 had gone up to 350,000 in 2005. In this sense, the success of medical touristry in Thailand was a typical factor-driven phenomenon, where people traveled to obtain medical services with the lowest cost.

3. Industry Introduction ( SWOT Analysis and Development Status )

Thailand is one of the best finishs in Asia for health-conscious tourers. The state has been one of the modern-day innovators of Medical Tourism in Asia, with more than a million foreign patients yearly coming to over 956 public and 309 private infirmaries, 7 of which are JCI commissioned ( as of 2010 ) , and 17 of which are in the grapevine.

The international patients will hold entree to the rich pool of over 19,000 medical physicians and 100,000 nurses, many of which have undergone preparations in the United States, UK, Germany, Australia, Japan, and other states. It is besides noteworthy that Thailand has been the leader in holistic intervention attacks, including health care, illness bar, interventions, rehabilitative and renewing attention. These attacks have gained greater attending in the western states.

Thailand has convenient entree, beautiful tourer finishs, and superior services. Soon, Thailand is able to offer most comprehensive scope of medical interventions to the universe due to many Thai-Physicians have been studied and forte trained as specializer from abroad since 1960.These Physicians moved back to work in Thai private Hospitals and Clinics. So, they are able to freely offer their expertness and specializers to Thai every bit good as alien patients.

The most three popular services in medical touristry consist of:

Cosmetic and Fictile Surgery such as Breast Augmentation ( Augmentation Mammoplasty ) ,

Breast Lift ( Mastopexy ) , Nose Surgery ( Rhinoplasty ) , and Liposuction ( Lipoplasty )

Dentistry such as Dental Bonding, Dental Bridges, Dental Crowns, Dental Filling, Dental Implants, and Teeth Whitening

Renaissance mans ramping from Blood Vessel System, Bones, Joint and Tendons, Breast, Cardiology, Diagnostics, and General Surgery