The ancient Romans were known for their brilliant engineering that have stood the test of time. They were brilliantly manufactured to make the ancient Romans more comfortable. Most of the inventions were improvements of older engineering ideas, inventions, and concepts. The Romans improved the recipe of cement, which was invented in Egypt, and created concrete. The Romans were greatly influenced by the
Greek and the Estrusan.
The construction and technology for bringing running water into the cities were invented in the East. The construction of roads, were common then as it is now. The Romans improved the design and perfected the construction so well it is used today. The three examples I choose to write about Roman Engineering are first the Roman aqueduct. This construction was used to supply water to the people in the city. The aqueduct is one of the most brilliant engineering constructions in the ancient world.
It set a standard that has not been equaled Centuries after the fall of Rome. Many of the cities in Rome, today still use the aqueducts to supply water for the city. The aqueduct is estimated to be between 40 and a little over 500km in length. It is 29miles (47) km; above ground because most Roman aqueducts ran beneath the surface of the ground. To build underground makes the water disease free as well as helped the aqueducts from being attacked by enemies.
The Roman aqueducts were sophistically built and remarkably thinly technically standard. It has a gradient of only 34cm per km, lowering 17m vertically with its entire length of 50km. Largely powered by gravity, it moves large amounts of 6 million gallons of water a day. The combined aqueducts in Rome supplied around 1million cubic meters which supplied 30 million gallons to the city each day. This is great engineering feat has not been equaled until the 19th Century.
The construction of the Roman aqueducts is the use of Chorobates. The Chorobates used in this engineering were used to level terrain before construction. The Chorobates was a wooden object that was supported by four legs. It had a flat broad top with an engraved half circle. The half circle was filled with water to make the angle which there is no water will be measured.
The Groma is another tool used in the construction of the aqueduct. It was used to measure right angles. It consisted of stones that hung off four sticks and was perpendicular to one another. Distant objects marked out against the group of stones are placed horizontally. There were nine aqueducts built, in ancient Rome supplying 38 million gallons a day to Rome. A second example of Roman engineering is the Roman roads. These roads were an essential to the growth of Rome because they supplied the Roman Empire to move enemies in War. They were also created to hinder the enemies organizing to attack Rome. The road, in its greatness was 85,000 km containing 372 links. The Romans became adept at constructing the roads for political, military and commercial reasons.
The roads were long and important for the stability and expansion of the Roman Empire. The Roman Roads were built first with Roman Army builders who cleaned the ground of trees and rocks. They then build a trench where the road was going to be laid and then filled it with large rocks. They put the large stones, pebbles, cement and also sand and packed it down making a firm base. They added a layer of cement that was mixed with broken tiles, paving stones creating the surface of the road.
The stones were cut to fit tightly together. They placed kerbstones at the side of the road to hold the paving stones and create a channel were the water can run. The third example of Roman engineering, are Roman Bridges. The Romans were first to build these bridges and make them long lasting. The Roman bridges were built with stones with an Arch as its basic structure. The Romans used a new form of cement called concrete to build the bridge. The Bridges were built in 142 BC, and was named the Ponte Rotto.
It is the oldest Roman stone bridge built in Rome. The Roman Bridge characteristics are many they are 5 meters wide. Many have a slope and lean slightly. Roman bridges have rustic work. The Roman Bridges stonework has a changing stretcher as well as header courses which consist of a layer of square stones that are laid horizontally. The end faces outwards, in the next layer of square stones. The stones are connected with dovetail joint or with metal bars. Indentions found in the stones were created by the gripping tools used for the workers to hold onto. The Romans also used tools such as slaves to move building blocks of stones as well as levers and pulleys. They used chisels, concrete, plumb bob, a bronze square, bronze dividers, and bronze foot ruler to build the bridges and the powerful, and mighty city of Rome.
Roman Architecture- http://www.iol.ie/~coolmine/typ/romans/archie2.html
The Roman’s Page.
Mark Warner, 2007-Roman Roads-The Downs FM; The amazing podcast
Of the downs CE Primary School-Teaching Ideas; Subject: History. http://www.teachingideas.co.uk/history/romanrd.htm
Chris Trueman; The History of Ancient Rome- History learning site; http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/roman_engineering.htm
Chris Trueman; Roman Roads-The History of Ancient Rome-History learning site; http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/roman_roads.htm