Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Introduction This chapter indicates the ideas, also the history, relevant to the experiment to provide information and further elaborate different standpoints that were the foundation of the proposed study, also on the background study of the different methods and concepts used by other researchers that applies to the present study. In order to develop new method and procedures, careful review of literature and studies must be done for the development of the study.
The main purpose of this chapter is to identify and review theories on steam engine and to identify the deficiencies of those theories. Related Literature In general usage, the term ‘steam’ is the invisible vapor into which water is converted when it boils. On the contrary, it is the cloud of water droplets formed by the partial condensation of this vapor as it is cooled.  Steam is the technical term for ‘water vapor’, the gaseous phase of water. Since it is a vapor, it is logical that the density of steam is much less than that of water because the steam molecules are further apart from one another.
The space immediately above the water surface thus becomes filled with less dense steam molecules. Water vapor that includes water droplets is described as wet steam. As wet steam is heated further, the droplets evaporate, and at a high enough temperature (which depends on the pressure) all of the water evaporates and the system is in vapor-liquid equilibrium.  Steam has many uses. In agriculture, it is used for soil sterilization to avoid the use of harmful chemical agents and increase soil health. The steam is used to sterilize the soil in open fields and/or greenhouses.
Pests of plant cultures such as weeds, bacteria, fungi and viruses are killed through induced hot steam which causes their cell structure to physically degenerate. Biologically, the method is considered a partial disinfection. It also has a large contribution of making our lives better at home: for cooking vegetables, steam cleaning of fabric and carpets, and heating buildings. In each case, water is heated in a boiler, and the steam carries the energy to a target object. While about 90% of all electricity is generated using steam as the working fluid, nearly all by steam turbines. 3] In electric generation, steam is typically condensed at the end of its expansion cycle, and returned to the boiler for re-use. However in cogeneration, steam is piped into buildings through a district heating system to provide heat energy after its use in the electric generation cycle. The world’s biggest steam generation system is the New York City steam system which pumps steam into 100,000 buildings in Manhattan from seven cogeneration plants.  In other industrial applications steam is used for energy storage, which is introduced and extracted by heat transfer, usually through pipes.
Steam is a capacious reservoir for thermal energy because of water’s high heat of vaporization. Steam is also an effective lifting gas, providing approximately 60% as much lift as helium and twice as much as hot air. It is not flammable, unlike hydrogen, and is cheap and abundant, unlike helium. The required heat, however, leads to condensation problems and requires an insulated envelope. There are many examples in which steam is used. It is used for piping in utility lines. It is also used in jacketing and tracing of piping to maintain the uniform temperature in pipelines and vessels.
Steam is used in the process of wood bending, killing insects and increasing plasticity. An autoclave, which uses steam under pressure, is used in microbiology laboratories and similar environments for sterilization. Steam is used to accentuate drying especially in prefabricates. It is also used in cleaning of fibers, sometimes prior to painting. Other examples are already mentioned while tackling steam’s uses. Despite of all its uses, steam can also be dangerous. A steam explosion is formed when water comes to contact in contact with a very hot substance (e. . , lava, molten metal). These explosions have been responsible for many foundry accidents. A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are external combustion engines.  where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. Water turns to steam in a boiler and reaches a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done.
The reduced-pressure steam is then condensed, and it is pumped back into the boiler. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. This cycle generates about 90% of all electric power used throughout the world. (see fig. 1) Some practical steam engines discard the low-pressure steam instead of condensing it for reuse. Fig. 1 The Rankine cycle There are two fundamental components of a steam plant: the boiler or steam generator, and the “motor unit”, referred to itself as a “steam engine”.
Stationary steam engines in fixed buildings may have the two parts in separate buildings some distance apart. For portable or mobile use, such as steam locomotives, the two are mounted together. Other components are often present; pumps (such as an injector) to supply water to the boiler during operation, condensers to recirculate the water and recover the latent heat of vaporization, and super heaters to raise the temperature of the steam above its saturated vapor point, and various mechanisms to increase the draft for fireboxes.
When coal is used, a chain or screw stoking mechanism and its drive engine or motor may be included to move the fuel from a supply bin (bunker) to the firebox. The heat required for boiling the water and supplying the steam can be derived from various sources, most commonly from burning combustible materials with an appropriate supply of air in a closed space (called variously combustion chamber, firebox). In some cases the heat source is a nuclear reactor or geothermal energy.
While boilers are pressure vessels that contain water to be boiled and some kind of mechanism for transferring the heat to the water so as to boil it. A motor unit takes a supply of steam at high pressure and temperature and gives out a supply of steam at lower pressure and temperature, using as much of the difference in steam energy as possible to do mechanical work. A motor unit is often called ‘steam engine’ in its own right. They will also operate on compressed air or other gas. Steam Engine has its own advantages especially to our present world.
The strength of the steam engine for modern purposes is in its ability to convert heat from almost any source into mechanical work, unlike the internal combustion engine. Steam locomotives are especially advantageous at high elevations as they are not adversely affected by the lower atmospheric pressure. This was inadvertently discovered when steam locomotives operated at high altitudes in the mountains of South America were replaced by diesel-electric units of equivalent sea level power. These were quickly replaced by much more powerful locomotives capable of producing sufficient power at high altitude.
For road vehicles, steam propulsion has the advantage of having high torque from stationary, removing the need for a clutch and transmission, though start-up time and sufficiently compact packaging remain a problem. Steam Engine’s now applied to many useful things. Very low power engines are used to power models and toys, and specialty applications such as the steam clock. Winding engines, rolling mill engines, steam donkeys (See figure 2) , marine engines, and similar applications which need to frequently stop and reverse. Engines providing power, which rarely stop and do not need to reverse.
These include engines used in thermal power stations and those that were used in pumping stations, mills, factories and to power cable railways and cable tramways before the widespread use of electric power. Fig. 2 Steam donkey Steam engines have been used to power a wide array of transport appliances. Examples are steamboat, steamship, steam yacht, steam locomotive, fireless locomotive, traction engine, steam tractor, steam wagon, steam bus, steam tricycle, steam car, steam roller, steam shovel, steam tank (tracked), steam tank (wheeled), steam catapult, even steam rocket.
The Corliss steam engine, a four-valve counter flow engine with separate steam admission and exhaust valves, was called the most significant advance in the steam engine since James Watt. In addition to using 30% less steam it provided more uniform speed, making is well suited to manufacturing, especially cotton spinning.  On another hand, in Ancient Greece when girls were not at school and boys were not working, they played ball games with inflated pig’s bladders. Roman children played with wooden or clay dolls and hoops. Toys changed little through the centuries. In the 16th century children still layed with wooden dolls. Before the 20th century, children had few toys and those they did have were precious. Furthermore, children did not have much time to play. Only a minority went to school but most children were expected to help their parents doing simple jobs around the house or in the fields. Egyptian children played similar games to the ones children play today. They also played with toys like dolls, toy soldiers, wooden animals, ball, marbles, spinning tops and knucklebones (which were thrown like dice). In the 19th century, middle class girls played with wood or porcelain dolls.
They also had doll houses, model shops and skipping ropes. Boys played with toys like marbles and toy soldiers as well as toy trains. (Some toy trains had working engines fuelled by methylated spirits). They also played with toy boats. During World War II most toy factories were turned over to war production. However in the late 20th century with the arrival of an affluent society plastic and metal toys became much cheaper and much more common. Many new toys were invented in the 20th century. A model car or toy is a miniature representation of an automobile.
Other miniature motor vehicles such as trucks, buses, or even ATV’s, etc. , are often included in the general category of model cars. Because many were originally sold as playthings, there is no precise difference between a model car and a toy car, yet the collector hobby became popular in the 1960’s and precision detailed miniatures made specifically for adults are an increasing part of the market. Toys as a “big business” did not begin until after the 1830’s, when steamboats and steam trains improved the transportation and distribution of manufactured goods.
Early toymakers used wood, tin, or cast iron to fashion horses, soldiers, wagons, and other simple toys. Miniature models of automobiles first appeared as slush cast plaster or iron toys made in the early decades of the 1900’s. Tin and pressed steel cars, trucks, and military vehicles followed in the 1930’s and 1940’s. Casting vehicles in various alloys, usually zinc (called zamac or mazac), also started during these decades and came on strong particularly after World War II. Post war, the zinc alloy vehicles became ever more popular in Europe in particular.
While die-cast metal cars were either large scale collectors type or smaller consumer “Matchbox” type-toys are made of metal and plastic, the metal used commonly is Zamak (or Mazak), an alloy of zinc and aluminum, these were seen in America and they were often simple, while plastics also surged and became prominent. Tin and pressed steel came to Japan, rather late, during the 1950’s and 1960’s, and that country quickly moved into die-cast by the 1970’s. Today, China, and other countries of Southeast Asia are the main producers of die-cast metal European, American, and Japanese companies. 10] Many model cars were not intended either for toys or for collecting. As early as the 1930’s and perhaps earlier, the manufacturers of real automobiles would design and construct scale and full-sized models to plan new products or promote the company. Sometimes styling or concept models were made out of wood or clay. Models could also be precise replicas crafted out of the same materials as the real vehicle. As time went by, some companies even made their own models or toys attracting the next generation to their products.
Scale miniatures were actually made for children and for them to have an idea on how to make better miniatures or design, the researcher can make use of plastic, die-cast metal, resin, and even wood. What ever materials are used, the finished product would be a success if a great idea or design was made. By the mid-1960’s, plastic model kits had become more plentiful and varied with increased level of detail. Typically, the kits often had opening hoods, separate engines and detailed suspension parts. The mid-1960’s is generally considered the “golden age” of plastic model car kits.
In addition to building them stock, most annual kits offered “3-in-1” versions which allowed the builder to assemble the car in stock, custom, or racing form. Interest in model car kits began to wane in the mid-1970’s as a result of builders growing older and moving on to their pursuits. New model specific magazines sprang up, such as Scale Auto Enthusiast, (now simply Scale Auto) and Model Cars Magazine. These magazines spread the word, helped advertisers, and brought modelers together from all across the country. Today, many of the classic models from the golden age of modeling have been reissued.
Not only does this allow modelers to build the cars the always wanted (but couldn’t obtain or afford), but it tends to lower the prices of the originals. In some cases, models of cars from the 1950’s and 1960’s have been issued with all-new tooling, which allows for even more detailing made possible with modern kit design and manufacturing methods. Today, model car companies are still in business, fueled by a renewed interest in model car building and collecting. Modelers today can make advantage of modern technology, which includes photo etched details, dhesive chrome foil for chrome trim, wiring for engine, and billet-aluminum parts. Many builders today can take a basic kit and detail it so it resembles a real car, in miniature. The internet has also fueled a growing modeling community through websites, online forums and bulletin boards, and sites that host photographs, allowing the hobby to expand internationally. Related Studies When referring to technology today, many people automatically think that the referral is in regards to computers, the Internet and Information Technology.
Technology such as steam locomotion, the creation of the printing press and space travel, are all considered major forms of technology that have affected society and culture throughout history. All these technologies have huge impacts on society and culture. In considering the fact that shortly before the steam engine was invented, the favorite mode of travel was horse and buggy. The advantages brought by the steam engine immediately became apparent. Those advantages were not only available to individuals wishing for travel, but the transportation of goods to the marketplace had probably even more impact.
Steam engine technology became a very important cog in the societal wheel of progress, moving passengers and cargo quickly and efficiently throughout the world, especially in Europe. Towns near railway stations quickly grew as people and companies wished to be near the easy side. The effect then of steam engine technology was to bring great distances much closer together while at the same time making goods and services more available and less expensive. Though other forms of transportation now overshadow steam locomotion it still has much influence over citizens’ lives.
Sometimes the impact can be negative, especially as the railroad grew more aged and brittle. Steam has been used for projects like steam airships. According to Thomas J. Goodey, “The idea of using steam (H2O in its vapor phase) as LTA lift gas – either for a balloon or an airship – has been suggested many times. These suggestions all appear to have remained merely theoretical, although several were quite detailed. It appears that no full-scale trials, or even experiments, have ever been performed. Yet the idea of using steam as lift gas is attractive, although there are some obvious difficulties.  Obviously the non-rigid steam airship does not have the potential to displace the helium airship in every application. However the researcher thought that it will have its niche. Specifically, the researcher thought that a steam airship would be able to satisfy the demands that hot-air airships try to satisfy but fail. The project though did not succeed. The low cost and the convenience in ground handling of a Steam Airship will, in this restricted operational context, more than compensate for its deficiencies. The group of researchers then tried to find another external site where steam is being used to make something work.
And we found this project wherein it shows how steam engine is constructed. Quoted from the project, “From the Research and development perspective, I have done much research on the topic of Flash Steam Engines and have seen applications where flash boiler’s power live steam engines. But these devices are not flash steam engines. Since the steam does not actually flash in the engine’s combustion chamber (or cylinder). Instead the steam will flash in the boiler device and reaches the engine as common live steam. Hence there is no real innovation in these devices. And quite frankly a live steam engine leaves much to be desired.
In terms of efficiency and operating characteristics, many things may be improved in the way of valve gear. But in the end all you have is a live steam. ”  The researcher of that project also gave recommendations and gave emphasis to things that should be remembered. Direct Injection is the preferred method used to run these types of engines. The DI valve that’s used in the applications features a variable lift mechanism, this is necessary in order to throttle such engines. Initially very high pressure and or supercritical steam/water were injected into the engines. This did in fact work, but is not considered user friendly.
High pressures are still used for the injected water, such as 2000psi hydrostatic pressure, derived from a pump, this is needed to maintain high rpm engine speed, the injected water does not contain super-critical energies, but is heated somewhat, such as to 400°f.  Another project said that if wood will be used as the major component, it should be noted that even if a boiler is built, the engine probably wouldn’t work well. In the presence of steam the wood would swell and warp causing problems. A simple solution to this problem would be to replace the wood parts with aluminum ones. 
Over the years, steam locomotives have become a very popular image in representation of trains. Many toy trains based on steam locomotives are made, thereby making the image iconic with trains to children. Steam Engines are still around, and they are in wide use, but most take the form of the steam turbine engine. The steam turbine is responsible for generating about 86% of the electric power used on this planet. That probably is a qualifier for current use. Steam engines, either the piston or turbine type, are used on most big ships, and there are still a few steam locomotives about. 
As for toy cars, they continue to evolve in many ways, from battery powered, to ones that use renewable energy, such as solar, water. Synthesis In this chapter, it has been discussed on how steam engines work, including the many fundamental methods used. It discussed what steam is and how it became very useful to our society today. It defined steam engine. It is also stated in this chapter different advantage and disadvantages of steam engine, how it is being done and its different applications. It discussed the history of toys, how it emerged from wooden dolls to our present high-technology dolls, toy cars, etc.
Lastly, the chapter also summarizes all of the studies and findings of different researchers regarding steam and steam engines. Definition of Terms Aluminum. Aluminium or aluminum (US English) is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al, and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances. Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth’s crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth’s solid surface.
Aluminium metal is too reactive chemically to occur natively. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.  The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Atmospheric pressure. It is the force per unit area exerted against a surface by the weight of air above that surface in Earth’s atmosphere. Boiler. It is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exists the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications. Electricity. It is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge.
Fuel. Is any material that stores energy that can later be extracted to perform mechanical work in a controlled manner. Heat. In physics and thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one body, region, or thermodynamic system to another due to thermal contact or thermal radiation when the systems are at different temperatures. Helium. Helium is the chemical element with atomic number 2 and an atomic weight of 4. 002602, which is represented by the symbol He. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas that heads the noble gas group in the periodic table.
Its boiling and melting points are the lowest among the elements and it exists only as a gas except in extreme conditions. It is the second lightest element and is the second most abundant element in the observable universe Internal combustion engine. It is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and pressure gas produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, such as pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. Locomotive.
It is a railway vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. It was first used in the early 19th century to distinguish between mobile and stationary steam engines. Machine. It manages power to accomplish a task. In common usage, the meaning is that of a device having parts that perform or assist in performing any type of work. Methylated spirits. It is a mixture of Ethyl alcohol (95%) and methyl alcohol (5%). The methyl alcohol is poisonous and is added to prevent the methylated spirits being used as cheap drinking alcohol. Miniature. It is a model, copy, or similar representation on a very small scale.
Model car. Also referred to as ‘toy car’. It is a miniature representation of an automobile. Pipe. It is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow; liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders, masses of small solids. Piston. It is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas, compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod.
In a pump, the function is reversed and force is transferred from the crankshaft to the piston for the purpose of compressing or ejecting the fluid in the cylinder. In some engines, the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall. Pressure. It is an effect that occurs when a force is applied on a surface. Pressure is the amount of force acting on a unit area. Rankine Cycle. It is a cycle that converts heat into work wherein the heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water.
This cycle generates about 90% of all electric power used throughout the world, including virtually all solar thermal, biomass, coal and nuclear power plants. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine, a Scottish polymath. The Rankine cycle is the fundamental thermodynamic underpinning of the steam engine. Steam. It is the technical term for water vapor, the gaseous phase of water, which is formed when water boils. In common language it is often used to refer to the visible mist of water droplets formed as this water vapor condenses in the presence of cooler air. Steam boat.
It is also called, steamship or steamer. It is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels. Steam donkey. Steam donkey, or donkey engine is the common nickname for a steam-powered winch, or logging engine widely used in past logging operations, though not limited to logging. They were also found in the mining, maritime, and nearly any other industry that needed a powered winch. Steam engine. Is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are typically external combustion engines.
Steam Locomotive. It is a locomotive that produces its power through a steam engine. The locomotive is usually fueled by a coal, wood, or oil. This fuel is burned to produce steam in a boiler, which drives the steam engine. Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive itself or in wagons pulled behind. Steam turbine engine. It is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884. Toy train. It is a toy that represents a train.
A toy train can be as simple as a pull toy that does not even run on track, or it might be operated by clockwork or a battery. Turbine. It is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. Valve. It is a device that regulates, directs, or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Water. It is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam). Zamak.
Is a family of alloys with a base metal of zinc and alloying elements of aluminum, magnesium, and copper. The name zamak is an acronym of the German names for the metals of which the alloys are composed (zinc, aluminum, magnesium, and copper). Notes 1 Noah Webster, “The New Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language”, Lexicon Publications, Inc. , 2004, ISBN 0-7172-4692-2 2 Singh, R Paul, “Introduction to Food Engineering. ”, 2001 Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-646384-2. 3 Wiser, Wendell H. “Energy resources: occurrence, production, conversion, use. ”, 2000 Birkhauser. p. 190. ISBN 9780387987446. Carl Bevelhymer, “Steam”, Gotham Gazette, November 10, 2003 5 “American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fourth Edition ed. )”. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000. 6 Wiser, Wendell H. “Energy resources: occurrence, production, conversion, use. ”, 2000 Birkhauser. p. 190. ISBN 9780387987446. 7 December 12, 2011, 1st paragraph “http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Steam_donkey” 8 Thomson, Ross “Structures of Change in the Mechanical Age: Technological Invention in the United Sates 1790-1865”, 2009. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 34. ISBN 13:978-0-8018-9141-0. “http://www. ehow. com/how_6319749_make-diecast-model-car-kits. html” 10 “http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Model_car” 11 “http://www. flyingkettle. com/index. html” 12 December 15, 2011, 5th paragraph, “http://www. flashsteam. com/Steam_Engine_Project. htm” 13 December 18, 2011, 1st paragraph, Jeremy W. Holmes, American Corn Burner Co. Miami, FL. USA “http://www. flashsteam. com/steam_proj3. htm” 14 “http://www. instructables. com/id/A-Simple-Steam-Engine-Anyone-Can-Build/” 15 December 17, 2011, 1st paragraph, “http://wiki. answers. com/Q/Are_steam_engines_still_being_used#ixzz1aGnnptps”