Science Exam Review 1, 8th Grade

Science Exam Review 1, 8th Grade

Science
The process of learning more about the natural world is ____.
Repeatable
Experiments and investigations must be ____.
Hypothesis
A prediction about a problem that can be tested is a(n) ____.
keep an open mind
It is important to ____ when drawing conclusions from scientific information.
variable
The factor being measured in an experiment is the ____.
constant
A variable in an experiment that stays the same is a(n) ____.
politics
Science cannot answer questions about ____.
make a hypothesis
Models can do all of the following EXCEPT ____.
the tendancy to change
Limitations of models include ____.
the floor of the ocean, volcanoes, and space
Models can be used to describe which of the following environments?
theories
Scientific ____ must be supported by observations and results from many investigations and are not absolute.
life
The three branches of science are ____, Earth, and physical.
applied science
Another term for technology is ____.
recognize a problem
When designing an experiment, the first step is to ____.
draw conclusions
When conducting an experiment, the last step is to ____.
technology
A camera is an example of ____.
critical thinking
To evaluate the observations you make, you must use ____.
opinions
Scientists must be impartial and not base their conclusions on ____.
infer
To ____ means to draw a conclusion based on something you observe.
Advertising
____ materials are designed to get you to buy a product or service.
lowlands
Coastal plains are also referred to as ____.
map scale
To show distances, a ____ is used on maps.
snow covers
Using Landsat, scientists make accurate maps of ____.
longitude
To determine distance in degrees east and west, you would use lines of ____.
volcanic
The Hawaiian Islands are huge ____ mountains that sit on the ocean floor.
contour
Areas of equal elevation are connected by ____ lines on a map.
latitude and longitude
To determine an exact location on a map, you can use ____.
Colorado Plateau
An example of a raised, flat area is/are the ____.
conic
A road map is drawn using a ____ projection.
run through
Meridians ____ the north and south poles
latitude
Distances north and south of the equator are measured in degrees of ____.
they are close around hills and basins or depressions
All of the following are true about contour lines EXCEPT that ____.
1: 80,000
If 1 cm on a map represents 80,000 cm on Earth’s surface, the scale of the topographic map is expressed as ____.
10 km
If a store is 10 km from school and a map of the area has a scale of 1cm = 1 km, the distance between the store and the school would be ____ on the map.
55 m
If a topographic map has a contour interval of 10 m and the map has five contour lines with the lowest elevation shown as 15 m, the elevation of the highest line is ____.
show elevation of nearby contour lines
Index contour lines ____.
1.5 km
If a map has a scale of 1 cm = 50,000 cm, ____ would separate two cities that are 3 cm apart on the map.
50
If a plane flies along 20 latitude north between 20 E and 30 W, the plane would cover ____ degrees of longitude.
9 a.m.
New York time is three hours later than Los Angeles time. If it’s ____ in Los Angeles, it is noon in New York.
west
If you travel ____ across the International Date Line, you lose one day.
4:00 a.m. on Saturday
New York time is five hours earlier than time at the prime meridian. So, if it’s 11:00 P.M. on Friday in New York, it’s ____ at the prime meridian.
back one hour
If you travel one time zone to the west in the United States, you must set your watch ____.
1 hour
Each time zone is separated from the next by ____ of time on a clock.
11:00 p.m. on Friday
If it is 2:00 A.M. on Saturday in New York, the time and day in California would be ____.
activities of microorganisms
All of the following conditions help preserve organisms as fossils EXCEPT ____.
are part of one continuous deposit
If the same types of fossils are found in two separate rock layers, it’s likely that the two rock layers ____.
relative dating
Determining the order of events and the relative age of rocks by examining the position of rocks in a sequence is called ____.
unconformities
Gaps in rock layers are called ____.
a large deposit of rock formed over a large area
If the same sequence of rock layers is observed over a large area, ____.
older than
A limestone bed containing fossils that are 550 million years old is ____ a bed of sandstone containing fossils that are 400 million years old.
limestone is youngest
In a series of undisturbed rock layers where shale lies between sandstone below and limestone above, the ____.
absolute
____ dating uses the properties of atoms in rocks and other objects to find their ages.
fossils
Rock layers are correlated if they both contain the same ____.
younger than 300 million years
If a layer of sandstone lies on top of a layer of limestone in which a 300-million-year-old fossil is found, and there are no unconformities, the layer of sandstone must be ____.
absolute, relative
With ____ dating, a rock’s exact age can be determined, whereas with ____ dating, a rock’s age is compared to the ages of other rocks.
organisms
Geologic time is divided into units based upon types of ____.
Cenozoic Era
The Alps, Andes, and Himalaya formed in the ____.
eon
The longest subdivision in geologic time is a(n) ____.
physical changes in species
Changes in the environment result in ____.
angiosperms and birds
____ existed during the Mesozoic Era.
humans, reptiles, and marine mammals
Cenozoic Era life-forms include ____.
ozone, oxygen, and cyanobacteria
The development of ____ factored in the development of complex organisms.
birds evolved from dinosaurs
Today, some scientists think that ____.
400,000 years
Homo sapiens probably appeared ____ ago.
cyanobacteria
A life-form in the Precambrian time was ____.
fish, trilobites, and reptiles
Life-forms that existed during the Paleozoic Era included ____.
mass extinction of land and sea animals
The end of the Paleozoic Era was signaled by ____.
Mesozoic
A life-form that evolved during the ____ Era was the dinosaur.
3-lobed body
Which trilobite characteristic did not change through time?
changed slowly through time, lived over large areas of the world, and exhibit specific characteristics
Trilobites are index fossils because they ____.
changing environments and competition for survival
Changes in the trilobite exoskeleton can be attributed to ____.
the environment
Plate tectonics may affect organic evolution because movement of plates may cause a change in ____.
two large landmasses
Pangaea separated into ____.
hard seed coats
Angiosperms are the dominant land plant today because they developed ____.
precambrian rocks have been deeply buried, precambrian rocks have been changed by heat and pressure, and precambrian soft-bodied life-forms weren’t often preserved as fossils
Little is known about much of Earth’s early history because ____.
egg with a strong outer shell that kept it from drying out
Reptiles evolved from an ancestor of amphibians that developed a(n) ____.
they might have been warm-blooded
Dinosaurs are thought to have been protective of their young because ____.
humans
Animal life in the Paleozoic Era included all of the following EXCEPT ____.
marine life, birds, and mammals
Animal life in the Cenozoic Era includes ____.
eras
____ on the geologic time scale are marked by major, striking, and worldwide changes in the type of fossils present.
Cenozoic
Only epochs in the ____ Era(s) have been given specific names.
geologic time scale
The division of Earth’s history into smaller units makes up the ____.
evolve
If a species can adapt to a changing environment, or ____, its descendants will survive.
natural selection
____ is a process by which organisms with characteristics suited to the environment will survive and reproduce.
plate tectonics
The change in environments that may have occurred at the end of the Paleozoic Era may have been caused by ____.
Appalachian Mountains
The ____ formed during the Paleozoic Era
reptiles
Scientists believe dinosaurs evolved from ____ during the Mesozoic Era.
dryer
The hard scales of reptiles’ skin helped them to retain water, enabling them to adapt to the ____ climate during the Mesozoic Era.
Cenozoic
Humans first appeared during the ____ Era.
boils
At 100C, water ____.
the latent heat of vaporization
The amount of heat needed to change water from a liquid to a gas is called ____.
density
The amount of mass in ratio to volume is ____.
cohesion
The attraction between molecules is ____.
polarity
The ____ of a water molecule explains several of water’s special effects.
aquifers, streams, and soil
Surface water is found in ____.
vapor
Water evaporates from oceans and lakes and rises into Earth’s atmosphere as water ____.
base
A stream can erode no deeper than its ____ level.
Meandering
____ streams have channels with many curves
braided
Streams with bars, islands, and divided channels are called ____ streams.
basin
The entire land area drained by a stream is called the drainage ____.
divide
A ____ separates a drainage basin of one stream from the drainage basin of another.
continental
The area that separates the drainage basins of eastern North America from western North America is called the ____ divide.
delta
A ____ is formed by sediment deposited where a stream empties into a gulf or a bay.
alluvial fans
When a mountain stream flows onto a flat plain, a fan-shaped deposit called a(n) ____ forms.
turnover
Nutrients from deep in the lake are forced upward toward the surface during the process called ____.
vegitation
Wetlands are defined primarily by their ____.
nonpoint
When a specific source of pollution cannot be determined, it is said to have a ____ source.
the Rivers and Harbors Act
The first legislation passed to protect freshwater in the United States from pollution was ____.
Environmental Protection Agency
The ____, created in 1970, enforces water pollution limits.
pollutants
The key to clean water is to reduce the amount of ____.