Second Semester World History Final Study Guide

Second Semester World History Final Study Guide

militarism
the policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war.
triple alliance
the alliance of Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
ruler of Germany in 1978. forced Otto Bismark to resign
triple entente
the alliance between Britain, France, and Russia.
central powers
the name given to Germany and Austria-Hungary due to their position in Europe
allies
Great Britain, France, and Russia
western front
the deadlocked region in northern France
Schlieffen Plan
attacking an defeating France in the west and then rushing east to fight Russia
trench warfare
soldiers would attack each other in trenches
eastern front
battle field along the German and Russian border
unrestricted submarine warfare
where the German subs sunk any ship without warning in the waters around Britain
total war
countries devote all their resources to the war effort
rationing
people could only buy small amounts of those items that were needed for the war effort
propaganda
one-sided information designed to persuade
armistice
an agreement to stop fighting
Woodrow Wilson
representative of the US
Georges Clemenceau
representative of France
Fourteen points
a plan for achieving a just and lasting peace
self-determination
allowed people to decide for themselves under what government they wished to live
treaty of Versailles
between Germany and the Allied powers that ended WW1
league of nations
an international association whose goal would be to keep peace among nations
proletariat
the workers
Bolsheviks
the more radical of the revolutionaries
Lenin
the major leader of the Bolsheviks
Rasputin
a self-described “holy-man” who claimed to have magical healing powers
provisional government
a temporary government
communist party
the renamed Bolshevik party
Joseph Stalin
the elected leader of the Communist party after Lenin’s stroke
totalitarianism
a government that takes total, centralized, state control over every aspect of public and private life
great purge
a campaign of terror directed at eliminating anyone who threatened power
command economy
a system in which the government made all the economic decisions
five-year plans
Stalins outlined plans for the development of the Soviet Union’s economy
collective farms
government owned farms
Kuomintang
nationalist party
Sun Yixian
first great leader of the Kuomintang or nationalist party
may fourth movement
demonstrations that spread to other cities and exploded into a national movement
Mao Zedong
an assistant librarian at Beijing University
Jiang Jieshi
headed the Kuomintang
Long March
6,000-mile-long journey
Rowlatt acts
these laws allowed the government to jail protesters without trial for as long as two years
Amritsar Massacre
where Amritsar opened fire on Indians and killed 400 and wounded 1,200
Mohandas K. Gandhi
the emergent leader of the independence movement
civil disobedience
the deliberate and public refusal to obey an unjust law
salt march
where the revolutionaries would walk to the ocean to get water to evaporate into salt in revolt to the new tax on salt
Mustafa Kemal
successfully led Turkish nationalists in fighting back the Greeks an their British backers
Albert Einstein
offered startling new ides on space, time, energy, and matter
theory of relativity
the theorization that while the speed of light is constant, other things that seem constant, are not
Sigmund Freud
a psychologist that ideas rivaled Einsteins in brilliance
existentialism
there is no universal meaning of life
Friedrich Nietzsche
the influence of German existentialists
Surrealism
an art movement that sought to link the world of dreams with the real life
jazz
music developed by musicians, mostly African American, in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago.
Charles Lindbergh
captured world attention with a 33-hour solo flight from New York to Paris
coalition government
temporary alliance of several parties
Weimar republic
Germany’s new democratic government
Great Depression
the decline of America’s economy for a long time.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
the first president after the Great Depression
new deal
a program of government reform under Roosevelt
Nazism
a brand of fascism made by the Germans
Mein Kampf
Hitlers book that he wrote while in jail
lebensraum
living space
appeasement
giving into an aggressor for peace
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, and Japan
Francisco Franco
the general who rose up in revolt in Spain
isolationism
the belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided
Third Reich
German Empire
Munich Conference
a meeting proposed by Mussolini between Germany, France, Britain, and Italy.
Fascism
new, militant political movements that emphasis’s loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader
Benito Mussolini
boldly promised to rescue Italy by reviving its economy and rebuilding its armed forces.
Adolf Hitler
a little-known political leader whose early life had been marked by disappointment.
nonaggression pact
said that Russia wouldn’t attach Germany.
blitzkrieg
lighting war
Charles de Gaulle
French general, set up a government-in-exile n London.
Winston Churchill
the new British Prime Minister during WW2
Battle of Britain
showed the Allies that Hitlers attacks could be blocked
Erwin Rommel
commanded the Afrika Korps.
Atlantic Charter
upheld free trade among nations and the right of people to choose their own government
Isoroku Yamamoto
Japan’s greatest naval strategist
Pearl Harbor
the unexpected attack of the Japanese on America which hurled America into the war.
Battle of Midway
where the American’s surprised the Japanese. crucial turning point in the war
Douglas MacAurther
the commander of the Allied land forces in the Pacific
Battle of Guadalcanal
the continuous and savage struggle that lasted so long due to the fresh outpour of troops by both sides on a continual basis
Aryans
“master race”
holocaust
the systematic mass slaughter of the Jews and other groups judged inferior by the Nazis
Kristallnacht
the night of broken glass. where Jewish stores were vandalized and some destroyed
ghettos
segregated Jewish areas
final solution
Hitler’s plan for getting rid of the Jews
genocide
the systematic killing of an entire people
Dwight D. Eisenhower
led 100,000 troops in Morocco and Algeria.
Battle of Stalingrad
the German attack of Stalingrad
D-Day
the largest aquatic invasion in history
Battle of the Bulge
push of the Germans through American lines that was stopped by little supplies
kamikazes
Japanese suicide pilots
Nuremberg Trials
the trials against captured German officers for war crimes committed during WW2
demilitarization
disbanding the Japanese armed forces
democratization
the process of creating a government elected by the people
united nations
a group of 48 countries set up to protect each other
iron curtain
represents Europe’s division into mostly democratic Western Europe and communist eastern Europe
containment
policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and stopping the expansion of communism
Truman Doctrine
supported only countries that rejected communism
Marshall Plan
would provided food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild Western Europe
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Cold War
between United States and Soviet Union. Arms race basically
Warsaw Pact
Soviet Union, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania in counter action to NATO
brinkmanship
the willingness to go the brink or edge of war
Mao Zedong
leader of the communist party in China
Jiang Jieshi
leader of the nationalist party in China
communes
larger collective farms
red guards
high school and college students that came out of the classroom and formed militia units
cultural revolution
goal was to establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal
38th parallel
a line that crosses Korea at 38 degrees north latitude
Douglas MacArther
commander of the army of 15 nations including the US and Britain
Ho Chi Minh
turned to the Communists for help in his struggle
domino theory
the fall of one communism would lead to the fall of its neighbors
Ngo Dinh Diem
led the anti-communist government put in place by the US and France
Vietcong
communist guerrillas
vietnamization
allowed for US troops to gradually pull out, while the South Vietnamese increased their combat role
third world
developing nations, often newly independent
nonaligned nations
a third force of independent countries
Fidel Castro
young leader who took over Cuba and made it a communism
Anastasio Somoza
Nicaraguan dictatorship family
Daniel Ortega
leader of the Sandinistas
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini
leader of the Muslim religious opposition
Nikita Khrushchev
leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin died
Leonid Brezhnev
the replacement to Khrushchev after the Cuban Missile Crisis
John F. Kennedy
during his administration, the Cuban Missile Crisis made the superpowers’ use of nuclear weapons a real possibility
Lyndon Johnson
assumed presidency after Kennedy was assassinated.
detente
a policy of lessening Cold War tensions
Richard M. Nixion
implemented detente which replaced brinkmanship
SALT
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Ronald Reagan
a fiercely anti-Communist US president who took office in 1981
Congress party
India’s national political party
Muslim League
an organization founded in 1906 in India to protect Muslim interests
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
insisted that all Muslims resign from the Congress party. leader of the Muslim League
partition
term given to the division of India into separate Hindu and Muslim nations
Jawaharlal Nehru
the independent India’s first prim minister
Indira Gandhi
Nehru’s daughter that was chosen to be prime minister
Benazir Bhutto
Bhutto’s daughter. after Zia’s death, she was elected twice as prime minister
Negritude movement
a movement to celebrate African culture
Kwame Nkrumah
the leader of the largely nonviolent movement for African freedom
Jomo Kenyatta
Kenyan nationalist
Ahmed Ben Bella
leader of the FLN
Mobutu Sese Seko
an army officer who seized power in the Congo for 32 years in 1965
federal system
power is shared between state governments and a central authority.
martial law
temporary military rule
dissidents
government opponents
apartheid
complete separation of the races
Nelson Mandela
imprisoned by the government for being part of the ANC
politburo
the ruling committee of the Communist Party
Mikhail Gorbachev
one of the candidates to lead the politburo. praised for his youth, energy, and political skills
glasnost
openness
perestroika
economic restructuring
Boris Yeltsin
member of the parliament and former mayor of Moscow.
CIS
commonwealth of independent states
shock therapy
an abrupt shift to free-market economies
solidarity
Polish labor union that became the main force of opposition to the Communist rule in Poland
Lech Walesa
National hero for being the union leader of Solidarity
reunificatoin
the merging of the two Germanys
ethnic cleansing
this policy was intended to rid Bosnia of its Muslim population
Deng Xiaoping
the most powerful leader in China in 1980
Four Modernizations
called for progress in agriculture, industry, defense, and science and technology
Tianamen Square
a huge public space in the heart of Beijing
Hong Kong
a thriving business center and British colony on the southeastern coast of China