Abstract In this paper, it’s have stress on importance of user in participate on information security risk management and its influence in the context of regulatory compliances via a multi-method study at the organizational level. Along with associated outcomes, the types of activities and security controls in which user’s participation as part of Sarbanes – Oxley compliance also understand here. Besides that, research model also been develop in this paper on the finding of the quantitative study and extant user participation theories in the system development literature.
While the IS security literature often portrays users as the weak link in security, the current study suggests that users may be an important resource to IS security by providing needed business knowledge that contributes to more effective security measures. User participation is also a means to engage users in protecting sensitive information in their business processes. 1. 1 Introduction This article is briefing about the problems that involved with information security example external threats likes hackers, viruses and people.
There have two reason why user participate in IS security risk management very valuable. Firstly, user awareness of the risks to IS security is widely believed to be fundamental effective IS security (Aytes and Connolly 2004; Furnell 2008; Goodhue and Straub 1991; Hu et al 2006; Siponen 2000a,2000b; Straub and Welke 1998; Whitman 2004) and second is security control need to be aligned with business objectives to be effective (Alberts and Dorofee 2003; Halliday et al 1996; ITGI 2005; McAdams 2004; Suh and Han 2003).
Security risk management is a continuous process of identifying and prioritizing IS security risk and implementing and monitoring controls. User participation is expected to add value to SRM, which in turn contributes to effective controls that ultimately improve security. SRM have a combination with data that have been collected and analysis method that used on separate samples to examine user participation. There has two method in examines user participation such as qualitative methods and quantitative methods.
Qualitative methods provides a rich understanding of the activities, behaviours and assignments that define user participation in the context of SRM for regulatory and allowed a process model to be constructed by applying the three user participation. Quantitative methods test the theoretical model derived from the qualitative study and based on the researchers understanding (Lee 1991). Combining this two methods provides a rich context and testability to the study (Tsohou et al. 2008).
In this paper, Sarbanas – Oxley Act has be chosen for the study context as to mean locate an adequate sized sample of companies employing user participation in SRM. Sox has two reason why them encourages business participation in SRM. First, ICOFR focuses on business process that impact financial information on publicly reported statements and second technical controls geared toward protecting the network perimeter from external threats are insufficient to manage internal threats and vulnerabilities embedded within business processes.
An exploratory study was conducted to better understand the specific activities, behaviours and assignments that constitute user participation in SRM and to investigate their outcomes. To conduct the exploratory study, informants with SOX experience were first identified and selected. Nine semi-structured interview were conducted with eleven informants from five companies in three countries, two interviews included two informants. A contextual narrative of user participation lays a foundation for a subsequent examination of the effects of participation studied through the lens of three extant user participation theories.
This three theories are The Buy-In Theory, The System Quality Theory and The Emergent Interaction Theory. User participation in SRM was found to raise organizational awareness of security risks and controls within targeted business processes, and facilitated greater alignment of SRM with business objectives, values, and needs. As a result, development and performance of security controls improved. Thus, user participation was found to add value to an organization’s SRM. User participation’s effect was strongest in aligning SRM with the business context.
In turn, users became more attentive as business-alignment increased. This finding suggests that users are likely to be more attentive when IS security is something to which they can relate. That is, when SRM becomes part of business processes, and users are assigned hands-on SRM tasks, security becomes more visible and relevant to users. Consequently, user participation may be a mechanism for managing user perceptions on the importance of security. Accountability was found to contribute most to user participation in SRM.
One explanation for this finding is that the study context was regulatory compliance for a law that required annual external audits. This finding suggests that regulation may provide an opportunity for security managers to engage business users in security risks and controls when regulatory compliance has a business process orientation. Secondly, regardless of regulation, study findings suggest that efforts at accountability for SRM may be more effective if there are routine audits with documented results and follow-up for control deficiencies. 1. 3 Conclusion
Although the IS security literature has often cited users as the weak link in IS security due to user errors and negligence, the present study provides evidence that supports an opposing view. User participation raises organizational awareness of security risks and controls within business processes, which in turn contributes to more effective security control development and performance. Security managers can harness regulatory compliance as an opportunity to engage users, raise organizational awareness of security, and better align security measures with business objectives. . 4 References Alberts, C. , and Dorofee, A. 2003. Managing Information Security Risks: The Octave Approach, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison- Wesley. Aytes, K. , and Connolly, T. 2004. “Computer Security and Risky Computing Practices: A Rational Choice Perspective,” Journal of Organizational and End User Computing (16:3), pp. 22-40. Lee, A. S. 1991. “Integrating Positivist and Interpretive Approaches to Organizational Research,” Organization Science (2:4), pp. 342-365. Hu, Q. Hart, P. , and Cooke, D. 2006. “The Role of External Influences on Organizational Information Security Practices: An Institutional Perspective,” in Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press. Tsohou, A. , Kokolakis, S. , Karyda, M. , and Kiountouzis, E. 2008. “Process-Variance Models in Information Security Awareness Research,” Information Management & Computer Security (16:3), pp. 271-287.