SERVICE LEARNING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

SERVICE LEARNING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

Abstraction

This research will analyze the evidences for implementing SL at University of Prishtina, by analysing the pupils ‘ attitude towards SL. It will concentrate in happening the most appropriate methods of how to implement SL in ESL and motivate instructors and pupils to be portion of it. The survey will be investigated through pupil ‘s questionnaire, teacher ‘s questionnaire, and concentrate group where pupils will be take parting. These methods will be used in order to analyze the pupils ‘ experience and sentiments on service acquisition in ESL, and teacher ‘s readiness and willingness to integrate Service Learning in their ESL instruction environment.

The survey will reply the research inquiries and formalize the hypotheses. Analysis of consequences will be used in order to set up the evidences for implementing Service Learning into the bing course of study in ESL plans and giving the pupils an chance to use experience and cognition in existent life state of affairss.

Introduction

Service Learning isa new attack that merges the academic work with existent life state of affairss, this encourages the pupils to reflect on their ain experience in life and believe in a critical manner about it.Its chief constituents are reflection and experience. Service acquisition is built on squad work, it combines larning aims with service aims, Teachs duty to immature pupils and raises community demands awareness through instruction. The concluding end of Service Learning is run intoing class contents while prosecuting pupils in acquisition by making and reflecting upon their ain experience. The brooding action and the experience that is put frontward in this type of larning develops pupil ‘s intelligence and forms their manner of larning while taking to organize their single course of study.

Harmonizing to Dewey: “ Education should promote engagement within the community, develop accomplishments that will work out existent life jobs, and learn the pupils to go responsible citizens ” ( Dewey, 1938 ) . This thought is implemented in US instruction system.

In station communist states such as Kosovo community based undertakings were non portion of instruction. Education was led by an iron-fist methodological analysis that was implemented in national course of study, which glorified the communism as a perfect political orientation. There was no room for inventions or any sort of service other than Communist.

However, this epoch came to an terminal and gave room to new epoch and political orientations that will convey productive methods and attacks in instruction. As a consequence of the stray policy that former Communist states experienced today the demand for Service Learning in the Balkans is bigger than of all time and the demand for its execution into national course of study is critical. The industrialisation, globalisation challenges and the new world in Kosovo require an advanced instruction, a manner that will put the focal point in existent life, in the community and the existent jobs, a manner based on acquisition by making. There is an inaugural about implementing Service Learning in the Balkans. Since this correlates with to day of the month democracy, and this being the primary focal point of the Balkan states the involvement grows every twenty-four hours. To exemplify the attempt for implementing SL in ESL I will advert some enterprises: Service Learning Conference, held in Bijela, Montenegro in June, 2006 under the subject: “ Increasing Community Impact and Educational Outcomes in Higher Education ” . This was a plan that was developed by the South – Eastern Europe Junior Faculty, and was supported by the American Councils. This was an enterprise for the Balkans and it continues to develop and spread out as a plan in the part.

On schoolroom execution of SL it is valuable to advert the innovator of this method in FYROM, severally in the SEEU, Aida Koci. As a JFDP alumnus she modified her talks in order her pupils to understand the challenges that particular needs pupils face every twenty-four hours. This speaks loud that service Learning can be implemented in every class topic, in this peculiar one she used her “ Needs Analysis ” class to make and affect pupils in a meaningful seminar where they had the opportunity to personally hear the challenges of two handicapped pupils and the experts of that field. Ms Koci ‘s hope that the pupils will reflect on the experience and the cognition gained from this undertaking in their future employment as instructors marked this enterprise as a milepost in the huge see of SL chance.

1.1 Research Aims

The general purpose of this research is to research instructor ‘s willingness to implement SL into ESL plan. At the same clip, the research will analyze the pupils ‘ positions on SL as a undertaking oriented plan. The probe of this research will be done through a questionnaire and a focal point group.

1.2 The major aims of this survey are:

To place the possibilities of farther implementing SL at University of Prishtina.

To analyse the pupils ‘ attitude towards SL.

To urge the most appropriate methods of how to implement SL in the course of study and motivate instructors and pupils to be portion of it.

Literature Review

Service acquisition is dedicated to implement alterations within an educational system by perpetrating to it with serious motive that derives from agent ‘s involvement, emotions and spirit. These tools make Service larning a device that will take towards a alteration that will ensue with higher thought accomplishments in scholars, improved ability to reflect on experience, better apprehension of existent life jobs, battle in the community where scholar lives, and readying for life outside of the schoolroom. A young person geared with such accomplishments will without any uncertainties pave the route to a brighter problem-solving hereafter.

A peculiar topic that requires a particular involvement in my part and besides broader is the ESL plan and the debut of Service Learning in this plan. The common inquiries that ESL instructors ask are the undermentioned:

1. Have my pupils learned what they were taught? 2. Can they utilize what they were taught in existent life state of affairss? 3. Is at that place knowledge functioning them in category merely? 4. And eventually, can they be fluent in existent life state of affairss when utilizing English Language? Thankss to the work and theories of many research workers the first stairss are taken towards implementing positive alterations to current instruction and ESL. The pillar of this thought was installed by John Dewey, to whose work and accomplishments we must mention when talking about larning based on experience. In Experience and NatureDewey provinces that experiential acquisition has an impact on epistemology, ( quoted by Kolb 1984, p. 161 ) :

“ aˆ¦the ways in which we believe and expect have a enormous consequence on what we believe and expect aˆ¦ We discover that we believe many things non because the things are so but because we have become habituated ( to them ) through the weight of authorization, by imitation, prestigiousness, establishment, and unconscious consequence of linguistic communication ” .

These two impressions that Dewey emphasized: the connexion of the pupils with acquisition, and how pupils know what they know is in fact believed to ease 2nd linguistic communication acquisition at best because is self- goaded manner and non imposed by another party, authorization, or a instructor.

Besides experience, contemplation is another important constituent of the learning rhythm. Harmonizing to David Kolb:

“ The scholar is straight in touch with the worlds being studiedaˆ¦ ( He or she has a direct brush with the phenomenon being studied ) , instead simply believing about the brush or merely sing the possibility of making something with it ” .

This construct is non new, and it is a really of import 1 for ESL categories excessively. Language scholars need a context that they understand and which is meaningful excessively. Here is what Mary Ann Christison, in “ Applications of Brain-Based Research for Second Language Teaching and Learning ” ( 1999 ) , inferred about the meaningful context in Language Learning ( quoted by Minor 2001 ) :

“ Facts and accomplishments that are taught in isolation and non connected to something meaningful can non be remembered without considerable pattern and dry run… Second linguistic communication schoolroom activities that are meaningful create an ideal acquisition chance for 2nd linguistic communication pupils to larn more information in a shorter clip, with less attempt ” .

In an ESL category pupils ‘ cognitive accomplishments and acquisition enhances merely when they are exposed to context that relates to significance.

Harmonizing to Laura Latulippe ( 1999 ) pupils ‘ proficiency in linguistic communication is in direct correlativity with the sum of their exposure to meaningful context and they should be exposed to it wheresoever and whenever possible.

Another benefit for the pupils of ESL is the development of humane values ( Minor 2001 ) , and the true image about the society and its value. On this Howard Berry and Linda Chisholm ( 1999 ) , believe that:

“ Foremost among the intents ( of higher instruction ) is that of giving immature grownups the accomplishments and comprehensiveness of cognition to believe profoundly about the constructions of their society and to allow values which must regulate their personal and professional lives ( p.12 ) ” .

Service larning in ESL may travel out of their schoolroom and utilize what they have learned, reflect upon that experience and what they learned when they are back in category in order to heighten acquisition, and it promotes humanist values.

Harmonizing to Kendall: an effectual plan is the 1 that has the undermentioned elements:

Engages people in responsible and ambitious actions for the common good ;

Provides structured chances for people to reflect on their service experience ;

Articulates clear service and learning ends for everyone involved ;

Clarifies the duty of each individual and organisation involved ;

Includes preparation, supervising, monitoring, support, acknowledgment and rating to run into service and learning ends ;

Is committed to plan engagement by and with diverse population ( Kendall, 1990, p.40 ) .

Previous Studies and Research

A reappraisal of the old surveies that are conducted in the field of SL in linguistic communication acquisition will supply the evidences for important replies to the inquiries being investigated. SL is instead a immature field and as a consequence of this the pool of researches that are conducted in this filed is non every bit deep as is the topic ‘s demand. Previous surveies and researches are conducted in order to light and clear up the importance and the positive consequence of Service larning in ESL in order to set up the development of this plan. Many establishments since 2000 have implemented Service larning in their

Curricula. Sacred Heart University, to advert one, has successfully integrated SL in their ESL categories. Their ESL pupils go into the community on hebdomadal footing and they visit and serve to a local soup kitchen, an simple school, a tutoring bureau, a retirement community, a Habitat for Humanity building undertaking, etc. The services they offer are assorted, get downing from fixing and functioning nutrient, helping instructors, tutoring, etc. In category they reflect to legion feelings, ideas, experiences and observations they ‘ve had. They besides research and read about the issues they have observed in field ( homelessness, intervention of the aged, childhood instruction ) ( Minor, 2001 ) .

Another interesting service larning undertaking is Mullaney ‘s which grouped Latino pupils of ESL with Spanish pupils whose native linguistic communication was English. This gave both groups an chance to hold a colloquial spouse and enabled a bipartisan information exchange and experience. To heighten their lingual development they were integrated into the community college, this was done with the purpose to do them experience as portion of the community and besides to give them the chance to pattern English linguistic communication while discoursing with native talkers. The pupils did non hold this opportunity to interact with native talkers in mundane life. In this undertaking they performed a service that was identified demand into the community, developed their sense of caring for others, their civic duty, and it enhanced their linguistic communication larning experience ( Hellebrandt, 1999 ) .

Dawson ‘s ( 2006 ) service -learning undertaking engaged the Sitka Tribe in Alaska. The pupils ‘ service in this undertaking was to interview the seniors of the Sitka Tribe in order to document their verbal history into written. The pupils besides assisted them in interpreting from their Indigenous into English. This divine native American pupils to larn more about their cultural heritage and imposts and history while heightening their academic accomplishment in History.

A similar service acquisition undertaking is integrated in the course of study of the University of Prishtina, Department of English Language and Literature. Junior pupils group comprised of 12 pupils were engaged to finish 30 hours of interlingual rendition for a local intelligence bureau “ Kosova Live ” . They had to interpret the intelligence, edit, save the interlingual rendition, and header with deadlines. On completion of this undertaking the pupils had to convey a file of their interlingual renditions to their instructor, for the portfolio appraisal. The educational goalsin this undertaking were: Career readying ; Students will better their Albanian- English interlingual rendition skills.Standards mete the followers:

Students will understand and construe written linguistic communication on a assortment of subjects ; Students present information, constructs, and thoughts to an audience of readers on a assortment of reliable subjects ; Students demonstrate apprehension of the nature of linguistic communication through comparings of the linguistic communication studied and their ain ; Students use the linguistic communication both within and beyond the school scene. The spouse in this undertaking Kosova Live Agency benefited from this coaction from the translated intelligence into Albanian and the service was provided for free. The professor proofread the interlingual rendition work of the pupils and identified the grammatical or vocabulary constructs in which pupils need to better. Then the instructor created lessons to assist them learn/practice those constructs. Besides, the pupils received points in category for finishing the interlingual renditions accurately in the signifier of a undertaking or assignment. This was the appraisal of the pupil larning ends.

Research Questions

Q1: Why should we advance service-learning?

Q2: Why is it of import that service-learning be incorporated in the traditional course of study?

Q3: How can service-learning be incorporated in linguistic communication larning course of study?

Research Hypothesiss

H1. Service acquisition is a cutting border methodological analysis that helps non merely the community but pedagogues and scholars besides it can be adapted to any class that is taught in the school.

H2. Service larning helps pupils understand better the content of the class because they learn by making which fits in with the ends of the Bologna procedure.

H3. Service larning gives pupils an chance to utilize their cognition in a socially meaningful context which improves the relevancy and pertinence of their cognition.

Research Design and Methodology

Data Gathering Procedure

This present survey will do usage of implementing processs to accomplish the intent of the survey:

4.1 Participants

Participants in this research will be pupils of the English Language Department at SEEU in Tetovo, and Mechanical Engineering Faculty University of St. Cyril and Methodius in Skopje. The pupils will be chosen based on their experience and consequences, and besides based on their instructors ‘ mention.

Methodology

The research methodological analysis that will be used in this research is quantitative method that will be gathered through: pupils ‘ and instructors ‘ questionnaire and focal point group.

The questionnaires will be distributed to the pupils at the SEEU and Mechanical Engineering Faculty. In both establishments Service Learning has been introduced since 2006, and the choice of the pupils will be done based on their 5 twelvemonth engagement in this plan. Teacher ‘s questionnaire will be used in order to measure instructors ‘ engagement in SL plans and their motive for SL undertakings.

Focus group is a group activity for pupils ‘ development and the purpose of this method is to mensurate how they will run into the class content and the addition larning through SL undertakings.

Finally, figures, charts, and tabular arraies will be included and analyzed in the research paper in order to hold a clear image of the survey.

4.3 Procedure

A pupil ‘s questionnaire will be distributed in order to obtain informations related to pupil ‘s background and their perceptual experience of SL. Students will be given instructions and the research worker will explicate the intent of the questionnaire.

Afterwards, a instructor ‘s questionnaire will be distributed in order to derive general information in relation to teacher ‘s attitude towards SL and the manner it is implemented in ESL schoolroom. Again, the intent of the survey will be explained in item.

Finally, there will be a focal point group and the pupils will be given the chance to portion thoughts about SL undertakings that they will be assigned to, this will function as an appropriate tool of appraisal. The pupils will be exhaustively briefed firsthand about the plan, the undertaking that they will be assigned to and the expected results of it.

Analysis of Datas

Some instruments will be used in the probe portion of the research paper in order to roll up the information. It is expected the information analysis will ensue with the utility of SL plan execution as an advanced thought in instruction and its purpose to develop the pupils ‘ larning into something significant to them by offering custodies on instruction and acquisition by making exterior of the schoolroom. Quantitative method will be used in the research paper in order to exemplify the consequences obtained from both instructors and pupils.

Interpretation of Consequences

The research will expose the scholars ‘ perceptual experiences about SL undertakings and demo its importance in linguistic communication acquisition. Additionally, the survey will demo the instructors ‘ attitude towards SL plan and the manner they tend to implement it in the course of study. Another portion of the research paper will include the replies from pupils ‘ and instructors ‘ questionnaires and the focal point group consequences.

Master Thesis Content:

Table OF CONTENTSaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

ACKNOWLEDGMENTSaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

ABSTRACTaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … … … … …

Chapter I: INTRODUCTIONaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

Background of the Studyaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

Significance of the Studyaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

Purposes and Aims of the Studyaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … .

Description of Thesis Organizationaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ …

Conclusionaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ .

Chapter II: LITERATURE REVIEWaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … … … … … … … … … … … .

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aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦

Chapter III: PREVIOUSSTUDIES ON SERVICE LEARNINGaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

3.1 aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … … … .

3.2.aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦

3.3 aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦

Chapter IV: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1 Purpose of Studyaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

4.2 Research Questionsaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

4.3 Research Hypothesis… aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ .

4.4 Research Design and Methodologyaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ .

4.4.1 Participantsaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … … … … …

4.4.2 Instrumentsaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … … … ..

4.4.3 Proceduresaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … .

Chapter V: Analysis OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

5.1 Students ‘ Questionnaireaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

5.2 Teachers ‘ Questionnaireaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

5.3 Focus Groupaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … … … …

5.4 Comparison of Resultsaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ .

Chapter VI: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦

Chapter VII: Restriction OF STUDYaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … … … ..

REFERENCESaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..

APPENDICESaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … … … ..