the heart of the services product is the experience of the customers which takes places in real time . The concept of services capes was developed by booms and bitner to emphasize the impact of the environment in which a service process takes places .
They defined it as ‘the environment in which the services is assembled and in which seller and customer intersect , combined with tangible commodities that facilitate performance or communication of the service In the service encounter the customers is in the factory and is part of the process production and consumption of the service are simultaneous where the firm and the customer interact (Baker and Cameron 1996 ) It encompasses several factors related to the delivery of service which includes all the physical , behavioral , and emotional aspects that surround services delivery The research is purely based on the idea of ?
Servicescape? which has emerged as an important concept for understanding customers behaviour in service industry. Service providers should build environments that develop environments that appeal to consumer pleasure and arousal states while avoiding atmospheres that create submissiveness. The construct environments should be such that, it facilitates the operational ease and efficiency of the firm. Today the Business thinking has changed; it has come closer to the customer or to be more apt to the consumer.
It can be observed that the consumer’s decision making for purchasing a product or service is not limited to the tangibility but to the whole product including the environment of delivery. Similarly the place or physical environment where product or service is delivered is of great importance. As said by Philip Kotler “One of the most significant features of a total product is the place where it is bought or consumed. In some cases , the place, more specifically the atmosphere of the place is more influential than the product itself in the purchase decision.
In some cases the atmosphere is the primary product”. The above quote signifies the importance of servicescape in selling of a product or service. Booms and Bitner defined a servicescape as “the environment in which the service is assembled and in which the seller and customer interact, combined with tangible commodities that facilitate performance or communication of the service” It includes facilities exterior (landscape, exterior design, signage, parking, surrounding environment) and facilities interior (interior design ; decor, equipment, signage, layout, air quality, temperature and ambiance).
The aim of this research is to focus on how important is servicescape in terms of atmospherics in zara that impacts consumer’s perception and attitudes to buy this service. It is quite important for this industry to concentrate on physical attributes apart from food served consumers are quite sensitive about the ambience, lighting, decor, music These factors may drive the motivation and decision making aspects of consumer behavior , as well as the time spending and the experiences at the end . t constantly changes in to make the experience of visiting the museum more enjoyable and fruitful each and every time the physical environment doesn t just influence customers , it influences employees as weel . idealty the business enviroment should cater simultaneously to the needs of the employees as well as the customers customers and employees perceive the environment holistically as a composite of three dimensions . ambient conditions , spatial layout and functionaity , sign , symbols and artifacts. ach dimension may affect the overall perception independently ans or through its interaction with the other dimensions . ambiant conditions: they are notable when they are extrem hot cold ect.. , when the customers spend large amount of time in them , when they don t match one s expectations spatial layout and functionality : important self service setting , complexity of task , situation when time is short sign , symbols and artifacts re important in forming first impressions , communicating new service concepts , repositioning a service , hughtly competitive industries to differentiate from competitors . Elements of servicescape affect customers’ perceptions of the service experience Main Elements According to Bitner (1992) 1. Ambient Condition – condition surrounding employees and customers that can be sensed through a human’s five senses (i. e. eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin). thise carachteristique of the environement pertaining to our five enses . even not consciously noted they may still affect . they create a mood that is perceived and interpreted by the custonmers they are perceived both separately and holistically . 2. Spatial Layout and Functionality Spatial Layout – the seamless layout of furnishing which is used to achieve maximum productivity in the most efficient and effective manners 3. Signs, Symbols, Artefacts and Branding – the icons or signals that amplify the message from the buyer to the intended customers.
The music in the cinema was played at barely audible volumes , the music have a powerful effect on perception and behaviour . the music was mostly played in the place where they was the bar / restaurant and we could hear it better and then it was very light in all the other place . this kind of music low but still energetic have an effect on their pace and behavoiur as they will tend to adjust to the mmusic in this case this is made to be confortable lowering their stress level , making you want to stay and will increased their level of impulse purchase in the restaurant or the bar .
An ambiant smell is one that pervades an environment , the most present smell is the one of pop corn , this smell that is often associated to cinema so it make you want to consume and to buy some . neverless the scent is mostly present in the snack area . and by passing near to it the smell make the customer aware of an hunger and suggest a solution . this smell is typically present on cinema . Colors have a strong impact on people feeling . he cinemawolrd is mostly based on the colors blue a dark blue , instead of most of the others cinema that are using a lot of red wich give a feeling of warm and high energy that can exited and stimulate the company choose to use the blue wich is coolest , but represent relaxation , serenity and loyalty it help for relieving headach wich is a good things as a cinema can become crowded and with full of young people it can be annoying for some customers also Great color to give that impression Blue is calm, True and Honest.
It is a symbol of peace, tranquility and good will Dark Blue is Moving, soulful and compassionate. This blue has heart and emotion. . . neverless they are using a lot of other colors in the different area , in the arcade display the color is orange wich are warm color with energy Orange calls to mind feelings of excitement, enthusiasm, and warmth. also for the snack area the atmosfere is totally different the color whyte is the most present the ligh are more bright the flor is also whyte carrelage all of this element give a eeling of space , but white is used also to give a sense of sterility wich can be great as this is where food are served so it reassure people but with the goods that are well showed and visible to the customers it give colors to the place and can attract . the lounge area is a mix of blue and red mixing a warm color with a cool one could be a bit strange but this association is often used in diverse place tjhis association give a feeling of warmth and stimulate but in the same time relax and serenity , the parquet on the floor wich is brown add a feelin of confort .
The screen room are all black with low light wich give a great feeling of warmth * Orange is often used to draw attention http://fortunerep. hubpages. com/hub/Color-and-Emotion-Association Additional elements 1. Virtual Servicescape – where the employees or the customers are not in the same physical area, but they are interacting via an electronic media – the Internet. Read more: http://www. oxbridgewriters. com/essays/management/physical-evidence-and-servicescape. hp#ixzz2MmE4NyXX A brand of a product or service is a bond (positive or negative) between the buyer and seller Brand is also seen by customers as to perceive risk, value, and signal the quality of the product or service Branding and servicescape are inseparable Branding is something that let the product or service stayed in customers’ minds http://www. slideshare. net/ahmad1957/servicescapes-presentation . http://www. ukessays. com/essays/marketing/servicescape-in-uk-restaurant-industry-marketing-essay. php http://scholarworks. umass. edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi? rticle=1177&context=gradconf_hospitality A servicescape plays four important roles. Package Servicescapes ‘package’ the service offer and communicate an image to the customers of what they are going to get. Appropriate servicescaping is a sure shot way to create an image that the service provider is seeking to put up. It also helps moderate customer expectation and reinforces his experience and reminiscences. Servicescape is an outward appearance of organization and thus can be critical in forming initial impressions or setting up customer expectation.
Facilitator Another important job of servicescape is to act as an a facilitator in assisting both the customers and service employees to make most of the opportunity it should make the service consumption comfortable convenient for the customer. Socializer Design of servicescapes aids in socialization of both the customers and employees, conveying expected roles, behavior and relationship. Differentiator Clearly the design of the servicescape differentiates one provider from its competitors, and hints at eth segment the services are targeted at.
Companies adapt servicescape to reposition the services or identify new customer segments. Conclusion Although it is useful from a strategic point of view to think about the multiple roles of the servicescape and how they interact making actual decision about servicescape design requires an understanding of why the effects occur and how to manage them. The roles played by servicescape in a particular situation will aid in identifying opportunities and deciding just who needs to be consulted in making facility design decisions.
Ambient Condition – tries to give the best premium shopping experience to the customer store is designed aesthetic and professional with high ceiling and luminous ambiance to create a sense of openness and spaciousness . indeed the with color is predominent on the store it directly give you a feeling of consumers able to sense that the premises are young with all the color but in the same time even if the price proposed are low , it doesn t show up in the store as the place is spacious white it give an imoression of upscale etail shope •male security guards in front of main entrances – security is also one of the elements for high-class people who prefer to have a sense of security when entering premises Staff is wearing a red shirt with black pant and other blue shirt that help reinforce the image of the company Spatial Layout and Functionality Spatial layout act on the emotional customers responses .
The batiment is fully air conditioned on the summer and on the winter heater righ when the customers enter the stores wich reinforce the feeling of feeling safe and confortable main entrance made from clear tampered glass to provide spaciousness and a sense of welcome to any who want to enter , also there is a vitrine display outside that attract customers to enter by putting the commercial advertissement the first stage where …. is not really confortable to be in as there is huge colonne in the middle even if necessary its not aeteticke also the elevator are in the middle of the room separating it . he bulding an original architectural shape that are differents from other bulding in its area we directly consta that this is a cinema . Escalator are a good way insrtead of using stairs like the cinema in occonel street people can just let themslef lift and as there is 4 stages it have an influence on the psychological customers responses . Also the seat are actinmg on the psychological response from the cutomers even if there are a little small comparing for exemple with some seat in the usa wich can be almost the dobble . he batiment is well decorated with a lot of advertissement for the movie , also there in each stage a pancarte helping the custoners to find its way as the cinema is really big and have 4 stage . there is escalator that are placed in the center of each stage so people dont have to look everywhere to find them and they found themlseves in the center of the room being able to decide where to go next , there is also a lift and stairs . the cinema is well equiped for handicaped people as he provide a lift and for the stairs a ….. to help them have access to the screen room . n each screen room there is place in the middle of the front row for handicaped people there is also 2 seat at each side so if they come accompanied they can seat with their friend . the cinema also care for the mom that came with babies as they is a changing room out of thel adies restroon so they can have theyr own place . also on the lounge area the structure of the place is well managed providing two style of place like a restaurant and like a bar the mix of the place providing to each of its customers an ambiance but in the same area . he cinema also is provided with a ticket collection machine making the process to take its tikect more easily neverless they are placed on the oposite from the guichet and on the wall wich can be hard to find as you will not think to look there , but they put a big sign signaling it to the customers . 12 guichet are placed on the left side we can see them directly from the entrance , there is a queue defined by a line that help to stay organised . the number is great when there is a lot of people . n the second floor where the snack area is there is also guichet , the menu are well display with picture showing and putting in evidence the goods and price , there is also menu before so when you doing the cue you can already choose , there is there 8 guichet disponible and accroding to the average number of customers comming there is more or less staff present wich can be an error as for example with only two guichet open but a lot of customers people will have to wait and then miss the biggining of the movie wich can have a hudge negative impact on the consumer experience . he cinema is also furnished with some arcade place that are displayed in every stage permitting to have fun and wait the movie playing with your friend . the cinema also provide banch and little waiting room between the screen room . the restroom are in all the main stage 1 2 and three were there is most of the activities , neverless there are little and only two or 3 toilet are there for a big cinema like cineworld that can have a lot of cutomers that can be an inconvenient . here is also a garage for car , so people can come with there car and are in the cinema even if the cinema is weel placed in the center of dublin in a well known street car will alswys like to just have to come park and leave rapidely . the situation of the batiment is also real good has taxi are often there and can drive you right in front of the cinema . he screen room are weel equiped with a lot of seat , even if some of them especially from the side don t have a good view of the screen and be anoying to see the movie like this queuing up to obtain ticke can be long so poster of upcoming movies and entertainment news to ease perception of long wait . there is tv showing the movir that are oresented with the hour and availability . the restroom are clean and brightly lit a hugde mirror is intalled there is a distributor of woman prodcut but there is no hand owel only one hand when the cinema is in a high peak of people it must be overcrowded and maybe , odorent. It s well designed with no bad seat sufficient lighting to locate the seat , spacious , confortable chair with one drink holder on each seat and a suitabnle temperatures . An easy exit through a brigly lit and safe surrounding The distributor that are placed all over the batiment are good Imax facility sign symbol artifacts many things in the environement act as explicit or implicit signals to communicate the firm images , help customers to find their way and convey the rules of behaviour . or exemple there is a pancarte indicating at the entrance the differente stage and what you can find in eact of them . there is one in each stage that are place next to the elevator so if the customers go up or down he will just have to llok at it to know where to go . also there is no smoking sign , the tickel collector is writted in silver and big letter to attract the attention and coorect the fact that the machine can easly be unsee . the restroom are weel indicated as weel as the changing room . the lift area is not well display . he lighting in the parking and the bulding is well its not too bright inthe inside wich give a feeling of warmt and confort and as the ceiling are high it doesnt give a feeling small place . just in front of the bulding is a lampadaire witch give a great light just in front of the cinema so people can fell safe especially at night . there is maternity and handicaped parking close to the entrance wich demonstrates a sense of caring and understanding of customers needs . this also can act on the belief of the consumer or employees and create an approach feeling . nvironmental psychologist suggest that individuals react to place with two general and opposite behaviour approach wich include all positive behaviour that migh be directed at a particular place such as desire to stay , explore , work and affiliate and avoidance behaviour wich is the opposite . clearly a company will want to developpe a approach behavior toward their business and in the same time descouraging avoidance behavoir . and per consequent building loyalty with a consumer , and this behavior is influenced by its perception of the environement . he servicescape also influence the degree of sucess consumer experience inside the service organisaion and the realisation of its goal . bu creating positive internal response that will lead to an approach behaviors . the employee and custormers interaction have a major influence in the experience of the cosummer , ” all social interaction is affected by the fisical container in wich it occurs ” they suggest that the surounding will affect the interaction the progression of event . rcade the environement condition will have an impact on the nature of the social interaction , the physical environement influence hightly the behviour of the customers , it is in this point of view that they have created area for customers to have fun or o enjoy some time between friend and waiting for the movie to start as this can be anoying to always have to check befor at what time is the movie will begin if you are just walking and want to see a movie you will have to either find the timetable in internet or go to the cinemas to check it but then we will have to wait there so in order to make people have a great time by waiting they created facilities in the cinamas for example we can find a lot of arcade game in the store . lso a place to eat drink a coffee are present as well as retroom . as a message creating medium : using symbolic cue to communicate to the intended audience aboutn the distinctive nature and quality of the service experience as an attention creating medium to make the servicescape stand out from those of competing establishement and to attract customers from target segment as an effect creating medium using colors textures sound scents and soatiacl design to enhance the desired service exoerience and or to heighten an appetite for cetains goods service or experiences the servicescape cleacrly communicates and reinforces the cinama positioning . he fact that the employee are present at the end of the movie is also an important part of it , by doing this customers are able to see by themselves that the cinemas is left clean and regularly cleaned for its customers employee have an important effect to and represent the company as well so they have to do a good impression . use of seat instead of staying standing up wich help them and reduce their level of displeasure , also they are working close to each other wich give them a sensation of group and friendship so when their is no customers during a time instead of staying alone they can simply talk with their collegue and that help to spend the day . and then feel more relaxed and happy rather that being agitated and stressed . also for the cleaning they sometime do it by group of two reinforcing the team basis . t s alway more easy to do something when you are not alone act on the emotional and psychological responses from the employye as this will have a positive affect on the moods and feeling and its comfort. The company is one of the most important cinema present in dublin its well known and have a lot of good review neverless it still could be improved For exemple the sound qualitie can have a different perception according to people some may think its to loud other to low so in some screen room audio casque could be provided like on the plane . but they will have a high quality of sound in order to give a great experience to the customers as the sound is really important in a movie and to provide people stolling them they could be ratached to the seat with a long cord .
Also , even if cinemaworld provide some arcade place theyre are small and separated , they could construct a bigger one by using one of the waiting area between the screen room like the cinema gaumon t multiplex in france that have a vast arcade place to play with distributor of snack they could install some couch and make it a good place to wait for the movie. where they could also meet other people . Cineworld could also replace some of the seat and add a holder of pop corn because usually people came with one popconr and one drink so having to hold one can be annoying sometimes like for the cinema in miami . where the seat also have a place to put there feet and can slowdown there seat to be really confortable they also use a system where the arm of the seat can be elavated giving more confort and better feeling like home . On the parking lot , they could put color coded floors to help customers remember wich alley they are or numeroted them . ike on a aerport The ligh house cinema situated in dublin is well known to provide a book-club, an innovative collaboration with Chapters Bookstore (one of Dublins finest bookshops) where a different book and film adaption are picked each month for discussion. so they can associate movie and book and speak it s a good way to meet people . The cinema can have a lot of people present in the room so it will be good to place a personne that will be in charge to watch if people are too loudy and annoy other spectators and then provide a good experience . like in miami Also in some horror movie a proffesional could be placed and could help people if they are too shoked by some scene from the movie . A little cyberescape could be placed in the cinema where people