SOC 204 Exam 3 Questions

Who are most likely to work a full day outside the home for pay and perform a second shift of unpaid labor at home?
In 2006, the U.S. Census Bureau reported that less than half of American households contained a married couple. (True or False)
What cartoon caption best characterizes the early Internet?
“On the internet, no one knows you are a dog.”
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Sociologist William Whyte referred to the conformity expected of the __________ in 1950s America.
“organization man”
The traditional family rose to prominence in the 1950s as a consequence of World War II prosperity. (True or False)
One factor that might help girls perform better in school is that they tend to spend more time on homework and are less likely to have disciplinary problems. (True or False)
A __________ is a document authorizing a foreign-born person to enter a country, either permanently or temporarily.
The War on Drugs to reduce abuse, protect children, make neighborhoods safer, and the like, fell disproportionately on __________, rather than treating the broader spectrum of social ills and classes for which it was intended.
African Americans
Numerically unlimited LPR status is granted to which group or groups of people?
W: spouses and children of adult U.S. citizens
spouses, children, and parents of adult U.S. citizens
Which of the following is NOT a positive affirmation that a group would apply to one of its members?
making a gang sign in a photograph posted on Facebook
What has research determined is the difference in English fluency between children born in the United States and children brought to the country before the age of four?
W: Children born in the United States had no discernible difference in English fluency than those who immigrated at a young age when their parents were proficient English speakers.
Which of the following factors explains why U.S. immigration rules and regulations are so often changed and adjusted?
war, racism, prejudices, changing ideologies and tolerances, and fluctuating needs for labor
The 1919 constitutional amendment that outlawed the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages in the United States failed because __________.
W: organized crime undermined the new law
Moral regulation, indeed, the effort to legislate morality is being curbed by what phenomenon?
There is a general support for lifestyle freedom rather than organized resistance.
U.S. social policy stresses the collectivistic approach. (True or False)
In the United States how much funding for schools comes from the federal government?
less than 10 percent
Kristen is an unmarried low-income mother, whereas Janelle is a middle-class single mother by choice. What does the sociological research indicate regarding mothers from these different backgrounds?
Single mothers value motherhood and do not want to miss out on the experience just because suitable partners are lacking.
Sociologists commonly assess educational attainment using all the following measurements EXCEPT __________.
hours spent working at jobs
What type of activity is possible with Web 1.0 technologies?
searching and reading
In inflation adjusted dollars, between 1987 and 2012 the amount of tuition paid by the average student at a state school in Oregon.
More than doubled.
Most Americans consider having a baby as the most significant marker of adulthood. (True or False)
Which of the following life outcomes for Sylvia is more likely than the others because she failed to complete high school?
Sylvia is unmarried.
Who else suffers from mass incarceration?
the families of incarcerated individuals, especially African Americans
Girls are more likely to graduate from high school and attend college in the United States than boys, especially among students of color. (True or False)
Foreign-born citizens of the United States cannot become president or vice-president of the United States. (True or False)
The proponents of the family decline perspective identify all of the following factors as contributors to declines in adult commitment EXCEPT __________.
lower rates of premarital sex
In an effort to cope with marital tensions faced by an unequal second shift, Nancy and Evan Holt, the couple described in your text, __________. Hochschild stresses, however, that developing strategies such as this do not—and cannot—change the underlying conditions from which the tensions stem.
divided up the household chores between the two of them
Other names for receiving countries are __________.
destination or host countries
In the science fields, the proportion of women receiving bachelor’s degrees is higher in chemistry than in computer science. (True or False)
In a sociological context, SES is an abbreviation for __________.
socioeconomic status
__________ is the act of arriving and settling in a place.
In U.S. society, which group of people typically do NOT have the power to enforce formal sanctions?
the clergy
Which would most likely be a root for the discomfort described by Goffman (1963) in explaining the “norm of engagement”?
Weber’s Protestant work ethic
Single-parent families are most common among _______
African Americans
When it was learned that a community leader was having an extramarital affair, his constituents were outraged at the effects his actions had on his wife and children. They couldn’t throw him in jail, so they shunned him. In essence, they pretended that their leader didn’t exist. By ignoring him whenever they encountered him, what form of social control did the community exercise?
informal sanctions
Dana was a stay-at-home mother until her recent divorce. She went back into the paid workforce to provide for her child. She loves her job but is concerned that she is not at home to spend more time with her child. Should Dana be worried about this?
No, if a mother is happy with her job, she will provide better care for her children.
Another name for a legal permanent resident is __________.
legal immigrant
Which of the following statements about the United States is indicative of reality?
W: Crime rates are much higher in the United States, which now has a reputation overseas as a very violent place to visit.
There were no numerical limitations on immigration to the United States in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. (True or False)
How has marriage changed in recent decades?
Educated American women, in particular, are waiting longer to marry.
From the point of view of sociology, an Orthodox Jewish school for girls requiring long skirts is __________ compared to the dress code of girls in most public schools.
statistically deviant
What do sociologists mean when they refer to the hidden curriculum of schools?
unstated standards of behavior or teachers’ expectations
Robert and Sarah both work full-time jobs. They take turns cooking dinner and taking their children to their extracurricular activities. Their relationship can best be described as __________.
When is a “deviant” behavior deviant according to most sociologists?
When it violates societal rules.
In general, there are two paths to citizenship for foreign-born persons. The first is naturalization, and the second is deriving citizenship from one’s parent(s). (True or False)
The debtor’s prisons of the nineteenth century are good examples __________.
W: of interested punishment
The gender restructuring perspective on family change recognizes that __________ has(have) changed but __________ has(have) not.
W: the structure jobs and careers; the care-taking needs of families
The great irony in American history is how the “demon rum” of the nineteenth century became a mark of good taste for the social drinker. What reason would best explain the cause?
W: After Prohibition, alcohol consumption became socially acceptable.
The patterns of consumption changed both in the amounts and who drank alcoholic beverages.
Women have higher college completion rates in __________.
the United States
The disparity in educational achievement between whites and Asian Americans, who tend to fare better, on average, than African American, Latino/a, and Native American students __________.
has persisted over 30 years
Which social class, according to researcher Annette Lareau, is most likely to engage in “concerted cultivation”?
the middle class
Researcher Annette Lareau defines “concerted cultivation” as form of intensive parenting that includes all of the following EXCEPT __________.
deference to authority figures
Web 3.0 technologies are expected, among other things, to add intelligence to Internet search functionality by being able to understand the meanings of words in context, analyze data searchers have given it, learn about searchers’ preferences, and even predict searchers’ needs and behaviors. (True or False)
Children in high-conflict families whose parents divorce fare better than children raised in high-conflict families whose parents do not divorce. (True or False)
To prove how those in power have the ability to define deviance and set the formal sanctions for punishment and reward, the author of this chapter describes a “what-if” scenario: What if the British had beaten the American colonies during the Revolutionary War? How might the British victors have addressed the deviance of the Founding Fathers and their supporters?
by arresting and punishing the revolutionaries and rewarding the loyalists
However great their desire to move, some people will not migrate. What is the most plausible reason for this?
Emigration and immigration policies bar some individuals from crossing borders.
For several years, a manufacturing plant had been knowingly polluting a nearby river with chemical waste, resulting in serious illnesses and at least three deaths among area residents. When the source of the pollution was proven to be plant waste, charges and lawsuits were filed, but the company’s CEO was never held officially accountable. This situation is an example of __________.
white-collar crime
In an attempt to rid the land of undesirables, one country’s leaders sanctioned the expulsion of over 10,000 residents. Another country’s government officials utilized inhumane methods to extract information from detainees. Both of these cases are examples of state ________.
state deviance
The rise of the conjugal family unit during the period of rapid industrialization elevated emotional need for love and companionship as criteria for selecting marriage partners over __________.
parental approval
Which of the following is identified by the author of this chapter as being a primary cause in the jump in prison populations since the early 1970s?
the criminalization of drug use and the War on Drugs
According to Freud in Civilization and Its Discontents, which of the following best exemplifies what he meant by basic needs and the “futility of rebellion”?
Carl, who is seven, is told “get to bed now” when he lies awake at night texting his friend.
The perception that African Americans are lawbreakers began __________.
in the early twentieth century
If enough people used medical marijuana, it would normalize the “deviant” smoking of marijuana. (True or False)
Some residents in low-income neighborhoods create networks of caretaking and financial support with other residents outside kinship bonds, which sociologists call __________.
fictive kin
Researcher Sharon Hays (1996) found that standards of intense mothering exist among __________.
all social classes
Researchers almost universally believe that the true size of transfers through both formal and informal channels is larger than the recorded amount of such flows. (True or False)
What is meant by the “sleeper effect” in understanding the consequences of divorce?
Children of divorce may not feel its harmful consequences until years after the divorce.persistent depression.
Which groups did the National Origins Act of 1924 primarily attempt to exclude?
Italians, Jews and Slavs
Which of the following statements about the requirements for naturalization is false?
Naturalization requires a parent who is a U.S. citizen.
The deviance implicit in a drone strike is __________.
killing noncombatants such as innocent civilians
Who are the members of a country’s diaspora?
people who have settled outside their countries of originmore money
An unintended consequence of high-stakes testing is the response by schools to shed students with low scores by encouraging them to drop out. (True or False)
Who once wrote of immigrants, “. . . the settling of them in a body . . . may be much questioned; for, by so doing, they retain the language, habits, and principles (good or bad) which they bring with them.”
George Washington
State terrorism is a form of __________.
terrorism that violates the same laws and conventions that stateless and state-sponsored terrorists do
The victimization surveys used in social research are more reliable records in measuring world crime rates because __________.
police and government agencies in different countries record crimes differently
Poor people marry less often than other income groups because __________.
they have fewer resources and opportunities than other classes
Which of the following persons is most likely to send remittances to his or her native country?
Carlos, who left his family in Mexico to work in Texas as a migrant farmer for a year or two
In the labeling theory of deviance, an act that is considered to be deviant may have been considered to be normal at an earlier point in time. (True or False)
In France, the funding of schools, the curriculum, and the standards for student and teacher achievement are controlled by local government authorities at the provincial level. (True or False)
Countries with high numbers of emigrants are __________.
sending countries
The probability of being fluent in English is higher among children born in the United States than those who immigrated with their parents at a young age. (True or False)
Common competencies that sociologists have identified as necessary for successful functioning in the twentieth-first century include agility and adaptability. Of the following skills and capabilities, which is less likely to be associated with agility and adaptability than the others?
to listen effectively to discern meaning, knowledge, values, attitudes, and intentions
Anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski’s study of the Trobriand Islanders observed that __________.
uncles performed many of the duties that Western societies associate with fatherhood
If one were to conduct archival research on the oldest known written set of laws in human history, one would be examining __________.
Hammurabi’s code
In any state in the US what position is likely to be the highest paid state employee.
a university football coach.
Who referred to middle-class women’s confinement to domesticity as “the problem that has no name”?
Betty Freidan
Temporary migrants are more likely to send remittances than permanent residents. (True or False)
Marriage rates have declined most steeply among __________.
the less educated
The fact that people with comparable occupations and incomes participate more in the civic and political life of their communities when they have more education is consistent the __________ view of education.
The widespread use of morphine that followed the Civil War was for what reason?
to treat an array of medical problems
Of the following skills, which type may be harder to learn online than the others?
the skill to think critically
Which group is the most likely to perceive others as outsiders?
so-called “Minutemen” patrolling the Texas-Mexico border
Probation can best be described as __________.
punishment that permits an offender to live in the community rather than serve a prison sentence
Allocation of U.S. visas exhibit a strong family focus. (True or False)
Money and goods flowing between immigrants moves only in one direction, from receiving country to sending country. (True or False
Second shift is a term coined by journalist Lisa Belkin. (True or False)
Over the last 50 years, family income __________ in explaining the educational achievement gap.
has become more important than race
According to world migration data for 2010, __________ is the top receiving country.
the United States
Tracking is __________.
assigning students to different ability or curriculum groups
The Sociology Project considers all of the following perspectives on family change EXCEPT __________.
collectivist participation
What is the critical difference between what President Obama did in regard to torture conducted by the military and his predecessor?
President Obama banned torture in 2009.
What is the critical difference between jail and prison?
Jail is intended for short periods of incarceration, prisons for longer.
An important argument in favor of diverse family forms, the __________, is ignored by proponents of family decline.
freedom to choose in intimate matters
Which of the following is least likely to be considered an ethnic enclave?
Greenwich Village of New York
Teachers of high-track students spend more time on discipline than teachers of low-track students. (True or False)
A sociological approach to immigration as a process considers all of the following EXCEPT __________
the distance traveled
“Defining deviance downward” means that the powerful define ordinary behavior of the weak as deviant. (True or False)
Under U.S. immigration law, immigrant parents of children __________ their own children in order to obtain LPR status for those children.
may sponsor
All of the following are types of care work EXCEPT __________.
unpaid work canvassing for votes for the passage of mental health tax levies
Among the following, which plays a role in the sorting function of students into particular jobs?
Spouses of natural-born U.S. citizens constitute the largest class of immigrants legally admitted to the United States. (True or False)
Why is white-collar crime punished disproportionally compared to blue-collar crime?
White-collar crimes are still perceived as victimless, that is, not harming its victims in the personal way a blue-collar crime harms its victims.
Among sociologists, indication of assimilation is limited to acquisition of U.S. citizenship. (True or False)
Level of education is rarely a factor in decisions about whom we decide to marry. (True or False)
Of the following, which is NOT a socioeconomic reward of more education?
higher unemployment
What is meant by the “sleeper effect” in understanding the consequences of divorce?
Children of divorce may not feel its harmful consequences until years after the divorce.
Why does tracking persist, even though it clearly segregates students by social class and ethnicity?
Privileged parents feel that tracking gives their children educational benefits.
What does socialization theory suggest about education?
that education transmits knowledge, skills, and values that persist in adulthood and that employers believe increase productivity
Why was guerilla warfare and acts of terrorism rare in history?
States typically observed rules of engagement on a battlefield.premodern terrorist acts.
Emigration and immigration policies refer to sets of rules and regulations established by countries with regards to __________.
the movement of people across borders
What is the difference between stayers-at-heart and tied stayers?
Stayers-at-heart have low desire to migrate.
How does labeling a one as deviant reinforce the so-called “deviance”?
Once labeled a deviant, an individual’s actions are more closely scrutinized by others, improving the odds that the person will be caught in further acts of deviance.
According the author of this chapter, an act of terrorism can only be performed by entities that are not nation states.
False, any entity, whether a state, group, or individual can perform a terrorist act.
Visas issued in the family-sponsored category, require what kind of documentation, in addition to national identity cards, birth certificates, and military records?
an affidavit of support signed by a U.S.-based sponsor
Which of the following is more likely to be punished by the criminal justice system?
“blue-collar crime”
In 1950, almost __________ percent of U.S. households consisted of a married couple.
In the past two years, Joseph has made and broken intimate bonds with five partners in a pattern of behavior known as __________.
serial relationships
As one scholar opines, racial makeup of the rising prison population reflects a “new Jim Crow.” What is meant by this?
The large numbers of African Americans in the prison population suggest the “Colored Only” accommodations (e.g., cinemas, restaurants, schools) that were once common in the American South up until the mid-twentieth century.
Research on children ages 8 through 12 found that the probability of being fluent in English __________ among children whose parents had illegal experience than among children whose parents had never been unauthorized.
was higher
The Geneva Conventions are international agreements to ensure that prisoners of war are not mistreated. (True or False)
The difference between movers-at-heart and tied movers is based on wage rates in the sending country. (True or False)
The “eye for an eye” principle was first established in the Jewish Talmud. (True or False)
One of the liberalizing outcomes of the sexual revolution was the _________.
destigmatization of premarital sex
What did Durkheim mean by “the unstated terms of the social contract”?
what sociologists eventually called “norms”
“Natural growth” is a parental practice engaged in by working-class families. (True or False)
One “success” for the modern crusade against homosexuality is __________.
the military banning homosexual soldiers
Why might a yogi in southern India or a Buddhist monk in Nepal violate a Westerner’s so-called “norm of engagement”?
What looks like their doing nothing is doing something according to their callings and culture.
In 2008, __________ announced a 10-year goal of providing working parents with day care for children ages 1 to 5 to aid women who were worried about leaving their careers to start families.
Which of the following fears is common among countries that may, in response, try to prevent emigration?
fear of losing the best and the brightest of its citizens
What is the national average, based on 2007 census data, spent per pupil in the United States to educate elementary and secondary students?
slightly more than $9,500
Today, the United States leads the world in the amount of education its citizens receive and in educational achievement. (True or False)
Which social class is most likely to engage in “natural growth,” according to researcher Annette Lareau?
the working class
For as long as he can remember, Kerry has been known as a troublemaker. His parents and siblings often tell him he will not amount to anything, and some of his neighbors call him a punk. He has even been referred to as “hopeless” by his teachers. By the time Kerry turned 16, he had dropped out of school and had been arrested twice. Kerry’s trajectory toward a life of crime can best be explained by using __________.
labeling theory
Which of the following problems has been identified as one of the more serious negative outcomes of the increasing use of digital technology in the classroom?
the gap between student learning and achievement across cultural and economic lines will increase
Social closure practices, which __________, include licensing.
limit entry into some occupations
Which of the following children is more likely than the others to manifest the second-generation effect?
Adele, whose parents’ intelligence and talents were thwarted in their country of origin and whose poverty led them to drop out of school early
The heaviest users of morphine in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth century were __________.
middle-class white women
What are second-generation children said to have inherited from their parents?
at least a portion of their parents’ migrant energy
Of the following factors, which would be more likely than the others to influence immigrants to live near kin or conationals?
limited English fluency
Which of the following scenarios best illustrates the long-lasting effects of the hidden curriculum in schools?
Kelly and her twin brother Brent had very different experiences in school. While Brent’s teachers encouraged him to focus on math and science, Kelly was directed toward home economics. Brent received more support from his coaches than did his sister. Kelly’s interest in and talent for math and sports surpassed Brent’s, but she never pursued those areas and abandoned them altogether when she got to college. She had learned her place as a female.
Ever since it was discovered that their children’s principal is gay, a group of concerned parents has been on a mission to have the principal removed from office. There are no reported instances of any inappropriate behavior, and no one has filed a specific complaint against the principal. The actions of these parents, who are uncomfortable with having a gay administrator in their children’s school, is often called a __________.
moral crusade
Approximately 1.5 million children are home-schooled in the United States today. (True or False)
Based on your knowledge of the push and pull factors of migration, which of the following persons is more likely than the others to move to another country?
Juan, who often dreams of living in a country with more opportunities and wonders if his uncle’s family would let him stay with them if he went to the United States
Which of the following statements best describes the role that money plays in a smooth immigration process?
The receiving country often has financial requirements that can be challenging for moderate- or low-income families to meet.
Of the following family forms, which is considered the most traditional?
breadwinner-homemaker families
Which of the following is NOT commonly understood to be an institution of social control?
the workplace
Unstated standards of behavior or teachers’ expectations comprise all the following EXCEPT __________.
intellectual skills and content
What key factor played into Cesare Beccaria’s formula for making people obey the law?
Christine Whelan’s research (2008) found that the least important trait that men seek in prospective wives is good health. (True or False)
How many persons per year are admitted to the United States with LPR status?
about 1 million
Educational systems around the world differ in three important ways: __________.
access, control and funding, and private versus public education
We all have an interest in having our private property protected, but for holders of great wealth the stakes are much higher. Their interest in crimes against property are, therefore, said to be disinterested. (True or False)
In 1960, by the age of 30, __________ percent of men had completed all of life’s major transitions, including finishing school and getting married.
A CIA black site is __________.
foreign prisons rented by the U.S. government for interrogating prisoners accused of terrorism
Lawbreakers who engage in theft are the intended recipients of interested punishment. (True or False)
One police officer decides to pull over drivers going 10 miles over the speed limit. To make his quota, another police officer decides to pull over drivers going 7 mph over the limit. Who is being fairer?
Fairness is not the issue when both officers interpret the law arbitrarily.
How did U.S. students rank in comparison with other students of the world on the International Student Assessment tests in 2009?
better than average in reading, better than average in science, and worse than average in math
Among the following, who is least likely to move out of an ethnic enclave?
Emilio Mendosa , who is 77 years old and plans to stay in the United States for the rest of his life
The author of this chapter proposes that __________ would have had a much different outcome, had millions not lost the right to vote in that election decades earlier.
the presidential election of 2000
The U.S. Census Bureau would consider all the following sets of people as families EXCEPT __________.
college-age roommates
Besides learning skills and knowledge, schools serve three other major purposes. What are they?
economic, future preparation, and socialization functions
The digital divide refers to the social, economic, and cultural gap between those with effective access to information technology and those without such access. (True or Fasle)
Mass incarceration is another word for concentration camps. (True or Fasle)
The United States __________ the world in the amount of education its citizens receive.
no longer leads
32. After Mexico, China was the top sending country in 2010. (True or False)
A man with multiple marital partners is engaging in polygamy. (True or False)
What sociologists find central to deviance is the pathological nature of the deviant. (True or False)
At present, over 4.5 million persons waiting for numerically limited visas are approved, even though only approximately 366,000 visas are available each year, totaling over _____________ of visas that are already claimed.
12 years’
Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, what new measure has the government imposed on foreign-born persons in the United States or who wish to travel or study here?
The United States has made it more difficult for people from countries with large Muslim populations to enter the country.
For upper-class white males, social origin is __________ to occupation and income.
strongly related
George W. Bush’s Council of Economic Advisers concluded that 40 percent of scientists with PhDs working in the United States were born abroad. (True or False)
The queue is much longer for immigrants seeking a family-based category of visa than for immigrants in employment-based categories. (True or False)
Families are not types but rather a set of dynamic processes. (True or False)
Migration is a(n) __________, not a(n) __________.
process; single event
A group of teachers and administrators are meeting to discuss effective alternatives, or modifications, to tracking. Their goal is to provide an equitable learning and achievement environment for all students. Which of the following proposals has the greatest chance of fulfilling their goal?
offering students clearly explained specialized assistance for their differing abilities, while involving parents in the process of phasing out most of the existing specialized groups
A shared language is NOT a marker of group identity. (True or False)
Who, among the following, is likely to be considered a golden child, in the context of U.S. immigration law?
Stella, a child born to foreign-born parents while they were living is Queens
Among the following, who is exhibiting a soft skill?
Aaron, who is teaching others how to fill out a new timesheet at work
Anthropologists see families as __________.
kinship systems
George W. Bush’s Council of Economic Advisers concluded that, on average, U.S. citizens do not benefit from immigration. (True or False)
Typically, migrants assume that the lower the cost of migration is, the greater the required improvement in the wage in the receiving country. (True or False)
At one time in U.S. history, it was common for adult males to drink the equivalent of two bottles of 80-proof hard liquor each week. (True or False)
Knowing how to dress, act, and present oneself at work, and being able to work well with other people are examples of __________.
“soft skills”
Which of the following best reflects the positive impact that immigration has had on the United States?
an increase in natives’ financial well-being and productivity
The proponents of the family values perspective view the acceptance of same-sex marriage as the devaluation of heterosexual marriage. (True or False)
Jeff wants to start his own business and he’s eager to make it successful. He remembers his sociology professor talking about socialization theory, human capital, and allocation theory. Armed with this knowledge, what should be Jeff’s strategy in building up his business?
Hire mostly college graduates. They’ll have the needed skills and productivity levels.
Which of the following statements about the first immigration era in U.S. history (1789-1874) is true?
During the first immigration era in U.S. history, noncitizens could vote.
__________ refers to the practice of marrying individuals whose educational levels are similar to one’s own.
Educational homogamy
Which group or cause became the primary driver of the Temperance Movement according to the author of this chapter?
foreign immigrants who were believed to drink in excess
There is __________ systematic research showing students learn better from digital systems than from teachers.
Current U.S. law recognizes __________ different classes of foreign-born persons living in the United States.
Sweden’s “use it or lose it” paid parental leave policy encourages greater participation of fathers in caring for newborn children by __________.
disallowing fathers to transfer their paid leave days to their female partners
Oscar recently lost his job and is having difficulty obtaining a new one. His wife, Lillian, on the other hand, recently finished her nursing degree after staying at home with the couple’s twin daughters and has had numerous job offers. Oscar and Lillian’s scenario best aligns with the __________ of family change.
economic restructuring perspective
Smokers with more education are more likely to quit smoking than smokers with less education. (True or False)
Andrew “naked guy” Martinez eventually inspired clothes optional zones on the Berkeley campus. (True or False)
Why is a green card so coveted by foreign-born persons?
It is the paper evidence of LPR status.
According to world migration data for 2010, __________ is the top sending country.
When it comes to migration, what pertinent assumption about people’s motivations do sociologists make?
that everyone who migrates wants a better life
Of the following statements about the learning experience of high-track students, which is false?
High-track students spend less time away from the classroom on field trips.
In contrast to “concerted cultivation,” researcher Annette Lareau defines “natural growth” as a form of parenting that includes all of the following EXCEPT __________.
acquisition of language skills
“Man-cession” refers to a(n) __________.
economic shift resulting in more men than women losing their jobs
In the science fields, women earn larger percentages of bachelor’s degrees in which two disciplines?
biology and chemistry
Most Europeans can begin families without regard to considerations of healthcare and educational access. (True or False)
The educational experiences of American children, regardless of social class differences, __________.
are likely to be quite different
What do some fear will happen if immigrants fail to assimilate?
movers will threaten the social fabric
When a couple gets married and vows to remain faithful, they are expressing a(n) __________.
willingness to behave according to what people expect of a faithful marriage
Highly selective colleges and universities appear to be __________ total online instruction than less selective universities.
relying less on
Based on data from the New Immigrant Survey (2003) of the basic characteristics of new legal immigrants over 18 years of age, which of the following statements is true?
more than one-half of new legal immigrants is female
In the list below, find a modern example of the Robin Hood paradigm that shows how society can “agree” with social deviancy.
all of the above
Edwin Sutherland (1949) coined the term __________ to describe a form of crime that was once not even considered a crime that put Americans at risk.
white-collar crime
In 2010, Mexico received more migrant remittances than any other country. (True or False)
An elite group of wealthy property owners is meeting to discuss common concerns. At the top of its list is the recent increase in identity theft and fraud. The group wants to toughen its town’s laws and penalties against such criminal behavior, in an effort to protect citizens and deter offenders. This group is considering __________.
interested punishment
Proponents of the economic restructuring perspective on family change consider all of the following to be consequences of a new economic order EXCEPT __________.
financial stability among middle-class families
Sweden’s policy of parental leave allows parents to take up to 480 days off work after a child is born or adopted. (True or False)
Where is tracking a particularly widespread practice?
in large, diverse school systems and in schools serving primarily lower-class students
Among the following factors, which is generally NOT considered a factor that influences decisions to migrate?
higher wage rates in the sending country
In response to the lack of support for women in the public sphere, women in Italy have __________.
resisted marriage and motherhood
Which of the following statements about parenthood does research confirm is false?
Parents spend less time with their children than they did decades ago.
A norm can best be defined as a(n) __________.
basic rule of society
Maria and Manno both work full time. Maria gets off work at 4:00, picks up her kids from her sister’s house, and returns home to start the laundry. She makes dinner for her family and checks her children’s homework. Maria’s scenario is an example of the housework and care work that sociologists call __________.
the second shift
Under U.S. immigration law, a legal immigrant __________ to be eligible to sponsor a married daughter or son for immigration to the United States.
must obtain citizenship status
Earl is married and has two children. His spouse and his children comprise his __________.
family of procreation
What is the deviant behavior of those people complicit in the 2008 U.S. financial crisis?
deceptive subprime loans made to people who could not pay off their mortgages
The rise in “moral crusades” has resulted in a rise in arrests. (True or False)
Social control requires both __________ and __________.
rewards; punishments
Sociologist Arlie Hochschild attributes marital tensions that stem from second-shift inequality to women who __________.
feel unappreciated and shortchanged
Ninety percent of all Americans eventually marry. (True or False)
Today’s proponents of retribution for argue that the punishment should factor on statistical evidence that suggests harsher sentencing will reduce future crimes. (True or False)
Interested punishment can best be described as any measure to protect the interest made on the money owed to high-income individuals. (True or False)
After the end of World War II, how did the government choose to regulate the flow of workers into the labor market and avoid high unemployment among former soldiers?
by issuing the GI Bill
How long may foreign-born persons with F-1 student visas stay in the United States?
until their course of study is completed
Societies punish offenders of criminal law for four primary reasons: (1) to exact retribution for the victims of criminal acts; (2) to deter offenders, and others, from committing crimes in the future; (3) to incapacitate or otherwise prevent offenders from committing; and (4) to __________.
rehabilitate offenders
What is the most common reason that parents choose to home-school their children?
to provide moral and religious instruction
How many classes of nonimmigrant visas does the United States authorize?
Taylor and Ally are attending a home game to cheer on their favorite baseball team. Taylor, like the vast majority of fans in attendance, is wearing the home team’s jersey. Ally is wearing a random T-shirt, that isn’t even the team’s color. Ally’s behavior is __________.
statistically deviant
Sociologists offer two competing explanations as to why people with more education reap larger socioeconomic rewards. What are they?
socialization theory and allocation theory
What does allocation theory suggest about education?
that education moves people along different routes that influence how much they earn
A social group simply requires social interaction and a mutual feeling that everyone thinks alike for the most part. (True or False)
The growing use of digital technologies outside of school will ___________ in education and society.
likely magnify existing inequalities
Women are far more likely than men to assume household duties in addition to working full-time jobs, an inequality that Arlie Hochschild has dubbed __________.
the second shift
According to current ideology among social scientists, which of the following reasons best explains why the United States is experiencing mass incarceration and has a significantly higher incarceration rate than any other country?
an increase in moral crusades against drugs and drug users and tougher political stances against crime and criminals
U.S. felons lose the right to vote in all 50 U.S. states. (True or False)
Guards stationed at the Berlin Wall had orders to __________.
shoot to kill anyone attempting to leave East Germany
What percentage of U.S. college students attends public nonprofit colleges and universities?
75 percent
Johanna’s parents and her two sisters comprise her __________.
family of orientation
5. The economic restructuring perspective on family change asserts that __________.
economic forces have eroded the breadwinner-homemaker family
43. Which of the following is the least likely to be both a symbolic boundary and physical boundary?
a railroad track
Education in the United States is a single, uniform system that is available to every child in the same way. (True or False)
When a group of girls determine that others can join their group only if they are gay, they are _________.
establishing a negative affirmation
If the desire to migrate is strongest among the healthiest individuals in a sending country, sociologists say that __________.
selection on health is positive
Foreign-born persons living in the United States who become citizens have undergone what process?
During the polarizing trend in gender roles that proceeded from industrialization, the process in which women became responsible for emotional and caretaking duties to the exclusion of men has been termed __________.
the feminization of love
__________ is the practice of marriage of one individual to two or more other individuals.
The average full professors at OSU receives an annual salary of less than $75,000 per year. (True or False)
The “opt-out revolution” refers to __________.
women who leave the workplace to care for their children
Prosperous and white children are __________ as poor or minority children to attend private schools.
two times as likely
The transition of opiate use from an acceptable, if often abused pain reliever to that of a pleasure-seeking drug also saw a change _________.
in the demographics of the user to that of working-class—and very often black—males
What percentage of Americans eventually chooses to marry?
Based on 2007 census data, __________ spent the most and __________ spent the least per pupil to educate elementary and secondary students
New York; Utah
Which of the following recent immigrants is more likely to have a better chance of assimilating fully into his or her new country’s society?
Anna, who struggles with her new language, is enjoying participating in the local customs, and is happy to have a good job and a nice apartment near her new friends
In 2002, 90 percent of Americans agreed that __________ is quite important or extremely important as a marker that defines adulthood.
completing formal schooling
The pay gap between high school and college graduates has been narrowing since the late 1970s. (True or False)
Among foreign-born persons living in the United States, which of the following may NOT be authorized to work?
unauthorized migrants
__________ is the act of leaving a place.
8. Why were the reprehensible acts (humiliation, cultural disrespect, torture, etc.) at the Abu Ghraib prison not a clear case of institutional deviance?
The U.S. military blamed the sadistic tendencies of individual soldiers, not the chain of command.
In 2010, how many people lived outside of the country where they were born?
about 216 million
Socialization theory sees education as channeling people into positions or institutions that offer different opportunities for continuing to think, learn, and earn.
The __________ is the term popularly used to describe the social, economic, and cultural gap between those with effective access to information technology and those without such access.
digital divide
One of the liberalizing outcomes of the sexual revolution was the __________.
destigmatization of premarital sex
Educational systems around the world differ in three important ways:
access, control and funding, and private versus public education
Of the following, which is the least plausible reason why children would be left behind in a sending country when their parents migrate?
Children who have not seen the hardships of illegality are not equipped for new lives in a foreign country.
The research on divorce indicates that _________.
some children benefit from divorce
Liz and Rachel were inseparable childhood friends but drifted apart after high school. Liz took a couple of community college classes, and Rachel earned a bachelor’s degree. Considering only the extent of their postsecondary educational attainment, which of the following future outcomes seems most plausible for Liz and Rachel?
Liz suffers from more illnesses throughout her life than does Rachel.
Christine Whelan’s research (2008) found that the most important trait that men seek in prospective wives is good looks. (True or False)
Important push factors that drive people to leave their home countries include economic hardship or political strife in the receiving country. (True or False)
Which statement best characterizes the second immigration era in U.S. history (1875-1920)?
The second immigration era in U.S. history can be best characterized as a period when there were no numerical limitations on immigration, only a growing set of exclusions.
What kinds of factors should be taken into account when planning the future of U.S. immigration?
ease of understanding and of implementing immigration regulations
Differences in achievement test scores can be explained, in part, by the differences in the courses that students take, especially in which three subjects?
math, science, and foreign language
Mr. Pearson has the largest class of second graders he has ever had and is struggling to meet the wide variety of needs represented by a diverse group of students. How might he make the best use of technology in his classroom?
distribute digital pens to each student so that he can precisely identify every step of each student’s work
Which of the following parts of the world has egalitarian parental supports, providing paid parental leaves, universal day care, and free education regardless of who you are?
The extended time it now takes to complete the transition from adolescence to adulthood is called __________ by some sociologists and __________ by others.
delayed adulthood; the age of independence
What criminal activity ultimately brought Enron executives to justice?
false profit reporting
Since Linda’s mother has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, she has had to take a leave from her job to care for her. Linda’s days consist of cooking and cleaning for her mother, giving her mother her medication, and driving her to doctor’s appointments. What kind of work is Linda now engaged in?
care work
Recognizing that a person has personal space is recognizing a social norm. (True or False)
Deviance and control always constitute a paired relationship that consists of the __________ and __________.
individual; group
The decision to emigrate and the consequences of immigrating are the result of __________.
individual motivations and personalities and social structures
Of the following indicators, which is generally considered a poor sign of assimilation?
whether immigrants are spatially concentrated
In 2006, for the first time in U.S. history, the Census Bureau __________.
reported that less than half of U.S. households contained a married couple
Our earliest encounter with what is perceived to be normality is, essentially, that of __________.
parents and the like
Evidence suggests that one of the following statements about the relationship of education to health and life expectancy is false. Which is it?
More highly educated people who smoke are less likely to quit.
Who is more likely to be home-schooled?
white school-age children
Which family form is the numerical majority in the present-day United States?
There is no numerical majority.
The rise of industrialization in the nineteenth century fostered the rise of __________.
conjugal families
When it comes to drug-related offenses, compared to whites, blacks are __________ more likely to serve a prison sentence.
three times
In inflation adjusted dollars, between 1987 and 2012 the amount of tuition paid by the average student at a state school in the US.
More than doubled.
A norm is a social construct that exists when it is not just understood, but in a bill of rights or a similar document. (True or False)
Theo went to a prestigious private high school and, afterward, attended a well-respected university, where he earned a degree in finance. After working at a reputable firm for a few years, Theo branched out on his own. As a financial planner in private practice, Theo was sure he knew exactly what each of his new clients needed but had trouble making them understand his precise instructions. Every client eventually left him, saying that he was brilliant with figures but not so bright with people. Which of the following concepts would Theo’s clients likely emphasize when describing their dealings with him?
his lack of “soft skills”
Simply put, to be a “deviant” entails __________.
Simply put, to be a “deviant” entails __________.
Countries that have high numbers of emigrants are said to be sending countries. (True or False)
A negative affirmation is synonymous with excluded behaviors. (True or False)
The nuclear family consists of the people linked to us by birth—our parents, siblings, and extended kin. (True or False)
What are advances in web technologies dubbed Web 3.0 expected to do?
make finding nearby restaurants possible
In the case of the “naked guy,” Andrew Martinez, who or what ultimately decided that he could no longer walk about the Berkeley campus without clothes?
public opinion (i.e., his fellow students)
Felix’s family recently moved from a small town to a big city, where he is now “the new kid” at his high school. Eager to figure out where and how to fit in, Felix observed the school’s informal cliques. He quickly learned that each group had its own way of defining themselves as well as labeling other groups outside its own territory. Felix was identifying the __________ of these groups.
symbolic boundaries
What percentage of PhDs in science working in the United States were born abroad?
40 percent
In 2012 Oregon’s state contribution of $3,911 per student was higher than the national average. (True or False)
On the SAT reasoning test, why is the male sample of test-takers NOT readily comparable to the female sample?
Fewer males than females take the SAT reasoning test.
Highly selective colleges and universities appear to be relying more on total online instruction than less selective universities. (True or False)
Which of the following statements about refugee or asylum status is true?
A referral for refugee status can be sought only from outside the United States.
Why was the Bracero Program started?
to stem labor shortages, especially in agriculture and railroad maintenance, in the years after World War II
A church door is a symbolic border, but the border between Canada and the United States is purely physical. (True or False)
Which of the following is an example of statistical deviance?
A man decides to sing loudly while he is shopping for groceries.
Establishing coed bathrooms will always violate a social norm. (True or False)
The rise of industrialization fostered the rise of a new family unit, the “conjugal family.” (True or False)

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