Soc ch 15

Soc ch 15

currently about how many people are added to the world population each year
83 million
by 2012 the world is home to about how many people
7 billion
the study of human population
demography
the incidence of childbearing in a nations population
fertility
if a country has 400 million people and in a given year has 4 million births, what is the crude birth rate
10
the maximum possible childbearing for women
fecundity
the number of live births in a given year for every 1000 people in a population
crude birth rate
one region of the world has both the highest birth rate and the highest infant mortality rate, which is it
Africa
in global perspective the crude birth rate of high income nations such as the us is
below average
among which category of us population is fertility low
Asian americans
which global region has countries with very low infant mortality
Europe
Migration has little or no effect on population size
false
the region of the country most often left behind in the us is
the heartland or Great Plains, from North Dakota down to Texas
the us is a high income country, therefore we would expect population increase to result from
both immigration and natural increase
what is the relationship between average income level and rate of population increase
the lower the average income, the greater the population increase
the number of males for every 100 females in the population
sex ratio
why are sex ratios usually below 100
because women typically outlive men
if a nation has a sex ratio of 108, like India, it is very likely the parents there
value sons more than daughters
an age sex pyramid for a low income nation would see which pattern
a wide base, indicating a high birth rate
throughout most of human history, families had many children because
children were a source of needed labor, birth control was not reliable, high death rates meant many children did not reach adulthood
when in history did global population begin to spike upward
1750
when did the worlds population reach 1 billion
1800
how much did the worlds population increase in the 20th century
it quadrupled
currently about how much of the global population increase is taking place in low income nations
98%
Thomas Malthus claimed that
population increase would eventually bring chaos to the world
Malthus argued that
population would increase in geometric progression, food and other resources would increase in arithmetic progression, people would reproduce to a point beyond what the planet could support
the basic idea behind demographic transition theory is
population patterns reflect a society’s level of technological development
in the preindustrial stage of technological developmemt, population
increases very slowly, with a high birth rate offset by a high death rate
describe societies at the preindustrial level of technological development
birth rates are low and death rates are steady
in the us the birth rate is currently
at about the replacement level
the concept zero population growth refers to the level of reproduction that
maintains population at a steady level
which nation would you expect to be most concerned about deckining population
a high income country such as Japan
in most poor nations of the world today, what is the average number if children born to a woman
three
in low income countries increasing opportunities available to women are likely to
stimulate the economy and raise economic output, lower the birth rate, result in more education for women
about how long ago in history did the first cities emerge
10,000 years ago
the first city was
Jericho
in medieval cities of Europe what was found at the city’s center
the cathedral
with the industrial revolution how did the physical design of cities change
a new focus on business, winding streets gave way to broad straight boulevards, urban populations became much larger
in what year was half the us population living in urban places for the first time
1920
what effect did the industrial revolution have on us cities
buildings became much taller, cities became much larger and had more people, cities stood at the center of an expanding urban region
about when did urban centralization – the industrial metropolis – reach its peak in the US
1950
urban decentralization has led to
an expansion of suburbs, the development of vast urban regions, the growth of edge cities
if you were to compare Sunbelt cities such as Houston, to Snowbelt cities such as Detroit, what differences would you find
Sunbelt cities generally have larger populations, and are larger in physical size
a vast urban region containing many cities and suburbs
megalopolis
Ferdinand Tonnies refers to a type of social organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual self interest as
Gesellschaft
Durkheim said while traditional rural societies were built on blank, modern urban societies are held together by blank
likeness, difference
you would find that almost every us city was founded
on a waterway
a third urban revolution is now taking place in
low income nations
the study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment
ecology
long term harm to the environment cause by short sighted focus on material affluence
environmental deficit
the optimistic approach to environmental issues that claims science can promote progress and solve environmental problems
the logic of growth
which statement expresses the logic of growth
technology and human ingenuity will continue to improve our lives
which statement expresses the limits to growth thesis
we are rapidly consuming earths finite resources
as a rich nation that values consumption and convenience the us can be described as
a disposable society
evidence of the shortage of fresh water now found around the world
China and the Middle East has declining and critical.levels of water, Mexico city pumps so much water from the ground that the it continues to sink about 2 inches per year
which of the following accounts for most water use in the world today
agriculture
mounting evidence suggests that the average temperature of the planet is
rising
why is the gradual loss of the worlds rainforests an important environmental concern
they are vital to maintaining the earths biodiversity and climate
the enviroental racism thesis falls within which theoretical approach
social conflict approach