This chapter covers about the literature reappraisal on the Social Networking Sites ( SNS ) use towards academic public presentation. The resources used in this chapter such as books and articles are from e-book available in the Internet and Perpustakaan Tun Abdul Razak ( PTAR ) aggregations. The aggregations used are primary and secondary beginnings which were obtained from the interviews, printed and on-line version of books and articles. The articles used are available in PTAR library databases such as Science Direct, Emerald Management Extra, H.W. Wilson, ProQuest and others. The diary rubrics that were referred to are Computers in Human Behavior, Computers & A ; Education, Computers and Composition and many more. The keywords used during the seeking procedure such as Social Networking Sites ( SNS ) , Facebook, Computer and Internet usage, SNS and pupil public presentation. This chapter will cover five subdivisions which are computing machine and Internet usage, societal networking usage, SNS and academic public presentation, factors of utilizing SNS and besides utility of SNS towards pupil public presentation.
2.1 Academic public presentation
In educational establishments, pupils normally being analyses and measure based on their public presentation in their academic. It refers to how pupils deal with their surveies and how they cope with or carry through different undertakings given to them by their instructors. Besides that, academic public presentation besides can be analysed in term of the ability of the pupils to analyze and retrieve facts and the ability to pass on their cognition verbally or in written signifier.
Azizi Hj. Yahaya ( 2004 ) stated that there are four factors that influence pupils ‘ academic public presentation which are functions of instructors or schools, equals, parents and the pupils themselves. He stated that the functions of pupils covered the facets of the nature of the acquisition procedure, the ends of the acquisition procedure, building of cognition, strategic thought and eventually on believing about thought. He so explained that the successful pupil should be an active, purposive, self-acting, and presume personal duty for lending to their ain acquisition. It can be concluded that the academic public presentation was reflects by the factors that influence the results of successful pupils during their learning procedure. However, the pupils themselves should find their ends and take their egos so that they can accomplish successful consequences in their academic public presentation.
Kirschner and Karpinski ( 2010 ) revealed that it is hard to mensurate the academic public presentation particularly in term of specifying the academic public presentation itself. There are many ways to mensurate the academic public presentation either utilizing the GPA or the class such as A, B, C, D, and F ) . Other than that, the research worker should associate the academic public presentation with the sum of clip spent analyzing such as day-to-day, hebdomadal or monthly. Based on Karpinski ( 2009 ) , academic public presentation is conceptualized otherwise between schools, provinces and states. Therefore, he stated that there is no accurate definition on the manner to mensurate academic public presentation.
2.2 Computer and Internet usage
In the Information Age, Information Technology ( IT ) and Internet accomplishments are going progressively of import, and those without these accomplishments are at a disadvantage economically and educationally. Schumacher and Morahan-Martin ( 2001 ) in their research found that the pupils had more exposure to computing machines than to the Internet. The survey found that males were more experient and reported higher accomplishment degrees with the Internet than females, with the exclusion of electronic mail. The pupils used electronic mail in order to hold expeditiously exchange digital information with schoolmates. Almost one tierce of the first-grade pupils do non hold their ain e-mail reference at place yet. The research besides identified that more than half of the first-grade pupils report that they use their computing machines at least one time a hebdomad to look for information on the Internet while one tierce of them used electronic mail or confab from place about every twenty-four hours. The findings besides shows that a one-fourth of the pupils used the computing machine for this intent every hebdomad and more than half use the computing machine every twenty-four hours for games or music.
A research done by Tsai and Tsai ( 2010 ) found that there is no important gender difference in pupils ‘ entire Internet Self-Efficacy Scale ( ISES ) scores. However, a important difference was found in the communicative Internet Self-Efficacy ( ISE ) scores between genders while farther subscale. The female pupils had significantly higher tonss than did the male pupils in the communicating subscale. It can be concluded that the misss held significantly more assurance than the male childs sing Internet communicating.
The survey besides shows that Internet usage experience both genders had a average degree of Internet utilizing experience in norm. Therefore, there is no important gender difference found in pupils ‘ Internet utilizing experience. However, a important gender difference was found in pupils ‘ hebdomadal clip spent where it identified that boys exhausted important more clip on utilizing the Internet than did the misss every hebdomad.
The survey besides found that there was a different intent of utilizing Internet among the genders where most of the misss used the Internet for seeking, mailing, music hearing, prep and speaking while the male childs largely accessed the Internet for game playing, seeking and music hearing. This consequence suggested that male childs and misss might hold different involvements or motives in using the Internet.
McCarthy ( 2000 ) stated in his article that in the early 2000s, schools at all degrees in many states began to fix all pupils ‘ for Internet literacy and to advance Internet-based acquisition for life-long acquisition. The consequence from Tsai and Lin ‘s ( 2004 ) research done in Taiwan showed that the misss had significantly higher Internet self-efficacy than the male childs while high school male pupils still had better Internet attitudes in some facets.
Harmonizing to Hille ( 2009 ) , the article mentioned that adolescent pupils may immersed in online gambling, chew the fating or other on-line amusement, and even go addicted if there is no effectual direction and supervising from their parents and instructors. The pupils may besides expose to pornographic and violent contents deluging the Internet.
Wainer et Al. ( 2008 ) found that from seven societal economic categories, it shows that there is a lessening in test public presentation among the younger and the poorer pupils and their computing machine usage is higher than other. Other than that, it besides identified that there is a important lessening in the classs of those who use computing machines more often when compared with those who ne’er use computing machines for assignments. While the poorest socioeconomic category shows that there is a 15 % decrease in trial tonss.
The research done by Yang and Tung ( 2008 ) showed that 236 topics from a sum of 1708 were identified as nuts utilizing the eight-item Internet dependence utilizing Internet dependence Diagnostic Questionnaire ( DQ ) developed by Young ( 1996b ) to separate nuts from non-addicts. The findings showed that there are important different degrees of influence of the Internet between the Internet nuts and non-addicts in five facets of life other than peer dealingss. The Internet nuts believed that the Internet negatively influenced their school acquisition, day-to-day modus operandis, wellness, and parental dealingss every bit good as instructor dealingss while the Internet positively influenced all six facets of the lives of non-addicts. In old surveies, high school pupils displayed debatable effects of Internet dependance, for case, jumping repasts, losing slumber and survey clip, increasing fiscal costs for online activity, and rearranging day-to-day modus operandis or even neglecting surveies to pass more clip online ( Brenner, 1996 ; Egger & A ; Rauterberg, 1996 ; Young, 1996b ) as cited in Yang and Tung ( 2008 ) .
Based on Young ‘s survey ( 1998 ) cited in Yang and Tung ( 2008 ) , it was found that Internet dependants bit by bit reduced the clip spent with household and friends while increasing clip in forepart of their computing machines. This phenomenon may use for some Chinese Internet users, but the information in this survey demonstrated a negative influence on parents but no break of equal relationships for either nuts or non-addict. The findings of this survey confirmed those of Kandell ( 1998 ) , Lin and Tsai ( 2002 ) and Chou and Hsiao ( 2000 ) as quoted in Yang and Tung ( 2008 ) , that both the nut and non-addict groups saw the Internet as positively act uponing their relationships with friends and classmates. Statistical consequences pointed that Internet addicts spent about 21.2 hours per hebdomad on the Internet, while non-addicts spent around 12.1 hours per hebdomad.
This survey assumes that most college pupils, populating off from parental monitoring and with fewer categories than high school pupils, have extended freedom to research hazardous activities that might take to Internet dependence. This survey finds a degree of reported Internet use among high school Internet nuts that is comparable to that for addicted college pupils.
Ucak ‘s ( 2007 ) survey revealed that most of the pupils of the Department of Information Management in Hacettepe University, Ankara uses the Internet every twenty-four hours. Based on the consequences, the bulk entree the Internet from their section ‘s computing machines followed by accessing from their place. However, the rate of entree from Internet coffeehouse and the library is low. The consequences show that a huge intents of utilizing the Internet such as for their classs, prep assignments followed by utilizing the Internet for personal involvement and for electronic mails. Some of them used the Internet to listen for music, games, and amusement option while chat comes in the last topographic point.
The experiences and sentiments of the societal web influence preventive determinations
in this population of immature, minority adult females. The societal web, including friends, household members,
and media beginnings, is a cardinal beginning of prophylactic information for many adult females. Comprehensive
contraceptive method guidance should research the experiences and sentiments of the patient ‘s societal web
to the extent possible. Lynn Yee, M.D. , M.P.H.a, and Melissa Simon, M.D. , M.P.H ( 2009 )
Consequences indicated that pupils use
Facebook about 30 min throughout the twenty-four hours as portion of their day-to-day modus operandi. Students
communicated on Facebook utilizing a one-to-many manner, in which they were the Godheads
circulating content to their friends. Even so, they spent more clip detecting content on
Facebook than really posting content. Facebook was used most frequently for societal interaction,
chiefly with friends with whom the pupils had a pre-established relationship offline. In
add-on to authoritative individuality markers of emerging maturity, such as faith, political political orientation,
and work, immature grownups besides used media penchants to show their individuality. Deductions of
societal networking site usage for the development of individuality and peer relationships are discussed.Tiffany A. Pempek, Yevdokiya A. Yermolayeva, Sandra L. Calvert ( 2008 )
An person ‘s success in society depends on the form and size of his/her societal web
and ability to web and signifier connexions with other societal groups. Administrations which can
harness this unconditioned human ability to pull off cognition will be able to take down minutess costs and
go more profitable. Anria Sophia new wave Zyl ( 2008 )
Arrested development analyses conducted on
consequences from a study of undergraduate pupils ( N = 286 ) suggest a strong association
between usage of Facebook and the three types of societal capital, with the strongest relationship
being to bridging societal capital. In add-on, Facebook use was found to
interact with steps of psychological wellbeing, proposing that it might supply
greater benefits for users sing low self-esteem and low life satisfaction. Nicole B. Ellison
Cliff Lampe ( 2007 )
2.3 SNS usage and academic public presentation
Harmonizing to Boyd & A ; Ellison ( 2008 ) , Social-networking sites ( afterlife SNS ) are the latest on-line communicating tool that allows users to make a public or private profile to interact with people in their webs. They so defined SNS as web-based services that allow persons to build a public or semi-public profile within a delimited system, joint a list of other users with whom they portion a connexion and position and track their list of connexions and those made by others within the system
There are few surveies that had been done in findings the important of SNS with academic public presentation. Kirschner and Karpinski ( 2010 ) had conducted a research on the Facebook ( FB ) and academic public presentation. FB is a portion of the illustrations of SNS that was late being used by many people including the pupils. Barratt, Hendrickson, Stephens and Torres ( 2005 ) stated that the increased of FB ‘s popularity has raises inquiries about its impact on college pupil life. The FB was foremost introduced by Mark Zuckerberg in 2005 to assist residential college and university pupils identify pupils in other abode halls. The use of FB than has been expanded to persons outside the college and university system. It has been identified that the use of FB covers all group of age with largely the age between 25 to 34 year-olds ( Lipsman, 2007 ) . However, even though there was an addition growing in older age groups, FB remains chiefly a college- age and emerging grownup phenomenon.
From the statistics collected by the FB administrative that showed in the web site, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.facebook.com/press/info.php? statistics, it recorded that there are 500 million of active users registered and half of them log in any given twenty-four hours while 55 million updates post each twenty-four hours with more than 8 billion proceedingss spent on the website worldwide each. The statistic besides identified that more than 2.5 billion exposures uploaded each month, more than 14 million pictures uploaded each month, more than 30 billion pieces of content, for case web links, intelligence narratives, web log stations, notes, exposures shared each hebdomad, more than 3.5 million events created each month, and more than 45 million active user groups bing. It can be concluded that Facebook is a popular time-consuming activity that doubtless has some impact on college pupil life.
Based on survey done by Espinosa, Laffey, Whittaker, and Sheng ( 2006 ) , they investigated the function of engineering in early childhood development utilizing informations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. From the findings, it indicated that entree contributed to the larning potency of the pupils, but the research workers concerned that parents should promote the educational usage of engineering to better academic accomplishment. Apart from that, harmonizing to Lei and Zhao ( 2005 ) , it was explored that the particulars of entree, admiting that measure is non every bit of import as quality when it comes to engineering usage and pupil accomplishment. Specifically, when the quality of engineering usage is non closely monitored or ensured, computing machine usage may make more injury than good to student accomplishment in school.
Hunley et Al. ( 2005 ) identified that there is no relationship found between clip spent on the computing machine at place and GPA in a sample of striplings. Technology was found to hold a positive impact on academic accomplishment, or engineering with educational value. However, Kubey, Lavin and Barrows ( 2001 ) , mentioned that other research workers have found that recreational Internet usage is strongly correlated with impaired academic public presentation. The consequences showed that about 10-15 % of survey participants reported experiencing non being in complete control of their Internet usage, and that it has hurt their school assignment. Furthermore, they besides identified that pupils who reported Internet caused school assignment jobs were found to hold spent five times more hours online than those who did non, and they were besides significantly more likely to describe that their Internet usage caused them to remain up tardily, acquire less slumber, and miss categories.
The research workers conclude that it is non so much the Internet that causes these jobs as the new societal chances of the Internet. Students who reported academic jobs were more likely to utilize the Internet for real-time societal activities such as IM and confab suites which lead to them to kip tardily at dark. Karpinski and Duberstein ( 2009 ) on their exploratory study survey identified that there is a negative relationship between FB usage and academic accomplishment as measured by self-reported GPA and hours spent analyzing per hebdomad. Hargittai ( 2009 ) stated that there is no grounds found to turn out the relationship of Facebook use with low academic public presentation. Banquil et Al. ( 2009 ) in their research found that societal networking sites do non bespeak negative effects on a pupil ‘s public presentation in school.
2.4 Factors of utilizing the societal networking sites among the pupils
Yang and Tung ( 2008 ) stated the Internet nuts normally used the web sites and SNS because of lower self-pride than non-addicts. They are more confident to pass on or socialise through the Internet instead than face to confront with people.
Yap ( 2008 ) identified that, the chief factor of utilizing the SNS is because the users need non pay any fees due to the free rank. Furthermore, it is easy to utilize the SNS whereby the users merely need to subscribe up by make fulling the signifier and active the nexus sent via their electronic mail.
The pupils and users besides can post advertizements at that place in order to other members of an event that they are hosting. It is besides an chance for them to do new friends, use them every twenty-four hours to chew the fat, play games and connect with friends, household and aliens.
2.5 Utility of the societal networking sites towards pupil public presentation
The SNS map as a communicating tools utilizing the engineering connexion between people from different locations, for case the bing of Facebook is to assist residential college and university pupils identify pupils in other abode halls which besides function as an on-line directory that connects people through societal webs at colleges and universities before it is mostly used worldwide.
Harmonizing to Pineda ( 2010 ) , the pupils and SNS users used it to maintain in touch by keeping a profile on these sites, their loved 1s, friends and distant relations which they do non hold to name the users every clip merely to remain in touch with one another. Besides that, the pupils can take advantage to post their sketch and certificates to the companies that advertise vacancy in the SNS.
Dalsgaard ( n.d. ) discussed how the societal networking may be utilized within university instruction by pupils sharing information and resources that are originally developed for themselves but made available to others such as utilizing bookmarks, mentions, links, and notes. He stated that societal networking sites are non the new Learning Management Systems. He mentioned that the SNs can be used as a treatment forums and other tools for direct communicating and coaction focal point on direct sharing, societal networking can back up pupils ‘ indirect sharing of resources, ideas, thoughts, productions, Hagiographas, notes and others. It will supply the pupils with an increased consciousness and consciousness of the activities of other pupils.
Brady, Holcomb and Smith ( 2010 ) identified that education-based SNSs can be used most efficaciously in distance instruction classs as a technological tool to better on-line communications among pupils in higher distance instruction classs. Harmonizing to Barab and Duffy ( 2000 ) and DeSchryver, Mishra, Koehler and Francis ( 2009 ) , they found that distance instruction classs are frequently more successful when they develop communities of pattern while Anderson ( 2005 ) subsequently added that it is besides encourage high degrees of on-line societal presence among pupils.
Brady, Holcomb and Smith ( 2010 ) stated that since the SNS facilitate the sharing of information, the engineerings used in SNSs assistance treatment and make familiarity among on-line pupils, as they have their ability to link and construct community in a socially and educationally constructed web. Besides, the article besides stated that SNS created specifically for an educational audience provides a alone chance for pedagogues to ease a strong sense of community among pupils and promote personal interactions that can take to the creative activity of new cognition and corporate intelligence.
Smith ( 2009 ) as cited in Brady, Holcomb and Smith ( 2010 ) stated that, class direction systems ( CMS ) such as Blackboard and Moodle, tend to be much focused and lack the personal touch and networking capacity that SNSs offer. For case, teachers utilizing CMS may make a inquiry in an on-line treatment board and each pupil posts a response. However, these pupil stations are truly non interactions at all, but simply inquiry and reply Sessionss. Using an Tin that is user centered compared to CMS, it has the possible to increase pupil battle. SNSs can actively promote on-line community edifice, widening larning beyond the boundaries of the schoolroom.
Bai ( 2003 ) , indicated that societal presence leads to cut down feelings of solitariness and emotionlessness while at the same time encouraging pupil interaction and engagement in online classs.
2.6 Conceptual Model
Ease of usage
Student public presentation
Figure 1: Conceptual Model
Figure 1 shows the relationship on the consequence of utilizing the societal networking sites ( SNS ) towards pupils ‘ public presentation. This conceptual model is developed by the research worker herself based on the literature reappraisal done and gathered from old surveies. The figure shows that there are two factors that lead to the use of the SNS which are the easiness of usage of the SNS itself and the usefulness the SNS bring to the SNS users. The first factor which is easiness of usage refers to several elements such as in them of the clip response of the SNS, the simple regulations and ordinance apply and may be because of the attractive and simple design of the SNS itself. While, the utility can be defined as the benefits or advantages the users obtain in utilizing the SNS. In this survey it focuses more in the utility of SNS in the pupils ‘ public presentation.
Besides that, it shows the relationship between the use of the SNS with the pupils ‘ public presentation. The survey wants to place and find whether there is any important relationship on the use of the SNS in the pupils ‘ public presentation.
This literature reappraisal provides the brief thoughts and information sing the issues on whether there is any relationship between the uses of the SNS towards pupils ‘ public presentation. It provides findings done by the old research workers on the similar subject and all the supports has been included and further revision in this chapter 2. The following chapter will discourse on the methodological analysis that will be used in the survey. The elaborate information sing the methodological analysis will be farther discussed in the Chapter 3.