Social Studies Praxis 2 Elementary Content

Social Studies Praxis 2 Elementary Content

Physical Map
Shows the physical landscape features of a place. They generally show things like mountains, rivers and lakes and water is always shown with blue. Mountains and elevation changes are usually shown with different colors and shades to show relief.
Topographical Map
Similar to a physical map in that it shows different physical landscape features. They are different however because they use contour lines instead of colors to show changes in the landscape. Contour lines on topographic maps are normally spaced at regular intervals to show elevation changes (e.g. each line represents a 100 foot (30 m) elevation change) and when lines are close together the terrain is steep.
Political Map
does not show any topographic features. It instead focuses solely on the state and national boundaries of a place. They also include the locations of cities – both large and small, depending on the detail of the map. A common type of political map would be one showing the 50 U.S. states and their borders along with the United States’ north and south international borders
Ariel Photographs
The first type of remote sensing utilized by cartographers, or map makers. In 1858, French map makers used a hot air balloon and primitive cameras to take the first aerial photographs. Later during World War I, airplanes were used to systematically take aerial images of much of the terrain in the war zone.
Weather Map
A map or chart showing weather conditions over a wide area at a particular time, compiled from simultaneous observations at different places.
Satellite Images
pictures of the land surface based on computer data collected from satellites
Map Projections
Conic, cylindrical, interrupted, and plane
Longitude
The distance east and west of the prime meridian.
Latitude
The distance north and south of the equator
International Dateline
an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth, that runs from the north to the south pole and marks one calendar day from the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean at 180 degrees longitude. Opposite of the Prime Meridian
Equator
an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles
Continents
One of the principal land masses of the earth, usually regarded as including Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.
Oceans
are the largest bodies of salt water between the continents; there are 5 oceans: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern
Seas
are large bodies of salt water; smaller than ocean; often landlocked
Other Geographical Features
Rivers, bays, mountain ranges, plateaus, valleys, plains, ice caps, tundra, forest, grassland, desert, island
Major Rivers
Africa: Nile (world’s longest), Congo (5th longest), Niger (largest delta in Africa), Zambezi (famous for the Victoria Falls, one of the “Seven Natural Wonders of the World”); South America: Amazon (worlds 2nd longest river); United States: Missouri (longest in U.S.), Mississippi (2nd longest in US), Colorodo (famous for the grand canyon), Niagara (famous for its falls), Rio Grande (between US and Mexico), St. Lawrence (links Great Lakes and Atlantic ocean)
Major Mountain Ranges
Asia: Himalaya – largest mountain range on earth, Mt. Everest is its highest peak (29,035 feet), Karakoram and Pamir
Europe: Alps, Caucasus, Carpathians, Pyrenees, Urals
Africa: Abyssinian, Atlas, Ruwenzori, Kilimanjaro (inactive volcano)
North America: Rocky Mountains and Appalachians
South America: Andes; Australia: Kosciusko
Consequences of Physical Changes-Short Term
Short term effects on Earth, droughts, floods, snowstorms
Consequences of Physical Changes-Long Term
Earthquakes and natural erosion
Factors that affect settlement patterns
Economic, cultural, physical, political reasons
Population Trends in the U.S. in 19th and 20th centuries
Immigration Patterns into U.S.
Between 1850 and 1930, about 5 million Germans immigrated to the United States with a peak in the years between 1881 and 1885, when a million Germans left Germany and settled mostly in the Midwest. Between 1820 and 1930, 3.5 million British and 4.5 million Irish entered America. Before 1845 most Irish immigrants were Protestants. After 1845, Irish Catholics began arriving in large numbers, largely driven by the Great Famine.

“New immigration” was a term from the late 1880s that came from the influx of immigrants from southern Europe and Russia

Restriction proceeded piecemeal over the course of the late 19th and early 20th centuries

International Organizations
European Union, the World Trade Organization, the United Nations, NATO, the Organization of African Unity, OPEC
Major Trade relationships b/t U.S. and other nations in late 20th-early 21st cent.
Impact of Environment on Human systems
Food, clothing, shelter, transportation, recreation, economic and industrial systems
Effects of human initiated changes on the environment
Construction of houses, roads and cities, human initiated fire, water and air pollution, waste disposal
Uses of Geography
Geography can be helpful when interpreting past or present events of phenomena
Paleolithic and Neolithic Periods
Hunter-gatherer and agricultural revolution
Mesopotamia (c. 3500-c. 2350 BCE)
Invention of writing, military expertise, city-states, Code of Hammurabi. Sumer constructed dikes and reservoirs. Invention of writing in 3500 BCE marks the beginning of civilization
Indus River Valley (c. 2500-c. 1750 BCE)
Importance of water, city planning, agriculture.
Civilization developed on the Indus River floodplain. Today part of Afghanistan, Pakistan and north-western India. Well-organized, their drainage systems, wells and water storage systems were the most sophisticated in the ancient world. They also developed system of weights and trade
Early china (c. 1500-c. 771 BCE)
Ancestor worship, manorialism (lords and peasants worked together to support one another. The wealth of the lords came by the labors of the peasants who worked their lands. In return, the lords protected the peasants, offered them shelter, and insured that they were fed). Health discoveries (ex. acupunture) Agriculture (ex. the wheelbarrow and chain pump) war fare (ex. iron weapons) silk, and the making of paper. Most of these discoveries were made in the Han Dynasty.
Olmec society in Mesoamerica (c. 1200-c. 400 BCE)
Monumental sculpture, ceremonial centers, writing. The first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico. Practiced ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame, hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies
Ancient Egypt (c. 2711-c. 1090 BCE)
Influence of geography, hieroglyphics and Rosetta Stone, religious rulership, pyramids and the Valley of Kings.
Greece (c. 2000-c. 300BCE)
Mythology, social structure, citizenship and democracy. Organized around polis, city-states. Democratic governments replaced tyrants around end of 6th c. The Classical Age (Philosophy in Athens, Sophists, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle)
Athens vs. Sparta
Democratic; trade and agriculture, military service optional, cosmopolitan; Oligarchic, mandatory military, agriculture
Contributions of Greece
The Olympics, theater, advancements in science, art, great works of literature, amazing architecture, philosophy, mathematics, and the world’s first democratic government
Rome (c. 700 BCE-500 CE)
Mythology, Military domination, 312 CE Constantine converted empire to Christianity,
Roman Empire
An empire established by Augustus in 27 BC and divided in AD 395 into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern or Byzantine Empire. At its peak lands in Europe and Africa and Asia were ruled by ancient Rome
Government of Rome
Republican (representative) form of government; a representative democracy when people vote for a smaller group of citizens to make laws.
Rome and citizenship
Besides making one safe from the death penalty, a citizen enjoyed:
suffragium – the right to vote
commercium – the right to make contracts
conubium – the right to contract a legal marriage
Citizens did have responsibilities: they were taxed, and the men needed to complete a term of military service (in fact, only a citizen could become a Roman legionary).
Contributions of Rome
Technology, Medicine, Language, Religion, Roman Law and Politics, Literature, Arts, Games
Decline and Fall of Roman Empire
-The empire was too large to govern effectively.
-The army was not what it used to be. There was corruption in the military – dishonest generals and non-Roman soldiers.
-Civil wars broke out between different political groups.
Emperors were often selected by violence, or by birth, so the head of government was not always a capable leader.
-The increased use of slaves put many Romans out of work
-The rich became lazy and showed little interest in trying to solve Rome problems. The poor were overtaxed and overworked.
-Prices increased, trade decreased.
-The population was shrinking due to starvation and disease. That made it difficult to manage farms and government effectively.
-The Empire starting shrinking. The Huns, Visigoths, Franks, Vandals, Saxons and other barbarian tribes overran the empire.
Islamic Civilizations and Role of Islam and Spread of beliefs
Mohammed born in 570 CE, Marched to Mecca in 630. Shari’ah code 5 pillars: Belief in one God, pray 5 times a day, alms, fast sunrise-set during Ramadan, Hajj to Mecca. Participated in trade routes, spread of Islam. Spreading the word through conquests
Indian Caste System
1: Brahmanism or Priests 2: Kshatriyas or Rulers and Warriors 3: Vaisyans or Commoners, Farmers, Craftsmen, and Traders 4: Sudras or Laborers and Servants The caste system was family based and you could not move up a class
Hinduism
A diverse body of religion, philosophy, and cultural practice native to and predominant in India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a desire for liberation from earthly evils.
Muslim conquests
The Muslims conquered Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and north Africa, and placed Constantinople under siege two times. Abbasid caliphs ruled from 750-1258, Mongolians seized Baghdad in 1258
Chinese Imperial Government
Chinese civilization originated in the Yellow River Valley. Three dynasties ruled early China: Xai, the Shang (1500-1122 BCE) and Zhou (1122-211 BCE)
Buddhism
The teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Confucianism
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct. After the Zhou Dynasty fell China welcomed this philosophy
Taoism
Philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Great Wall of China
Created to keep out invaders. A series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China in part to protect them against intrusions
4 Major Inventions from China
Paper making, printing, compasses and gunpowder
Japanese Feudalism
12th-19th c. Where local rulers dominated the land, while the emperor was a figurehead. Organized around a four-tiered social structure, with the samurai warrior class at the top. Below them ranked farmers (including fisherman), and then artisans, with merchants and shopkeepers at the bottom. This hierarchy was due to Confucian ideals, which emphasized the importance of individuals who produced things.
Shintoism
Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
Shoguns, emperors, samurai
The hereditary commander of the Japanese army who until 1867 exercised absolute rule under the nominal leadership of the emperor;

Samurai: A member of a powerful military caste in feudal Japan, esp. a member of the class of military retainers of the daimyos.

Effects of Japan’s isolation until 1850s
Tokugawa shogunate from 1603-1850
It allowed no commercial contact with foreign countries and no contact whatsoever between the population and the foreigners, and had banned all voyages abroad.
-Did not experience industrialization like Western World
-Inferior military powers
-Poor stance to withstand intimidation from other powers
-America helped them modernize their military. Led to the rapid militarization, the colonization of Korea and the deterioration of Sino-Japanese relations and the subsequent Sino-Japanese war and Pacific war during WWII.
Sub-Saharan Africa
Trade routes. The Saharan Trade linked such African empires as Ghana, Mali, and Songhay to the European world. Instrumental to the empire’s success. Merchants carrying foodstuffs to the kingdom would trade them for locally produced goods such as cotton cloth, metal ornaments, leather goods, and above all GOLD. Koumbi was the trade center and capital of the empire.
Sub-Saharan Africa 2
Forest kingdoms. Guinea (the southern coast of West Africa) was home to a variety of states known as the forest kingdoms, renowned for their achievements in bronze sculpture. Among the largest were Oyo, Benin, and Ashanti. In addition to gold, forest kingdom industries included palm oil and pepper.
Mayans
Yucatan, Guatemala and Eastern Honduras. By 500 BCE agricultural people had begun using a ceremonial calendar and built stone pyramids on which they held religious observances
Aztecs
Mexico. Major feature was human sacrifice to their chief god. Government was centralized with an elective king and a large army. Characterized by the evolution of pottery, fabrics, and flat-topped mounds (huacas).
Incas
Interior of South America, Ecquador-Chile. “Children of the Sun”, believed that they were the sun god’s vice regents on earth and more powerful than other humans. Every person’s place in society was fixed and immutable and that the state and army were supreme.
Feudalism
Decentralized political system of personal ties and obligations that bound vassals to their lords. Serfs were peasants she were bound to the land. They worked on the demesne in return for the right to work their own land.
Feudalism-Economic Effects
a land-based economy, the judicial system and the rights of the feudal lords under the feudal system and the lack of rights for the serfs and peasants. Entire society attached to this form of economic structure.
Feudalism-Social and Political Effects
By the 14th century the agrarian revolution, away from a rigid economic structure of agricultural production, wrought with servitude of peasantry with little or no recourse to freedom, had developed into what we can safely call, today, a capitalistic system.
The Black Death
Refuse, excrement, dead animals, and poor street sanitization paved way for this. Merchants brought it to Europe from Asia carried by fleas on rats. Arrived in Europe in 1347. By 1350, killed 25-40% of the European population.
Marco Polo
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
The Renaissance
The rebirth of the classical period. More practical and secular than medieval ones. Manuscript collections enabled scholars to study primary sources and to reject traditions. Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Dante, Bruni, and Machiavelli
The Reformation
Destroyed western Europe’s religious unity and introduced new ideas about the relationship among God, the individual, and society. Against Catholic indulgences and focus more on the words of the Bible.
Martin Luther
1483-1546. Believed that personal effects-good works such as a Christian life and attention to sacraments-could not earn the sinner salvation and that belief and faith were they only way to obtain grace. “Justification by faith alone” was road to salvation. 95 Theses about indulgences. Excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1521
John Calvin
Frenchmen in Geneva, a Swiss state that adopted anti-Catholic position. 1540, Geneva was capital of Reformation. He emphasized the doctrine of predestination, which indicated that God knew who would obtain salvation before those people were born. Believed the Church and state should unite.
Scientific Revolution
Benedict de Spinoza rational pantheism that denied all free will and ended up with an impersonal, mechanical universe. Gottfried Leibniz worked on symbolic logic and calculus, and invented a calculating machine. John Locke (1632-1704) classified knowledge and believed reason and revelation were complementary and derived from God.
Enlightenment
Later 1500’s A secular worldview emerged: Age of Enlightenment. Belief in the autonomy of man’s intellect apart from God’s. Basic assumption was faith in reason rather than faith in revelation. “I think; therefore, I am.” It affected new political and economic theories. Rousseau believed people were capable of governing themselves through a political (Locke) or social (Rousseau) contract forming society.
Impact of French Revolution
Increased criticism directed toward governmental inefficiency and corruption, and toward the privileged class. Members of the directory believed that through peace, they would gain more wealth and prestige. Impacted American Revolution. Gave rise to a new government and constitution in the hands of Napoleon
Napoleon’s goals, conquests, empire, and defeat
Dec. 25, 1799. Domestic reforms and policies affected every aspect of French society. Concentrated power in his hands. Downfall resulted from inability to conquer England, economic distress caused by the boycott of British goods, the Peninsular War with Spain, the German war of liberation, and invasion of Russia. Actual defeat of him occurred at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.
Industrial Revolution
Late 1700s. Describes a period of transition when machines began to significantly displace human and animal power in methods of producing and distributing goods so that an agriculture and commercial society became and industrial one.
Inventions of Industrial Revolution
Watt-modern steam engine; Whittney-cotton gin; Fulton-steam boat; Stephenson-railway locomotive
European Imperialism
The policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories. Europeans had sought to expand the size of their nation seeking raw materials. (19th century) The political and economic control by European powers of areas in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific.
Causes of WWI 1914-1918
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914; Nationalism in Serbia, Germany, France, and Britain; Alliance system and rivalry between powers; Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Trimple Entante of Britain, Russia, and France; First and Second Moroccan Crisis, 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm II; Annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovinia by Austria; Arms Race and militarism; International competition among European powers for colonies and economic markets, Imperialism
Consequences of WWI
Increase of Socialist ideas in Europe; The Republic became most pop. type of govt; 1919 Treaty of Versailles caused hostilities and resentment that paved way for WWII; Germany singled out for harsh treatment, forced to take responsibility, size of German state reduced, Italy and France enlarged, Weimar govt not liked by most of citizens; Middle East boundaries redrawn; Status of working class increased; US power elevated; Technological advances; War debt caused inflation; rocky financial period for people; German mark devalued; Shifted worlds financial center from England to US; disruption of world trade; Growing distrust with govt; Sense of loss and anger over 10-13 million people killed
Russian Revolution 1917 Causes
Tsar’s mismanagement; economic strain of WWI; widespread shortages of basic food and working conditions in factories deteriorated; Prices soared; Famine in large cities; Poor working conditions; Upper class resented Tsar Nicholas’s autocracy; German wife left at helm of gov’t under sway of Rasuptin; Army’s morale was low; No political reforms; popular opposition to Tsar Nicholas; Oppression of the lower classes; Poor city living conditions; Political radicalism inspired by the West
Mexican Revolution
(1910 – 1920) A political revolution that removed dictator Porfirio Diaz, and hoped to institute democratic reforms. While a constitution was written in 1917, it was many more years until true change occurred.
Chinese Revolution
Long revolutionary process in the period 1912-1949 that began with the overthrow of the Chinese imperial system and ended with the triumph of the Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong
Rise of Communism in Soviet Union
The abolition of serfdom resulted in a mass exodus from the agricultural areas to the cities, where the new working class found employment in factories as part of Russia’s industrial revolution. However, they had no leverage as a large collection of individuals and were easily exploited, working for miniscule wages. The consequential poverty epidemic made the general public very open to the idea of communism. After the loss to Japan in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, and the sorry state of the Russian Empire, the conditions were ripe for a fundamental change.
Rise of Fascism in Italy
Fascism included a sense of nationalism (a powerful sense of patriotism) and leaders were often dictatorial, ruthless in suppressing opposition, and interested in centralizing power. Italy received just some of the territories promised by the Allies. Chaos ensued as peasants seized land, workers went on strike, veterans faced unemployment, trade declined, and taxes rose. The government could not end the crisis. Benito Mussolini brought in Fascism into Italy;
Causes of WWII 1939-1945
Great Depression; emergence of the Nazi party; Treaty of Versailles; War Guilt Clause; Reparations; German Disarmament/demilitarized; Territorial losses from Germany; Hitler’s Actions: built up military, made alliances, expansionist; Failure of Appeasement; Invasion of Poland; Failure of the League of Nations; Emergence of Fascism
Consequences of WWII
Massive human dislocations; extensive casualties; Nuremberg War trails; Space Race; Early comp. technology; third-world nationalism movement; De-colonization of European empires; colonized countries fought for independence; US and USSR emerged as superpowers; Cold war; Division of Germany; UN; Japanese war trials; Japan placed temp under US control; Russian army built up and occupied most of Eastern Europe; Creation of International Monetary Fund and GATT; US economy booms; new technology developed; computers; atomic bomb changed nature of future bombs; Women involved in workforce
Cold War
The ideological struggle between communism (Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for world influence. The Soviet Union and the United States came to the brink of actual war during the Cuban missile crisis but never attacked one another.
Post WWII decolonization in Africa and Asia
Indian and Pakistan 1947
Sub-Saharan nations in 1960
Kenya, Angolia, Mozambique in 1960-70
Balkans and former S.U. 1990
Rise of Global Culture
Globalization is the notion that no one nation stands by itself, rise of information technology, interation has effects on all aspects of life-environmental, cultural, political, economic, and social.
Scientific Advances of 20th c
atomic power, atomic bomb, space travel, satellite tech, computers, genetic manipulation, internet, e-commerce
Native American Cultures
Causes of Exploration of America
Inventions of the compass and astrolabe; Gold, god, and glory; Sponsored voyages; create accurate African shoreline maps; Improvements in shipbuilding and weaponry; Trade routes;
Colonial Culture
Causes of the American Revolution
a. Colonists accustomed to a large degree of independence from Br; 1760s taxes, regulations seem to change that
b. British policies hurt specific economic groups (lawyers, sugar importers, etc.) & help unite them against England
c. Timing (1763) of the new taxes & controls was not good; Colonies were in a brief post war depression- not a good time to raise taxes
d. Colonists unwilling to accept mercantile status or virtual representation- colonists wanted people to control
e. Religious factor: fear of Anglican control
f. Some colonists resented being treated as “colonials” (second class citizens)
g. Colonists had evolved into Americans (new people)- physical separation supported independence
h. John Locke’s theories of natural rights & social contract (or compact) supported independence
i. America was a rich land; why be controlled by small England, 3000 miles away
Deceleration of Independence
A statement adopted by the continental congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the 13 American colonies then at war with Great Brittan were now independent states, and that’s not longer part of the British Empire. Primarily work of Thomas Jefferson of VA.
Articles of Confederation
1777 This document, the nation’s first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
The Constitution
1787; After the constitutional convention the republic was defined by the constitution was composed of three branches, the executive, judicial, and legislative, and checks and balances.
King George
King of England during the American revolutionary war and was blamed for the loss of the 13 colonies.
John Adams
1735-1826. America’s first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press “ought not to be restrained.”
George Washington
1st President of the United States; 1st President of the United States. commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799), Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
Thomas Jefferson
3rd President of the United States; chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it (1743-1826)
Benjamin Franklin
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard’s Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove. EX. he helped draw up the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution; he played a major role in the American Revolution and negotiated French support for the colonists; as a scientist he is
Thomas Paine
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist’s fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809) Common Sense 1776; Rights of Man
Marbury vs. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court’s power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789
Origin of slavery in U.S.
The shortage of labor in the southern colonies and a drop in the number of people coming to the colonies as indentured servants forced colonists to find other sources of labor. Toward end of 17th c. increasing numbers of slaves from Africa became available. By 19th c. millions of Africans had been forcibly taken from native lands. Slave labor replaced indentured servitude and slave codes emerged in end of 18th c. colonial America
Westward Expansion
Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark, acquisition of Florida, Texas, Oragon, California
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from “sea to sea,” from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory. Inevitable and granted by God
Mexican War and Cession
On April 5, 1846 Mexican troops attacked and American patrol. James Polk declared war on Mexico. Negotiate peace came with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on Feb 2 1848, where Mexico ceded to the US the southwestern territory from Texas to the California coast.
War of 1812
1812-1814; A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain’s ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson’s troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere. President James Monroe’s statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
Dealing with Native Americans
Removal Act of 1830 provided for the federal enforcement of the removal of all Native American tribes to an area west of the Mississippi River. Trail of tears, the forced march escort of thousands of Cherokee Indians to the west.
Technological and Agricultural Innovations before Civil War
Cotton gin, reaper, steamboat, steam locomotive
Reasons for Immigration from Europe
The reasons these new immigrants made the journey to America differed little from those of their predecessors. Escaping religious, racial, and political persecution, or seeking relief from a lack of economic opportunity or famine still pushed many immigrants out of their homelands. After the depression of the 1890s, immigration jumped from a low of 3.5 million in that decade to a high of 9 million in the first decade of the new century. Immigrants from Northern and Western Europe continued coming as they had for three centuries, but in decreasing numbers. After the 1880s, immigrants increasingly came from Eastern and Southern European countries, as well as Canada and Latin America. By 1910, Eastern and Southern Europeans made up 70 percent of the immigrants entering the country. After 1914, immigration dropped off because of the war, and later because of immigration restrictions imposed in the 1920s.
Causes of Civil War
1. Issue of slavery 2. Abolitionists want slavery to end 3. South fears it will lose power in the national government 4. Southern states secede after Lincoln’s election 5. Confederates bomb Fort Sumter; Crisis of 1850 slavery, Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854, Dred Scott Decision 1857, freedom of a slave who escaped to a free state denied, election of 1860 Lincoln won, The Secession Crisis December 20, 1860 SC seceded from the Union
Gettysburg Address
a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg. Captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free
Economic and Cultural Differences of North and South
North: factory workers, larger cities, smaller agriculture, urban areas, workers; South: Largely agricultural, large plantations, slavery
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Jefferson Davis
An American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Frederick Douglass
One of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement. escaped from slavery in maryland. he was a great thinker and speaker. published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper “The Liberator”, and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.
Reconstruction
The period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union.
Segregation after Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation; 13th amendment outlaw slavery
Plessy v. Ferguson
A 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Bankers and Entrepreneurs
Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan
Urban conditions post Civil War
Growth of factories, city life, industry
America’s Role in WWI
America entered WWI in 1917. Woodrow Wilson presented the 14 points for a peace plan. Called for open rather than secret peace treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, arms reduction, fair adjustment of colonial claims. National aspirations and adjustment of boarders. Called for a general association of nations to preserve peace.
Harlem Renaissance
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American
Prohibition
The period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
Woman’s Suffrage
Woman’s right to vote; 19th amendment
The Great Depression
An economic depression notable for its duration and intensity that struck the world from 1929-1933. Recovery was a long and difficult process. The farm economy was not prosperous, new construction declined, auto sales sagged, workers lost jobs, overpricing of stocks and selling and taking profits, stock market failed on October 29th, 1929.
The New Deal
The programs and policies to promote economic recovery and social reform introduced during the 1930s by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Banking Act of 1933, Public works administration, agricultural adjustment administration, National Industrial recovery act, Second: Works progress administration, social security act
America’s Role in WWII
Internment of Japanese Americans, atomic bomb, baby boom. Roosevelt proclaimed neutrality on sept 1939, wanted to avoid war with Germany, Placed an embargo on export of aviation gasoline etc to japan and granted loan to china. Dec 7 Pearl harbor, dec 8 declared war on japan. Dec 11 Germany and Italy declared war on US. The Atomic bomb–Manhattan Project; Enola Gay dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima Japan on Aug 6 and Aug 9 on Nagasaki. Japan surrendered on Aug 14 1945.
America in the Cold War
1949-1999. Feb. 1947; Truman Doctrine argued that the US must support free peoples who were resisting communist domination. Marshall Plan provided 12billion$ in aid to help rebuild Europe. A long period of tension between the democracies of the Western World and the communist countries of Eastern Europe. The west was led by the United States and Eastern Europe was led by the Soviet Union. These two countries became known as superpowers. Although the two superpowers never officially declared war on each other, they fought indirectly in proxy wars, the arms race, and the space race. f proxy wars include the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Yom Kippur War, and the Soviet Afghanistan War.
Korean War
June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea. Conflict that began with North Korea’s invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People’s Republic of China allying with North Korea.
McCarthyism
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Desegregation in Schools
Vietnam War
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States; Neither the Soviet Union nor the United States could risk a war against each other such was the nuclear military might of both. However, when it suited both, they had client states that could carry on the fight for them. In Vietnam, the Americans actually fought – therefore in the Cold War ‘game’, the USSR could not. However, to support the Communist cause, the Soviet Union armed its fellow Communist state, China, who would, in turn, arm and equip the North Vietnamese who fought the Americans.
Civil Rights Movement
1964 Civil Rights Act outlawed racial discrimination by employers and unions, created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and eliminated remaining restrictions on black voting. 1965, Dr. MLK jr peaceful, assassinated on april 4 1968,
Government
The institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces binding decisions on citizens
Parlimentary systems
Form of government in which a leader is chosen by and responsible to the legislature, as well as being members of the legislature.
Federalism
A way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. It is a system of shared power between units of government. Power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
Constitutional Structures
The Constitution consists of seven (7) articles and 27 amendments. The most important articles are the first three which explain the powers of the three branches of government. Article I deals with the Legislative branch; Article II the Executive branch; and Article III, the Judicial branch. Other articles are also important for various doctrines and clauses. For the Amendments, it’s customary to refer to the first ten as the Bill of Rights, however only the first eight (8) Amendments are truly substantive in terms of rights. This lecture addresses the most important doctrines, clauses, and theories contained in the Constitution proper; that is, the first seven (7) articles. Subsequent lecture(s) will cover the Bill of Rights and other Amendments.
Unitary structures
A unitary state is a state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate. The great majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government.
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
Rights of Democratic Citizens
Freedom of speech, religion, press, assemply, petition and privacy
Economic Rights of Citizens
Citizens Legal Obligations
obey law, serve as juror, pay taxes
Citizens Civic-minded obligations
vote, volunteer
Naturalization Process of Immigrants
Levels of government
local, state, federal
Anthropology
the scientific study of the origins, cultural development, and customs of human beings
Branches of Anthropology
Cultural anthropology: the study of living societies and their cultures; Biological anthropology: the study of human origins and biological adaptations – includes genetics, paleontology, and primatology; Archeology: the study of the human past through material remains, including buildings, artifacts, writing; Linguistics: the comparative study of languages.
Kinship Patterns
Kinship- State of being related to others; culturally learned; Bilateral Descent Both sides of a person’s family are regarded as equally important; Patrilineal Descent Only father’s relatives are important; Matrilineal Descent Only mother’s relatives are significant
Social Institutions
Relatively enduring clusters of values, norms, social statuses, roles, and groups that address fundamental social needs
Social stratification
The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige; applies to both nations and to people within a nation, society, or other group
Sociology
Study of the evolution, development, and functioning of human society
Socialization and acculturation
The acceptance and practive of the behavior patterns of a culture; Acculturation is the modification or adaptation of an individual or a group as a result of contact or interaction with another culture.
Ethnic groups and societal change
Stereotypes, biases, values, ideals
Economics
The branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management. Macro studies large world systems; micro studies specific issues related to the decision making process at the household, firm, or industry.
Scarcity
Limited quantities of resources to meet unlimited wants
Needs and wants
Goods and services refer to things that satisfy human needs, wants, or desires. Money is the medium of exchange
Resources
Anything that is used to produce goods or services
Cost
The total spent for goods or services including money and time and labor
Opportunity Cost
Whatever must be given up to obtain some item
Capital
wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
Goods and services
The use of machines increases the availability of goods and services. Goods are tangible, services are things others can do for you
Markets
Places, institutions or technological arrangements where or by means of which goods or services are exchanged. Also, the set of all sale and purchase transactions that affect the price of some good or service.
Supply and demand
Theory states that the prices vary based on balance between the availability of a product or service at a certain price (supply) and the desire of potential purchasers to pay that price (demand)
Inflation/Deflation
Inflation: a consistent increase in the price of goods and services over time. During inflationary times, money loses its “buying” or “purchasing” power, and it takes more units of currency to purchase the same units of goods or services. Over time, inflation lowers the value of each unit of currency; Deflation: a consistent decrease in the price of goods and services over time. During deflationary times, money increases in its “buying” or “purchasing” power, and it takes less units of currency to purchase the same units of goods or services. Over time, deflation increases the value of each unit of currency.
Trade and barter
The exchanging of goods
Economic Institutions
Households and families and formal organizations such as corporations, government agencies, banks, labor unions, and cooperatives.
Marketing
The commercial processes involved in promoting and selling and distributing a product or service
Government’s role in economics
Guides the overall pace of economic activity, attempting to maintain steady growth, high levels of employment, and price stability. By adjusting spending and tax rates (fiscal policy) or managing the money supply and controlling the use of credit (monetary policy), it can slow down or speed up the economy’s rate of growth — in the process, affecting the level of prices and employment.
Traditional Economy
An economy in which production is based on customs and traditions and economic roles are typically passed down from one generation to the next.
Command economy
Economic system in which a central authority is in command of the economy; a centrally planned economy
Free-market Economy
Capitalism, private ownership law of supply and demand; people decide what is produced
Communism
A political system characterized by a centrally planned economy with all economic and political power resting in the hands of the central government
Socialism
A theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Capitalism
An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Imports and Exports
Export is any international transaction that causes goods to flow into a country; an import similarly is any international transaction that causes goods to flow out of a country
Tariffs
Taxes on imports or exports
Quotas
limitations on the amount of specific products that may be imported from certain countries during a given time period
Economic sanctions
Boycotts, embargoes, and other economic measures that one country uses to pressure another country into changing its policies
Conic Map Projections
A conic projection map is created by placing a cone shaped screen on a globe. The resulting projection is more accurate than the cylindrical projection map discussed above. However, the further we travel down the map, the more distorted and less accurate the map becomes.
Cylindrical Map Projections
Cylindrical Projection

A cylindrical projection map is the most common type of map that we see. Imagine placing the movie screen around the globe in a cylinder shape. The projection that results is depicted in this image. Notice that areas close to the equator have very little distortion. However, the closer to the poles that one travels, the more distorted the map becomes. In this example, Greenland appears to be many times larger than it really is.

Plane Map Projections
A plane projection is created by placing an imaginary screen directly above or below a globe. The image that would result is called a plane projection. This type of map projection is not commonly used.
Interrupted Map Projections
There are many different types of interrupted projection maps. These types of maps try to depict the continents as accurately as possible by leaving blank space in the less important areas of the map, such as in the oceans.
Paleolithic Period
Around 2.5 million years ago-10,000BCE. Old stone age. Nomads lived in groups of 10-20 and made tools and weapons from stone and from bones. Shelter in caves. Around 500,000 years ago, humans began using fire for light
Neolithic Period
10,000 to 7000 BCE. New Stone Age. Engaged in systematic agriculture and began domesticating animals. Humans became settled and lived in farms or villages. Human pop. increased. More structured social system. Pottery, crafts, and rise in exchange of goods
Writing
Developed between 4000-3000 BCE and marks the end of the prehistoric period
Roots of Industrial Revolution
Commercial Revolution (1500-1700) spurred great economic growth, age of discovery, and mercantilism; Scientific Rev., which produced mechanical inventions and tech advances; Increase in population in Europe from 1750-1850, doubled, more producers and consumers; nineteenth-c. political and social revolutions and rise of the middle class.
Christopher Columbus
1492, From Spain, landed in the Bahamas
Amerigo Vespucci
Florentine merchant, Namesake of the Americas, wrote a series of descriptions about his voyages to America that made it known it was not part of Asia or India
Vasco Da Gama
1400s, Sponsored by Spain, Portuguese navigator, crossed the Isthmus of Panama
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to circumnavigate around the world.
Hernando Cortez
Spain appointed him as government official in Cuba, lead a small military expedition against the Aztecs in Mexico
Effects of Russian Revolution 1917
End of autocratic rule; Establishment of a social/communist gov’t; Withdrawal of Russia from WWI; Industrial growth and organization of economy on 5-year plans; Formation of Soviet Union; Emergence of the Soviet Union; Spread of communism; Criticism of imperialism; Focus on education and grew into one of the worlds most well-rounded ed. systems; Division of world into communist and capitalist camps-Cold War
World Wide Depression 1930’s
Collapse of the stock market and WWI consequences
Rise of Fascism in Germany
Beginning in the 1930s, many Germans supported the Nazi Party, a violently nationalistic organization. The Nazi Party declared that Germany had been unfairly treated after WWI, and that the Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919, caused the economic depression. Many Germans believed that energetic leader, Adolf Hitler, would solve Germany’s problems. As head of the Nazi party, Hitler promised to end reparations, create jobs, and rearm Germany
Rise of Fascism in Japan
Japan was intent on creating an empire. This small island nation resented the way western countries and heads of state determined that Japan should not expand. Although Japan had an emperor, Hirohito (Hiro-he-tow), the military had taken control of the government. Like the Germans, the Japanese shared a strong military tradition. The army, navy, and air force grew in size and strength
Recession/Depression
Recession: decline in real GDP lasting at least two quarters or more; Depression: state of the economy with large numbers of unemployed, declining real incomes, over capacity in manufacturing plants, general economic hardship
The Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the constitution. 1. separation of church and state, freedom of religion, press, assembly, speech; 2. Right to bear arms. 3. Cannot quarter soldiers; 4. Right to privacy and unreasonable searches; 5. Due process, self-incrimination, and double jeopardy; 6. Right to a public trial by and impartial jury; 7. Right to sue people; 8; No cruel and unusual punishment; 9. Enumeration of specific rights in the constitution cannot be taken as a way to deny other rights retained by the people; 10. Rights not delegated to the federal gov’t by the constitution are reserved to states or people.