Socio Economic Conditions Of Organic And Inorganic Farmers Environmental Sciences Essay

Organic agriculture is known to successful direction of resources for agribusiness to fulfill the altering human demands while keeping or heightening the quality of environment and conserving natural resources. Hence, organic agriculture is one of the several attacks found to run into the aims of sustainable agribusiness and which is capable of keeping its productiveness and utility to society over the long tally. The educated and higher caste respondents are more cognizant of organic farming strategy so that benefits of organic agriculture are being utilized by the husbandmans who are good off in the society. Furthermore, organic agriculture strategy is more popular among those husbandmans socially and economically more progress in the society and holding big size land retentions.

Human communities, no affair how sophisticated, could non disregard the importance of agribusiness. To be far farm reliable beginnings of nutrient was to put on the line malnutrition and famishment hence, the cardinal footing of community is agriculture, cultivated land of the dirt ( Abdul Baha, 1912 ) 1. Agribusiness is one of human sort ‘s most basic activities because all people need to nurture themselves daily. History, civilization and community values are embedded in agribusiness. The rules apply to agriculture in the wide sense, including the manner people tend dirts, H2O, workss and animate beings in order to bring forth, fix and administer nutrient and the other goods. Socio economic conditions of husbandmans like instruction, caste, size of household, size of land retention, capital stock etc. influence on the agriculture system. The green revolution brought technological discovery to India ‘s farms but the early promises could non be sustained and finally cost increased and husbandmans were forced into a spiral of higher usage of man-made agrochemicals, higher costs, reduced fringy outputs and finally to indebtedness. Farmers and communities faced many socio-economic jobs, peculiarly little husbandmans who found themselves progressively marginalized due to deficiency of entree to external inputs ( Muhammad Asim Yasin 2007 ) 2.

Thippeswamy. E* Associate Professor, FMKMC College Madikeri-571201 Kodagu

Dr. K.B Rangappa** Deputy Registrar, Davangere University Davangere.

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Consequently, the farming community was looking for alternate methods to cut down the dependance on dearly-won external inputs and increase the productiveness of agribusiness. At this occasion, the authorities of India and many province authoritiess have initiated programmes to advance the organic agriculture. Organic agribusiness holds the cardinal to rural transmutation and sustainable development in India. More late, the authorities of Karnataka has keener to promote the husbandmans to follow the organic agriculture methods through the organic agriculture programme. In this context the survey has been undertaken to analyze the organic and inorganic agriculture respondents ‘ socio-economic conditions in Shimoga territory of Karnataka. The paper has been presented in four parts i.e. in the first portion debut, aims and methodological analysis in the 2nd portion and followed by the treatment of consequences and decision in the 3rd and 4th parts severally.

Aims of the survey

The survey has been based on following aims

1. To cognize the construct of organic agriculture

2. To compare the instruction and caste profile of organic and inorganic husbandmans

3. To compare the size of land retentions of the organic and inorganic husbandmans

Methodology of the Study

This survey is based on both primary and secondary informations. Primary informations have been collected from the 420 respondents during 2011-2012. Of these, 210 respondents are following organic methods and staying 210 respondents are inorganic husbandmans. Pre tested agenda was used to collected information through personal interview. The husbandmans who have been practising organic agriculture for the last three old ages are being selected and collected the information for reappraisal. Farmers who are utilizing merely organic inputs without using inorganic inputs in their agriculture patterns are categorized as organic husbandmans. Those husbandmans who are utilizing inorganic inputs along with organic inputs termed as inorganic husbandmans. Secondary informations have collected from the NGO, Farmers Associations and the Agricultural Department, Government of Karnataka.

Consequences and Discussion

Concept of Organic agriculture

Organic agriculture is a popular signifier of sustainable agribusiness all over the universe and non new to Indian agriculture community. It has really long history even during Vedic period our farming community practiced organic agriculture. Several signifiers of organic agriculture are being successfully practiced in diverse clime, peculiarly in rain Federal, tribal, mountains and hill countries of the state. However, in recent yearss, many good known minds, scientists and economic experts have defined organic agriculture in different ways. There are following

Definitions of Organic Farming

“ Organic agriculture is a production system which avoids or mostly excludes the usage of synthetically compounded fertilisers, pesticides, growing regulators and farm animal provender additives. To the maximal extent executable, organic agriculture system rely upon harvest rotary motions, harvest residues, carnal manures, leguminous plants, green manure, away farm organic wastes, mechanical cultivations, mineral bearing stones and facets of biological plague control to keep dirt productiveness and tilth, to provide works foods and to command insects, weeds and other plagues ” ( USDA,1980 ) 3. This is important one and clearly revealed that organic agribusiness is one of several attacks to sustainable agribusiness and many of the techniques used ( e.g. rotary motion of harvests, double-digging, mulching, integrating of harvests and farm animal ) are practiced under assorted agricultural systems.

The Codex Alimentarius Commission ( 1999 ) 4 defined that “ Organic agribusiness is a holistic production direction system which promotes and enhances agro-eco system wellness, including biodiversity, biological rhythm and dirty biological activity. It emphasizes the usage of direction patterns in penchants to the usage of off-farm inputs, taking into history that regional conditions require locally adopted systems. This is accomplished by utilizing, where possible, agronomic, biological and mechanical methods, as opposed to utilizing man-made stuffs, to carry through any specific map within the system ” . Therefore basic regulations of organic production are that natural inputs are approved and man-made inputs are prohibited, nevertheless there are some exclusions.

Lampkin ( 1994 ) 5 late defined organic agriculture that the purpose is “ to make incorporate, humane, environmentally sustainable production systems, which maximize trust on farm-derived renewable resources and the direction of ecological and biological procedures and interactions, so as to supply acceptable degrees of harvest, farm animal and human nutrition, protection from plagues and disease and an appropriate return to the human and other resources ” .

From the definitions clearly understand the construct, methods and stuffs are used in organic agriculture and it is merely a polite word for sustainable agribusiness. It is, hence, as a sustainable agribusiness is capable of keeping its productiveness and utility to society over the long tally. It must be environmentally sound, resource conserving, economically feasible and socially supportive and commercially competitory.

The Principle purposes of organic production ( Farming ) and Processing

The followers are of import purposes of organic production.

To bring forth nutrient of high quality in sufficient measure.

To interact in a constructive and life-enhancing manner with natural systems and rhythm.

To see the wider societal and ecological impact of the organic production and processing system.

To promote and heighten biological rhythms within the agriculture system, affecting micro-organisms, dirt vegetations and zoologies, workss and animate beings.

To develop a valuable and sustainable aquatic ecosystem.

To keep and increase long-run birthrate of dirts.

To keep the familial diverseness of the production system and its milieus, including the protection of workss and wild life home grounds.

To advance the healthy usage and proper attention of H2O, H2O resources and all life at that place in.

To utilize, every bit far as possible, renewable resources in locally organized production systems.

To make a harmonious balance between harvest production and carnal farming.

To give all farm animal conditions of life with due considerations for the basic facets of their unconditioned behaviour.

To minimise all signifiers of pollution.

To treat organic merchandises utilizing renewable resources.

To bring forth fabrics which are long permanent and of good quality.

To let everyone involved in organic production and treating a quality of life which meets their basic demands and allows an equal return and satisfaction from their work, including a safe working environment.

To come on towards an full production, processing and distribution concatenation which is both socially merely ecologically responsible ( Source IFOAM, 1998 ) 6.

Organic agribusiness in general is a system of harvest and farm animal production that promotes and enhances the wellness of agricultural ecosystems while supplying wellness nutrient and reflects the profound inter relationship that exists between farm biology, its production and the overall environment. It is by and large believed that organic agriculture with its cardinal focal point on keeping and bettering dirt wellness, its turning away of pollutants, and its trust on local inputs and labor could materially progress the economic and ecological wellness. The inorganic agriculture, it is progressively felt, is going unsustainable as evidenced by worsening harvest productivenesss, harm to environment, chemical taints, etc over organic agriculture. The necessity of holding an alternate agribusiness method which can work in a friendly eco-system while prolonging and increasing the harvest productiveness is realized now. Hence, organic agriculture is recognized as the best know option to the inorganic agribusiness.

Education Level of Organic and Inorganic Respondents

Heads of the household play a critical function in determination devising and other members of the household may supplement the determination devising procedure. Education is a cardinal index of the cognition degree of the respondents which in bend will act upon on the determination doing procedure in the acceptance of farming patterns. Respondents with higher degree of instruction will be the innovators in the acceptance of advanced agriculture patterns. Therefore, informations on the instruction degree of the respondents has been collected and the consequences are given in the tabular array 1. The instruction degree of the respondents has been chiefly classified into four classs viz. nonreaders, respondents with primary, secondary and college instruction. Zone-wise distribution of the organic and inorganic respondents across these different degrees of instruction is given in this tabular array.

Table 1 Education degree of Respondents

Zone

Farming System

Education Degree

Uneducated

Primary

Secondary

College

Entire

STZ

Organic Farmers

01 ( 1.1 )

18 ( 20.0 )

27 ( 30.8 )

44 ( 48.9 )

90 ( 100.0 )

Inorganic Farmers

11 ( 12.2 )

30 ( 33.3 )

23 ( 25.6 )

26 ( 28.9 )

90 ( 100.0 )

Entire

12 ( 6.7 )

48 ( 26.7 )

50 ( 27.8 )

70 ( 38.9 )

180 ( 100.0 )

Hertz

Organic Farmers

02 ( 1.7 )

25 ( 20.8 )

42 ( 35.0 )

51 ( 42.5 )

120 ( 100.0 )

Inorganic Farmers

16 ( 13.3 )

62 ( 51.7 )

27 ( 22.5 )

15 ( 12.5 )

120 ( 100.0 )

Entire

18 ( 7.5 )

87 ( 36.2 )

69 ( 28.8 )

66 ( 27.5 )

240 ( 100.0 )

Overall

Organic Farmers

03 ( 1.4 )

43 ( 20.5 )

69 ( 32.9 )

95 ( 45.2 )

210 ( 100.0 )

Inorganic Farmers

27 ( 12.9 )

92 ( 43.6 )

50 ( 23.8 )

41 ( 19.5 )

210 ( 100.0 )

Entire

30 ( 7.1 )

135 ( 32.1 )

119 ( 28.4 )

136 ( 32.4 )

420 ( 100.0 )

Note: Figures in parentheses are per centum to number

In the overall zone class, highest per centum of the respondents were holding the instruction up to the college degree ( 32.4 ) and it was followed by the primary ( 32.1 ) and so secondary instruction ( 28.4 ) . Organic respondents found to be holding comparatively higher degree of instruction compared to the inorganic husbandmans. Respondents with college degree of instruction are well more among the organic husbandmans ( 45.2 ) compared to the inorganic husbandmans ( 19.5 ) . Similar difference could be found in the secondary instruction besides. In the uneducated and primary instruction class the per centum of respondents is more among inorganic husbandmans compared to their opposite numbers in the organic husbandmans. Therefore, it could be inferred that the instruction degree of the respondents act upon the acceptance of organic agriculture system. Organic agriculture is more attractive among educated respondents than the uneducated. It is apparent that the educated respondents are more witting about nutrient and agro ecosystem thereby husbandmans with higher degree of cognition adopt the resource conserving and environmental friendly organic agriculture. Furthermore, organic agriculture strategy is more popular among husbandmans who are socially and economically travel frontward in the society.

Caste wise Distribution of Respondents

Caste is one of the indexs of societal position of an person. It influences on determination doing position of an person. Therefore information has been collected from the respondents about the caste position of their household. The caste of the respondents has been chiefly categorized into three groups SC & A ; ST, OBC and General class. SC & A ; ST are clubbed due to few Numberss of respondents among ST class and SC class chiefly comprises adi Karnataka, bhovi, lambani and others. ST comprises of merely nayaka community people. OBC it includes Lingayath, Okkaligas, Edigas Kuruba, Bhants, Maratas chiefly these community peoples and General chiefly comprises of Brahmins community people. The distribution of organic and inorganic respondents across the different classs is given in the tabular array 2 individually for STZ and besides HZ and pooling of these two indicate overall zone class. In the overall zone class out of 420 entire respondents 300 are found to be belonging to OBC followed by 74 are belonging to General and 46 are belonging to SC & A ; ST class. The important characteristic of consequences is that general class respondents histories for higher portion among the organic husbandmans ( 30.9 % ) comparison to their portion is comparatively less in inorganic agriculture group ( 4.3 % ) whereas SC & A ; ST class people histories for higher per centum in the inorganic agriculture ( 17.1 % ) group comparison to the organic agriculture ( 4.3 % ) group. It indicates that the caste is arranged hierarchal order the higher community people more inclination towards organic agriculture compared to the backward people like SC & A ; ST.

It is found that higher caste people are more inclination towards the organic agriculture and backward people are still lodging to inorganic agriculture system. The disaggregated consequences for each zones STZ and HZ we can happen about similar form but particularly in hilly zone general class histories for higher in organic husbandmans ( 52.5 % ) whereas general class respondents histories for 5.8 per centum in inorganic respondents in HZ whereas SC & A ; ST respondents found merely in inorganic agriculture non in the organic agriculture. SC & A ; ST histories for 10.8 % of entire inorganic agriculture respondents in hilly zone whereas corresponding figures for organic agriculture is merely 0.8 per centum. In that zone besides there is important association between caste of the respondents and their acceptance degree of organic agriculture. Same is the instance even in the STZ besides. The most of import determination of this consequence is that higher community people more inclinational towards organic agriculture and backward people like SC & A ; ST still they are practising inorganic agriculture. Thus it is fact that the upper caste people are more awareness about the negative effects of high external input based and unsustainable inorganic farming therefore big proportion of upper caste husbandmans exchanging over to organic agriculture than the lower caste husbandmans.

Table 2: Caste wise Distribution of Sample Respondents

Zone

Respondents Group

Caste

SC & A ; ST

OBC

General

Entire

STZ

Organic Farmers

09 ( 10.0 )

79 ( 87.8 )

02 ( 2.2 )

90 ( 100.0 )

Inorganic Farmers

23 ( 25.6 )

65 ( 72.2 )

02 ( 2.2 )

90 ( 100.0 )

Entire

32 ( 17.8 )

144 ( 80.0 )

04 ( 2.2 )

180 ( 100.0 )

Hertz

Organic Farmers

01 ( 0.8 )

56 ( 46.7 )

63 ( 52.5 )

120 ( 100.0 )

Inorganic Farmers

13 ( 10.8 )

100 ( 83.4 )

07 ( 5.8 )

120 ( 100.0 )

Entire

14 ( 5.8 )

156 ( 65.0 )

70 ( 29.2 )

240 ( 100.0 )

Overall

Organic Farmers

10 ( 4.8 )

135 ( 64.3 )

65 ( 30.9 )

210 ( 100.0 )

Inorganic Farmers

36 ( 17.1 )

165 ( 78.6 )

09 ( 4.3 )

210 ( 100.0 )

Entire

46 ( 11.0 )

300 ( 71.4 )

74 ( 17.6 )

240 ( 100.0 )

Note: Figures in parentheses are per centum to number

Land Holding of the Respondents

In rural economic system, land is one of the of import socio-economic indexs. Size of land keeping influences the cropping form, farming patterns and acceptance of modern engineering. Data relating to the size of land retentions has been collected from the respondents. On the footing of the size of land retentions the sample respondents have been loosely categorized into little husbandmans ( & lt ; 2 hectares ) and big husbandmans ( & gt ; 2 hectare ) . The frequence distribution of respondents across the different land keeping class is presented in the tabular array 3.

In the overall size class, 52.4 per centum of respondents are in little size class and the staying 47.6 per centum are in big class. Well higher per centum of organic respondents ( 56.2 % ) is in the big size retentions compared to the inorganic respondents ( 39.1 % ) . Small size of keeping is comparatively more among the inorganic respondents ( 60.9 % ) compared to the organic respondents ( 43.8 % ) . Large husbandmans are comparatively more disposition towards the organic agriculture compared to the little husbandmans. It is apparent that the big husbandmans are holding more disposition toward the organic agriculture compared to the little class of husbandmans. In both hill zone and southern passage zone comparatively higher per centum of organic husbandmans are in the big size of retentions compared to the opposite numbers in the inorganic class and the comparatively higher per centum of inorganic husbandmans are in the little size of the keeping compared to their counter parts in the organic class in both the zones. Though the big husbandmans are more inclination towards organic agriculture in both STZ and HZ it is more glowering in hilly zone.

Table 3: Distribution of Respondents across the Size of Land Holding

Zone

Respondents Group

Land Holding Pattern

Small

Large

Entire

STZ

Organic Farming

38 ( 42.2 )

52 ( 57.8 )

90 ( 100.0 )

Inorganic Farming

50 ( 55.6 )

40 ( 44.4 )

90 ( 100.0 )

Entire

88 ( 48.9 )

92 ( 51.1 )

180 ( 100.0 )

Hertz

Organic Farming

54 ( 48.9 )

66 ( 55.0 )

120 ( 100.0 )

Inorganic Farming

78 ( 65.0 )

42 ( 35.0 )

120 ( 100.0 )

Entire

132 ( 55.0 )

108 ( 45.0 )

240 ( 100.0 )

Overall

Organic Farming

92 ( 43.8 )

118 ( 56.2 )

210 ( 100.0 )

Inorganic Farming

128 ( 60.9 )

82 ( 39.1 )

210 ( 100.0 )

Entire

220 ( 52.4 )

200 ( 47.6 )

420 ( 100.0 )

Note: Figures in parentheses are per centum to number

Decision

Organic agriculture is known to successful direction of resources for agribusiness to fulfill the altering human demands while keeping or heightening the quality of environment and conserving natural resources. Hence organic agriculture is one of the several attacks found to run into the aims of sustainable agribusiness and which is capable of keeping its productiveness and utility to society over the long tally. Organic agriculture is authorities sponsored programme in Karnataka through which authorities has been given assorted sorts of subsidies to the organic husbandmans. The survey revealed that the husbandmans who have been adopted the organic agriculture are higher degree of instruction and belonging to higher caste. Thus organic farming strategy in Karnataka is more advantageous to the husbandmans who are educationally frontward, higher caste and big size of land retentions. Hence, the impact of organic agriculture is found to be benefited to the husbandmans who are already socially and economically frontward but marginalized the husbandmans socially and economically rearward in the society.

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