Chapter 8 Sex Distinction – the biological distinction between females and males. Incest Taboo – a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives. 1960 Birth Control – New technology also played a part in the sexual revolution. The birth control pill, introduced in 1960, not only prevented pregnancy but also made sex more convenient. Premarital Sex – sexual intercourse before marriage – among young people. Sexual Orientation – a person’s romantic and emotional attraction to another person.
Homophobia – discomfort over close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Prostitution – the selling of sexual service. 90k Reported Rapes – more than 90,000 women each year report to the police that they have been raped. Uneven Enforcement – enforcement of prostitution laws is uneven at best, especially when it comes to who is and is not likely to be arrested. Abortion – the deliberate termination of a pregnancy. Chapter 9 Decent Values – Elijah Anderson explains that in poor urban neighborhoods, most people manage to conform to conventional or “decent” values.
Stigma – a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity. Social Inequality – who or what is labeled deviant depends on which categories of people hold power in a society. Corporate Crime – the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf. *Arrest of Women – couldn’t find a fact to define this one! Victimless Crimes – violations of law in which there are no obvious victims. High Risk – people with high arrest rates are also at higher risk of being victims of crime.
Due Process – the idea that the criminal justice system should operate under the rule of law – guides the actions of police, court officials, and corrections officers. Decline of Executions – as a public concern about the death penalty has increased, the use of capital punishment has declined, falling from 74 executions in 1997 to 37 in 2008. No Elimination of Crime – criminal justice system cannot eliminate crime. Chapter 10 Structural Social Mobility – a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts.
Ideology – cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality. Socioeconomic Status – a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality. Conspicuous Consumption – buying and using products because of the “statement” they make about social position. Davis-Moore Thesis – states not only that social stratification is universal but also that it is necessary to make society highly productive. Chapter 11 Median Income – a recent survey of families by the Federal Reserve found that median wealth for minority families.
Upper Class – many upper-class people are business owners, executives in large corporations, or senior government officials. Marriage Age: 26/28 – the average age at marriage has moved upward four years (to 25. 6 years for women and 27. 5 years for men). Feminization of Poverty – the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor. Homeless Mentally Ill: 25% – One-third of homeless people are substance abusers, and one-fourth is mentally ill. Chapter 12 High-Income Countries – the nations with the highest overall standards of living.
Global Stratification – the full extent of global stratification reflects both differences among countries and internal stratification. 100 Million Kids Black-market – 100 million of the world’s children are orphaned or have left their families altogether, sleeping and living on the streets as best they can or perhaps trying to migrate to the US. Modernization Theory – a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations.