Sociology Chapter 1 review

The concept that describes opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called ________.
Sociological Perspective.
What element did C. Wright Mills attribute as being the one that sociologists would use to explain individual behavior?
External influences.
When sociologists’ group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job, and income, they are trying to determine ________.
Social location.
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The sociological perspective emphasizes how the social context influences people’s lives, particularly how people are influenced by ________.
society
The sociologist responsible for suggesting the connection between history and biography to explain the sociological imagination was ________.
C.Wright Mills
Of the following, which discipline is most appropriately classified as a natural science?
Biology
The social science discipline that concentrates on the study of artifacts, social structure, ideas, values, and forms of communication is ________.
Anthropology (Study of culture)
The first goal of each scientific discipline is to ________.
explain why things happen.
The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was ________.
Auguste Compte
What is the method to use objective and observation to test theories
The scientific method.
What was the social event that most influenced Auguste Comte to explore patterns within society and become interested in what holds society together?
The French revolution
The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as ________.
Social Darwinism
The term “survival of the fittest,” which is a principle part of the concept of social Darwinism, was coined by ________.
Herbert Spencer
The theorist who is sometimes referred to as “the second founder of sociology” was ________.
Herbert Spencer
Karl Marx suggested that the force that drives human history and is at the core of human society is ________.
Class conflict
The Wall Street Journal has declared that the three greatest modern thinkers were ________, ________, and ________.
Marx, Sigmund Freud, Albert Einstein.
Who predicted that there would be a classless society once the working class united and began a revolution was ________.
Karl Marx
The titles Karl Marx used to describe the two classes in society were the ________ and the ________.
Bourgeoisie and Ploretariat
The French sociologist Emile Durkheim is most identified with which of the following areas of study?
Social integration
Max Weber referred to the self-denying approach to life characterized by people living frugal lives and saving their money as the ________.
Protestant ethic
Karl Marx believed that ________ was the central force for social change, while Max Weber believed that ________ was the force most responsible for social change.
economic, religion
According to Max Weber, the Protestant ethic was a central factor in the birth of ________.
capitalism
What quality did Max Weber stress as being the hallmark of social research?
neutrality
The scientific method requires ________, repeating a study in order to compare the new research results with the original findings.
replication
Max Weber used the term Verstehen to mean ________.
Grasp by insight (German term)
Durkheim referred to patterns of behavior that characterize a social group as ________.
Social fact
Sociology first took root as an academic discipline at _______ in 1890.
The University of Kansas
The university that dominated sociology as an academic discipline when Albion Small headed the department was ________.
The University of Chicago
What did Robert E. Park, Ernest Burgess, and George Herbert Mead have in common?
They were among the first faculty members in the sociology department at the University of Chicago.
What distinction did sociologist Frances Perkins hold in American history?
First woman to hold a presidential cabinet position.
Because of her outstanding contributions to social reform, as demonstrated in her work as co-founder of Hull-House, ________ was a co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.
Jane Addams.
The book published by W. E. B. Du Bois in 1899 that analyzed how African Americans in a major United States city coped with racism was ________.
The Philadelphia Negro
The first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University, who spent his lifetime studying race relations in America and was one of the founders of the NAACP, was ________.
W.E.B. Dubois
Karl Marx – class conflict
Harriet Martineau – slavery and women oppression
Jane Addams – minority exploitation
Conflict theory speaks of wealth redistribution.

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