Sociology Exam

If a field researcher cannot reveal that a study is being done for fear that this revelation might significantly affect the social processes being studied, he or she is finding out that:
It is sometimes difficult to follow the norms of voluntary participation and informed consent.
A friendship group isn’t an example of a formal organization because:
Friends typically don’t have formal rules and governing structures
One major concern with restricted ownership of major media outlets is that:
De facto censorship may occur because it becomes easier to suppress messages that media owners don’t support
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A testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables is called a(n):
Hypothesis
Your introduction to sociology class is probably which of the following types of groups identified by Cooley?
Secondary
According to Goffman, when there is a breach (mistake) in an established script, people generally do which of the following?
Work hard to repair the mistake so everyone can move forward
Any social network that is defined by a common purpose and that has a boundary between its members and the rest of the social world is known within sociology as a(n):
Organization
Sociology is the study of:
Group-level dynamics and social structures
Which sociologist distinguished between primary and secondary groups?
Charles Horton Cooley
What kind of group ceases to exist if even on member leaves the group?
Dyads
Although there are many agents of socialization, four of the primary ones, according to the textbook, are:
family, schools, peers, and media.
Which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender differences?
Feminism
The research method that uses information that can be converted to numerical form is:
Quantitative.
American sociology in the United States began at which of the following universities?
University of Chicago
All of the following are described as golden rules of ethical conduct in social research EXCEPT:
Never debrief
According to George Herbert Mead’s stages of development, children learn to recognize an other through:
imitation
Ideologies are:
often brought into question when certain aspects of that ideology are challenged.
When on factor is said to influence another factor, we refer to this as:
causality
A drastic type of adult socialization that may occur when adults change environments is known as:
resocialization
One of the two main categories of culture that includes values, beliefs, norms, and behaviors is known as:
nonmaterial culture
Based on the results of a representative sample of students at his high school, Jack claims that “the majority of high school students today believe premarital sex is wrong.” Jack may be “speaking beyond his data” because the results he obtained may not easily translate to the attitudes of other high school students across the United States. This concern addresses the study’s:
generalizability
Studies have shown that people interact with babies differently based on whether the babies are boys or girls. Using role theory, we could argue that:
sex is a master status in our society
Set of dyads held together by ties between the individuals are known as:
Social networks
A recognizable social position that an individual occupies, such as student or professor, is known as a:
Status
A set of stories that ties you to a social group is known as:
Narrative
What do symbolic interactionists study?
Shared meaning
You take a trip to Alaska and find that Inuit families sleep together naked to stay warm. You find this practice disgusting and can’t understand why they don’t consider this incestuous. You are being:
Ethnocentric
While they are difficult to define, ______ are smaller subgroups within a larger dominant society united by sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meanings specific to the members of that group.
subcultures
If we place nature and nurture at opposite ends on a continuum, most sociologists would fall toward the nurture end of the continuum. Which statement best explains this tendency?
Sociologists focus on, and as a result give primary weight to, the social environment in explaining how people think, feel, and behave
Solomon Asch’s experiments on group conformity demonstrate:
how powerful the influence of a group can be on an individual.
The more consistent the results given by repeated measurements, the higher the ______ of the measurement procedure (and vice versa).
reliability
In sociology’s “cousin,” psychology, the focus is on the individual. In sociology, the focus is above and beyond the individual, on group-level dynamics and social structures. This is known as:
supra-individual
A sociologist studying minor children, pregnant women, or inmates must get approval, as these groups are known as:
protected populations
As defined by C. Wright Mills, which of the following enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within in society:
Sociological imagination
In the discipline of history, focusing on historical figures such as Adolf Hitler is known as:
“great man” theories
A correlation is a:
simultaneous change in two variables.
Reflection theory is limited because it:
fails to take into account why some cultural products have staying power and others fall by the wayside.
Culture tends to be:
relative
Which of the following factors is needed to establish causality?
time order
Which of the following types of groups do people compare themselves to, even if they don’t know each other personally?
reference groups
In contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from Marx’s belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change?
Conflict theory
Which of the following statements best describes the difference between in-groups and out-groups?
In-groups are more powerful
Most people occupy many statuses at a particular point in time (e.g., student, son or daughter, employee, citizen). This list of statuses is known as the:
status set
All of the following are strengths of the case study method EXCEPT that it is:
useful for creating large-scale generalizations
An example of nonmaterial culture is:
values
Which of the following is true regarding the value of high versus low culture?
It is difficult to debate the worth of high and low culture
Military boot camps and prisons are places that control all of the basics of people’s day-to-day lives and are known as:
total institutions
Goth culture tends to exist:
cross-culturally
Economists tend to see humans as ______, but sociologists would tend to include ______.
rational actors; emotional motivations
All of the statuses that an individual occupies at any given time constitute his or her:
status set

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