Sociology Midterm

Sociology Midterm

William Sheldon linked criminality to:
a) muscular, athletic builds
b) race
c) class position
d) gender
a) muscular, athletic builds
Which of the following concepts refers to “the recognized violation of cultural norms”?
a) crime
b) deviance
c) legal infraction
d) juvenile delinquency
b) deviance
“Crime” differs from “deviance” in that crime:
a) is always more serious
b) is usually less serious
c) refers to a violation of norms enacted into law
d) involves a larger share of the population
c) refers to violation of norms enacted into law
In Robert Merton’s strain theory of deviance, which of the following concepts refers to the process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting the conventional means to achieve them
a) rebellion
b) ritualism
c) retreatism
d) innovation
d) innovation
The likelihood a person will be arrested for street crimes rises sharply:
a) during the late teenage years
b) in the late twenties
c) during the middle thirties
d) over age forty
a) during the late teenage years
In terms of racial/ethnic categories, most people arrested for a violent crime in Canada are:
a) white
b) Aboriginal
c) French
d) Chinese
a) white
The oldest justification for punishing an offender is:
a) deterrence
b) retribution
c) social protection
d) rehabilitation
b) retribution
Every society tries to regulate the behaviour of individuals; this general process is called:
a) neighbourhood watch
b) self control
c) social control
d) the legal system
c) social control
What concept refers to the formal system that responds to alleged violations of the law using police, courts, and prison officials?
a) the normative system
b) social control
c) civil law
d) the criminal justice system
d) the criminal justice system
Biological factors, including genetics, explain most criminal behaviour.
a) true
b) false
b) false
Gerhard Lenski claimed that which of the following has the greatest power to shape a society?
a) technology
b) human ideas
c) social conflict
d) human desire for change
a) technology
The first type of society to generate a material substance is:
a) hunting and gathering
b) horticultural and pastoral
c) agrarian
d) industrial
b) horticultural and pastoral
Gerhard Lenski claims that the development of more complex technology:
a) is entirely positive
b) has both positive and negative effects
c) is entirely negative in its effect
d) has no effect on the quality of human life
b) has both positive and negative effects
The birth of the discipline of sociology took place during the development of which type of society?
a) pastoral
b) horticultural
c) industrial
d) agrarian
c) industrial
The driving force of social change, according to Marx, is:
a) advancing technology
b) social conflict between classes
c) dominant ideas
d) the way in which society is held together
b) social conflict between classes
Karl Marx considered capitalism to be _____, but Max Weber argued that capitalism was very ______.
a) irrational; rational
b) rational; irrational
c) unproductive; productive
d) productive; unproductive
a) irrational; rational
It would be correct to say that Durkheim thought of society as:
a) existing only in the human mind
b) an objective reality
c) changing from moment to moment
d) having no clear existence at all
b) an objective reality
Hunting and gathering societies generate a productive surplus
a) true
b) false
b) false
Huge empires-such as the Roman Empire that included tens of millions of people and several million miles-were based on agrarian technology
a) true
b) false
a) true
Who, of the following, would be most likely to argue that the power go ideas shapes society
c) Weber
The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg’s research was:
a) cognition
b) the importance of gender in socialization
c) moral reasoning
d) all of the above are correct
c) moral reasoning
Mead places the origin of the self in:
a) biological drives
b) culture
c) social experience
d) the functioning of the brain
c) social experience
Thinking about how patterns of child-rearing vary by class, lower-class parents generally stress ______, while well-to-do parents typically stress _______.
a) independence; protecting children
b) independence; dependence
c) obedience; creativity
d) creativity; obedience
c) obedience; creativity
In historical perspective, the importance of the mass media to the socialization process has:
a) increased over time
b) been about the same over the last century
c) decreased over time
d) the mass media have never played a large part
a) increased over time
Jean Piaget’s focus was on:
a) how children develop their motor skills
b) how children are stimulated by their environment
c) the role of heredity in shaping human behaviour
d) cognition, or how people think and understand
d) cognition, or how people think and understand
In Freud’s model of personality, what represents the presence of culture within the individual?
a) id
b) ego
c) superego
d) thanatos
c) superego
In the nature versus nurture debate, sociologists claim that:
a) nature is far more important than nurture
b) nurture is far more important than nature
c) nature and nurture have equal importance
d) neither nature nor nurture creates the essence of our humanity
b) nurture is far more important than nature
While many researchers have studied outward behaviour, George Herbert Mead focused on a symbolic meaning-specifically the meaning people attach to behaviour.
a) true
b) false
a) true
Melvin Kohn demonstrated the parents of all social classes have much of the same expectations of their children.
a) true
b) false
b) false
When Cooley used the concept “looking-glass self,” he meant to say that:
a) people are self-centred
b) people see themselves as they think others see them
c) people see things only from their own point of view
d) our actions are a reflection of our values
b) people see themselves as they think others see them
Which part of the following is likey to play a part in the reality we construct through social interaction?
a) social class background
b) the country we live in
c) our ethnicity
d) all of the above are correct
d) all of the above are correct
Which sociologist developed the approach called dramaturgical analysis?
a) George Herbert Mead
b) Harold Garfinkel
c) Erving Goffman
d) W. I Thomas
c) Erving Goffman
Which of the following is an important element of non-verbal communication?
a) hand gestures
b) eye contact
c) body language
d) all of the above are correct
d) all of the above are correct
Which of the following concepts defines who and what we are in relation to others?
a) role
b) status
c) role set
d) presentation of self
b) status
How does culture play a role in guiding human emotions?
a) culture determines what triggers emotions
b) culture provides the rules for how people display emotions
c) culture tells us how emotional we expect people to
d) all of the above are correct
d) all of the above are correct
The English language often treats as ______ whatever has greater value, power, or importance.
a) gender-free
b) feminine
c) masculine
d) humorous
c) masculine
Which of the following phrases was used by Erving Goffman to refer to being embarrassed in a social situation?
a) “breaking” a role
b) “idealizing” a performance
c) “exiting” a role
d) “losing face”
d) “losing face”
In dramaturgical analysis, a restricted area in some setting is called the “back stage or region.”
a) true
b) false
a) true
Dianne and Matt lost while driving to some friends’ house. Matt will not stop and ask for directions as Dianne wants him to. This chapter-opening story illustrates the pattern that
a) social interaction is actually mostly random
b) men and women may have disagreements about who should drive
c) men avoid asking for directions because it makes them dependent on someone else
d) men are more interested in connectedness than women are
c) men avoid asking for directions because it makes them dependent on someone else
Typically, each status is linked to several roles.
a) true
b) false
a) true
Which of the following is every society’s most important primary group?
a) the peer group
b) the work group
c) the family
d) the play group
c) the family
Read the list of traits below. Which of these traits is NOT a characteristic of secondary groups?
a) large size
b) weak emotional ties
c) personal orientation
d) often short-term duration
c) personal orientation
In general, which of the following categories of people are “well connected” in terms of social networks?
a) young people
b) well-educated people
c) people living in cities
d) all of the above are correct
d) all of the above are correct
In principle, bureaucratic organizations pay little attention to:
a) tradition
b) completing tasks efficiently
c) formal policies
d) the technical competence of members
a) tradition
The scientific management approach was developed by:
a) Fredrick Taylor
b) Robert Merton
c) Robert Michels
d) Rosabeth Moss Kanter
a) Fredrick Taylor
During the last fifty years, Japanese formal organizations have differed from those in the United States by being:
a) less efficient
b) less profitable
c) more collective in their orientations
d) more hierarchical
c) more collective in their orientations
Think about the process of McDonaldization. Looking at the list below, all but one of the traits is correctly linked to McDonaldization. Which is not a trait of McDonaldization?
a) efficiency
b) creativity
c) ability to calculate results
d) control though automation
b) creativity
Charles Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as:
a) an instrumental group
b) an expressive group
c) a primary group
d) a secondary group
b) an expressive group
What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?
a) democratic leadership
b) authoritarian leadership
c) expressive leadership
d) instrumental leadership
d) instrumental leadership
Formal organizations are:
a) small groups with elected leaders
b) large secondary groups with goal orientation
c) networks that have many members
d) only agencies that are part of the government
b) large secondary groups with goal orientation
The sexual revolution had was in full force by the
a) 1920’s
b) 1960’s
c) 1980’s
d) 1990’s
b) 1960’s
Research on extramarital sex shows that about _____ of married men and about _____ of married women remain faithful to their spouse throughout their married lives.
a) 25 percent; 40 percent
b) 25 percent; 75 percent
c) 75 percent; 50 percent
d) 75 percent; 90 percent
d) 75 percent; 90 percent
Prostitution is regarded by many people in Canada as a:
a) victimless crime
b) corporate crime
c) crime against the person
d) white-collar crime
a) victimless crime
Which theoretical approach rests on the idea that society needs to regulate human sexuality?
a) structural-functional approach
b) the symbolic-interaction approach
c) the social-conflict approach
d) queer theory
a) structural-functional approach
The text suggests that probably the most hotly contested issue involving sexuality in Canada in recent years has been:
a) homosexuality and gay rights
b) abortion
c) prostitution
d) teen pregnancy
b) abortion
Which theoretical approach points to the ways in which sexuality is linked to social inequality?
a) structural-functional approach
b) the symbolic-interaction approach
c) the social-conflict approach
d) all of the above are correct
c) the social-conflict approach
Sociobiologists point out that, in every society on Earth, people are attracted to youthfulness.
a) true
b) false
a) true
A reason to study sexuality from the sociological perspective is:
a) sexuality is both important and controversial
b) many people do not understand sexuality very well
c) sexuality plays a part in my areas of social life
d) all of the above are correct
d) all of the above are correct
Which concept refers to the biological distinction between males and females?
a) sex
b) primary sex characteristics
c) gender
d) gender roles
a) sex
If you often had the feeling of being “trapped in the wrong body,” you might well be:
a) a hermaphrodite
b) a transsexual
c) a homosexual
d) a bisexual
b) a transsexual
Comparing societies in history and around the world, we see that social stratification may involve differences in:
a) what is unequal
b) how unequal people are
c) why people are unequal
d) all of the above are correct
d) all of the above are correct
In general, societies that have a caste system have economies that are:
a) based on hunting and gathering
b) industrial
c) agrarian
d) postindustrial
c) agrarian
Half of all the people in Great Britain today consider themselves to be in the:
a) upper class
b) middle class
c) lower class
d) working class
d) working class
Social stratification is a concept that refers to:
a) specialization in productive work
b) ranking categories of people in a hierarchy
c) the idea that some people are more talented then others
d) all of the above are correct
b) ranking categories of people in a hierarchy
The common ideology of a class system states that success and wealth typically result from:
a) sheer luck
b) family background
c) flaws in society
d) personal talent and effort
d) personal talent and effort
According to Karl Marx, social stratification in a capitalist society always involves:
a) class conflict
b) negotiation and compromise leading to stability
c) the abolition of work itself
d) all of the above are correct
a) class conflict
Max Weber claimed that agrarian societies give special importance to which dimension of social inequality?
a) economic class
b) social prestige or honor
c) power
d) control of information
b) social prestige or honor
In Canada, social inequality is a matter of only people’s talents and abilities.
a) true
b) false
b) false
Individuals in class systems typically exhibit more status inconsistency than people in caste systems.
a) true
b) false
a) true
The point of the chapter-opening story of passenger deaths that accompanied the sinking of the ocean liner Titanic is that:
a) advanced technology
b) all people have the same right to life
c) social stratification matters and can sometimes be a matter of life and death
d) social stratification has little to do with everyday life
c) social stratification matters and can sometimes be a matter of life and death
Which of the following is NOT defined in your text asa dimension of social inequality?
a) wealth
b) power
c) occupational prestige
d) birth order
d) birth order
Which of the following class levels contains the least amount of racial and ethnic diversity?
a) the upper-upper class
b) the middle class
c) the working class
d) all class levels have the same level
a) the upper-upper class
According to Karl Marx, which class forms the core of the industrial proletariat?
a) the upper-middle class
b) the middle class
c) the upper class
d) the working class
d) the working class
People of low social position are more liberal on _____ issues and more conservative on ______ issues.
a) social; economic
b) economic; social
c) very few; personal
d) personal; economic
b) economic; social
Which of the following factors tends to raise your social standing?
a) divorce
b) leave school to get a job
c) marry and stay married
d) all of the above are correct
c) marry and stay married
Sociologist William Julius Wilson suggests the cause of poverty lies in:
a) a lower-class culture of poverty
b) lack of government action
c) too few available jobs
d) bad public schools
c) too few available jobs
In Canada, an increasing share of the poor are:
a) single women and their children
b) married couples with children
c) single men
d) working people
a) single women and their children
In Canadian society, wealth stands as an important source of power.
a) true
b) false
a) true
The working class is sometimes called the “lower-middle class”
a) true
b) false
a) true
There is no difference between income and wealth; both concepts refer to the same thing.
a) true
b) false
b) false
A majority of the world’s population lives in:
a) low-income nations
b) middle-income nations
c) high-income nations
d) none of the above is correct
b) middle-income nations
Which of the world region contains the largest share of the world’s street children?
a) Asia
b) Latin America
c) Africa
d) Europe
b) Latin America
According to Anti-Slavery International, about how many men, women, and children live today in conditions that amount to slavery?
a) 20, 000
b) 200, 000
c) 200 million
d) 2 billion
c) 200 million
Modernization theory identifies which of the following as the greatest barrier to economic development?
a) technology
b) multination corporations
c) capitalism
d) tradition
d) tradition
A sociologist theorist who contributed to the development of dependency theory by tracing the growth of the capitalist world economy is:
a) Max Weber
b) Emile Durkheim
c) W. W. Rostow
d) Immanuel Wallerstein
d) Immanuel Wallerstein
Over the course of the last century, the extent of global economic inequality has:
a) decreased sharply
b) stayed about the same
c) increased
d) become smaller, but not by much
c) increased
The poorest 20 percent of the global population receives only about what percentage of all global income?
a) 2%
b) 8%
c) 15%
d) 25%
a) 2%
Low-income countries are mostly agrarian, with little industry.
a) true
b) false
a) true
Typically, people in low-income countries do more physical labour yet consume fewer calories than people in rich nations.
a) true
b) false
a) true
The wealthiest 20 percent of the global population receives about what percentage of all global income
a) 28 percent
b) 35 percent
c) 50 percent
d) 77 percent
d) 77 percent
Critical sociology can best be described as a(n) ___________ approach.
a) activist
b) scientific
c) quantitative
d) value-free
a) activist
Quantitative research has special appeal to investigators who favour which theoretical approach?
a) the structural-functional approach
b) the symbolic-interaction approach
c) the social-conflict approach
d) all of the above are correct
c) the social-conflict approach
A researcher doing participant observation may “break in” to a setting more easily with the help of a:
a) key informant
b) research assistant
c) bigger budget
d) all of the above are correct
a) key informant
The sociologist who called on his colleagues to be value-free was:
a) Karl Marx
b) Emilie Durkheim
c) Herbert Spencer
d) Max Weber
d) Max Weber
In making judgments about how society should be improved, the __________ approach in sociology rejects Max Weber’s goal that researchers be value-free.
a) interpretive
b) critical
c) scientific
d) positivist
b) critical
A theory states that increasing a person’s formal education results in increased earnings over a lifetime. In this theory, “education” is the:
a) independent variable
b) dependent variable
c) correlation
d) effect
a) independent variable
Which German word meaning “understanding” was used by Max Weber in describing his approach to sociological research?
a) Gemeinschaft
b) Gesellschaft
c) Verstehen
d) Verboten
c) Verstehen
A positivist approach assumes that reality exists “out there.”
a) true
b) false
a) true
Natural scientists often have an easier time than social scientists in identifying cause-and-effect relationships.
a) true
b) false
a) true
The sociological perspective reveals that:
a) “common sense” is usually pretty close to the truth
b) much of what passes for “common sense” in Canada turns out to be at least partly wrong
c) most people in Canada readily see how society shapes our lives
d) “common sense” is not very popular in Canada
b) much of what passes for “common sense” in Canada turns out to be at least partly wrong