1. Emile Durkheim saw society as a system “beyond us” with the power to guide our lives. Therefore, he described elements of society, including cultural norms, values, and beliefs as:
- a. false consciousness.
- b. ideal types.
- c. social facts.
- d. forms of rationality.
2. C. Wright Mills claimed that the “sociological imagination” transformed:
- a. scientific research into common sense.
- b. personal problems into public issues.
- c. people into supporters of the status quo.
- d. common sense into laws of society.
3. Sociologists use the term “social marginality” to refer to:
- a. people who have little understanding of sociology
- b. people who are especially sensitive about their family background.
- c. being defined by others as an “outsider. ”
- d. having special social skills.
4.A symbolic-interaction analysis focuses not on how individuals perceive a social setting but how what happens in that setting involves social inequality.
- a. True
- b. False
5. With regard to the process of measurement, which of the following statements is true?
- a. Consistency does not guarantee validity.
- b. For measurement to be reliable, it must be valid.
- c. For measurement to be valid, it must be reliable.
- d.All measurement is both reliable and valid.
6. Because there is more social isolation in rural areas of Canada than in urban areas, we would expect suicide rates to be:
- a. high in both urban and rural areas.
- b. higher in rural areas.
- c. higher in urban areas.
- d. low in both urban and rural areas.
7. What is the term for the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together make up a people’s way of life?
- a. society
- b. culture
- c. social structure
- d. social system
8. Which of the following concepts was used by Durkheim to name a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals?
- a. division of labor
- b. anomie
- c. false consciousness
- d. alienation
9. Formal organizations are:
- a. small groups with elected leaders.
- b. large secondary groups with a goal orientation.
- c. only agencies that are part of the government.
- d. networks that have many members.
10. Subculture refers to:
- a. people who embrace high culture.
- b. cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population.
- c. people who embrace popular culture.
- d. a part of the population lacking culture.
11. Ethnocentrism refers to:
- a. people taking pride in their ethnicity.
- b. judging another culture using the standards of your own culture.
- c. claiming that another culture is better than your own.
- d. understanding another culture using its own standards and values.
12. Cars, computers, and iPhones are all examples of which of the following?
- a. norms.
- b. high culture.
- c. material culture.
- d. nonmaterial culture.
13 _____ is a way of understanding the world based on science.
- a. Free will
- b. Theology
- c. Positivism
- d. Metaphysics
The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher:
- a. must carry out research that will encourage desirable social change.
- b. must try to adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research.
- c. must study issues that have no value to society as a whole.
- d. must not care personally about the topic being studied.
15. Which of the following historical changes is among the factors that stimulated the development of sociology as a discipline?
- a. a belief that our futures are defined by “fate”
- b. the founding of the Roman Catholic Church
- c. the power of tradition
- d. the rise of industrial factories and cities
16 Which of the following is a way in which people can mislead others with statistics?
- a.People select the data they present.
- b. People interpret the data to lead their readers to a desired conclusion.
- c. People use graphs to “spin” the truth.
- d. All of the above are correct.
17. Which of the following best describes the focus of the structural-functional approach?
- a. patterns of social inequality
- b. the consequences of social patterns for the operation of society
- c. the meaning people attach to their behavior
- d. All of the above are correct.
18. Sociologists use the term “empirical evidence” to refer to:
- a. information we can verify with our senses.
- b. information that most people agree is true.
- c. information that squares with common sense.
- d. information that is based on a society’s traditions.
19. According to Peter Blau, which of the following plays a part in group dynamics?
- a. class
- b. race
- c. gender
- d. all of the above
20. The social-conflict approach draws attention to:
- a. patterns of social inequality.
- b. how elements contribute to the overall operation of society
- c. how people construct meaning in their interaction.
- d. the stable aspects of society.
21. Cultural transmission refers to the process of:
- a. assing cultural patterns from one generation to another.
- b. cultural patterns moving from one society to another.
- c. using writing to enshrine cultural patterns.
- d. using the oral tradition.
22. An act of kindness, such as opening the door for an elderly man, illustrates conforming to:
- a. proscriptive norms.
- b. taboos.
- c. mores.
- d. folkways.
23. Sociologists define a symbol as:
- a. any gesture that conveys insult to others.
- b. any material cultural trait.
- c. social patterns that cause culture shock.
- d. anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture.
24. By stating that the sociological perspective shows us “the strange in the familiar,” the text argues that sociologists
- a. believe that people often behave in strange ways.
- b. reject the familiar idea that people simply decide how to act in favor of the initially strange idea that society shapes our lives
- c. focus on the bizarre elements of society.
- d. believe that even people who are most familiar to us have some very strange habits.
25. ______________ refers to organized interaction of people within a nation, state, or other boundary who share a culture.
- a. popular culture
- b. real culture
- c. society
- d. social structure
26. Which theoretical approach claims that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as what meaning they attach to their behavior?
- a. symbolic-interaction approach
- b. structural-functional approach
- c. social-exchange approach
- d. social-conflict approach
27. Using the social-conflict approach, a sociologist might highlight which of the following?
- a. racial inequality in a company’s hiring and promotion practices
- b. gender inequality in college sports
- c. income differences among young people in high school
- d.All of the above are correct.
28. The spread of cultural traits from one society to another is called:
- a. popular culture.
- b. diffusion.
- c. immigration.
- d. cultural transmission.
29. Which discipline defines itself as “the systematic study of human society”?
- a. history
- b. economics
- c. psychology
- d. sociology
30. Identify the three sociologists who played a part in the development of sociology’s structural-functional approach.
- a. Talbott Parsons, Karl Marx, W. E. B. Du Bois
- b. Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim
- c. Robert Merton, Karl Marx, Auguste Comte
- d. Harriet Martineau, Robert Merton, W. E. B.
31. Du Bois Which of the following founding sociologists urged sociologists to understand a social setting from the point of view of the people in it?
- a. Emile Durkheim
- b. Karl Marx
- c. Max Weber
- d. Auguste Comte
32. Social-exchange analysis is one micro-level approach to understanding social interaction.
- a. True
- b. False
33. Peter Berger described using the sociological perspective as seeing the ______ in the _______.
- a. specific; general
- b. good; worst tragedies
- c. new; old
- d. general; particular
34. Sociologists test their theories by gathering facts in order to confirm, reject, or modify them.
- a. False
- b. True
35. The pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in Europe was:
- a. Auguste Comte.
- b. Robert K. Merton
- c. Emile Durkheim.
- d. Karl Marx
36. A statement of how and why specific facts are related is called a:
- a. theory.
- b. concept.
- c. precept.
- d. approach.
37. If marginality encourages sociological thinking, we would expect people in which category listed below to make the most use of the sociological perspective?
- a. disabled persons or people who are a racial minority
- b. politicians
- c. the middle class
- d. the wealthy
38. The social-conflict approach, argued that the point of studying society was:
- a. o bring about needed change.
- b. to foster support for a nation’s government.
- c. to understand how society really operates.
- d. to compare U. S. society to others.
39. The sociologist who called on his colleagues to be value free was:
- a. Karl Marx.
- b. Herbert Spencer.
- c. Emile Durkheim.
- d. Max Weber.
40. __________ are rules about everyday, casual living; __________ are rules with great moral significance.
- a. Prescriptive norms; proscriptive norms
- b. Folkways; mores
- c. Mores; folkways
- d. Proscriptive norms; prescriptive norms