Sociology Test 1. Sociological imagination. Wright Mills. Act of kindness. Peter Berger


1. Emile Durkheim saw society as a system “beyond us” with the power to guide our lives. Therefore, he described elements of society, including cultural norms, values, and beliefs as:

  • a. false consciousness.
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  • b. ideal types.
  • c. social facts.
  • d. forms of rationality.

2. C. Wright Mills claimed that the “sociological imagination” transformed:

  • a. scientific research into common sense.
  • b. personal problems into public issues.
  • c. people into supporters of the status quo.
  • d. common sense into laws of society.

3. Sociologists use the term “social marginality” to refer to:

  • a. people who have little understanding of sociology
  • b. people who are especially sensitive about their family background.
  • c. being defined by others as an “outsider. ”
  • d. having special social skills.

4.A symbolic-interaction analysis focuses not on how individuals perceive a social setting but how what happens in that setting involves social inequality.

  • a. True
  • b. False

5. With regard to the process of measurement, which of the following statements is true?

  • a. Consistency does not guarantee validity.
  • b. For measurement to be reliable, it must be valid.
  • c. For measurement to be valid, it must be reliable.
  • d.All measurement is both reliable and valid.

6. Because there is more social isolation in rural areas of Canada than in urban areas, we would expect suicide rates to be:

  • a. high in both urban and rural areas.
  • b. higher in rural areas.
  • c. higher in urban areas.
  • d. low in both urban and rural areas.

7. What is the term for the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together make up a people’s way of life?

  • a. society
  • b. culture
  • c. social structure
  • d. social system

8. Which of the following concepts was used by Durkheim to name a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals?

  • a. division of labor
  • b. anomie
  • c. false consciousness
  • d. alienation

9. Formal organizations are:

  • a. small groups with elected leaders.
  • b. large secondary groups with a goal orientation.
  • c. only agencies that are part of the government.
  • d. networks that have many members.

10. Subculture refers to:

  • a. people who embrace high culture.
  • b. cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population.
  • c. people who embrace popular culture.
  • d. a part of the population lacking culture.

11. Ethnocentrism refers to:

  • a. people taking pride in their ethnicity.
  • b. judging another culture using the standards of your own culture.
  • c. claiming that another culture is better than your own.
  • d. understanding another culture using its own standards and values.

12. Cars, computers, and iPhones are all examples of which of the following?

  • a. norms.
  • b. high culture.
  • c. material culture.
  • d. nonmaterial culture.

13 _____ is a way of understanding the world based on science.

  • a. Free will
  • b. Theology
  • c. Positivism
  • d. Metaphysics

The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher:

  • a. must carry out research that will encourage desirable social change.
  • b. must try to adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research.
  • c. must study issues that have no value to society as a whole.
  • d. must not care personally about the topic being studied.

15. Which of the following historical changes is among the factors that stimulated the development of sociology as a discipline?

  • a. a belief that our futures are defined by “fate”
  • b. the founding of the Roman Catholic Church
  • c. the power of tradition
  • d. the rise of industrial factories and cities

16 Which of the following is a way in which people can mislead others with statistics?

  • a.People select the data they present.
  • b. People interpret the data to lead their readers to a desired conclusion.
  • c. People use graphs to “spin” the truth.
  • d. All of the above are correct.

17. Which of the following best describes the focus of the structural-functional approach?

  • a. patterns of social inequality
  • b. the consequences of social patterns for the operation of society
  • c. the meaning people attach to their behavior
  • d. All of the above are correct.

18. Sociologists use the term “empirical evidence” to refer to:

  • a. information we can verify with our senses.
  • b. information that most people agree is true.
  • c. information that squares with common sense.
  • d. information that is based on a society’s traditions.

19. According to Peter Blau, which of the following plays a part in group dynamics?

  • a. class
  • b. race
  • c. gender
  • d. all of the above

20. The social-conflict approach draws attention to:

  • a. patterns of social inequality.
  • b. how elements contribute to the overall operation of society
  • c. how people construct meaning in their interaction.
  • d. the stable aspects of society.

21. Cultural transmission refers to the process of:

  • a. assing cultural patterns from one generation to another.
  • b. cultural patterns moving from one society to another.
  • c. using writing to enshrine cultural patterns.
  • d. using the oral tradition.

22. An act of kindness, such as opening the door for an elderly man, illustrates conforming to:

  • a. proscriptive norms.
  • b. taboos.
  • c. mores.
  • d. folkways.

23. Sociologists define a symbol as:

  • a. any gesture that conveys insult to others.
  • b. any material cultural trait.
  • c. social patterns that cause culture shock.
  • d. anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture.

24. By stating that the sociological perspective shows us “the strange in the familiar,” the text argues that sociologists

  • a. believe that people often behave in strange ways.
  • b. reject the familiar idea that people simply decide how to act in favor of the initially strange idea that society shapes our lives
  • c. focus on the bizarre elements of society.
  • d. believe that even people who are most familiar to us have some very strange habits.

25. ______________ refers to organized interaction of people within a nation, state, or other boundary who share a culture.

  • a. popular culture
  • b. real culture
  • c. society
  • d. social structure

26. Which theoretical approach claims that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as what meaning they attach to their behavior?

  • a. symbolic-interaction approach
  • b. structural-functional approach
  • c. social-exchange approach
  • d. social-conflict approach

27. Using the social-conflict approach, a sociologist might highlight which of the following?

  • a. racial inequality in a company’s hiring and promotion practices
  • b. gender inequality in college sports
  • c. income differences among young people in high school
  • d.All of the above are correct.

28. The spread of cultural traits from one society to another is called:

  • a. popular culture.
  • b. diffusion.
  • c. immigration.
  • d. cultural transmission.

29. Which discipline defines itself as “the systematic study of human society”?

  • a. history
  • b. economics
  • c. psychology
  • d. sociology

30. Identify the three sociologists who played a part in the development of sociology’s structural-functional approach.

  • a. Talbott Parsons, Karl Marx, W. E. B. Du Bois
  • b. Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim
  • c. Robert Merton, Karl Marx, Auguste Comte
  • d. Harriet Martineau, Robert Merton, W. E. B.

31. Du Bois Which of the following founding sociologists urged sociologists to understand a social setting from the point of view of the people in it?

  • a. Emile Durkheim
  • b. Karl Marx
  • c. Max Weber
  • d. Auguste Comte

32. Social-exchange analysis is one micro-level approach to understanding social interaction.

  • a. True
  • b. False

33. Peter Berger described using the sociological perspective as seeing the ______ in the _______.

  • a. specific; general
  • b. good; worst tragedies
  • c. new; old
  • d. general; particular

34. Sociologists test their theories by gathering facts in order to confirm, reject, or modify them.

  • a. False
  • b. True

35. The pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in Europe was:

  • a. Auguste Comte.
  • b. Robert K. Merton
  • c. Emile Durkheim.
  • d. Karl Marx

36. A statement of how and why specific facts are related is called a:

  • a. theory.
  • b. concept.
  • c. precept.
  • d. approach.

37. If marginality encourages sociological thinking, we would expect people in which category listed below to make the most use of the sociological perspective?

  • a. disabled persons or people who are a racial minority
  • b. politicians
  • c. the middle class
  • d. the wealthy

38. The social-conflict approach, argued that the point of studying society was:

  • a. o bring about needed change.
  • b. to foster support for a nation’s government.
  • c. to understand how society really operates.
  • d. to compare U. S. society to others.

39. The sociologist who called on his colleagues to be value free was:

  • a. Karl Marx.
  • b. Herbert Spencer.
  • c. Emile Durkheim.
  • d. Max Weber.

40. __________ are rules about everyday, casual living; __________ are rules with great moral significance.

  • a. Prescriptive norms; proscriptive norms
  • b. Folkways; mores
  • c. Mores; folkways
  • d. Proscriptive norms; prescriptive norms

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