SPED 300 Final

SPED 300 Final

14th
In the film “Separate But Equal”, the legality of the separate schools hinged on the _____ Amendment to the US Constitution.

Four score and seven
14th
18th
1st

Thurgood Marshall
The lawyer who represented Harry Briggs, Jr. was

a) Thurgood Marshall
b) Earl Warren
c) Dr. Black
d) Jim Crow

Civil Rights Movement
What movement led the way for special education law?

a) Civil Rights Movement
b) The Women’s Suffrage Movement
c) The American Idol Movement
d) The Thurgood Marshall Movement

Dr. Clark
Who was the expert that presented data showing that damage was being done to the segregated group of children

a) Dr. Brown
b) Dr. Clark
c) Dr. Black
d) Dr. Pepper

Earl Warren
Who was the Justice of the US Supreme Court. He was the man from California and his major effort was in uniting the court.

a) Earl Warren
b) Thurgood Marshall
c) Judge Jackson
d) John W. Davis

He believed the decision should be left up to the states.
Why did John Davis think the Supreme Court should not rule to end segregation of the schools?

a) He believed the decision should be left up to the states.
b) He was a racist.
c) He just wanted to represent the popular view.
d) He did want the Supreme Court to end segregation.

NAACP
Not only did Thurgood Marshall run up against resistance from the County of Clarendon, he also got resistance from some members of

a) NAACP
b) PL94-142
c) FAPE
d) LRE

True
Harry Briggs, Jr. never went to a desegregated school.

a) True
b) False

False
Under the Separate but Equal system, the states did a fairly good job of keeping equal facilities for both the black and white children.

a) True
b) False

True (1)
The conclusion of the court was that separate can never be equal.

a) True
b) False

Other Health Impairment
Alberto has been identified as having ADHD and qualifies for special education services According to IDEA, he would be classified under the __________ category.

a) emotional disturbance
b) other health impairment
c) specific learning disabilities
d) multiple disabilities

he must have acquired his injury after birth.
Davis has a traumatic brain injury. In order to receive this disability classification,

a) he must have acquired his injury after birth.
b) he cannot show any co-existing symptoms of an emotional disorder.
c) his brain damage cannot have been the result of an external head injury.
d) his condition must also result in mental retardation.

designing instructional techniques to teach Victor, the “wild child.”
Dr. Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard is best known for

a) designing instructional techniques to teach Victor, the “wild child.”
b) discovering strategies to cope with depression.
c) designing a mobility cane.
d) developing a sign language to communicate with deaf people.

prevalence
Dr. Strunk works for a state department of education, where part of her job entails keeping track of the total number of students identified with a disability during each school year. This part of Dr. Strunk’s job involves the __________ of disabilities.

a) definition
b) prevalence
c) assessment
d) identification

All students will have access to the general education curriculum.
How are students with disabilities included in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001?

a) Students with disabilities must graduate with a regular diploma.
b) Seventy-five percent of all students will fully participate in state and district testing.
c) All students will receive education in the general education setting.
d) All students will have access to the general education curriculum.

Tier 2
In an RTI system, small groups of students receive additional support and instruction in __________, during which their progress is carefully monitored.

a) universal screening
b) Tier 1
c) Tier 2
d) Tier 3

the service is necessary to keep a student in an educational program.
In Cedar Rapids School District v. Garrett F., the Supreme Court interpreted IDEA’s definition of a related service to include the provision of health services if

a) the service takes place at least once during a typical school week.
b) the parents are willing to sign a consent form allowing the teacher to provide the service.
c) the service is necessary to keep a student in an educational program.
d) a doctor is necessary to provide the service.

PBS
Jackson is a first-grade student who has displays aggressive behavior toward his classmates and teacher. Which of the following would be appropriate to use with Jackson?

a) PBS
b) RTI
c) UDL
d) LRE

community based instruction
Jaden is a high school student with a severe disability. During school he receives on-the-job training, practices riding the city bus to his workplace, and learns about home management activities. Jaden is receiving what type of education?

a) community based instruction
b) progress monitoring
c) multitiered instruction
d) positive behavior support

deaf-blindness
Katya has the disability that is the LEAST prevalent among American schoolchildren. Katya is a student with

a) a specific learning disability.
b) deaf-blindness.
c) speech or language impairments.
d) emotional disturbance.

placement in a self contained special education environment
LRE provides for each of the following EXCEPT

a) placement in a self contained special education environment.
b) a continuum of alternative placements.
c) individually determined placement based on student evaluations.
d) education with nondisabled peers to the maximum extent possible.

the general education curriculum
Miguel is a high school student who is blind. In order for him to graduate with a regular diploma, the school professionals need to ensure that he has access to

a) a sign language interpreter.
b) PBS.
c) the general education curriculum.
d) RTI.

validated
Mr. Hess, a special education teacher, uses instructional practices than have been proven to be effective through research, which are the __________ feature of evidence-based practices.

a) accountable
b) explicit
c) strategic
d) validated

Tier 1
Mr. Jindal, a third-grade teacher, provides high-quality instruction to all the students in his class. This occurs during the __________ component of RTI.

a) universal screening
b) Tier 1
c) Tier 2
d) Tier 3

co-teaching
Ms. Lincoln, a special education teacher, and Ms. Waters, a general educator, teach together in the same classroom, sharing the same group of students. This is an example of

a) multitiered instruction.
b) progress monitoring.
c) a resource room.
d) co-teaching.

attending a special school for students with similar educational needs.
Normalization activities include all of the following EXCEPT

a) having a job.
b) riding the same school bus as the other children.
c) attending a special school for students with similar educational needs.
d) living in community settings.

due process
One benefit that IDEA provides for family members includes procedures to follow when they do not agree with schools about the education planned for or being delivered to their children. These procedures are referred to as

a) related services.
b) IEP meetings.
c) due process.
d) FAPE.

multitiered instruction.
PBS and RTI are examples of

a) differentiated instruction.
b) FAPE.
c) multitiered instruction.
d) universal design for learning.

education laws
Section 504 and the ADA are considered to be all of the following EXCEPT

a) laws that ensure greater access for people with disabilities.
b) educational laws.
c) anti-discrimination laws.
d) civil rights laws.

Tier 3
Seven-year-old J.D. receives intensive, individualized interventions for his reading difficulties. In which component of RTI does this occur?

a) universal screening
b) Tier 1
c) Tier 2
d) Tier 3

civil rights
Special education is based on the fundamental premise of

a) freedom of speech.
b) civil rights.
c) disability advocacy.
d) parental demands.

other health impairments
Which of the following is NOT a high-incidence disability?

a) intellectual disabilities
b) other health impairments
c) specific learning disability
d) speech or language impairments

A student’s placement is determined by classroom availability.
Which of the following is NOT true of FAPE?

a) Parents of infants and toddlers with disabilities may be charged for some services based on a sliding fee scale.
b) Special education and related services must meet state standards.
c) A student’s placement is determined by classroom availability.
d) There is no cost to parents for special education services.

specific learning disability
Which of the following is the MOST prevalent among American schoolchildren?

a) deaf-blindness
b) speech or language impairments
c) emotional disturbance
d) specific learning disability

developmental delay
Which special education category is a noncategorical identification used for children between the ages of 3 and 9?

a) multiple disabilities
b) other health impairment
c) specific learning disability
d) developmental delay

is NOT an assistive technology device.
A cochlear implant is a device that is surgically inserted into a person’s ear in order to help them hear. According to IDEA ’04, a cochlear implant

a) is NOT an assistive technology device.
b) can be made available to a student with a hearing loss if diagnostic testing in at least three academic areas shows its potential benefits.
c) can be paid for by local school districts.
d) is a federally-funded instructional accommodation for students with hearing loss.

child find
A special requirement of IDEA that assists in the referral process by identifying children who may benefit from special education, even if they are not in school yet, is

a) The Child at Risk.
b) child find.
c) the children’s placement service.
d) child referral.

year
A student’s progress in an Individualized Education Program (IEP) must be evaluated every

a) six weeks.
b) six months.
c) month.
d) year.

postsecondary goals in the areas of training, employment, and independent living skills.
According to IDEA, a 16-year-old student’s IEP should contain

a) a statement giving the student all IEP-approval privileges formerly assigned to the parents.
b) postsecondary goals in the areas of training, employment, and independent living skills.
c) transition goals to help the student enter college.
d) educational goals delineating training and services through age 25.

every six months with the family
An IFSP is evaluated

a) every three years.
b) every month with a specialist.
c) every six months with the family.
d) annually.

instructional accommodations
Audrey Beth has a learning disability. She is required to learn the same content as her peers, but is allowed to give her worksheet answers orally in some classes, and receives extra time to complete assignments in other classes. These changes to Audrey Beth’s education are considered to be

a) instructional accommodations.
b) differentiated instruction.
c) instructional modifications.
d) part of UDL.

helps the teacher determine whether the instructional methods being used are efficient and effective.
CBM is useful because it

a) helps teachers to understand a student’s problem behaviors.
b) allows students to select the work on which they are to be evaluated.
c) allows the teacher to determine report card grades.
d) helps the teacher determine whether the instructional methods being used are efficient and effective.

whether the child has a disability; whether the child qualifies for special education services
During the Eligibility step of the IEP process, two issues must be resolved: __________ and __________.

a) whether the child has a disability; whether the child qualifies for special education services
b) whether the child is eligible to receive services; whether the services will be provided at the neighborhood school
c) whether the child has a disability; whether the school has the resources to provide services
d) whether the school can provide the services; whether related services are necessary

development of the IEP
Emmett has just been found eligible for special education services. The next step in the IEP process is

a) dentification.
b) evaluation and reviews.
c) development of the IEP.
d) implementation of the IEP.

birth to three (and in some cases, through age 5).
IFSPs are designed for students ages

a) birth to three (and in some cases, through age 5).
b) three to five.
c) children of all ages.
d) fourteen to twenty-one.

a school nurse can provide the service needed by the student in school
If __________, then a medical service is usually considered to be a related service.

a) the student requires a service more than once a day
b) a service requires the use of medical equipment
c) a school nurse can provide the service needed by the student in school
d) a doctor must perform the service

special school for students with disabilities
If thought about in the traditional sense of a continuum, which of the following would constitute the most restrictive placement?

a) general education classroom
b) self-contained classroom
c) special school for students with disabilities
d) resource room

observable and measurable goals related to the general education curriculum.
In addition to a statement of current levels of performance, an IEP should include

a) circumstances under which it would be all right if those annual goals were not met.
b) annual goals that are more difficult to measure, such as “enjoyment of science” or “appreciation of art.”
c) academic levels that the child must attain by the end of the year.
d) observable and measurable goals related to the general education curriculum.

determine that this behavior was not a result of his disability.
Jamie, a special education student, has been expelled from school for assaulting a teacher. Before Jamie was expelled, his IEP team needed to

a) determine whether his behavior was in self-defense.
b) get parental agreement on this course of action.
c) determine that this behavior was not a result of his disability.
d) receive an assurance from the school that his expulsion would only be until his next birthday.

resource room
Jesse remains in his general education class for most of the day, but goes to a special education class for help with reading and language arts. What type of service delivery is Jesse receiving?

a) consultation
b) self-contained special education
c) full inclusion
d) resource room

portfolio assessment
Kevin chooses to be evaluated on work samples that he has selected, including classroom assignments, art work, and certificates and awards he has received. This is called

a) stanardized assessment.
b) criteria-based assessment.
c) portfolio assessment.
d) CBM.

instructional modifications
Mary Elizabeth has an intellectual disability. She is not required to master all of the objectives in the general education curriculum, and is allowed to complete alternative assignments. For example, instead of a required 5-page paper on ecosystems in her science class, she drew a poster of a rainforest ecosystem. These changes to Mary Elizabeth’s education are referred to as

a) instructional modifications.
b) part of UDL.
c) instructional accommodations.
d) differentiated instruction.

differentiated instruction
Mr. Jackson teaches all the students in his 6th-grade social studies class the same content, but he uses different instructional methods that match various learning needs, preferences, and styles. Mr. Jackson uses __________ in his classroom.

a) modifications
b) accommodations
c) differentiated instruction
d) procedural safeguards

co-teaching (1)
Ms. Whelan, a general education teacher, and Ms. Church, a special education teacher, teach together in the same classroom for the entire day. They are practicing

a) co-teaching.
b) pull-out programming.
c) collaborative teaching.
d) consultation.

self-determination
Student participation in development of their IEPs promotes __________, which are behaviors needed for independent living such as making decisions, choosing preferences, and practicing self-advocacy.

a) technical reading skills
b) self-determination
c) community-based instruction
d) life skills

the principal
Which of the following people is/are NOT required to be part of a multidisciplinary team for a child with a disability?

a) the child’s parent(s) or legal guardian
b) a representative of the school district who is knowledgeable about the general education curriculum and can supervise the provision of individually designed instruction
c) the principal
d) someone to interpret the instructional implications of the assessment results

physical therapist
Which related service provider works on large motor skills?

a) physical therapist
b) school counselor
c) speech/language pathologist
d) occupational therapist

evaluation and reviews
Which stage of the IEP process determines whether the student is meeting the goals and objectives specified in the IEP?

a) development of the IEP
b) implementation of the IEP
c) eligibility
d) evaluation and reviews

Manifestation determination
__________ determines whether a student’s disciplinary problems are due to his or her disability.

a) Manifestation determination
b) The stay-put provision
c) A functional behavioral assessment
d) A behavioral intervention plan

Universal design for learning
__________ help(s) all students with instructional activities, while providing greater access for people with disabilities by removing or reducing barriers.

a) Universal design for learning
b) Adaptations
c) Accommodations
d) Modifications

theory of multiple intelligences
According to Howard Gardner’s __________, children who display exceptional talent in any one of eight areas can be identified as gifted.

a) theory of multiple intelligences
b) theory of scaffolding
c) nondiscriminatory testing theory
d) concept of contextualized instruction

who do not have a regular or adequate nighttime residence.
According to IDEA, homeless children are defined as children

a) who do not have a permanent residence.
b) whose primary residence is unknown.
c) whose residence moves more than three times in a six-month period.
d) who do not have a regular or adequate nighttime residence.

if Indian students were part of the group that the test developers used to determine valid and reliable test questions and answers.
Akiva, a student from India, is being evaluated for special education. Her parents want to know whether Indian students were part of the standardization population for the tests that she will take. In other words, they want to know

a) if there is a separate version of each test for Indian students.
b) whether Akiva will be evaluated by a test that was developed in India.
c) if Indian students were part of the group that the test developers used to determine valid and reliable test questions and answers.
d) whether there is a Hindi version of the test that has been developed by Hindi-speaking assessment experts.

lead
An environmental toxin that causes intellectual disabilities among low-income children due to paint in older apartments and houses is

a) mercury.
b) lead.
c) silicon.
d) asbestos.

five-seven
Approximately how many years does it take to acquire complex language abilities required for academic work?

a) two-three
b) three-five
c) five-seven
d) seven-eight

two-three
Approximately how many years does it take to acquire conversational skills in another language?

a) two-three
b) three-five
c) five-seven
d) seven-eight

a level of English mastery that is adequate for general communication, but not necessarily for academic learning.
BICS or conversational English is

a) the ability to conceptualize linguistic ability in the home language.
b) a level of English mastery that is adequate for general communication, but not necessarily for academic learning.
c) a level of English master required to access the general education curriculum and profit from instruction.
d) the ability to understand abstract language necessary for academic work.

a level of English mastery required to access the general education curriculum and profit from instruction.
CALP or classroom English is

a) the ability to understand abstract language necessary for academic work.
b) the ability to conceptualize linguistic ability in the home language.
c) a level of English mastery required to access the general education curriculum and profit from instruction.
d) a level of English mastery that is adequate for general communication, but not necessarily for academic learning.

English
ESL classes conduct instruction primarily in

a) English with occasional help from paraprofessionals.
b) the home language.
c) English.
d) both languages.

code switching
East City Elementary has a small but growing population of recent immigrants from Mexico. As these children interact on the playground, the teachers notice that they speak both Spanish and English, often in the same sentence. This is an example of

a) cross-cultural dissonance.
b) wind-talking.
c) code switching.
d) Ebonics.

English language learner
Elba is learning to speak English as her second language. The most current term used to refer to describe Elba is

a) limited English proficient.
b) bicultural.
c) bilingual.
d) English language learner.

general education teachers
For children who are of school age, __________ are the usual source of referrals to special education.

a) school counselors
b) parents
c) special education teachers
d) general education teachers

participation of extended family members.
For many cultures, collaboration with family often means

a) rejection of the community’s teachings.
b) participation of extended family members.
c) respecting the student’s right to refuse to do homework.
d) antipathy of parents toward school personnel.

He speaks using Ebonics.
Isaiah, an African American child, speaks a learned and rule-governed social dialect of nonstandard English. Which of the following statements is true?

a) His teacher should not let him speak this way in class.
b) He speaks using Ebonics.
c) He has a language impairment.
d) He should be referred for special education.

bilingual education
Mia is in a school program where her native Italian language is used for her primary instruction. Her teachers continue to work with her in both English and Italian until her command of English is sufficient for school success. Mia is in a(n) __________ program.

a) bilingual education
b) bilingual special education
c) multicultural education
d) ESL

cross-cultural dissonance
Ms. Waters initially interacts with her student Mario in the same manner as the rest of her students. Yet, in Mario’s culture, the way she uses praise, humor, and personal space are all considered inappropriate. As a result, Mario views her with distrust. Sensing this, she in turn decides that he has “an attitude” and begins to view him negatively. This is an example of

a) multiculturalism.
b) cross-cultural dissonance.
c) code switching.
d) inconsistency of educational programming.

Spanish
Nationwide, the majority of ELLs speak

a) Bengali.
b) Chinese.
c) Spanish.
d) Vietnamese.

bilingual education (1)
One benefit of __________ is that mastery of more than one language has many social, economic, and personal benefits. However, one criticism is that this is a very slow process that can take away from learning content in other areas.

a) ESL programs
b) bilingual education
c) multicultural education
d) sheltered English

provide the same accommodations used for instruction.
Raimundo is learning English. As he prepares to take his state’s high-stakes testing, one guideline for determining which accommodations to provide for him is to

a) always include a bilingual translator in testing situations.
b) provide the test in his native language.
c) provide the same accommodations used for instruction.
d) begin with extended time, and add other accommodations as the need arises.

computerized language translator.
Sergio, a native Spanish speaker, carries a small, hand-held electronic device that he refers to when unable to communicate effectively in English. He is using a

a) calculator.
b) cell phone.
c) pocket dictionary.
d) computerized language translator.

preschool children from low SES backgrounds.
The Head Start program was originally created for

a) elementary school children with learning problems.
b) elementary school students from rural areas.
c) preschool children from low SES backgrounds.
d) college-bound high school students.

the digital divide.
The fact that many low-income children do not have access to a computer in their home, while most middle-income children do is an example of

a) the digital divide.
b) SES-digital inequity theory.
c) culture clash.
d) cross-cultural dissonance.

culturally diverse
Vinna is from a cultural group that is not Eurocentric or of mainstream America. She is considered to be

a) limited English proficient.
b) culturally diverse.
c) historically overrepresented.
d) linguistically diverse.

that dual language proficiency is developing.
When the teachers at East City Elementary hear students speaking both Spanish and English in the same sentence, they should know that the students’ use of dual languages indicates

a) a possible need for special education services.
b) their confusion regarding appropriate language choices in educational settings.
c) that dual language proficiency is developing.
d) the need for a total immersion approach to English language acquisition.

Multicultural education
__________ can be described as education that incorporates the cultures of all students into instruction.

a) ESL
b) Full immersion
c) Multicultural education
d) Bilingual education

the child shows a 40% delay in one domain or a 20% delay in two domains of five specified domains (physical, cognitive, communication, social/emotional, or adaptive development).
A child may be considered as having a developmental delay under Tennessee special education guidelines if

a) the child shows a 40% delay in one domain or a 20% delay in two domains of five specified domains (physical, cognitive, communication, social/emotional, or adaptive development).
b) he or she has not met the same milestones as older siblings did at the same age.
c) the delay is significant enough to warrant further testing.
d) the child is between the ages of 2 to 10.

omission
A child who says “pay the piano” instead of “play the piano” is demonstrating an example of what articulation error?

a) distortion
b) substitution
c) omission
d) addition

substitution
A child who says “the ball is WED” instead of RED is an example of what articulation error?

a) substitution
b) addition
c) omission
d) distortion

receptive language.
AJ’s teacher notices that he has difficulty following multistep directions and understanding class lectures. AJ may be having trouble with

a) expressive language.
b) receptive language.
c) speech.
d) social competence

c & d
As she helps her 2- and 3-year-old students put their socks and shoes on after naptime, Ms. Moreno talks about how socks keep feet warm and keep shoes from rubbing blisters on feet. She also talks about how shoes protect our feet from sharp rocks and hot pavement. Ms. Moreno is helping to develop her students’ __________ skills.

a) phonological awareness
b) pragmatics
c) c & d
d) articulation
e) vocabulary

developmental delay (1)
Gus is three years old and has been identified as having language delays. He will probably receive services under which IDEA disability category?

a) speech or language impairments
b) learning disabilities
c) hearing impairments
d) developmental delay

speech synthesizer.
Huaquing’s speech is unrecognizable. She communicates with others using an electronic device into which she types or programs information. This information is then “read” back to listeners by the device. Huaquing is using a(n)

a) obturator.
b) communication board.
c) low-tech device.
d) speech synthesizer.

She has come across a word that she does not know.
Kalaysha is reading a passage using the strategies she learned with Collaborative Strategic Reading. She has just encountered a “clunk.” What has just happened?

a) She has finished a reading comprehension game.
b) She has just read a passage that is very boring.
c) She has been interrupted by one of her peers.
d) She has come across a word that she does not know.

Leila understands the message as Megan intended it to be understood.
Megan says something to Leila. Communication has occurred when

a) Leila understands the message as Megan intended it to be understood.
b) Megan is able to state her message as she intended.
c) Megan knows that Leila understands the message as she intended it.
d) Leila is able to hear the message as Megan stated it.

is showing signs of language delay.
Nico is 26 months old and has just said his first word. Nico

a) should be speaking in 4- to 5-word sentences by this age.
b) is showing signs of a language delay.
c) has advanced language skills for his age.
d) is displaying normally-developing language skills.

provide direct services to the child
SLPs do NOT __________ during the prereferral stage.

a) analyze the student’s school records
b) suggest alternative instructional procedures
c) provide direct services to the child
d) conduct evaluations in the classroom

complex or stressful.
Stuttering is more likely to occur when the conversation is

a) about a topic of interest to the student.
b) complex or stressful.
c) with peers.
d) occurring in the child’s home instead of the classroom.

respiratory system
The __________ contributes to the communication process by providing the air and pressure necessary to produce speech sounds.

a) resonating system
b) respiratory system
c) speech mechanisms
d) vibrating system

use.
The application of language in various communications in the social context of the situation describes

a) form.
b) use.
c) content.
d) syntax.

pitch.
The perceived high or low quality of voice is the description of

a) depth.
b) pitch.
c) loudness.
d) vibrato.

problems with social competence.
There is a strong correlation between communicative deficits and

a) problems with social competence.
b) giftedness.
c) articulation errors.
d) overachievement.

ask for clarification when a student uses nonspecific vocabulary.
To enhance a student’s expressive language development, a second grade teacher might

a) ask for clarification when a student uses nonspecific vocabulary.
b) verify comprehension by asking a student to restate content in their own words.
c) rephrase directions if a student appears unresponsive.
d) verify understanding by asking the students if they understand.

cleft palate
Victor was born with an opening in the roof of his mouth that causes too much air to pass through his naval cavity. This results in a speech impairment. Which condition does Victor have?

a) otitis media
b) cleft lip
c) cleft palate
d) inflamed larynx

ASHA
What is the abbreviation of the prominent professional organization of specialists in speech or language impairments?

a) ASDA
b) ASHA
c) CDHA
d) ACHA

loudness.
When Harper talks, people have to lean in closely to hear her because her voice is so soft. Harper has a problem with

a) fluency.
b) articulation.
c) pitch.
d) loudness.

CSR
Which of the following is an example of a data-based practice that improves students’ vocabulary and reading comprehension skills, particularly for expository text such as that found in textbooks?

a) communication boards
b) CSR
c) graphic organizers
d) explicit instruction

graphic organizers
Which of the following is an example of a validated practice where visual aids are used to help students organize, understand, and remember academic content?

a) graphic organizers
b) communication boards
c) explicit instruction
d) role-playing

SLPs
Which related service provider provides direct therapy services to students with speech or language impairments, while also consulting with special education and general education teachers?

a) SLPs
b) assistive technology specialists
c) PTs
d) OTs

learning disabilities
Young children who are identified as having language impairments may often be re-labeled as having __________ in their older years.

a) behavior disorders
b) intellectual disabilities
c) ADHD
d) learning disabilities

Communicative competence
__________ is defined as “what a speaker needs to know to communicate appropriately.”

a) Cognition
b) Phonology
c) Communicative competence
d) Social competence

a processing disorder, resistant to treatment, unexpected underachievement, average to above average intelligence, intraindividual differences, relative strengths in some areas with relative deficits in others
1) A Learning Disability is characterized by (Choose all that apply)

a) a processing disorder
b) resistant to treatment
c) unexpected underachievement
d) average to above average intelligence
signs of autistic behaviors
e) intraindividual differences
f) interindividual differnces
g) intellectual disabilities
h) relative strengths in some areas with relative deficits in others
i) low performance across all domains

phonics
Although six-year-old Kemal can identify the letters of the alphabet, he is unable to sound out groups of letters to identify a word. Kemal has difficulty with

a) letter fluency.
b) phonics.
c) reading comprehension.
d) phonological awareness.

chunking
As Haley works to memorize the elements on the periodic table, she breaks them into groups of five, memorizing each small group in order to learn the entire set. Haley is using which strategy for organizing information?

a) generalization
b) chunking
c) sequencing
d) associating

word identification
Davenia is able to read a list of words accurately at a satisfactory rate. She has developed which core reading skill?

a) word identification
b) letter-sound correspondence
c) fluency
d) phonological awareness

associating
Finding the relationships and connections that units of information possess is referred to as

a) clustering.
b) generalization.
c) associating.
d) sequencing.

phonological awareness
Five-year-old Orhan hears the word mud and says, “M-u-d”, breaking the word into smaller parts. He also has fun making rhyming words, even if they are nonsensical words. Orhan has strongly developed __________ skills.

a) reading comprehension
b) phonics
c) phonological awareness
d) letter fluency

Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities
In 1961, Sam Kirk developed what test to identify those with learning disabilities?

a) IQ Test
b) Discrepancy Formula
c) Iowa Test of Reading Skills
d) Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities

resistance to treatment.
Kyle is a 2nd grader who has very poor reading skills. His teacher has tried several proven methods for reading instruction, but to no avail. Based on this information, Kyle is displaying characteristics of

a) poor motivation.
b) resistance to treatment.
c) a behavioral disorder.
d) ADHD.

generalization.
Marcus remembers a reading comprehension strategy that he learned in the resource room and applies it in his science and social studies classes. He is demonstrating

a) attention.
b) motivation.
c) generalization.
d) attribution.

graph the scores
Ms. Esperanza is using CBM to monitor her students’ progress in math. She has just finished administering and scoring the weekly math probe. What is her next step?

a) communicate progress
b) make instructional decisions
c) graph the scores
d) set goals

choose techniques that are verified through rigorous research.
Ms. Estrella is a first-year teacher working with students with learning disabilities. When selecting instructional techniques, she should be sure to

a) choose techniques that are verified through rigorous research.
b) ask the children what techniques they like the best.
c) use the latest methods discussed by fellow teachers.
d) choose those that are interesting or fun for her to administer.

universal screening.
Ms. Pittman is a school principal who has decided to use RTI. In order to quickly identify all struggling students in her school, she will use

a) universal screening.
b) a standardized achievement test.
c) an IQ test.
d) portfolio assessment.

a mnemonic.
Remembering the Great Lakes by associating them with HOMES (Huron, Ontario, etc.) is an example of

a) direct teaching.
b) demonstration.
c) crisis teaching.
d) a mnemonic.

learned helplessness.
Skandar does not believe in himself and does not try to learn, resulting in a dependency on others. This is referred to as

a) learned helplessness.
b) motivation.
c) ADHD.
d) immaturity

called social competence.
The ability to perceive and interpret social situations, generate appropriate social responses, and interact with others is

a) called social competence.
b) a natural skill for students with learning disabilities.
c) called social status.
d) not necessary in many social interactions.

attributions.
The self-explanations about the reasons for one’s success or failure are called

a) motivations.
b) generalizations.
c) hyperactivity.
d) attributions.

Sam Kirk.
The term learning disabilities was coined by

a) Heinz Werner.
b) Alfred Strauss.
c) Kurt Goldstein.
d) Sam Kirk.

reading and writing.
The two areas most often affected by a learning disability are

a) reading and writing.
b) reading and math.
c) writing and spelling.
d) reading and social skills.

classifying.
Three-year-old Noelle pulls the plastic figures out of her toy box and divides them into groups of people and animals. She is demonstrating

a) generalizations.
b) classifying.
c) sequencing.
d) CBM.

Jasmine, grade 4, performs at the fourth-grade level in all areas except reading, which is at the second-grade level.
Which child described below exhibits unexpected underachievement?

a) Lillyann, grade 2, performs math problems at the fourth-grade level.
b) Ariana, grade 4, performs at the third-grade level in all areas.
c) Jasmine, grade 4, performs at the fourth-grade level in all areas except reading, which is at the second-grade level.
d) Nicole, grade 2, performs at the kindergarten level in all areas.

Greg, a four-year-old who has difficulty with word finding and use of age appropriate gramatical morphemes
Which of the following children may be at risk for having a learning disability?

a) David, a one-year-old who shows strong babbling skills but no language skills
b) Dan, a toddler who enjoys making up rhyming nonsense words
c) Greg, a four-year-old who has difficulty with word finding and use of age appropriate gramatical morphemes
d) Alan, a preschooler who developed language skills very early

explicit instruction
Which of the following is a practice proven through research to be effective in improving the academic success of students with learning disabilities?

a) explicit instruction
b) Attribute Treatment Interaction Approach
c) elimination of fluorescent lighting
d) horticultural and botanical intervention

Students must wait until they are performing poorly in school to get help.
Because of the added requirement that a student is behind 2 grade levels, which problems below are the primary reasons for current dissatisfaction with IQ/achievement method of identifying learning disabilities?

a) Students must wait until they are performing poorly in school to get help.
b) Students with learning disabilities do not actually have normal intelligence; LD is hard to distinguish from low achievement.
c) Proving a discrepancy between intelligence and achievement is difficult and unreliable; there is not enough focus on medical aspects of LD.
d) The method identifies only a few students; it focuses too much on social aspects of LD.

CBM
Which type of measurement system uses direct and frequent measurements of student performance; is sensitive to different learning patterns and expectations; and provides feedback to teachers about the effectiveness of their instructional methods?

a) portfolio assessment
b) high stakes testing
c) IQ test
d) CBM

Unexpected underachievement
__________ is a characteristic associated with learning disabilities because poor school performance cannot be explained by a student’s intellectual potential.

a) Low achieving
b) High incidence
c) Unexpected underachievement
d) Resistant to treatment

catch students early in order to provide necessary support to prevent the development of more serious problems.
A primary goal of screening is to

a) identify students early who show “hard signs” of emotional or behavioral disorders.
b) provide help to parents who are struggling to control their children’s home behavior.
c) identify students to start the IEP process.
d) catch students early in order to provide necessary support to prevent the development of more serious problems.

two different settings, at least one of which is school-related.
According to the definition of emotional or behavioral disorders developed by the National Mental Health and Special Education Coalition, the disability must be exhibited in

a) two different settings, at least one of which is school-related.
b) at least three settings.
c) response to temporary, stressful events in the child’s environment.
d) conjunction with either an affective or anxiety disorder.

depression
Although he doesn’t have the words to describe his thoughts, five-year-old Bruce blames himself for his parents’ divorce. He feels rejected by his father, who moved out of the house, and spends most of his free time curled up on his bed, looking out the window. Bruce is displaying symptoms of

a) social maladjustment.
b) a conduct disorder.
c) depression.
d) an anxiety disorder.

withdrawal
An example of an internalizing behavioral problem is

a) cursing a teacher.
b) stealing.
c) hitting other children.
d) withdrawal.

wraparound services
Antonia and her family are involved in a service delivery model in which their needs are met through the collaboration of many agencies and systems. Through this model, they were able to get counseling services for Antonia and parent training for her mother and father. Social service agencies also provided additional support to the family. This is an example of

a) curricular adjustments.
b) transition planning.
c) foster care.
d) wraparound services.

to determine if the behavior was a result of manifestation determination
Carlo is a student with an emotiona. He got in a fight with another student who does not have a disability. That student was placed in the in-school suspension program for 5 days. What is his IEP team’s responsibility in this case?

a) to change his behavior intervention plan
b) to hold an IEP meeting to change his placement to that of suspension
c) to determine if the behavior was a result of manifestation determination
d) to present a formal challenge if the school chooses to suspend him

positive behavior support
D.B. Morris Middle School incorporates a three-tiered model of support for its students. Within this model, students are provided with increasingly more intensive levels of interventions to help them engage in appropriate school behavior. Which behavioral intervention program are they using at D.B. Morris?

a) wraparound services
b) functional behavioral assessment
c) positive behavior support
d) the intervention ladder

extremely concerned, as there is a clear link between early aggression and adolescent violence.
Jay is an aggressive three-year-old. His parents should be

a) extremely concerned, as there is a clear link between early aggression and adolescent violence.
b) aware that aggressive behavior during the early years often leads to anxiety disorders in later life.
c) aware that most aggression diminishes once children reach elementary school.
d) unconcerned, as this is common behavior at Jay’s age.

functional behavioral assessment
Mrs. Pescucci is frustrated with the temper tantrums that one of her kindergarten student throws throughout the day. Which of the following would you recommend to Mrs. Pescucci to help her determine what is causing the student’s behavior?

a) positive behavior support
b) manifestation determination
c) functional behavioral assessment
d) behavior intervention plan

persist over an extended period of time.
The IDEA definition of emotional disturbance requires at least one of the characteristics to

a) have an environmental cause.
b) have a biological cause.
c) persist over an extended period of time.
d) be short in duration.

curricular adjustments
When Ms. Ndabge notices that one of her students becomes disruptive while doing math seatwork, she divides his math problems into small sections, only requiring him to finish one section at a time. Once his task is broken down into manageable pieces, the student’s disruptive behavior disappears. Which behavioral strategy has Ms. Ndabge used?

a) behavior-specific praise
b) curricular adjustments
c) extinction
d) a reinforcement system

antecedent
When conducting an FBA, Mr. Miller notices that Jason’s behavioral outbursts frequently occur after a teacher has handed him a worksheet to complete. When Jason displays this behavior, he is sent to the principal’s office. In this case, the act of handing him the worksheet would be considered the

a) consequence.
b) antecedent.
c) target behavior.
d) reinforcer.

consequence
When conducting an FBA, Mr. Miller notices that Jason’s behavioral outbursts frequently occur after a teacher has handed him a worksheet to complete. When Jason displays this behavior, he is sent to the principal’s office. In this case, the act of sending Jason to the office would be considered the

a) consequence.
b) target behavior.
c) reinforcer.
d) antecedent.

avoid doing his worksheet.
When conducting an FBA, Mr. Miller notices that Jason’s behavioral outbursts frequently occur after a teacher has handed him a worksheet to complete. When Jason displays this behavior, he is sent to the principal’s office. One hypothesis could be that the function of Jason’s behavior is to

a) earn an extra activity.
b) avoid working with a partner.
c) avoid doing his worksheet.
d) obtain attention from the teacher.

target behavior.
When conducting an FBA, Mr. Miller notices that Jason’s behavioral outbursts frequently occur after a teacher has handed him a worksheet to complete. When Jason displays this behavior, he is sent to the principal’s office. In this case, Jason’s outburst would be considered the

a) consequence.
b) target behavior.
c) antecedent.
d) reinforcer.

internalizing
According to your text, a large percentage of students in the foster care system exhibit __________ behavior problems.

a) internalizing
b) non-specific
c) externalizing
d) minor

being suspended from school
Dario is an African American teenager who, along with many of his neighborhood friends, is now immersed within the juvenile justice system. Based on information in your text, which of the following events probably had the greatest impact on Dario’s entrance into juvenile delinquency?

a) growing up in an urban neighborhood
b) living in a single-parent family
c) being suspended from school
d) attending public school

anorexia.
Fifteen-year-old Lani has an intense fear of gaining weight. She refuses to eat more than a few bites of food at every meal and, although she is severely underweight, views herself as obese. Lani is displaying symptoms of

a) bulimia.
b) anorexia.
c) depression.
d) social maladjustment.

prevention.
One important premise of positive behavior support is

a) prevention.
b) rewarding appropriate behavior.
c) reducing overrepresentation.
d) medical intervention.

an anxiety disorder.
Prior to activities such as birthday parties or other social events, Nicole complains of stomachaches. Her mother notices that she appears uneasy and confused about how to interact with other children. She is displaying signs of

a) depression.
b) Tourette’s syndrome.
c) schizophrenia.
d) an anxiety disorder.

her educational performance has been adversely affected.
Rashna has been identified as having emotional disturbance. In order to qualify for special education services, the IEP team must also determine that

a) her educational performance has been adversely affected.
b) this condition has lasted longer than a month.
c) she has a conduct disorder.
d) she does not have schizophrenia.

aggression.
The single best predictor of future problems such as substance abuse, delinquency, and chronic unemployment is

a) neglect.
b) withdrawal.
c) aggression.
d) delayed language development.

social skills
Which aspect of the educational programs for students with EBD has been overlooked historically?

a) academics
b) social skills
c) behavior
d) life skills

Self-determination
__________ refers to a set of behaviors that include making decisions, choosing preferences, and practicing self-advocacy

a) Reinforcement systems
b) Self-determination
c) Curricular adjustments
d) Behavior-specific praise

Early intervention
__________ may rectify problems before they become serious, avoid the need for medication to control behavior, and reduce stress in the family.

a) Early intervention
b) PBS
c) Manifestation determination
d) Screening tools

body-kinesthetic
A dancer and an athlete both exhibit which of Gardner’s intelligences?

a) logical-mathematical
b) spatial
c) musical
d) body-kinesthetic

enrichment
A middle school student is involved in a program where topics or skills are added to the traditional curriculum, and are often presented in more depth. The student is in which type of program?

a) independent study
b) grade skipping
c) enrichment
d) curriculum compacting

WISC-R
All of the following can contribute to the multiple assessments used instead of standardized intelligence tests for the identification of gifted students EXCEPT

a) behavioral observations.
b) portfolio assessment.
c) checklists.
d) WISC-R.

Alpa is performing at a 30% advanced rate, and is probably gifted.
Alpa is 17 months old and speaks using simple sentences-a skill not typically mastered until the age of 24 months. Which of the following is accurate.

a) Alpa is performing at a 30% advanced rate, and is probably gifted.
b) Alpa’s verbal skills are probably tied to her parents’ level of income.
c) Alpa’s skills will probably even off once she reaches her second birthday.
d) Alpa displays advanced achievement, but she is not gifted.

acceleration
Benefits of __________ include an adjustable pace of instruction, it is appropriately challenging for students, and it is cost effective for schools as special sections of a course do not have to be offered.

a) advanced placement
b) internships
c) acceleration
d) mentorships

most students attend general education classes for the major portion of their day.
Collaboration among professionals is important when working with gifted students because

a) most students attend general education classes for the major portion of their day.
b) districts can lose federal funding for gifted programs if collaboration is not occurring.
c) general education teachers generally have expertise in teaching gifted students.
d) it is mandated by IDEA.

a mentorship.
Harry is a gifted student interested in political science. He is paired with an adult with expertise in this area. This is an example of

a) the Revolving Door Model.
b) a mentorship.
c) interdisciplinary instruction.
d) independent study.

make sure that math and science classes are taught by male teachers.
Ms. Rimm, a high school principal, wants to improve the performance of her female gifted students, particularly in the areas of math and science. Based upon what you have read in your text, you should recommend all of the following EXCEPT

a) make sure that math and science classes are taught by male teachers.
b) offer girls-only special programs in math and science, if possible.
c) provide role models for female students.
d) have teachers incorporate more concrete and real-life examples into their classes.

the development of the Binet Intelligence Test.
One landmark in the history of gifted education in the United States during the early 1900s was

a) the development of the Binet Intelligence Test.
b) the concept of multiple intelligences.
c) the theory of natural selection.
d) the launching of Sputnik.

the launch of Sputnik
What event spurred the government into action to create programs for giftedness?

a) the end of the Vietnam war
b) the civil rights movement
c) the end of the Great Depression
d) the launch of Sputnik

Gardner
Which definition of giftedness is the most multidimensional?

a) Terman
b) Marland
c) Gardner
d) NCLB

Asian American
Which group of students does not display the underrepresentation in gifted programs that typifies most students from diverse backgrounds?

a) Asian American
b) African American
c) Hispanic
d) Native American

modifying or eliminating topics that gifted students have mastered
Which is the best example of curriculum compacting?

a) covering great quantities of the curriculum at an increased rate
b) accelerating the enrichment program
c) modifying or eliminating topics that gifted students have mastered
d) promoting a student to a higher grade based upon skill levels

“These children do not require special supports, as they can make it on their own.”
Which of the following statements explains the current (and inaccurate) perspective about the education of gifted students?

a) “Students in gifted education deserve separate programs in separate schools in order to maximize their educational potential.”
b) “Gifted education is imperative in order for the United States to continue to lead the world in technological advances.”
c) “These children do not require special supports, as they can make it on their own.”
d) “In spite of shrinking funding dollars, we’ll find a way to pay for gifted education classes.”

advanced placement
Which teaching method is an example of acceleration?

a) advanced placement
b) mentorship
c) independent study
d) the Revolving Door Model

interpersonal
A child who has the ability to notice and respond to other people’s needs demonstrates which of Gardner’s intelligences?

a) interpersonal
b) linguistic
c) intrapersonal
d) spatial

independent study
A procedure that allows more concentrated study in a topic that will not be covered by the general education classes is

a) the Revolving Door Model.
b) an internship.
c) independent study.
d) a mentorship.

an internship.
A program that places gifted students into job settings related to career goals refers to

a) an internship.
b) interdisciplinary instruction.
c) the Revolving Door Model.
d) an independent study.

logical-mathematical
An engineer and a scientist both exhibit which of Gardner’s intelligences?

a) musical
b) logical-mathematical
c) body-kinesthetic
d) spatial

honor sections.
Jerome, a high-school student, is taking taking an advanced class in chemistry. He qualified for this class due to his high achievement in this area. This is an example of

a) ability grouping.
b) honor sections.
c) advanced placement.
d) individualized instruction.

is gifted and also has a disability.
Justin is twice-exceptional. This means that he

a) was identified as gifted as a preschooler, and again in
elementary school.
b) is gifted and also has a disability.
c) has gifts and talents.
d) is gifted in two of Gardner’s intelligences.

Comparison of developmental markers
Ms. Dencko, a preschool teacher, suspects that one of her young students is gifted. What is one method that she can use to determine whether her hunch is right?

a) Comparison of developmental markers
b) Screening devices for problem-solving skills
c) IQ tests
d) EKG tests

artistic or creative.
Schools and teachers are less likely to favor students who are

a) gifted in cognitive areas.
b) artistic or creative.
c) from the majority culture.
d) gifted in academic areas.

advanced placement.
Valerie is in high school, taking high school courses, but earning college credit. This is an example of

a) individualized instruction.
b) honor sections.
c) ability grouping.
d) advanced placement.

Gifted education is not covered under the authority of IDEA, so there is no reporting requirement for states.
Why is there no precise count of the number of gifted and talented students being served by special programs nationwide?

a) Funding cuts have slowed data collection procedures.
b) Arguments about which students qualify as gifted have hindered accurate reporting methods.
c) Most states keep inaccurate paperwork.
d) Gifted education is not covered under the authority of IDEA, so there is no reporting requirement for states.

universal design
A building that was designed according to the principles of __________ would be barrier free and meet the needs of everyone, including people with physical challenges.

a) universal design
b) IDEA
c) Section 504
d) barrier-free living

muscular/skeletal condition.
A child who has difficulty controlling his movements, but whose disability is not neurological, has a(n)

a) muscular/skeletal condition.
b) chronic illness.
c) infectious disease.
d) neuromotor impairment.

an orthopedic impairment.
A problem with the structure or functioning of the body refers to

a) an orthopedic impairment.
b) multiple disabilities.
c) other health impairments.
d) a health impairment.

scheduling accommodation
A student is provided with extra time during tests. Which type of accommodation is this?

a) setting accommodation
b) accommodations regarding directions
c) accommodations during testing
d) scheduling accommodation

accommodations during testing
A student with fine motor coordination problems puts a light mark on the bubble that indicates the correct answer on his exam answer key. An assistant later goes back and fills those bubbles in completely, and dark enough to be read by the electronic scanner. Which type of accommodation is this?

a) setting accommodation
b) accommodations regarding directions
c) accommodations during testing
d) scheduling accommodation

low-tech device.
An assistive technology device such as a cushion, a railing, or a pencil grip would be considered a(n)

a) example of robotics.
b) high-tech device.
c) example of bionics.
d) low-tech device.

spastic
Angela has cerebral palsy. Her movements are very stiff. Which type of cerebral palsy does she have?

a) ataxia
b) athetoid
c) hemiplegia
d) spastic

they do not put the child at risk for injury.
Before teachers and parents become involved in a preschool child’s motor development program, they must be trained so that

a) the child does not sue for damages later.
b) OTs and PTs are no longer necessary.
c) they do not put the child at risk for injury.
d) the IEP can be implemented entirely at home.

physical therapist (1)
Bradford has an uneven gait when he walks and has difficulty with other gross motor skills such as throwing a ball, skipping, and jumping. Which professional would work with him on these skills?

a) occupational therapist
b) physical therapist
c) school nurse
d) speech/language pathologist

cystic fibrosis
Eduardo has a genetic birth defect that results in chronic lung infections and digestive difficulties. Eduardo has which of the following conditions?

a) cystic fibrosis
b) hemophilia
c) diabetes
d) tuberculosis

According to IDEA, Ms. Kitano is a related service provider.
Ms. Kitano is a school nurse. Which of the following statements is correct?

a) Ms. Kitano cannot participate in IEP meetings.
b) Ms. Kitano’s services are provided to students with disabilities through the ADA.
c) Ms. Kitano can only provide services to students with prior physician approval.
d) According to IDEA, Ms. Kitano is a related service provider.

cerebral palsy
Sara Elizabeth has an incurable condition, caused by brain injury, that limits her ability to control muscle groups or motor functioning. Sara Elizabeth has

a) muscular dystrophy.
b) epilepsy.
c) cerebral palsy.
d) multiple sclerosis.

asthma
The most common chronic illness of children is

a) cystic fibrosis.
b) diabetes.
c) leukemia.
d) asthma.

availability of all areas and activities
When considering the educational environment for students with physical and health disabilities, what is meant by the term accessibility?

a) a special school bus
b) ability to get into classroom
c) availability of all areas and activities
d) access to restroom

A child can move in and out of the medically fragile status.
Which of the following statements is true?

a) Most children who are medically fragile do not attend their neighborhood schools.
b) A child can move in and out of the medically fragile status.
c) The term medically fragile is used to describe all children with special health care needs.
d) The term medically fragile typically refers to students with three primary chronic illnesses: asthma, cystic fibrosis, and childhood cancer.

setting accommodation
A student leaves the classroom to take an exam in a distraction-free area. Which type of accommodation is this?

a) accommodations during testing
b) setting accommodation
c) scheduling accommodation
d) accommodations regarding directions

high-tech device.
A ventilator or an assistive technology device that uses a computer or computer chip would be considered a(n)

a) example of robotics.
b) example of bionics.
c) low-tech device.
d) high-tech device.

independent living.
According to the text, a vital concern of adults with physical or health disabilities is

a) raising children.
b) education.
c) purchase of computers.
d) independent living.

epilepsy
Donald has __________, a condition of recurrent convulsions or seizures caused by abnormal brain electrical activity.

a) cerebral palsy
b) muscular dystrophy
c) multiple sclerosis
d) epilepsy

occupational therapist
Elizabeth has difficulty holding a pencil, cutting with scissors, and many of the other fine motor tasks required in elementary school. Which professional would work with her on these skills?

a) speech/language pathologist
b) occupational therapist
c) school counselor
d) rehabilitation engineer

diabetes
Gonzalo’s pancreas does not produce enough insulin, resulting in problems with his sugar metabolism. Gonzalo has which of the following conditions?

a) hemophilia
b) diabetes
c) cystic fibrosis
d) tuberculosis

to coordinate related services for individual students
Ms. Amens-Naglieri is a case manager for students with physical and health disabilities. What is the function of her job?

a) to monitor their health-care needs and provide services when necessary
b) to set up IEP meetings for the school district
c) to improve their fine-motor skills
d) to coordinate related services for individual students

20 minutes.
Mariah has a physical disability that necessitates the use of specific equipment. Her teacher should remember to reposition her every

a) 10 minutes.
b) hour.
c) 20 minutes.
d) 5 minutes.

allow the student to move around in order to prevent joint stiffness and considerable pain.
Ms. Yzquierdo has a student with juvenile arthritis in her room. She should be sure to

a) adhere to the same attendance policy for this student as for her others.
b) learn what physical movement problems he has, as these will be consistent from day to day.
c) allow the student to move around in order to prevent joint stiffness and considerable pain.
d) keep the student as still as possible during her entire class to avoid painful movement.

reading the test items to the student.
One fair test taking option for students with physical or health disabilities is

a) reading the test items to the student.
b) having another student take the test for them.
c) timed testing.
d) waiver from test taking.

recommend medical treatment options.
All of the following are examples of how teachers can help parents better understand the issues of ADHD EXCEPT

a) assess the accuracy of the information they find
b) find accurate information about ADHD.
c) contact professionals or other parents who have formed support groups.
d) recommend medical treatment options.

subjectivity of some of the assessment procedures.
Caution must be exercised in the assessment phase for students with ADHD due to the

a) legal issues surrounding students on medication.
b) near impossibility of administering many standardized tests to students with short attention spans.
c) subjectivity of some of the assessment procedures.
d) defensiveness many parents exhibit when told their child has ADHD.

near the teacher
Chandru is a student with ADHD in your class. Where would you put his desk?

a) next to a hallway door
b) by a window
c) near the teacher
d) near the pencil sharpener

marked improvement when under medical treatment.
Due to concerns about hyperactivity, Emile is being assessed for ADHD using the DSM-V criteria. According to these criteria, he must exhibit all of the following EXCEPT

a) symptoms to have persisted for at least 6 months.
b) symptoms that are to such a degree that they are maladaptive and inconsistent with his developmental level.
c) at least six symptoms.
d) marked improvement when under medical treatment.

hyperactivity
During a science test, most of the students remain in their seats working quietly. Peyton, however, taps his pencil until the lead breaks and gets up to sharpen it three times. He also jumps up and walks to the teacher’s desk to ask questions, rather than simply raising his hand. Peyton is displaying which key characteristic of ADHD?

a) combined type
b) impulsivity
c) inattention
d) hyperactivity

He may receive accommodations, such as extended time on tests or assignments, through Section 504.
Farris has ADHD, but does not qualify for special education services. Which of the following statements is true?

a) He probably comes from a disorganized home environment.
b) He was probably assessed using the APA definition of ADHD.
c) His parents have a strong case for initiating due process procedures.
d) He may receive accommodations, such as extended time on tests or assignments, through Section 504.

goal-setting.
Francisco and his teacher decide that he is going to try and work at least 15 math problems independently every day. This is an example of

a) self-monitoring.
b) goal-setting.
c) self-reinforcement.
d) self-talk.

self-management strategies
Francisco is learning to use a validated practice which helps him control his own behavior and be responsible for many aspects of his school program. Which of the following is Francisco learning?

a) self-management strategies
b) CBM
c) peer tutoring
d) FBA

educational performance problems
Initiating work, remaining on task, making transitions, and completing assignments are all examples of __________ for ADHD students.

a) skill strengths
b) educational performance problems
c) instructional accommodations
d) validated practices

may contribute to ADHD as the condition is observed in many members of the same family.
It appears that genetics

a) are a strong predictor of ADHD, but diet, exercise, and time spent watching television determine whether or not the characteristics actually emerge.
b) have little impact on ADHD, but a disorganized home environment is the primary factor for the frequency of familial characteristics.
c) are a primary cause of ADHD in children.
d) may contribute to ADHD as the condition is observed in many members of the same family.

if his condition adversely affects his educational performance.
Jimmy Ray has ADHD. He is eligible for services under IDEA

a) if his condition adversely affects his educational performance.
b) if he is on medication.
c) under the ADHD category.
d) if his diagnosis was made by a medical doctor.

teach the student to use self-management
Mr. Deol is teaching self-management techniques to one of his students. He has selected the behavior and developed the self-management component. What is his next step?

a) assess the student’s skill generalization
b) teach the student to use self-management
c) evaluate the student’s performance
d) assess the student’s skill maintenance

school nurse should be part of the IEP team if their son is on medication.
Mr. and Mrs. McGill-Chris are going to attend an IEP meeting for their son who has ADHD. A(n)

a) school counselor is required to be part of the team in order to monitor any medicinal effects on their son’s sense of well-being.
b) PE teacher should be part of the IEP team to develop a physical exercise plan to address hyperactivity issues.
c) school nurse should be part of the IEP team if their son is on medication.
d) applied behavior analyst is required to be part of the team if their son’s ADHD is primarily inattentive.

remaining on task
Mrs. Matondkar seats Jacob, a student with ADHD, away from distractions like windows or computers. She uses hands-on activities and assigns highly motivating activities. Mrs. Matondkar is using solutions for which educational performance problem?

a) remaining on task
b) self-rewards
c) attribute training
d) making transitions

FBA
Omri, a student with ADHD, has begun acting out more than usual. His teacher believes it happens more in the morning than the afternoon. What validated practice can the teacher use to determine what is happening with Omri?

a) CBM
b) peer tutoring
c) self-regulation
d) FBA

he also has another disability.
Rafik has ADHD with comorbidity. This means that

a) there is a family history of ADHD.
b) his symptoms are life-threatening.
c) he has a dour sense of humor.
d) he also has another disability.

impulsivity
Reggie has just begun taking piano lessons at a nearby music studio. Once a month, his teacher holds group lessons for students across many skill levels. On these days, Reggie raises his hand every time the teacher asks a question, even though many of the questions are targeted toward older students with years of experience, and he has no idea of the answer. Reggie is displaying which key characteristic of ADHD?

a) inattention
b) combined type
c) hyperactivity
d) impulsivity

executive functions.
The cognitive abilities that control the ability to plan, self-regulate, and engage in goal-directed behavior are referred to as

a) comorbidity.
b) neurotransmitters.
c) executive functions.
d) lower-level thinking skills.

self-monitoring
Whenever Francisco hears a beep on a pre-recorded tape played by his teacher, he asks himself, “Was I paying attention? Was I doing what I am supposed to be doing?” He then fills in either a “smiley face” or a “frown face” on a card taped to his desk. Francisco is engaged in which validated practice?

a) self-monitoring
b) self-reinforcement
c) goal-setting
d) self-instruction

recommend changes in dosage based upon observations
Which of the following is NOT an appropriate responsibility for a teacher whose student is on medication for ADHD?

a) recommend changes in dosage based upon observations
b) observe and note the effect of medication on a child
c) note effects of dosage changes
d) note changes in behavior and academic performance

extended time
Which of the following is the most common accommodation to testing situations for students with ADHD?

a) testing done over more days, but for shorter periods of time
b) extended time
c) verbal responses to test questions
d) alternate testing location

the school nurse
Which person is usually the medical liaison between home, school, and medical community for a student with ADHD?

a) the parent
b) the psychiatrist who prescribes the medication
c) the school nurse
d) the pediatrician

developmental delay (2)
Which term below is NOT associated with ADHD?

a) hyperactive
b) inattentive
c) impulsive
d) developmental delay

Sensational media coverage
__________ has/have contributed to many public misperceptions of ADHD.

a) Vaguely written legislation
b) Ad campaigns by pharmaceutical companies
c) Sensational media coverage
d) Well conducted research by specialists in brain injuries

b & c
Spencer is an 8-year-old whose doctor has just diagnosed with ADHD. His parents want him to receive special education services. What will happen next?

a) Spencer qualifies for special education services because of his doctor’s diagnosis.
b) School personnel will also assess Spencer to determine whether or not special services are warranted.
c) At this point, Spencer qualifies for services under Section 504 because of his doctor’s diagnosis, but not for services under IDEA.
d) Based on the doctor’s diagnosis, an IEP team will meet to determine what accommodations and services Spencer requires.
e) b & c
f) None of the above

a special education service where physical education and recreational skills are taught.
Adaptive physical education is

a) not addressed in IDEA ’04, but still widely implemented.
b) an inclusive form of PE where an educational assistant attends class to provide support to individuals with disabilities.
c) a special education service where physical education and recreational skills are taught.
d) a related service that helps student learn to access community recreational programs.

six
Adriano is about to move into a group home, where he will live with several other people with intellectual disabilities and receive support with independent living skills. Research shows that the optimal number of people living in this setting is __________, in order to provide Adriano with a high quality of life.

a) four
b) six
c) eight
d) twenty

normalization.
Alejandro, an adult with an intellectual disability, wants to live independently and go to work just like everyone else. This is consistent with the philosophy of

a) institutionalization.
b) systems of support.
c) dignity of risk.
d) normalization.

learning the alphabet sounds
Based upon information regarding the three adaptive skill areas, which of the following is NOT a practical adaptive behavior?

a) getting dressed
b) doing laundry
c) eating
d) learning the alphabet sounds

instructional modifications.
C.J. has an intellectual disability and participates in a general education science class. His classmates must memorize the first 15 elements on the periodic table for an upcoming test, and be able to diagram their molecular structure. In contrast, C.J. must match each element name to its correct abbreviation. The different test and expectations for C.J. in science are examples of __________.

a) instructional modifications.
b) functional skills curricula.
c) self-determination skills.
d) instructional accommodations.

taking the city bus
Danny’s family is looking for generic supports to provide transportation to and from work. Which of the following is an example of a generic support?

a) taking a special city van for people with disabilities
b) having someone from home drive him every day
c) participating in a car pool
d) taking the city bus

behavioral approaches such as token economies, direct instruction, and task analysis were developed and refined.
During the 1960s and 1970s

a) behavioral approaches such as token economies, direct instruction, and task analysis were developed and refined.
b) stories about the negative effect of people with intellectual disabilities on society increased the public’s fear and increased institutionalization.
c) Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard was the first to develop teaching techniques for individuals with intellectual disabilities through his work with Victor.
d) residential institutions were first developed for people with intellectual disabilities.

Down syndrome.
Emma has a condition where the 21st pair of chromosomes has three rather than the normal two chromosomes. Emma has

a) PKU.
b) Down syndrome.
c) Tay Sachs disease.
d) multiple sclerosis.

self-determination skills.
Ethan has an intellectual disability. Part of his educational program involves helping him to make decisions, choose preferences, and exercise the self-advocacy needed for independent living. These skills are all examples of

a) instructional modifications.
b) functional skills curricula.
c) instructional accommodations.
d) self-determination skills.

mild intellectual abilities
Hunter has an IQ of 60, maintains a steady job, and goes out every Friday night with several friends. Under which level of severity would he be classified?

a) mild intellectual abilities
b) severe intellectual abilities
c) profound intellectual abilities
d) moderate intellectual abilities

FAS.
Marnie is pregnant but continues to consume alcohol on a heavy, regular basis. Her unborn infant is at risk for

a) FAS.
b) fragile X syndrome.
c) PKU.
d) Down syndrome.

proximity and similarity.
Mr. and Mrs. Duchenne want to provide an environment that will help their teenage son make friends. They should know that the key factors that help individuals with intellectual disabilities make friends are

a) proximity and similarity.
b) social skills and encouragement.
c) familiarity and openness.
d) being friendly and having access to transportation.

a measure of adaptive skill areas.
Ms. Patel is a school psychologist who wants to use an assessment that will determine whether a student performs everyday skills expected of an individual of that age in a typical environment. Ms. Patel should use

a) a behavior rating checklist.
b) a measure of adaptive skill areas.
c) an IQ measure.
d) an academic skills assessment.

a functional curriculum.
Reading street signs and taking phone messages are examples of

a) direct instruction.
b) task analysis.
c) incidental learning.
d) a functional curriculum.

learning from ordinary or “everyday” experiences.
Students with intellectual disabilities are often unable to learn incidentally, which refers to

a) generalizing effects of direct instruction.
b) learning by associating content with a series of incidents in their lives.
c) performing a task when instructed, but failing to repeat it.
d) learning from ordinary or “everyday” experiences.

alternate assessments.
Tera has a moderate intellectual disability. Her educational goals contain little access to the general education curriculum, and focus more on a functional skills curriculum. Tera’s progress will be assessed using

a) behavioral checklists.
b) alternate assessments.
c) high-stakes testing.
d) standardized, district- and state-wide tests.

intermittent, limited, extensive, and pervasive.
The four levels of intensity of support listed in the 2002 AAIDD definition are

a) independent, partially supported, heavily supported, and completely dependent.
b) mild, moderate, severe, pervasive.
c) intermittent, limited, extensive, and pervasive.
d) mild, moderate, severe, profound.

receive explicit instruction and practice in real-life settings.
When learning to make choices, individuals with intellectual disabilities must

a) be provided with paid escorts to monitor those choices when in the community.
b) verify those choices with another adult to determine if they are appropriate.
c) receive explicit instruction and practice in real-life settings.
d) not be allowed to make many choices in order to avoid confusing them.

natural
When people with intellectual disabilities develop friendships with college students through the Best Buddies program, they are creating __________ supports.

a) generic
b) nonpaid
c) natural
d) specialized

fragile X syndrome
Which genetic disorder which is the most commonly inherited cause of mental retardation?

a) Down syndrome
b) trisomy 21
c) fragile X syndrome
d) PKU

academic
Which of the following is NOT one of the adaptive skill areas listed in the 2002 AAIDD (formerly known as AAMR) definition of mental retardation?

a) conceptual
b) practical
c) social
d) academic

learning disabilities (1)
Which term below is NOT appropriately synonymous with the other three?

a) cognitive disability
b) mental retardation
c) learning disabilities
d) intellectual disability

measles
Which virus can be prevented, and the number of cases of intellectual disabilities reduced, through immunization?

a) FAS
b) measles
c) herpes
d) HIV

because of the negative stigma associated with the term mental retardation
Why did the organization formerly known as the AAMR promote the change of terms from mental retardation to intellectual and developmental disabilities?

a) because of political infighting within the organization
b) because of the negative stigma associated with the term mental retardation
c) to give more visibility to developmental disabilities in young children
d) to acknowledge the contributions of the organization’s outgoing president

Dignity of risk
__________ is based on the premise that people with intellectual disabilities should experience life’s challenges and not be overprotected.

a) Deinstitutionalization
b) Dignity of risk
c) Normalization
d) Systems of support

activity schedules
A teacher uses written or pictorial directions to help his students with ASD perform skills or routines. He is using

a) positive behavior support
b) activity schedules
c) PECS
d) functional communication training

Social Stories
A teacher wants to teach her students with ASD how to cope and interact in various social situations. Which of the following should you recommend?

a) positive behavior support
b) AAC
c) PECS
d) Social Stories

PDD-NOS
Abdul has mild problems in the areas of communication, social skills, and unusual behaviors. Which of the following conditions is consistent with his characteristics?

a) PDD-NOS
b) CDD
c) Rett syndrome
d) Asperger syndrome

three.
According to IDEA, autism is generally evident before age

a) five.
b) six.
c) one.
d) three.

the ability to imitate motor movements
Because language delays are difficult to examine in young children, professionals assess __________ as a means of identifying ASD.

a) expressive language only
b) fine motor skills
c) the ability to imitate motor movements
d) receptive language only

an autistic savant.
Benjamin began playing complicated melodies on the piano at 18 months and at 4 years of age can replay perfectly any piece of music that he hears once. Yet, Benjamin is nonverbal and grows agitated when others are around. Benjamin displays characteristics of

a) a child with Rett syndrome.
b) a child with an intellectual disability.
c) an autistic savant.
d) a child with a hearing loss who is gifted.

demonstrating echolalia.
Brandon’s mother asks, “Are you hungry?” He responds by saying, “Are you hungry?” Brandon, who has ASD, is

a) exhibiting defiance that is typical of children with ASD.
b) exhibiting stuttering.
c) demonstrating echolalia.
d) carefully repeating what he hears in an attempt to learn language.

stereotypies.
Brandon, a child with autism, flaps his hands continuously. He is demonstrating

a) stereotypies.
b) nonverbal communication.
c) echolalia.
d) self-injurious behavior.

are early signs of ASD in children younger than 24 months old.
Characteristics such as poor response to other’s voices and more interest in looking at objects than at people

a) are more indicative of Rett syndrome than ASD.
b) can help children with ASD for whom vitamin therapy may be successful.
c) indicate that a sibling of a child with ASD may be feeling neglected.
d) are early signs of ASD in children younger than 24 months old.

carefully identify the inappropriate behavior in behavioral terms.
Fourth-grade teacher Mr. Webber wants to teach functionally equivalent behaviors to a student with ASD in his class. His first step should be to

a) work with everyone to be sure that there is consistency across all settings.
b) analyze the behavior and the events that stimulate and maintain it.
c) teach and reward alternative behaviors.
d) carefully identify the inappropriate behavior in behavioral terms.

AAC
Isha has autism. She uses a computerized device with a touch screen and speech synthesizer that allows her to communicate her thoughts. Isha’s device is one form of

a) PECS.
b) Social Stories.
c) an activity schedule.
d) AAC.

video modeling
Jasper, a student with ASD, uses multimedia to view a classmate performing a desired social behavior. Which intervention is being used with Jasper?

a) PECS
b) video modeling
c) AAC
d) positive behavior supports

Asperger syndrome.
Jonathan displays inappropriate social interactions with others, has repetitive and stereotypic motor movements, and average intellectual abilities. He demonstrates characteristics of

a) mild autism.
b) Usher syndrome.
c) Asperger syndrome.
d) an autistic savant.

childhood disintegrative disorder.
Keone developed normally until he was 5 years old, when his parents noticed a marked regression in his language and social skills. Keone is displaying characteristics of a child with

a) pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified.
b) Asperger syndrome.
c) childhood disintegrative disorder.
d) Rett syndrome.

make events predictable.
Knowing how well a student handles free time, developing a schedule, and the avoidance of unannounced changes are ways that teachers of children with autism can

a) teach using incidental learning.
b) make events predictable.
c) foster positive participation.
d) communicate instructions and consequences carefully.

self-injury.
Mickey has ASD. He frequently engages in disruptive behavior, including purposely banging his head on his desk. Mickey’s head-banging behavior is an example of

a) patterning.
b) self-injury.
c) echolalia.
d) stereotypies.

instructional situations
Mrs. Nanas incorporates peer supports when planning for a student in her class who has ASD. These peer supports would generally be planned for which area?

a) after-school activities
b) instructional situations
c) lunchroom situations
d) leisure activities

determine substitute behaviors to develop.
Ms. Allen has identified inappropriate behaviors in one of her students, and has determined which events stimulate the student to exhibit those behaviors. If she is to teach functionally equivalent behaviors, her next step should be to

a) analyze the behavior and the events that stimulate and maintain it.
b) work with everyone to be sure that there is consistency across all settings.
c) teach and reward alternate behaviors.
d) determine substitute behaviors to develop.

structured teaching.
Ms. Uley adapts materials and environments to help children with ASD make sense of the world. Ms. Uley is using

a) pragmatic instruction.
b) generalization.
c) structured teaching.
d) applied behavior analysis.

learn to initiate requests for items.
One benefit of PECS is that students who use it

a) develop advanced language skills.
b) learn to initiate requests for items.
c) are more successful in the adult workplace.
d) learn to wait for an adult to attend to their needs.

have difficulty connecting with or relating to their child.
One common frustration voiced by many parents of children with ASD is that they

a) cannot find the thousands of pictures necessary to incorporate PECS into their home lives.
b) have difficulty connecting with or relating to their child.
c) are constantly pressured by news media for interviews because of the public fascination with autism.
d) wish that autism were not such a visible disability.

joint attention
Ten-month-old Bella looks at a toy, then looks at her mother. As she returns her attention to the toy, her mother also looks at it. This characteristic of typically-developing children, known as __________, may be used to identify children with ASD.

a) echolalia
b) joint attention
c) expressive movement
d) motor imitation

living and working in the community.
Transition planning for adults with ASD often focuses on

a) academic achievement.
b) living and working in the community.
c) personal hygiene.
d) verbal skills.

work with others to ensure consistency across all settings.
When teaching functionally equivalent behaviors, the LAST step in the process that the teacher should focus on is to

a) analyze the behavior and the events that stimulate and maintain it.
b) work with others to ensure consistency across all settings.
c) determine substitute behaviors to develop.
d) teach and reward alternate behaviors.

discrete trial training.
When working with preschoolers with autism, Ms. DeVault uses a highly structured technique involving teacher-directed activities, repetition of skills through practice, and careful application of rewards. Ms. DeVault is using

a) task analysis.
b) discrete trial training.
c) structured teaching.
d) behavior analysis.

family acceptance and inclusion.
According to your text, the most important factor in a deaf child’s life is

a) academic achievement.
b) life skills.
c) oral language skills.
d) family acceptance and inclusion.

through universal newborn screening.
Children should have their hearing tested

a) between the ages of 5 and 6.
b) when they are old enough to communicate with the tester.
c) between the ages of 12 and 18 months.
d) through universal newborn screening.

subtitles available only to those who select that option.
Closed-captioning is

a) subtitles for all to see.
b) words presented on a screen with no picture.
c) audio descriptions of what is happening on screen.
d) subtitles available only to those who select that option.

the child receives the implant as early as possible, even by their first birthday.
Cochlear implant results, particularly with expressive language, seem to be better when

a) repeated surgery is used to fine-tune the implant.
b) technology allows for regeneration of hair cells in the cochlea.
c) the child receives the implant as early as possible, even by their first birthday.
d) the child combines use of an auditory brainstem implant along with the cochlear implant.

difficulty with communication.
Deaf students who attend general education classes are often excluded from nonacademic activities because of

a) physical impairments which prohibit normal playground activity.
b) lack of interest.
c) difficulty with communication.
d) a preoccupation with academic tasks.

conductive.
Hearing loss caused by otitis media is typically

a) profound.
b) conductive.
c) sensorineural.
d) hindered by hearing aids.

hard of hearing
Ian has a hearing loss, but is able to understand sounds with help from a hearing aid. Which term correctly describes his hearing loss?

a) Deaf
b) hard of hearing
c) sound impaired
d) deaf

heredity
Identify the leading known cause of both congenital and sensorineural hearing losses.

a) rubella
b) otitis media
c) meningitis
d) heredity

the bilingual-bicultural approach
In __________, students are taught using ASL as their first language and written English as their second language.

a) ASL
b) the bilingual-bicultural approach
c) the total communication approach
d) the cued speech approach

otitis media.
Infection of the middle ear and accumulation of fluid behind the eardrum is

a) cytomegalovirus.
b) meningitis.
c) incurable.
d) otitis media.

prelingually deaf.
Jackie became deaf before she learned to speak and understand language. Jackie is

a) postlingually deaf.
b) profoundly deaf.
c) prelingually deaf.
d) hard of hearing.

oral or ASL
Jasmine is a deaf seven-month-old child. In order to ensure language development, what method would you recommend her parents use with her?

a) written communications
b) cued speech
c) oral
d) ASL

deaf
Lavona has a profound hearing loss and cannot understand sounds or words, even with her hearing aid. Which term correctly describes her hearing loss?

a) hard of hearing
b) sound impaired
c) deaf
d) Deaf

more restrictive
Many parents, deaf students, and educators believe that general education settings are __________ than residential settings.

a) more inclusive
b) more restrictive
c) less restrictive
d) better

immediate speech to text.
Real-time captioning means

a) immediate text to speech.
b) digitized text to speech.
c) speech to sign language.
d) immediate speech to text.

Gallaudet University.
Sofia attends the only U.S. liberal arts university that is primarily for deaf students. Sofia attends

a) Wesleyan University.
b) Helen Keller College.
c) Gallaudet University.
d) Harvey Mudd College.

place and receive telephone calls by typing information.
TTY or a telecommunication device allows deaf people to

a) watch TV.
b) place and receive telephone calls by typing information.
c) have a system for answering doors.
d) hear a concert.

hertz (Hz)
The number of vibrations per second determines the frequency of the sound which is measured by which unit?

a) hertz (Hz)
b) volts
c) watt
d) decibel

the hearing threshold.
The point at which a person first perceives the softest sound at each frequency level is defined as

a) a decibel.
b) the hearing threshold.
c) an audiogram.
d) a pure sound.

being born Deaf of Deaf parents.
The term “Deaf of Deaf” refers to

a) being born Deaf of Deaf parents.
b) profoundly deaf.
c) prelingually deaf individuals.
d) tired of hearing about Deaf people.

total communication
This position advocates both oral and manual communication systems for the instruction of deaf students.

a) oralism
b) combination approach
c) total communication
d) supported manual method

At least one of his parents is Deaf.
Tyree refers to himself as a CODA. What can you infer about him?

a) He is a Childhood Organization Disability Advocate.
b) At least one of his parents is Deaf.
c) He and both his parents are Deaf.
d) He cannot spell.

oral-only approach
Which communication method is typically used by students with cochlear implants?

a) ASL
b) oral-only approach
c) bilingual-bicultural approach
d) total communication approach

alarm clock that vibrates the bed
Which of the following describe an alerting device for deaf persons?

a) closed captioning
b) alarm clock that vibrates the bed
c) communication board
d) ASL interpreter

Residual hearing
__________ refers to the amount of functional hearing a person has.

a) Functional hearing loss
b) Sensorineural hearing
c) Otoacoustic emissions
d) Residual hearing

offer their concert programs in standard and enlarged print, and in braille if possible.
A local chamber music society would like to make their performances more accessible to people with visual disabilities, and come to you for advice. You should recommend that they

a) provide braille printouts of all the sheet music, to help listeners better understand the music.
b) offer their concert programs in standard and enlarged print, and in braille if possible.
c) provide sign language interpreters for every performance.
d) do nothing, as their music will be easily accessible to people with visual disabilities.

tend to be more assertive than their sighted peers.
All of the following social characteristics are common among children with visual disabilities EXCEPT

a) tend to be more assertive than their sighted peers.
b) ask too many irrelevant questions.
c) engage in inappropriate acts of affection.
d) lack play skills.

listening to an audiodescription.
Anja is blind. As she watches a DVD movie with her husband, she also hears a narrator say things like, “Bond frowns, and his eyes dart to the far corner of the room.” Anja is

a) listening to an audiodescription.
b) using CCTV.
c) listening on a special TV designed for people who are blind.
d) using a Perkins Brailler.

not having functional use of sight.
Blindness means

a) the same as legally blind.
b) not having functional use of sight.
c) not being able to see anything.
d) only being able to see in fully lighted conditions.

audio input devices.
Books on tape or CD and “talking ATMs” are examples of

a) tactile input devices.
b) audio input devices.
c) visual input devices.
d) audiodescriptions.

residual vision.
Daniella has a visual disability, but is able to make use of the amount of vision she has. This is referred to as

a) adventitious vision.
b) residual vision.
c) congenital vision.
d) peripheral vision.

optometrist.
Dr. Xiong is a professional who measures a person’s vision and prescribes contacts or glasses. Dr. Xiong is a(n)

a) optician.
b) ophthalmologist.
c) pharmacist.
d) optometrist.

play skills.
For young children, visual information plays an important role in the acquisition of

a) needs.
b) play skills.
c) linguistic competence.
d) desires.

visual acuity.
How well a person sees at various distances is described as

a) field of vision.
b) visual effectiveness.
c) visual acuity.
d) peripheral vision.

ask the individual if he wants assistance.
If you see a blind person trying to cross a busy street, your first step should be to

a) grasp their arm above the elbow and lead the individual across the street.
b) step into the street and stop all traffic until the individual is safely across.
c) offer the individual your arm.
d) ask the individual if he wants assistance.

begin learning how to use a “kiddy cane” between the ages of two and six.
Juan is a child with a visual disability. For his orientation and mobility training, research findings would indicate that he should

a) start with a personal assistant or guide and then switch to a long cane around age 10 or 11.
b) learn to use an adult size cane so he will eventually be prepared for his needs later in life.
c) begin learning how to use a “kiddy cane” between the ages of two and six.
d) start using a guide dog first, and then switch to a Hoover cane as a teenager

enlarges the print found in texts and books
Kacie uses a closed-circuit television. Which function does it serve?

a) enhances viewing with descriptive comments
b) provides auditory descriptions of action during a TV show
c) allows new movie releases to be played on television rather than in theatres
d) enlarges the print found in texts and books

is adventitiously blind.
Parker developed blindness after an ATV accident when he was 12 years old. Parker

a) has a low level visual disability.
b) is congenitally visually impaired.
c) has residual impairments.
d) is adventitiously blind.

are unable to see nonverbal cues.
Social interactions are often difficult for children with visual disabilities, due to the fact that they

a) usually also have physical disabilities which prohibit them from playing typical playground games with their peers.
b) tend to be more assertive than their peers in misguided attempts to compensate for the lack of sight.
c) are often kept in the classroom during recess and lunch by overprotective teachers.
d) are unable to see nonverbal cues.

independent life skills.
Students who are blind may need entirely different curriculum topics from their peers such as

a) language arts.
b) trigonometry at an earlier age to assist with orientation skills.
c) independent life skills.
d) penmanship.

tunnel vision.
Tamara has difficulty with peripheral vision and is unable to see a wide area. She probably has

a) tunnel vision.
b) visual acuity problems.
c) visual efficiency problems.
d) problems with accommodation.

tactile input device.
The Perkins Brailler is an example of a

a) audiodescription.
b) tactile input device.
c) visual input device.
d) audio input device.

peripheral vision.
The ability to see beyond the direct line of vision or the width of vision is referred to as

a) visual depth.
b) peripheral vision.
c) visual acuity.
d) visual efficiency.

mobility.
The ability to travel safely and efficiently from one place to another is termed

a) direction.
b) orientation.
c) spatial movement.
d) mobility.

standard print.
The majority of students with visual disabilities read using

a) standard print.
b) braille.
c) enlarged print.
d) personal readers.

strabismus
Ty has a condition of the eye muscle where the two eyes are not properly aligned and two images are received by the brain simultaneously. What condition does Ty have?

a) hyperopia
b) cataracts
c) aniridia
d) strabismus

accommodation.
When Erin stops reading a book and looks across the room, her lens adjusts to help her focus on objects at a distance. This adjustment is called

a) residual vision.
b) accommodation.
c) modification.
d) peripheral vision.

complete the assignment on an extended but definite due date.
When given a lengthy assignment involving extended reading, students with severe visual disabilities should be expected to

a) complete the assignment at their leisure.
b) complete the assignment on an extended but definite due date.
c) complete the assignment on the assigned due date.
d) try their best but not worry about completion.

teachers and parents talk openly and frankly about the differences.
When schools’ and families’ sets of beliefs clash, it is important that

a) an external mediator be utilized to avoid an escalation of conflict.
b) teachers and parents talk openly and frankly about the differences.
c) teachers adjust their classroom expectations to match those of the family.
d) family members adjust their expectations at home to match those of the school.

personal reader
Which of the following would NOT be appropriate for a child with good central vision but a limited visual field?

a) computer-generated print-to-voice system
b) personal reader
c) enlarged print
d) audio versions of texts

can include open or closed head injuries.
According to the IDEA definition, TBI

a) can be the result of a stroke.
b) can be caused by injuries induced by birth trauma.
c) can be caused by a brain tumor.
d) can include open or closed head injuries.

alternate achievement standards.
Alizah has multiple-severe disabilities, and is tested on the general education curriculum standards. However, she is tested on fewer objectives. Alizeh is tested using

a) alternate achievement standards.
b) functional curriculum.
c) CBM.
d) portfolio assessments.

a statement of why the child cannot participate in the regular assessment
An IEP team determines that alternate assessments are appropriate for a student with multiple-severe disabilities. Which of the following should be included in that student’s IEP?

a) a description of benchmarks in the general education curriculum that will be measured
b) an explanation of which components of the regular assessment might still be appropriate for the student
c) the student’s signature, verifying that he or she agrees to the terms of the alternate assessment
d) a statement of why the child cannot participate in the regular assessment

TBI.
Brayden sustained a serious head injury during football practice. As a result, he has significant difficulty with cognitive tasks, maintaining attention, and he’s become very impulsive. Brayden has

a) deaf-blindness.
b) multiple-severe disabilities.
c) TBI.
d) autism.

deaf-blindness.
Cayden has very limited use of both his vision and his hearing. Cayden has

a) TBI.
b) deaf-blindness.
c) autism.
d) multiple-severe disabilities.

very low-incidence disabilities
Disabilities whose prevalence and incidence occur very rarely in the general population are referred to as

a) high-incidence disabilities.
b) multiple-severe disabilities.
c) ASD.
d) very low-incidence disabilities.

functional curriculum.
During school, D.J. works on learning words such as those found on traffic signs or warning labels, learning basic personal care skills, and participating in leisure activities. These are examples of (a)

a) functional curriculum.
b) community-based instruction.
c) instructional accommodations.
d) general curriculum.

functional skills and independent living.
Graham has multiple-severe disabilities. His educational emphasis will probably focus on

a) academic areas in which he shows a marked deficit.
b) areas of interest such as music and art.
c) functional skills and independent living.
d) basic academics.

a tactile form of sign language used by individuals with deaf-blindness.
Hand over hand is

a) another term for the use of braille.
b) not a validated practice for students with deaf-blindness.
c) a tactile form of sign language used by individuals with deaf-blindness.
d) used less with individuals with deaf-blindness to the increased use of incidental learning.

vary in the types and levels of supports they require
Individuals with multiple-severe disabilities __________ in order for independence and community participation to be accomplished.

a) typically require full-time, one-on-one assistance
b) require limited supports
c) vary in the types and levels of supports they require
d) require extensive and pervasive

alternate assessment
Jan is a student with deaf-blindness who is assessed through work and performance portfolios. This is an example of which type of testing option?

a) alternate assessment
b) evaluation for placement in special education
c) partial participation in testing
d) out-of-level testing

learning disabilities (2)
Many children with TBI are educated like their peers with

a) learning disabilities.
b) intellectual disabilities.
c) behavior disorders.
d) visual disabilities.

enough residual vision to allow them to read enlarged print, see sign language, and move about in their environment.
Many individuals with deaf-blindness have

a) stronger expressive than receptive language skills.
b) enough residual vision to allow them to read enlarged print, see sign language, and move about in their environment.
c) more functional use of hearing than vision.
d) no vision or hearing abilities at all.

in inclusive early childhood settings.
Most services for children between the ages of 3 and 5 are delivered

a) in inclusive early childhood settings.
b) in hospitals.
c) at their homes.
d) in institutional settings.

at their home.
Most services for infants and toddlers are delivered

a) in inclusive early childhood settings.
b) at their home.
c) in hospitals.
d) in institutional settings.

age 21.
Most students with low incidence disabilities receive educational services until

a) they graduate from high school.
b) age 14, when the state vocational rehabilitation service department begins providing services.
c) age 16, when the state vocational rehabilitation service department begins providing services.
d) age 21.

to know their rights and advocate effectively for their child
Mr. and Mrs. Oshiro have a child with a very low-incidence disability who is receiving early intervention services. Which of the following is a goal that early childhood experts want for the Oshiros?

a) to know their rights and advocate effectively for their child
b) to turn their child’s development and education over to professionals
c) to eliminate any symptoms of their child’s disability by the time she reaches kindergarten
d) for them to hire in-home help in order to provide more intensive services for their child

help students organize and recall important elements and features of stories.
Ms. Jarrahy works with students with low incidence disabilities. She would use story maps to

a) help students learn how to behave appropriately be imitating what the characters in the story do in social situations.
b) teach students how to perform their job responsibilities.
c) help students organize and recall important elements and features of stories.
d) develop a student’s writing skills.

learning to communicate.
Possibly the greatest challenge for individuals with deaf-blindness is

a) gaining acceptance from peers.
b) learning to communicate.
c) overcoming resentment and hostility from family members.
d) moving from place to place.

most have low participation rates in general education classes.
The fact that many students with very low-incidence disabilities have IEP goals that focus on achieving adult independence and community presence is one reason that

a) teacher training programs in these areas have increased.
b) most parents hire consultants to teach their children these skills.
c) school administrators spend considerable money developing simulations of community-based work sites.
d) most have low participation rates in general education classes.

separate classrooms, centers, or hospital schools.
The majority of students with deaf-blindness receive their education in

a) separate classrooms, centers, or hospital schools.
b) the general education setting.
c) their own homes.
d) resource rooms.

1 percent of all students in the grades assessed
What percentage of students are eligible to take alternate assessments?

a) 1 percent of all students with low incidence disabilities
b) 1 percent of all students in the grades assessed
c) 1 percent of all students who receive special education services
d) 1 percent of all students with disabilities

universal access to health care and increased public awareness of prevention strategies
Which two preventive measures would help to substantially reduce the number of children and families affected by multiple-severe disabilities?

a) universal access to prenatal care and mandatory physical therapy services for all low birthweight infants
b) universal access to health care and increased public awareness of prevention strategies
c) universal access to health care and refusal of heroic medical procedures for children born under 1200 grams
d) universal access to health care and mandatory bed rest for pregnant women in danger of delivering early

Usher syndrome
__________ is a hereditary cause of congenital deafness, progressive blindness, and intellectual disabilities.

a) Fragile X syndrome
b) Usher syndrome
c) PKU
d) Down syndrome

Developmental disabilities
__________ is another term for severe disabilities that include intellectual disabilities.

a) Mental retardation
b) Developmental disabilities
c) Low-incidence disabilities
d) Multiple-severe disabilities

LEA Representative, Special Education Teacher, Student when appropriate or over age 14 and appropriate, Parent, At least 1 regualr classroom teacher, Interpreter of test scores, Support Personnel as appropriate
Who are members of the IEP team?
a) LEA Representative
b) Special Education Teacher
c) Student when appropriate or over age 14 and appropriate
d) Parent
e) At least 1 regualr classroom teacher
f) Interpreter of test scores
g) Support Personnel as appropriate
h) Principal
3
A child must be re-evaluated for qualification every ___ year(s).
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
a & b
An IEP must include goals that are

a) Observable and measurable
b) Appropriate
c) at grade placement level
d) a & b

they must qualify under a specific special education category
For a child to qualify under special education

a) they must qualify under a specific special education category
b) they just need to fall under general special education
c) both of the above
d) none of the above

b & c (1)
The IEP is

a) a written plan of suggestions
b) a legal document
c) must be appropriate
d) b & c

less than 1 year old
The IEP must include present levels of performance that are based on test information that is

a) less than 1 year old
b) less than 2 years old
c) less than 3 years old
d) less than 1 week old

b & c (2)
The Individual Educational Program (IEP) is

a) a suggestion for appropriate program
b) a legal document
c) must be adhered to
d) b & c

IEP Team
Who decides if a student qualifies for special education?

a) Child Study Team
b) IEP Team
c) School Psychologist
d) School Principal

every child who qualifies under IDEA
Who needs an IEP?

a) every child who qualifies under IDEA
b) every child with ADHD
c) all children who attend school
d) all of the above

False (1)
A student who enters school by transferring from another school may be served in special education without an IEP until the records come from the old school.

a) True
b) False

True (2)
An IEP must be less than 1 year old.

a) True
b) False

True (3)
Extended School Year (ESY) must be provided for any child who qualifies under special education and needs this service.

a) True
b) False

True (4)
Parent Rights include the right to withdraw consent for special education participation at anytime.

a) True
b) False

True (5)
An Invitation to a Meeting is a written 10 day advance notice to parents that an IEP meeting has been scheduled and is required by law to send this notice.

a) True
b) False

True (6)
Students are entitled to inclusion in the regular classroom and services outside the regular classroom require written justification on the IEP.

a) True
b) False

True (7)
Testing a student to evaluate for special education placement requires parent written permission.

a) True
b) False

True (8)
Testing modifications must be indicated on the IEP.

a) True
b) False

False (2)
The IEP should be completely filled out before the meeting.

a) True
b) False

Functionally delayed
Sarah scored a 65 on the WISC-3. She has a visual acuity of 20/10. Her Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales from parent and teacher reveal no deficit in adaptive skills. Her achievement on the WJIII showed two areas below 74.
Cannot be placed in special education
Alfonso speaks Spanish at home. He scored 65 on a WISC-4, which was administered in English. He scored a 102 standard score on a WJ-III, which was administered in Spanish. He is in the second grade. His Vineland Adaptive Behavior scores show 70 and 65 from the parent and teacher respectively.
Traumatic Brain Injury
Dustin was a typically developing fifth grader. He was in a skateboard accident and sustained an injury to his head. Since then, he has had great difficulty focusing on his schoolwork and has had difficulty remember multiplication facts previously learned.
Gifted
Jenny is a very active 3rd grader. She completes her work long before the other children. When given an assignment to do, she doesn?t follow directions and turns in something that is creative and clever, but not what the teacher asked for. When given an IQ test, Jenny scored 128 points. Her standard score on a WCJ-III was 125. She scored very high on the Test of Creativity. She has received multiple awards at the state completion for creative writing.
Other Health Impaired
Riley is a 7-year-old male in the 2nd grade. He is very bright when he is focused. He scored a 125 on the WISC-4. He scored a 122 standard score on the WJ-III. He was assessed with the ADDES behavior scale and it was determined his scores were well below the norms for attention and ability to focus. His behavior is considered severe and his problems are impacting learning.
Visually Impaired
Lacey has severe asthma. She uses an inhaler twice per day at school. While it is an inconvenience at times, she is doing well in school and is learning. She has a visual acuity of 20/200 with correction.
Learning Disabled
Kacy scored a 100 on the WISC-4. She received a standard score of 80 on the WJ-III. She has great difficulty processing oral directions and has a hard time decoding new words. She is a wiz at math! There do not appear to be any other deficits with Kacy. She has good school attendance. She has lots of friends. She tries hard. Her hearing is fine. She has a visual acuity of 20/10.
Intellectual Disability
Mason scored a 71 on the WISC-4 and had a standard score on the WJ-III of 81. His Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were deficit on both teacher and parent forms. He is a happy boy who tries hard. He learns better with explicit instruction and concrete examples.
Communication Disorder
Alice is a 2nd grader who scored a 90 on the WISC-4 and had a standard score of 90 on the WJ-III. She was referred because she has a difficult time comprehending stories, even though she is able to read almost anything out loud with no mistakes. Sometimes she fails to follow directions when asked, yet seems to want to obey the teacher. She passed her vision and hearing screening. Sometimes she omits connecting words from sentences and it almost sounds like baby talk.
Emotionally Disturbed
Rusty is always in trouble at school. He has no friends. He scored an 85 on the WISC-4 and had a standard score of 98 on the WJ-III . He has been suspended twice this year. He assumes that others are picking on him. He was assessed using a behavior checklist and a BASC and a functional behavior assessment was done.
False (3)
Students who qualify under IDEA do not take Terra Nova (TCAP)tests because they are behind and wouldn’t do well.

a) True
b) False

Meet with an S-Team (now called a Student Support and Interventions Team :SSIT)
When a child is having difficulty learning to read, the classroom teacher, after trying many interventions, should

a) Refer the child for special education evaluation
b) Let next year’s teacher deal with it
c) Just keep working with him until he gets it
d) Meet with an S-Team (now called a Student Support and Interventions Team :SSIT)

A and B only
The purpose of RTI is to

a) Eliminate the “wait to fail” system of the past
b) Identify struggling readers early and provide appropriate interventions
c) To avoid the paper work required for a special education referral
d) All of the above
e) A and B only

All of the above
Tier I of RTI

a) Includes a Universal screening
b) Is the responsibility of the general education teacher
c) Includes all students who receive high quality instruction
d) Includes progress monitoring for the bottom 25 percentile
e) All of the above

All of the above (1)
Tier II intervention

a) Increases time spent on reading
b) Is delivered in groups of approximately 5 students
c) Is more intense and progress continues to be graphed
d) All of the above

True (9)
In an average 1st grade class of 25, approximately 25% will struggle with reading.

a) True
b) False

False (4)
To determine if a child should move to Tier II, rate of growth is NOT a deciding factor.

a) True
b) False

True (10)
Rate of growth is determined by plotting student scores and observing the resulting slope of the resulting line. The slope will show whether or not grade level achievement will occur by the end of the year.

a) True
b) False

deaf-blindness
Katya has the disability that is the LEAST prevalent among American schoolchildren. Katya is a student with

a) a specific learning disability.
b) deaf-blindness.
c) speech or language impairments.
d) emotional disturbance.