Chapter 13, Power and Politics – Learning Objectives 1. Define power and contrast leadership and power. 2. Contrast the five bases of power. 3. Explain the role of dependence in power relationships. 4. Identify nine power or influence tactics and their contingencies. 5. Show the connection between sexual harassment and the abuse of power. 6. Identify the causes and consequences of political behavior. 7. Apply impression management techniques. 8. Determine whether a political action is ethical. Chapter 13, Power and Politics – Section Outlines I.
Power is the capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B, so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. A. Definition of power the ability to influence the behavior of others. 1. Potential 2. Dependency – B ’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires. B. Contrasting leadership and power. 1. Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals. 2. Power does not require goal compatibility, but relies on dependency. 3. While leadership focuses on the downward influence of one’s followers, power also deals with lateral and upward influence. II. Bases of power
A. Formal power = based on an individual’s position in an organization. 1. Coercive power: A power base that is dependent on fear of the negative results from failing to comply such as controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. 2. Reward power: Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable. 3. Legitimate (formal authority) power: The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization. B. Personal power = Influence derived from an individual’s characteristics. 1.
Expert power: Influence based on special skills or knowledge. 2. Referent power: Influence based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. C. Dependency: The Key to Power 1. General dependency postulate: The greater B ’s dependence on A, the more power A has over B. 2. Factors creating dependency a. Importance – think of technology engineers of Gettyimages b. Scarcity – think of Ferruccio Lamborghini; he memorized the manual and destroyed it. c. Nonsubstitutability – the fewer viable substitutes for a resource, the more power control over that resource provides. III.
Power Tactics: Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions. Rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, and consultation tend to be the most effective, especially when the audience is highly interested in the outcomes of a decision process. A. Legitimacy: Relying on your authority position or saying a request accords with organizational policies or rules. B. Rational persuasion: Presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable. C. Inspirational appeals: Developing emotional commitment by appealing to a target’s values, needs, hopes, and aspirations.
D. Consultation: Increasing the target’s support by involving him or her in deciding how you will accomplish your plan. E. Exchange: Rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange for following a request. F. Personal appeals: Asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty. G. Ingratiation: Using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request. H. Pressure: Using warnings, repeated demands, and threats. I. Coalitions: Enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target to agree. J. Political Skill: The ability to influence others in such a way as to enhance one’s objective.
IV. Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace A. Any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s employment and creates a hostile work environment. B. Sexual harassment negatively affects job attitudes and leads those who feel harassed to withdraw from the organization. C. Some ways managers can protect themselves and their employees from sexual harassment: 1. Make sure an active policy defines what constitutes sexual harassment, informs employees they can be fired for sexually harassing another employee, and establishes procedures for making complaints. 2.
Reassure employees they will not encounter retaliation if they file a complaint. 3. Investigate every complaint, and inform the legal and human resource departments. 4. Make sure offenders are disciplined or terminated. 5. Set up in-house seminars to raise employee awareness of sexual harassment issues. V. Politics: Power in Action A. Definition of Organizational Politics 1. Political behavior, in organization, consists of activities that are not required as part of an individual’s formal role but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. . Legitimate political power b. Illegitimate political power VI. Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior A. Factors contributing to political behavior 1. Individual factors 2. Organizational factors B. How do people respond to organizational politics? 1. Decreased job satisfaction 2. Increased anxiety and stress 3. Increased turnover 4. Reduced performance VII. Impression management VIII. The Ethics of Behaving Politically Chapter 13, Power and Politics – Key Terms •Power- A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. Dependence – B ’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires. •Coercive Power – A power base that is dependent on fear of the negative results from failing to comply. •Reward power – Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable. •Legitimate power – The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization. •Personal power – Influence derived from an individual’s characteristics. •Expert power – Influence based on special skills or knowledge. •Referent power – Influence based on identification with a person who has desirable esources or personal traits. •Power tactics – Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specifics actions. •Political skill – The ability to influence others in such a way as to enhance one’s objectives. •Sexual Harassment – Any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s employment and creates a hostile work environment. •Political behavior – Activities that are not required as part of a person’s formal role in the organization but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. Impression Management (IM) – The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them. •Defensive behaviors – Reactive and proactive behaviors to avoid action, blame, or change Chapter 17, Human Resources Policies and Procedures – Learning Objectives 1. Define initial selection, and identify the most useful methods. 2. Define substantive selection, and identify the most useful methods. 3. Define contingent selection, and contrast the arguments for and against drug testing. 4. Compare the four main types of training. 5. Contrast formal and informal training methods. 6.
Contrast on-the-job and off-the-job training. 7. Describe the purposes of performance evaluation and list the methods by which it can be done. 8. Show how managers can improve performance evaluations. 9. Describe how organizations can manage work-family conflicts. Chapter 17, Human Resources Policies and Procedures – Section Outlines I. Selection Process A. Initial selection are the first information applicants submit and are used for preliminary rough cuts to decide whether the applicant meets the basic qualifications for a job. 1. Application forms including letters of recommendation 2. Background checks B. Substantive selection 1.
Written tests 2. Performance-simulations tests a. Work sample tests: Hands-on simulations of part or all of the work that applicants for routine jobs must perform. b. Assessment centers: A set of performance-simulation tests designed to evaluate a candidate’s managerial potential. 3. Interviews have a disproportionate amount of influence on employee selection decisions. a. In addition to evaluating specific, job-related skills, managers are looking at personality characteristics and personal values to find individuals who fit the organization’s culture and image. C. Contingent selection 1. Drug test is a common contingent selection method. . Argument against drug testing: Drug is a private matter. II. Training and Development Programs A. Types of training 1. Basic literacy skills 2. Technical skills has become increasingly important in organizations. 3. Interpersonal skills 4. Problem-solving skills 5. Ethics training B. Training methods 1. Formal training a. Types of formal training 1. On-the-job training (i)job rotation (ii)apprenticeship (iii)understudy assignments (iv)formal mentoring programs 2. Off-the-job training (i)classroom lectures (ii)internet courses is most likely to be the fastest growing training. (iii)public seminars (iv)videotapes 3.
E-training b. Individualizing formal training to fit the employee’s learning style c. Evaluating effectiveness 2. Informal training III. Performance Appraisal A. Purposes of performance evaluation 1. Helps managers make human resource decisions 2. Assists in identifying training and development needs 3. Provides a criterion against which management validates selection and development programs 4. Provides feedback on employees 5. Basis for reward allocations – determine promotions, B. What do we evaluate? 1. Individual task outcomes 2. Behaviors 3. Traits – least predictive set of criteria used to evaluate employees. C.
Who should do the evaluating? 1. Immediate superior 2. Peers 3. Self-evaluation a. Lead to employees rating themselves highly b. Make excellent vehicles for stimulating job performance discussions between employees and their superiors c. Often low in agreement with superiors’ rating d. Tend to be biased estimates 4. Immediate subordinates 5. 360-degree evaluation is to pool feedback from all the employee’s customers or provide performances feedback from the full circle of daily contacts that an employee might have, ranging from mailroom personnel to customers to bosses to peers. D. Methods of performance evaluation 1.
Written essays – does not require no complex forms or extensive training to complete. 2. Critical incidents – the evaluation method that focuses the evaluator’s attention on those behaviors that are key to executing a job effectively. 3. Graphic rating scales consider their usability in quantitative analysis 4. Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) – When an appraiser rates employees based on items on a continuum with the points reflecting actual behaviors on a given job 5. Forced comparisons a. Group order ranking requires the evaluator to place employees into a particular classification, such as top one-fifth or second one-fifth. . Individual ranking is an approach to performance evaluation rank-orders employees from best to worst. E. Suggestions for improving performance evaluations 1. Use multiple evaluators 2. Evaluate selectively 3. Train evaluators 4. Provide employees with due process F. Providing performance feedback 1. The human resources department is not supportive of the feedback process. IV. Managing Diversity in Organizations A. Work-life conflicts B. Diversity training V. Global Issues A. Selection B. Performance evaluations