Survey of U.S. History GSU Exam 1

King Phillip’s War
1675 – A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
Bacon’s Rebellion
1676 – Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
“City on a Hill”
Biblical ideal, invoked by John Winthrop, of a society governed by civil liberty (where people did only that which was just and good) that would be an example to the world
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ring of fire
The Ring of Fire is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km (25,000 mi) horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes.[1] It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circum-Pacific seismic belt.
slave codes
In 1661 a set of “codes” was made. It denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit.
mayflower compact
1620 – The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
VA company
Jamestown settlers had the idea of merchants who formed this company; sold shares of ownership in their venture to establish a colony in the Americas for the purpose of making money
MA bay company
Several English Puritans led by John Winthrop; New England settlers who came from the broad middle range of English society; The settlers distinguished between religious and secular affairs
civility
Polite and couteous behavior Diplomats are expected to display a great deal of civility in their interactions with one another.
puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay. 1630
articles of confederation
This document, the nation’s first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
shays’s rebellion
A 1786 rebellion in which an army of 1,500 disgruntled and angry farmers led by Daniel Shays marched to Springfield, Massachusetts, and forcibly restrained the state court from foreclosing mortgages on their farms.
constitutional congression
(1774-1789) met three times, convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution.
republican ideology
Desired to be different than European culture, without the corruption that was present. Civic virtue was required of a majority of the citizens for their government to work.
stamp act
1765, A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
stamp act congress
“Declaration of Rights and Grievances”, petition for relief, appeal to repeal Stamp Act 1765
townshend acts
(4.1) passed by Parliament in 1767, placed taxes on imported materials such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. Led to outrage and tons of people boycotted British goods.
indentured servant
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years.
seven years war
(1756-1763 CE) Known also as the French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
sons of liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Boston Massacre
(4.1) In 1770, British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed, including Crispus Attucks, a sailor of African and Native American ancestry.
Boston tea party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
intolerable acts
(4.1) passed by Parliament in 1774 in reaction to the Boston Tea Party. Passed series of measures including shutting down Boston Harbor and the Quartering Act, which allowed British commanders to house soldiers in vacant private homes and other buildings. This resulted in the colonists forming the First Continental Congress and drawing up a declaration of colonial rights. – Tom says this was a combination of the Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act.
first continental congress
1774; response to Intolerable Acts; 55 men from 12 colonies meet on Philadelphia; called for complete halt in trade with Britain; important step towards independence.
Thomas Jefferson
…, Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
Empire of Goods
In the early eighteenth century consumer goods flooded American markets, the colonists needed to sell what they produced in order to purchase British goods that were beyond their ability to manufacture and therefore made them feel more a part of the British “empire of goods”.
Whigs
…, conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay’s American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
Jacksonian Democrats
Andrew Jackson’s Democratic party generally championed the principles of equal opportunity, absolute political freedom (for white males), glorification of the “common man,” and limited government.
Republican Party
1854 – anti-slavery Whigs and anti-slavery Democrats, Free Soilers and reformers from the Northwest met and formed party in order to keep slavery out of the territories
Era of the common man
Jacksonians claimed, when they had victory in the election of 1828, that America had now entered a new and better era of democracy, one for the common man(landless men who recently got right to vote).
cotton Gin
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
market revolution
Dramatic increase btwn 1820 and 1850 in the exchange of goods and services in market transactions. Resulted from thee combo impact of the increased output of farms and factories, the entrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants, and the dev of a transportation network of roads, canals and RR.
william lloyd garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper “The Liberator”, and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
abolitionism
Major anti-slave movement in themed-1800s; leaders were W. Lloyd Garrison, Sojourner Truth (former slave woman), and Frederick Douglas (main black abolitionist)
temperance movement
A movement that prompted Congress to pass the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919, instituting Prohibition, which forbade the sale or transportation of alcohol. Prohibition was repealed in 1935.
textile mills
developed in New England around 1800, used water power, produced cloth from cotton for manufactured goods, greatly increased the demand for cotton
john brown
(FP) , Well-known abolitionist. used violence to stop slavery immediately, involved in the Pottawatomie Massacre, he ws tried, convicted of treason and hung… he became a martyr.
compromise of 1850
California wanted to join the Union, but if California was accepted the North would gain control of the Senate, and Southerners threatened to secede from the Union. This compromise set up California joining the Union as a free state, New Mexico and Utah got to decide the question of slavery in their state, slave trading is banned in the nation’s capital, The Fugitive Slave Law is passed, and the border between Texas and New Mexico was set.
bleeding kansas
(1856) a series of violent fights between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas who had moved to Kansas to try to influence the decision of whether or not Kansas would a slave state or a free state.
emancipation proclomation
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on Sept. 22, 1862 – declared all slaves in rebellious Confederate states would be free.
universal manhood suffrage
New states allowed poor white men to vote, eventually old states changed to this, during times of massive westward movement, there was also movement of the vote; all white adult males, common man with common sense
king cotton
cotton and cotton-growing considered, in the pre-Civil War South, as a vital commodity, the major factor not only in the economy but also in politics.
missouri compromise
“Compromise of 1820” over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
louisiana purchase
1803 – The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
fredrick douglas
…, American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published the autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
underground railroad
(FP) 1830, Harriet Tubman, a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
free-soil ideology
Formed in 1847-1848 dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory. Emergence of this party and others signaled the divisions in American political parties surrounding the issue of slavery. the dominant parties were unable to capture every American’s sentiments around slavery. This party was not anti-slavery it just didn’t want slavery and slaves becoming a part of the new land acquired after war with Mexico.
wilmont proviso
An amendment to an 1846 military appropriations bill, proposing that none of the territory acquired in the war with Mexico would be open to slavery.
dread scott decision
Scott was a slave that was freed by his owner’s wife after his owner died. He sued for other slaves, setting a precedent. Rules that black people are not citizens, but Chief Justice Tawny goes further and says Congress does not have the right to ban slavery in territories, since they have no right to take away a citizen’s property without due process to law. The North doesn’t like this so they don’t want to follow it, which angers the South.
moral suasion
Moral suasion was used as an argument to end slavery, because the abolitionists felt that thinking people who were basically good people in America could be persuaded by argument that slavery was wrong; that it was wrong for moral reasons; that it was wrong for religious reasons; that the ideals on which the nation was founded were perverted by the institution of enslavement. What the abolitionists didn’t realize was how deeply embedded in the social, economic, and political structure slavery was. They didn’t realize how powerful the slaveocracy was. And they didn’t realize how much racism had embedded the fabric of American life.
gag rule
1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress
kansas nebraska act
1854 – Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty. obliterated the possibility of sectional compromise through out the missouri compromise split apart the whig party led to creation of republican party
the crime against kansas
This was the title of a speech spoken by Senator Charles Sumner from Massachusetts in which he attacked his collegues for supporting slavery. He specifically made fun of Senator Butler of SC in this speech for his beliefs and his speech impediment, which caused Butler’s nephew, congressman Brooks, to beat Sumner with a cane in the Senate Chamber so hard that Sumner had brain damage. 1856
popular sovereignty
A government in which the people rule by their own consent.
john brown’s raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper’s Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
confiscation acts
Series of laws passed by fed gov. designed to liberate slaves in seceded states; authorized Union seizure of rebel property, and stated that all slaves who fought with Confederate military services were freed of further obligations to their masters; virtually emancipation act of all slaves in Confederacy
thirteenth amendment
1865 – Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.
election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.

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