Syllabus Notes Rome: The Augustan Age 44BC – AD14 1Establishment of the Principate Impact of the Death of Caesar – Republic government = Senate. – Julius assassinated seen to be becoming dictator. – Wealth + position left to Octavian. – Political heirs thought to be Antony (other consul) and Lepidus (master of horses/ assistant to dictator) – Ant in charge (abolishes dictatorship) > Lep: pontifex maximus in Spain Early Career of Octavian -Speech @ nan’s funeral Education + military training from Caesar > hears of father’s death AVENGE -Pays 75 denarii w. own $ & hosts games (comet = soul of Caesar) -Puts army together & gets imperium to defeat Ant in Gaul > Decimus Brutus given triumph Second Triumvirate and Civil War -Joins Ant works & Lepidus where interests lie (triumvirate) power of dictator, against Republicans -Senate & Cicero reject demands for consulship, Oct seizes control; prepares for war (against assasins: Brutus & Cassius) -Proscriptions – Cicero > escapees joined Pompieus Battle of Phillipi: Reps defeated- triumvirs divide empire -Treaty of Brudism: war risk> Ant marries Octavia> further division -Treaty of Misenum: Pirate Pompieus gets 3 area after stopping corn. Archaea proconsul. -Ant marries Cleo> end of Triumvirate Consequences and Significance of the Battle of Actium -Civil uproar @ Ant’s propaganda (Ant’s will) -Blockade (w. Agrippa) Cleo & Ant escape leave fleet behind- later commit suicide -Troops demobilized Egypt annexed to Rome> pays off campaigns, triumph + adorns Rome -Oct establishes authority in East & put in prayers and liberations -Temple of Janus closed after 200yrs: PEACE Development of the Principate: Settlements of 27 and 23 BC -Puts aside powers granted to him> looks like Senate is in control -Became Princeps (1st citizen) others held title before -1ST SETTLEMENT: Procunsular Imperium Consul “Augustus” -2ND SETTLEMENT: Procunsular maius Imperium Tribunica Potestas Titles, Honours and Images Propaganda> associates himself with victories, religion, heirs, peace -All over the empire- promote himself, looks like he does a lot for the people: prima porta -Didn’t use title a lot- makes him seem too powerful Syllabus Notes Rome: The Augustan Age 44BC – AD14 2The Augustan Principate Augustus and the Senate: Roles and Responsibilities -Augustus treated the Senate with respect (example of JC), he was fair -shared the work not power -Army, honours & ‘auctoritas’ helped Aug control Senate -Unsuitable members removed 3 times (1000 to 600) and fewer sessions -Members had to have: hereditary link or favour from Aug.
Monetary qualification -Hereditary members: broad purple stripe “New Men”: narrow purple stripe -Senatorial provinces were peaceful> Imperial provinces (Aug) were ‘armed’ -Consilium principas council that advised Aug- 20 senators and family members Roles of Magistrates and Officials -Positions held status & power- cursus honorum – leads to other opportunities -Aediles lost popularity and responsibilities: grain supply, aqueducts, fire brigade -Aug approve/reject candidates for positions due to autoritas -Consulship reduced to 6 months -New committees> used senior men more specific jobs, quality of work improved