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Explore the many ethical dimensions of contemporary healthcare in terms of abortion


The aim of this essay was to explore the many ethical dimensions of contemporary healthcare in terms of abortion. Abortion rates in the UK have been reported, as has abortion globally as an increased method of population control. The reasons for abortion, are varied, including abortion as a contraceptive, attitudes to human life, and disability and eugenics, all of which have been discussed. There is a clear need for the ethical implications of abortion to be addressed in relation to the thoughts, feelings and attitudes of healthcare professionals working with women either considering or opting for an abortion.

1. INTRODUCTION

A medical abortion has been defined by the National Abortion Federation (Dudley and Mueller, 2008) as a termination “that is brought about by taking medications that will end a pregnancy” (p.1). The NAF further clarify that, “The alternative is surgical abortion, which ends a pregnancy by emptying the uterus (or womb) with special instruments” (p. 1). Abortions are permitted under the Abortion Act 1967 (UK Government, 1967) by a registered medical practitioner subject to certain conditions.

Research by the World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that abortion rates are steady, at 28 abortions per 1,000 women globally (Sedgh et al., 2008). A quarter of pregnant women in the world have either an unwanted birth or an abortion (Aguirre, 2007). In England and Wales, figures from the Department of Health (DH) show a slight rise of 0.3% in abortions, from 189,100 in 2009 to 189,574 in 2010 (DH, 2011). Almost half (49%) of the women opting for abortions in 2010 were in a partnership, while 26% were single, and 16% married (DH, 2011). The abortion rate in girls under 16-years of age was 4.0 in 2009, reducing to 3.9 in 2010 (DH, 2011). Rates for girls aged 15-19 years old were also lower in 2010 compared to 2009, although rates in women aged 30-37 years of age were higher.

With such a large percentage of the population being subject to an abortion, many health professionals are confronted with the moral and ethical issues surrounding abortions. For example, according to Brody (1972), a woman should not consider the option of having an abortion when the foetus has developed biologically and genetically, into what is classed as a human being as opposed to a collection of cells. He maintains that this life, albeit in the early stages, has the same value as any other human life and therefore should be afforded the same rights.

Whilst some pro-life groups or anti-abortion movements advocate that it is always inappropriate to have an abortion as it is ultimately not allowing the creation of a new human life (Harris, 1985, Schultz and Van Assendelft, 1999), a more open-minded view would be that a woman has the right to pursue an abortion (Warren, 2009). Indeed, it could be argued that each incidence and each woman should be measured on their own merit as to whether their actions contravened the foetus’ right to life and human rights. Another contrasting view would be to look at an abortion as a woman acting in self-defence in such instances whereby continuing with the pregnancy could or would damage health or even threaten the life of the woman (Warren, 2009; MacGuigan, 1994). Indeed, evidence supports the fact that where there is a “choice” between the continuation of a woman’s life or that of a foetus’, the woman’s body will instinctively act in self-preservation to the detriment and potential termination of the pregnancy. It is this type of incidence, in particular, that raises the need for the application of ethical theories.

2. ETHICAL ISSUES IN ABORTION

The relationship between abortion and contraception highlights its own ethical dilemma, which can shift the burden of responsibility from the pregnant woman to health professionals and those in authority. For example, studies conducted by Marston and Cleland (2003) reveal that abortion is not deliberately used as a method of contraception, but is more so used due to a lack of knowledge or understanding by the pregnant woman. Therefore, it is the obligation of policy-makers and healthcare professionals to ensure that information and contraception are readily available and easy to understand. This is essential in the empowerment of women, allowing them to take control of their lives and enabling them to take all possible measures against an unwanted pregnancy. Education is considered to be the easiest and most open non-invasive measure, which where necessary can be provided confidentially, obtained in private, and in some instances contact with a health centre or medical staff is not necessary. However, there will always be cases where an emergency or medical abortion is necessary, no matter how well informed or prepared a woman may be.

Thus, contraception focuses on the importance of starting with and prioritising women’s needs regarding abortion concerns. In order to improve medical services, healthcare professionals need to ask questions about the level of knowledge the woman has about abortion, in addition to considering relevant ethical issues (International Consortium for Medical Abortion, ICMA, 2012). They must ensure that the woman has all the information regarding potential risks and problems, that measures to reduce levels of pain are implemented, and that the women is aware of what to expect prior, during and after the procedure (ICMA, 2012). Additional staffing is also necessary for the provision of more efficient medical services, as well as more empathetic and highly trained staff. Furthermore, those women who are considering an abortion must have their concerns and the circumstances surrounding their own ethical dilemmas addressed (Tremayne, 2000; Karasahin and Keskin, 2011).
It has been argued by Rosenfeld (1992) that “healthy women who want to complete an unintended pregnancy in the first trimester have few significant or negative emotional consequences” (p. 137). Although a few women may have feelings of ambivalence or guilt, many also feel a sense of freedom and experience other positive reactions, including relief. However, the emotional response of a woman and her family to medical or therapeutic abortion is complicated. A number of factors may help address women at risk of emotional problems and depressive symptoms after abortion (Rosenfeld, 1992). Women who terminate their pregnancy during the second trimester, have a history of multiple abortions, have pre-existing psychiatric problems or have a lack of support at home are more likely to have emotional problems (Rosenfeld, 1992). By being aware of this, health professionals can implement the appropriate pre- and post-abortion care. This is also the case for women who have an abortion for medical or genetic reasons. These women are at increased risk of developing depressive symptoms and therefore health professionals are required to provide the appropriate psychological as well as medical support (Boss, 1994). Blumberg et al. (1975) explains, “Perhaps the role of decision making and the responsibility associated with selective abortion explains [sic] the more serious depression following [the abortion]” (p. 805).
Medical ethics related to abortion are most relevant when they focus on the individuals choosing to have an abortion, as opposed to just health professionals carrying out the abortion or treating the aftermath. To this end, a philosopher, focusing on medical ethics can play a vital role in exposing problems which exist within hospitals.There is an enormous demand for philosophers within the healthcare setting, suggesting a common ethical, moral and social viewpoint that could facilitate advice-giving to health professionals (Polaino Lorente, 2009).

2.1 International Ethical Codes

In the Hippocratic Oath, abortion is connected to medical ethics in both its actual form and contemporary reformulation such as stated in the World Medical Association’s 1948 Declaration of Geneva (Kivity, Borow and Shoenfeld, 2009). According to this oath, all members of the human race have a right to life and this is agreed globally in conventions such as:

1.The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1949)

2.Declaration of the Rights of the Child, which clearly refers to such rights as applying to the unborn (1959)

3.International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1976).
However, the Society for the Protection of Unborn Children’s (SPUC’s) opposition to abortion is dependent on ethical principles which have masked universal acceptance (SPUC, 2012a). While the SPUC consists of members from many different religions, it is not an organisation based on religion. Nevertheless, this highlights the need of a focus on common acceptable (as opposed to religious-based) ethical dimensions in contemporary healthcare, especially in terms of considering the ethical implications of abortion.

2.2 Abortion in the United Kingdom

The main reason for legalising abortion inBritainwas the suspected number of illegal abortions being carried out. Pro-abortionists indicated that every year, there were 100,000 illegal abortions before legalisation (SPUC, 2012b). The committee of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists provides evidence that in England and Wales, there were 15,000 illegal abortions annually in 2007 (Event, 2008). Thus, in theUK, the application of ethical theories along with related approaches to practical dilemmas in healthcare focusing on abortion is particularly important and relevant.

2.2.1 Actual counts of legal abortions

The Abortion Act was agreed in 1967 and a year later it became effective as a statute inEngland,WalesandScotland. For the period of 30 years following the implementation of the Act, year on year the total number of abortions performed rose by 700% (SPUC, 2012b). InBritain, five million abortions were performed over this period. Yearly, 170,000 abortions occurred during the 15 years prior to 1997. It was over 187,000 in 1998, with more than 510 abortions a day, which was 87% higher than the pro-abortionists’ estimate of illegal abortions in the 1960s (Sedgh et al., 2012).

2.3 Reasons for abortion

Although more than 90% of abortions are authorised and performed to protect the mother’s physical or mental health, the majority of these abortions are performed for social reasons rather than medical reasons, and this has become widely accepted (Corkindale et al., 2009). Indeed, inBritainabortion is efficiently practised on demand (Ingham et al., 2008). This poses further ethical implications for healthcare professionals since abortion is no longer only considered for medical reasons, but is frequently a social choice and a method of solving an unexpected or unwanted pregnancy (Koyama et al., 2005).

2.3.1 Contraception and abortion

Although the pro-life movement is reluctant to make a connection between contraception and abortion, with some contraceptives there is both a link to abortion and identification with abortion (Smith, 1993). Indeed, some contraceptives are abortifacients and work by causing early term abortion. Furthermore, the number of abortions cannot be stopped primarily by contraception since pregnancy prevention also results in an anti-child state of mind; such unplanned babies are observed only as the unwanted result of contraceptive failure.

2.3.2 The eugenics movement

Eugenic ethics is protected as a religious belief, political philosophies, and judicial systems, and it is the reverse of the code that all human beings have equal value (Kasun, 1988). The mentality of the eugenic adjudicators is unusually narrow compared to physical, psychological or social situations (Connelly, 2008). This leads to disabled and unborn groups. Thus, issues of disability and eugenics are remarkably relevant to the application of ethical theories focusing on practical dilemmas in healthcare.

2.3.3 Foetal tissue in medical research

The major source for research into foetal tissue is from babies that are the result of induced abortion; such research consists of the human genome project. If permission is given, the dead bodies may well be used for research, but a mother aborting her child would not likely provide such support. In research, the use of foetal tissue seems to justify abortion because it can be used to assist in the health and life of other people. At the same time, it could be argued that such research is morally wrong because it neglects the unborn baby’s right to life (Nie, 2002).

2.4 Abortion and disability

Every abortion involves an assumption that the existence of unborn babies is of lesser value than an adult human’s life. It could be argued that abortion due to a disability diagnosed in the unborn child is not only an attack on the most vulnerable but on one who it is necessary to protect. It is also offensive to all disabled community members as it transmits to them the sense that they are inferior to, as well as of less worth than, the able-bodied (Sheldon and Wilkonson, 2010).

2.4.1 Pre-natal screening

In Britain, most pregnant women are offered regular pre-natal testing. It is a crucial activity, which has resulted in a greater number of women who may not have considered it before going on to have an abortion. Such tests are presented and if the results are positive for a disability, the immediate option given to parents is to make a choice between either continuing with the pregnancy or having an abortion. Britain offers pre-natal screening for disabilities only where a routine ultrasound has highlighted a potential problem, there is family medical history to suggest a child may inherit a condition, or the age of the mother puts her child at an increased risk of having, for example, Down’s syndrome.
In cases of artificial insemination, before implantation and hopefully fertilisation, the embryo is screened. Whilst still in the test tube embryos are monitored to determine their sex and genetic conditions, but can be superfluous. This approach prevents embryos from continuing to live (Hundt et al., 2011). Thus, medical and nursing professionals working in healthcare related to abortion must address the issues related to pre-natal screening adequately.

2.4.2 Gene technology

Genetic science is used to enhance the well-being of humanity, through exploration into gene therapy and to care for people with, for example, a genetic condition such as cystic fibrosis. However, this technology may be misused in order to limit human life. Genetic engineering attempts to engineer babies by manipulating their genes in the laboratory. However, the source from the genetic map position in the human genome program may be misused (Heinrichs, 2002).

3. DISCUSSION

The topic of abortion raises moral and ethical issues that need to be addressed by physicians, nurses, and clinic staff involved with conducting abortions. While abortions for medical reasons are legal in Britain, some staff may question the procedure for personal and religious reasons. Those staff who are pro-life (and see abortion as akin to murder) will likely seek work in other settings and thus alleviate their sense of guilt. Obstetricians, who often participate in the act of abortion, will need to have a professional view that sees the action as ethical, although some may hold private views of its morality, perhaps influenced by religious beliefs (Chervenak and McCullough ,1990). For example, health professionals might ask the question, “When is the foetus a patient?” The answer is when it is viable, regardless of age of gestation. Indeed, it could be argued that only the woman carrying the foetus can give a pre-viable foetus patient status. If the foetus is classified as a patient, it can be further argued that ending its life is almost never ethically justified.

The statistical data discussed within this essay indicate that few abortions are actually for medical reasons, but rather for personal, social and economic reasons. This has generated a great deal of discussion in terms of the ethics of abortion. Since the procedure is primarily used by the lower economic classes (who perhaps become pregnant because of lack of knowledge about birth control), abortion can be seen as a method to keep the future population of those likely to require government assistance in welfare and medicine somewhat reduced. As yet, there doesn’t appear to be any political or ethical writer ready to take this issue up. Some groups (such as African Americans) see this as an attack on their race. Feminists likely support the procedure if it is the wish of the pregnant woman. Many health workers would continue to support abortion on demand as it eliminates reliance on illegal abortions, which were often dangerous to a woman’s health, as was a huge problem in the past.
A few points should be made about the ethical issues posed by new technologies (such as embryos in stem cell research, sex selection and gene manipulation). In all of these cases, decisions are being made to limit viable life. Outka (2002) raised questions about the ethics of human stem cell research. Many good embryos are destroyed for the sake of research. This is seen as clearly unethical. Outka concludes that it is acceptable to conduct research on ‘excess’ embryos by appealing to the principal of “nothing is lost.”

Modern science has made it easy to determine the sex of the foetus at a very early stage. If the sex is female (and the parents already have a girl), will they seek an abortion Is the doctor or clinic likely to raise moral and ethical concerns In many cultures, a son is deemed necessary, so with new technologies many female foetuses inIndia andChina have been aborted. This raises the question of whether this cultural bias being seen in the large Indian population in theUK?

3.1 CONCLUSION

Ethical Issues in healthcare related to abortion are becoming increasingly relevant, as it provides an opportunity for discussion on various dimensions of contemporary healthcare. It also examines the application of ethical theories along with related approaches focusing on abortion. However, it is suggested that medical institutes and hospitals providing safe abortions should be aware of all ethical issues and the human rights implications involved. Their workers, including doctors and nurses, should be trained on the ethical issues of abortion so that they can provide comprehensive medical care to women who consider or opt for an abortion.
It is important to explore new opportunities for the in-depth study of ethical dimensions of modern healthcare, which examines the appropriate application of ethical theories and related approaches to effective dilemmas in healthcare focusing on abortion. There are many suitable applications of ethical theories and approaches to an ethical dilemma available, which mainly focus on the international and the population-control development, reasons for abortion, contraception and abortion, birth control and human life attitudes, disability and eugenics, abortion and disability, and other related ethical issues. Nevertheless, there remains a need to address each of these ethical issues specifically in terms of healthcare and the dilemmas experienced by healthcare professionals.

REFERENCES

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Boss, J.A., 1994. First trimester prenatal diagnosis: Earlier is not necessarily better. Journal of Medical Ethics, 20(146-151), p.147.
Brody, B., 1972. Thomson on Abortion. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1(3), pp.335-340.
Chervenak, F. A. and McCullough, L. B., 1990. Does obstetric ethics have any role in the obstetrician’s response to the abortion controversy American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 163(5 Pi), po.1425-1429.
Connelly, M., 2008. Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population Cambridge: Belk nap Press of Harvard University Press.
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Explore the importance of ethical, legal and professional values in Abortion

Abstract

Abortion is a worldwide growing concern and is a controversial topic of debate. The main objective of the following essay is to explore the importance of ethical, legal and professional values in abortion. This paper will provide up to date information and comprehensive review with the help of evidence based literature research. It will also explore the possible solutions and recommendations to support ethical and legal perspectives. Initially, it will provide brief information about abortion and its legal values. Further, it will make links with ethical concept, related issues and conflicts specific to health practice. Moreover, the role of health care professionals discussed in detail where appropriate.

All the data is collected form from the University digital library which gave access to recommended electronic journals. Further literature collected from the related articles. Some sources also gained from Department of Health, British Medical Association, WHO, Royal College of Nursing, British Pregnancy Advisory Services.

According to the British Medical Association (2005) abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by expulsion of product of conception (foetus or embryo) from the uterus, before the foetus is viable (capable of living under normal condition and outside uterus).It is observed that, 98% of abortions are carried out because of risk to mental or physical health of women in Britain (Department of Health, 2007). It is clear from findings of the statistical bulletin (2009) that there were 189,000 abortions in the given year and highest rate was in between the age of 19-21, that was 33 per 1000. Under 16 rate was 4.0 and under 18 was 17.6 per 1000 women. Ratio of all categories was lower as compared to the year 2008 (Department of Health, 2009). According to the WHO (2004) illegal abortions are more common in developing countries as compare to developed countries due to restricted abortion laws. WHO highlighted that, 46 million abortions annually recorded and 20 million are unsafe (DOH, 2009).

The law states that two doctors need to agree that the abortion can be carried out. They will reach this decision if they believe there is a greater risk to the woman’s mental or physical health if she continues with the pregnancy than if she has an abortion. The doctor can also take social circumstances into account when making this decision (British Abortion Act, 1967). Legal limit for abortion is 24 weeks gestation either by medical or surgical means (Royal College of Gynaecologists, 2004b). Nurses should maintain proper record before and after procedure including written consent (NMC,2007).

Nurses should be familiar with the legal requirements of the Abortion Act 1967, as amended 1990 (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2008). Nurses have professional responsibilities to act with integrity and ensure that their personal views do not affect or influence the care of the patient or client (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2008). According to the Mental Capacity Act (2005) special consideration should be given to the woman having serious mental illness (DoH, 2001c and NMC, 2005). The nurse should assist the individual in the decision making, with the decision based on the individual’s value system. However, the nurse should not take a lsissez-faire (leadership style) approach and avoid assisting the patient. The main responsibility of the nurse is to help the individual examine values, identify conflicts, priorities goals and desired health care outcomes. Actions follow from understanding values and the best available information (NMC, 2008).

Ethics is concerned with humanization process (Ladd, 1978) especially in the field of nursing. According to the Dyck, (1977) ethics is a discipline and is a systematic analysis of what things are right or wrong, good or bad. Often the world morality is used as a substitute for ethics. Morality is merely a synonym for ethics that signifies the customary way of action (Ladd, 1978).Health care ethics sometimes also called medical ethics, biomedical ethics and bioethics. These are normative ethics specific to health science, in that it rise the question of what is right and what ought to be done in a health science situation when a moral decision is called for (Benjamin, 1992). According to the American Nurses Association ethical theory refers to a workable system that provides a proper framework within which individuals can determine and distinguish morally appropriate actions (ANA, 1997).

In nursing, ethical principles act as safety valves for social control to prevent professional misconduct and abuse of rights of clients. Rights of people must manage according to National health policy and international conventions of human rights for safe guarding (Canadian code of ethics, 2009). It is proposed that code of ethics in nursing practice emphasizes on individual’s right to autonomy, self determination, truth telling, and equality (British Medical Association, 2009). Nursing should always be based on the principles of respecting persons, doing no harms and historically obedience to authority has often provided ethical basis (Raatikainen, 1989). Due to rapid socio cultural changes and advanced technology nurses faced challenge to respond ethical basis in health services.

Respect of freedom is condition of personal growth and development, brotherhood is the condition of recognition in social participation and equality a condition for meeting for physical needs (Equality and human rights commission 2009). However, these values are linked together as a whole. Fulfilling each principle means acting for good of each dimension. To meet this approach nurses need strong ethical beliefs, professional education, comprehensive knowledge, critical analysing and thinking (Noble, 1999).

It is argued that, life is valuable and is a gift from God (Belshaw, 1997). In case of abortion, it is a sin to destroy the foetal life because it interfere the creative work of god and against his will (BBC, 2009). But if abortion is critically reviewed, there are some factors and situations that require abortion. Again if abortion views from the foetus right to live then there is serious ethical argument of personhood in the favour of foetus. Belshaw (1997) stated that, the issue of personhood in literature always surrounding the abortion debate. For the classification of personhood five traits are essential (Card, 2000) that are consciousness, capacity to reason, self motivation, capacity to communication and self concept. All these criteria cannot be assessed in foetus (Dworkin, 1993). Therefore, abortion at any gestational age is ethical. In UK fetal has no legal rights and according to the American ethical policies foetus has both moral and legal values of personhood (BMA, 2007).

According to the British Pregnancy Advisory Services (2010) every woman has right to control her own body with respect to her autonomy (independence or freedom). Abortion on the ground of maternal interest may be ethical (Gevers,1999).Abortion is a complicated topic that involves different and sometimes conflicting issues for example protecting foetal life, respecting woman right and preserving social harmony. In this situation it is very difficult to maintain balance in the value of one person’s life over another (Belshaw, 1997). Alongside it is also challenge for foetal personhood and its rights, Brown (2000) stated that if foetus is a person then its rights for using another’s body to survive, as it has no right over that person’s autonomy. Mother has the right to be separated from the foetus at any time, but doesn’t have the right to insist on its death (Card, 2000). Therefore, abortion can be done in case of mal formation but no measure to actually kill the foetus beforehand could be employed. In such circumstances nursing professionals experienced the dilemma (a problem offering at least two possibilities as, do or not do) of having to participate in abortion (Ballantyne, 2009). Sometimes it creates conscientious (refuse to perform) objection, but in critical situations they cannot be able to refusal (BMA, 2007). Tooley (1999) argued that if a foetus is classified as a person then it is only a justifiable to kill it in order to save the life of mother. However, if were not a person then it cannot be wrong to kill it, as it would not automatically have the right to life (Tooley, 1999).

Serious congenital abnormality is another major ethical issue for continuing pregnancy, as it is known that continuation have no benefit to the fetus, then the fetal interest relies on the belief that the level of welfare a child would have if born is worse than to not exist at all (Gevers, 1999). It is suggested that yet, there are some disabilities that would mean to live be worse than non existence (Sheldon, 2001). It is also reported that, handicapped people, who would fight hard to gain success in their life, for them others may think that they had not been born. So, evidence assumed that tests performed with the intention of treating the new-born and for safe delivery are morally acceptable and tests for termination often violate the principle of non-maleficence (the duty not to harm) (Finni S, 1999). People in community who violate this principle would lower the happiness because killing of foetus is like a murder (Thomson, 1999).

It is found that, pro medical genetic services are more beneficial for the detection of prenatal diagnosis and antenatal screening for the findings of congenital abnormalities (Angela, 2009)( like haemophilia, down syndrome, muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis and chromosomal abnormalities).It is under the principle of Utilitarianism (related with happiness and doing good). In some countries these are easily detected but there may some legal restrictions for abortions (Penchaszadeh, 1998). Hence this banned abortion law gave access to moral, social and psychological values (Simpson, 2007) in couples especially in women for termination of pregnancy. It is outlined that being known about defective foetus, women found difficulty to carry out pregnancy. In opinion, such countries should allow abortion (Angela, 2009). Seeing as many congenital abnormalities cannot be cured at any cost and if cured is too expensive. Statistics showed that, in developing countries limited human resources and low income are barriers for life long treatment (Perera, 2000).

Basically justification of a congenital abnormality exception is a major problem in countries having restricted abortion laws on the behalf of moral status of foetus (Ballentyne, 2009). Some consider that foetus has same moral status as compare to infant or child (Ashcroft, 2009) it should not countenance the destruction of foetus on the basis of the claim that it’s rearing will place an additional burden on the parents. So, parents should not allow to abort, either disabled foetus has lesser moral status after birth. It is also recommended that, all communities should learn lesson to cope with disability and their living pattern.

Moreover, in cases where women are raped, getting pregnant with such a child is yet another brutality they would be forced to bear and raise a child without father or single parenthood (Tan, 2006) such factors are more likely to create violent behaviour and adverse interpersonal relationship, further leads to parental separation and even divorce and depressive symptomatology. These should be identified at every opportunity for positive carrier (Quinlivan, 2006). Thus the option of abortion is best for them to save the life of mother. Nurses should maintain privacy, dignity and confidentiality of the client under the abortion law (RCGN, 2004).

Female infanticide is still another alarming issue in ethical practice due to cultural preferences it is known to be cruel way of getting rid of female infants (WHO,2009). In some cultures and societies there is urging for sons rather than daughters (Hussain, 2000).In these situations women usually suffer significant harms including vilification (slanderous) and physically as well as mentally abuse if she bears a daughter. According to their knowledge and understanding they are correct because of their individual preference of autonomous for freedom and to make a choice to meet their needs and desires (Rogers, 2007). They think that sons are care taker for their old age and help in keeping family name (Sumner,2009). In India statistics revealed that, from last decade the ratio of girls is continuously decreasing as compared to male child, which further create imbalance and great challenge for social fabric (Sharma, 2003). Sex determination should be totally banned and must be implemented on priority basis. At least, these should be prevented by punishment and implementation of adequate educational programmes to change behaviour and attitudes of communities and to improve importance of female child (Zeng, 2005).

Evidence suggested that worldwide there are so many couples who want to adopt child at any circumstance (Bitler, 2002). Health care professionals should be encouraged to understand the value of adoption as an option to teach the vulnerable groups (like teens, people with unplanned pregnancies, unwanted children) to reduce the abortion rate and prevention of foetal murder (Young, 2006).Therefore adoption and care homes may be an acceptable alternative for those unwanted children, who will then be ill treated after birth by their parents. It is observed that, there would be a serious ethical dilemma in forcing women for continuation of unwanted pregnancy (Gevers, 1999) because maternal interest is the most leading factor for abortion. Research also recommended that, adoption is not an alternative to abortion. It is only an option.

Conclusions

Ethics cannot and should not justify every thing. In some places ethical imperatives coincide with public policy and /or practice, while in other places they diverge. Policy in no nation surveyed answers entirely to all of the ethical demands. However, there is a crucial need to use and improve specific public issues such as health care, abortion and bioethics.

After passing the abortion act society has not become more welcoming to children. Parents are going away from their responsibilities for their children as well as their partners. With the existence of legal abortion thousands of children have lost their lives at the hands of doctors. Every abortion is a human tragedy for the child and for its mother. It should be avoided at any cost. Every child is an individual with its own future to respect. Abortion is a major social injustice, directed at those who are most vulnerable.

The ethical status of abortion will remain controversial for the foreseeable future. Restrictive abortion law deserve greater attention. School based educational programmes and availability of contraceptive are more important to help in reduce the teenage abortions. Strategies will then need to focus on self esteem and reducing the idealization of pregnancy as a solution to general life dissatisfaction to gain positive carrier. Health care professional should be motivated to raise the ethical issues of in their practices for social justice and equity through successful educational programmes through out their carrier. To face the complexity of bioethical issues public appreciation can also play a pivotal role in the modern society.

References

American Nurses Association (1997) “Position statement on cultural diversity in nursing practice”. Washington: DC The Association

Ashcroft R, et al (2009) “Prenatal diagnosis and abortion for congenital abnormalities”.American Journal of Bioethics, 9 (8): pp. 48-56

Ballantyne A, et al (2009) “Prenatal diagnosis and abortion for congenital abnormalities: is it ethical to provide one without other?” [online] Available at:http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=107&sid=dcefef83-ac24-4940-81e5-ada17cbdcf35%40sessionmgr110&vid=11 (accessed on 10th November 2010)

BBC (2009) “Ethics: Abortion”. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk(accessed on 30th November 2010)

Belshaw C(1997) “Abortion, value and sanctity of life”. Bioethics, 11 (4) p. 130-1150

Bitler M, et al (2002) “Did abortion legalization reduce the number of unwanted childrenEvidence from adoptions”. [online] Available at: http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=105&sid=b66b57c0-0a98-4bca-b69a-8eb2c57250fc%40sessionmgr114&vid=10(accessed on 10th January 2011)

British Medical Association (2007) “The laws and ethics of abortion”. [online] Available at: http://www.bma.org.uk (accessed on 28th November 2010)

British Pregnancy Advisory Services (2010) “Abortion”. [online] Available at: http://www.bpas.org/bpaswoman/abortion(accessed on 9th January 2011)

Brown M (2000) “The morality of abortion and the deprivation of futures”. Journal of Medical Ethics, 26 (2) p. 103-7

Canadian Code of Ethics (2009) “Nursing code of ethics: Guidelines for making ethical decision making”. [online] Available at:http://www.registered-nurse-canada.com/nursing_code_of_ethics.html#top(accessed on 5th January 2011)

Card R (2000) “Infanticide and the liberal view of abortion”. Bioethics, 14 (4) p. 341-51

Department of Health (2001c) “Seeking consent working with people with learning disabilities”. Department of Health, London

Department of health (2007) “Statistical Bulletin. Abortion statistics, England and Wales”. [online] Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/assetRoot/04/11/75/74/04117574.pdf(accessed on 8th January 2011)

Department of health (2009) “Statistical Bulletin: Abortion statistics, England and Wales: 2009”. [online] Available at:http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/documents/digitalasset/dh_116336.pdf(accessed on 20th November 2010)

Dworkin R (1993) “Life’s domination: An argument about abortion and euthanasia”. Harper Collins, London

Finnis J (1999) “Abortion and health care ethics”. Bioethics, Blackwell publishers, Malden p. 13-20

Gevers S (1999) “Third trimester abortion for fetal abnormality”. Bioethics, 3 (4) p. 306-15

Human Rights Watch (2005) “Decisions denied”. [online] Available at:http:www.hrw.org/en/reports/2005/06/14/decisions-denied-0 (accessed on 6th January 2011)

Hussain R et al (2000) “The role of son preference in reproductive behaviour in Pakistan”. [online] Available at:http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/detail?hid=105&sid=b66b57c0-0a98-4bca-b69a-8eb2c57250fc%40sessionmgr114&vid=14&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=rzh&AN=2000037256 (accessed on 10th January 2011)

Noble –AdamsR (1999) “Ethics and nursing research”. British Journal of Nursing, 8(14) p.956-60

Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008)”The code Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurse and midwifes”. NMC, London

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (2004b) “The Care of Women Requesting Induced Abortion”. [online] Available at:http://www.rcog.org.uk/resources/Public/pdf/induced_abortionfull.pdf(accessed on 2nd January 2011)

Sharma DC (2003) “Widespread concern over India’s missing girls”. [online] Available at:http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=107&sid=a11620b1-6ce4-4dbf-9588-f697b3506632%40sessionmgr110&vid=5(accessed on 3rd January 2011)

Sumner MM (2009) “The unknown genocide: how one country’s culture is destroying the girl child”. [online] Available at: http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=107&sid=a11620b1-6ce4-4dbf-9588-f697b3506632%40sessionmgr110&vid=7 (accessed on 3rd January 2011)

Tan LH, Quinlivan JA (2006) “Domestic violence, single parenthood and fathers in the setting of teenage pregnancy”. [online] Available at: http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/detail?hid=110&sid=350eac2f-9fb6-45ee-a11f-6d8f884ecbe7%40sessionmgr114&vid=3&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=rzh&AN=2009152510 (accessed on 15th December 2010)

Thomson J (1999) “A defence of abortion”. Bioethics, Blackwell Publishers, Malden p. 36-45

Tooley M (1999) “Abortion and infanticide”. Bioethics, Blackwell Publishers, Malden p. 21-35

Rogers W et al (2007) “Is sex selective abortion morally justified and should it be prohibited[online] Available at:http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=105&sid=b66b57c0-0a98-4bca-b69a-8eb2c57250fc%40sessionmgr114&vid=18 (accessed on 8th January 2011)

Raatikainen R (1989) “Values and ethical principles in nursing”. Journal of Advance Nursing, 14(2) p. 92- 6

Sheldon S, Wilkinson S (2001) “Termination of pregnancy for reason of fetal disability”. Med Law Rev 9 (2) p. 85-109

Young R (2006) “Vermont Children’s Aid Society offers free training on Understanding Infant Adoption to health care”. [online] Available at:http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=105&sid=b66b57c0-0a98-4bca-b69a-8eb2c57250fc%40sessionmgr114&vid=12 (accessed on 10th January 2011)

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Research Paper on Abortion

The ethics of abortion is one of the most controversial topic that has been continually argued over years and probably many years to come. The main controversy is the question of legalization of abortion, which ties into ethical issues, emotions, and political issues or laws. Before I discuss the many sides to abortion, it is critical to define the term. The Webster’s Dictionary defines abortion as the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the fetus. Despite the liberal attitudes toward abortion, it still remains an important political issue.

Even in societies where abortion has been legalized, many actions are being raised by the anti-abortionists. These anti-abortionists believe in “pro-life” and their religious perspectives are responsible in their arguments against abortion. They believe that “it is equally as heinous intentionally to kill a human being in existence at fertilization, as to kill a larger pre-born child. ” On the other hand, there are reasons for legalization of abortion. Most people agree with the concept of reproductive freedom—the fundamental right of every individual to decide freely and responsibly when and whether to have a child.

Human life is defined as “any living entity that has DNA from the species homo sapiens. This includes an ovum, spermatozoon, zygote, embryo, fetus, newborn. It also includes an infant, child, adult, elder. It also includes a breast cancer cell and a hair follicle and a skin scraping. Some forms of human life have little or no value; others are the most valuable and precious form of life in the known universe”. Because an unborn fetus is considered to have a human life, abortion should not be legalized.

It is a definitely a crime to kill a living and breathing fetus even though the embryo may not take the form of a human structure. If abortion is permitted, the dignity of human will be destroyed. In the medical field, the doctors prescribe the baby before 15 days after conception as dividing cells. But after this short period, abortion is prohibited from the principal of identifying. This is because the fertilization process contains many cell divisions by zygote progressing into a human being. Many people assert the right that women do not have a baby because they have the right to choose.

But it is neglecting the right of the baby who has his or her own life. Just because an unborn fetus is not capable to express his or her feelings, is it morally right to end its life? Considering moral issues, abortion is definitely equally termed a murder. However, I do understand the other point of view for legalizing abortion. The exception to abortion is considered when the mother bearing the child has illnesses or diseases that can be transmitted to the baby genetically. Also, financial issues are often being raised by the parents whom are not able to support another family in the house.

In this case, abortion may be permitted because it is rather better to not be alive than be living under such poor conditions. Furthermore, abortion is considered as a rightful act when the women get pregnant from rape. Some people may generally think that a crippled person is pessimistic about the world. But in fact, they thank their parents who gave life to them. The life as a handicapped person could be better than not experiencing life at all. If it’s not by the force of other one, people must take the responsibility for their behavior.

Every action you make comes in consequences and therefore, it is important to choose birth controls if pregnancy is not wanted. If the reason that causing abortion is merely a problem of foster, it is never permitted. We must keep in mind that life is most precious thing in the world. It is estimated that the number of aborted babies is almost 4000 in a month. Vast majority of abortions are done for convenience, by women who simply want to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. But abortion is a murder. So, now is the time for us to think about the abortion again and to search for the best solution. In any circumstances, the life must be admired.

Work Cited

http://www.religioustolerance.org/abortion.htm

http://abortion-alternatives.adoption.com/

http://www.friesian.com/abortion.htm

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Abortion and the Symbolic Interaction Paradigm

In this paper, we needed to discuss whether or not abortion contributes to the corruption of today’s society, using the symbolic interaction paradigm. We have come to the consensus, as a group, that abortion does contribute to the corruption of today’s society simply because it is such a heated issue and therefore people choose sides. When people choose sides, and are unable to look at a situation from another person’s point of view, there tends to be corruption.

Symbolic interactionism is a theoretical perspective that people use definitions, meanings, symbols, interpretations, and human interactions to compare themselves to others (Henslin, 2010, p. 15). Herbert Blumer, whom attended University of Chicago with one of the founders of the symbolic interactionism perspective, George Herbert Mead, developed one of the most prominent versions of the perspective (McClelland, 2000). Mooney, Knox, and Schacht explained Blumer’s theory of the symbolic interactionism perspective. According to Blumer, social problems develop in stages.

The first stage is “social recognition”, when the social problem first happened. The second stage is “social legitimization”, when the problem is recognized by the community. When the community gets concerned and starts to develop a way to react is called the “mobilization for action”. “Development and implementation of an official plan” is when legal regulations occur (Mooney, Knox, & Schacht, 2000, p. 10-16). There are many ways that people interpret the idea of abortion, and they often use words to help get their opinions across.

Language is just a system of symbols that we recognize as a way of communication, and in terms of abortion, there are several ways to use language to make points to solidify one’s position on the issue. The pro-choice movement is a group that believes that women should have to choice to have an abortion if they feel that it is necessary given their personal circumstances. The phrase “pro-choice” is a very strong symbol in itself because it can cause people to think in a more broad sense, implying that if one is not pro-choice, then he/she must believe that the mother of the unborn child does have rights to her own body.

On the other hand, pro-life can also be seen as a very significant symbol, because it also tends to imply that if one is not pro-life, they simply believe that the unborn child in the womb does not deserve to live. Obviously, this conclusion is not always true, but it is the implications that make the phrases such strong symbols. Each side of the argument has its own list of legitimate reasons why they feel that their way is the right way, but there are some words that they use that are demeaning and insulting to whomever it is that is considering an abortion.

While it is understandable that many pro-life groups believe that an abortion is a terrible way to end a life, the use of strong, suggestive words makes it seem like they are simply trying to make women feel even guiltier about having an abortion. Having an abortion is oftentimes one of the most heart-wrenching, difficult decisions a woman has to make, and some pro-life activists still feel that it is necessary to make the woman feel even more torn by comparing abortions to murder. This is probably the strongest, most symbolic word used to describe an abortion.

No matter what a group’s opinion on the subject, they should not use guilt as a means of trying to turn people away from abortion. This leads to further arguments, and more importantly, it leads to women feeling even worse about their decision should they decide to go through with an abortion. Words are a very big part of symbolism when dealing with such a sensitive subject like abortion. They can be used positively, to try to enlighten a person on the subject, or they can be used negatively, to try to scare a person into siding with one group or the other.

Because there are so many negative connotations that go along with having an abortion, it becomes a very significant factor of social corruption. There are different types of abortion, therapeutic abortion, when the mother’s health would be at risk if the pregnancy was continued; elective abortion, when the woman decides not continue a pregnancy for whichever reason; abortion pill, which can terminate a pregnancy up to 9 weeks into it (Planned Parenthood, 2011).

Many people feel differently about the different types of abortion and there are laws regarding how far into pregnancy an abortion can be performed. The news and media cover the abortion debates frequently and often help to stir up some of the controversy. It was found by David Shaw, a write for the LA Times-Washington Post Service, that the media often favors pro-choice advocates over pro-life and “Columns of commentary favoring abortion rights outnumber those opposing abortion by a argin of 2 to 1 on the opinion/editorial pages of most of the nation’s major daily newspapers” (as cited in Wade, 1990). On Yahoo Answers, “Does the media influence teenagers to get pregnant and to have abortions? ” was asked and one of the responders, Ashley, replied that “…it does encourage them to be sexy- which then leads to sex and pregnancy, and sometimes abortions. But the media is only partly to blame; the main problem is the attitude of today’s society (2009)”. It is easy to research and find distasteful images and photographs from pro-life sites.

The ultimate goal is generally to convince a woman out of an abortion or to make people feel that abortion is murder. On the Maine Vitae site, mainerighttolife. com, there is a link to “Issues”. If you then click on a sub link called “The Ugly Reality”, there are 9 pictures of aborted fetuses from 8 weeks to 24 weeks gestational age (2010). It is relatively easy to find pro-choice images online, with a lot of the images including children and woman stating that they are pro-choice. A major issue for most people is the idea of abortion as contraception.

The Centers for Disease Control released a statement on November 27, 2009, “Women should use contraceptives, not abortion, to prevent unwanted pregnancies. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) study showed that 19-25% of women who received abortions in 2006 had previously had one or more abortions” (2009). Religions often have an opinion that they provide as public knowledge on the abortion debate. In the bible, the sixth commandment is “Thou shalt not kill (Exodus 20:13, King James Version)”.

The commandment is often used to explain why people believe that abortion is considered murder. Traditional Buddhism teaches that life begins at conception and the fetus is “as entitled to the same moral respect as an adult human being (Keown, 2004). In our research we also found medical doctors, citizens and psychologists that are against abortion. Henry Sigerist gave his interpretation of the Hippocratic Oath’s opinion on abortion; “The original text of the Hippocratic Oath, the oath that doctors traditionally take when swearing to practice medicine ethically, forbids abortions.

One section of the oath reads: “I will not give a woman a pessary to cause an abortion. ” The modern version of the Hippocratic Oath written in 1964 by Louis Lasagna also forbids abortion in its line, “Above all, I must not play at God” (1996). With his interpretation of the Hippocratic Oath, Henry Sigerist, shows that people can form different interpretations from the same information. David C. Reardon, PhD, et al. also found that women who aborted were 154% more likely to commit suicide than women who carried to term (2002).

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Why Abortion Is Immoral

In “Why abortion is immoral,” by Don Marquis, Marquis sets out an argument that abortion is “seriously immoral that it is in the same moral category as killing an innocent adult human being. ” Marquis first wants us to understand why killing a person is wrong. He presents us with an argument that the loss of one’s life is one of the greatest losses one can suffer. Because this prevents a person from having a valuable human future, a future like ours. What makes killing any adult human being wrong? If a person is killed all the experience, activities, projects, and enjoyment would be deprive from a person future.

Therefore, Marquis believe that killing is one of the worst of crimes because their future is taken away along with their life. Many people who agree with abortion would disagree with Marquis that abortion is the same as killing a person, as much as killing the fetus that would later become a person. For Marquis, it all comes down to our future. Why is killing the fetus wrong? If the fetus survive to full growth, “the future of the fetus would includes a set of experiences, projects, activities, and such which one identical with the future of adult human being.

Many people use the word fetus to mean, an unborn person after three months of conception. Marquis use the word to mean that in the first fourteen days of pregnancy, a fetus is “ not enough like us” to count. Around the fourteen day it is still a possibility that the fetus can divide into twins. Another argument that Marquis states is that abortion is prima facie immoral. What he meant is that the abortion issues does not concern just the interest of the fetus. It concerns a person moral right to his or her body.

That a woman moral right to choose whether or not to continue a pregnancy. Only the mother should go under the procedure of abortion. Since it is the mother that have to make a choice and with the decision she makes. Another argument about morality and abortion would be by Judith Jarvis Thomson. In her argument, Judith Jarvis Thomson assumes that the fetus(and embryo and zygote) is “an innocent human being, a person, from the moment of conception. ” She believes that every person has a right to life. A fetus is a person.

Therefore a fetus has a right to life, and that the fetus may not be killed. She believes that a mother has the right to her body. But if the mother becomes pregnant and decides that the she doesn’t want the baby then the fetus can outweighs the mother decision to what happens in her body. Thomson state that, “the fetus should not be killed and that an abortion should not be performed. ” But Thomson tries to show that it is not right, that the right to life just means you have the right to not be unjustly killed. This is where she introduce her famous violinist story.

Thomson ask us to imagine “that you were kidnapped by the society of music lovers and that you woke up to find that the violinist’s circulatory system was plugged into yours and you were sharing your kidneys. The director of the hospital then tell you that if you unplugged the cord the violinist will die, and you will be plugged for only nine month and by then you will recover. You also come to find out that by saving the violinist, its killing you because its making your kidney weak. The doctor then tells you that it’s not nine months but nine years.

What would you do? Because Thomson believes that all persons have the right to live and violinist are person. We assume that they have a right to life. Thomson then state “ that you have the right to decide what will happen to and in your body, but a person right to live outweighs your right to decide what happens to and in your body. ” If a women is pregnant due to rape a women is not permitted to have an abortion. Because the unborn child that a women is carrying does not cause any harm relating to the rape.

The unborn child has the right to live, the unborn child is innocent. Thomson states that “ a women’s right to use her body does not entail her right to end someone else’s life in order do what she wants with her body. ” In conclusion, both Thomson and Marquis believes that a person has a right to live. But both comes out with arguments that are different supporting their arguments. Marquis believes that a person should not be killed because when one is dead they’re deprived of the future goods, and experience that they will encountered.

If their killed they would not have a future like ours. Marquis believe that killing a fetus only is wrong because it won’t have a future like ours. Marquis also states that a women have the right to decide if she wants the abortion or not. Thomson believes that it’s wrong to have an abortion, when the unborn child is innocent. The unborn child outweighs the mother decision to what happens to her body. Thomson argues that every person has the right to live and a fetus may not be killed.

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Abortion

Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a fetus or embryo from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. [1] An abortion can occur spontaneously due tocomplications during pregnancy or can be induced, in humans and other species. In the context of human pregnancies, an abortion induced to preserve the health of the gravida (pregnant female) is termed a therapeutic abortion, while an abortion induced for any other reason is termed an elective abortion. The term abortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy, while spontaneous abortions are usually termed miscarriages.

Worldwide 42 million abortions are estimated to take place annually with 22 million of these occurring safely and 20 million unsafely. [2] While maternal mortality seldom results from safe abortions, unsafe abortions result in 70,000 deaths and 5 million disabilities per year. [2] One of the main determinants of the availability of safe abortions is the legality of the procedure. Forty percent of the world’s women are able to access therapeutic and elective abortions within gestational limits. [3]

The frequency of abortions is similar whether or not access is restricted. 2][3] Abortion has a long history and has been induced by various methods including herbal abortifacients, the use of sharpened tools, physical trauma, and other traditional methods. Contemporary medicine utilizes medications and surgical procedures to induce abortion. The legality, prevalence, cultural, and religious views on abortion vary substantially around the world. In many parts of the world there is prominent and divisive public controversy over the ethical and legal issues of abortion.

Abortion and abortion-related issues feature prominently in the national politics in many nations, often involving the opposing pro-life and pro-choice worldwide social movements (both self-named). Incidence of abortion has declined worldwide, as access to family planning education and contraceptive services has increased Causes of Abortion: The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Abortion. There are likely to be other possible causes, so ask your doctor about your symptoms.

•Spontaneous •Uterine anatomy •Luteal phase defect •Fetal genetic anomalies •Incompetent cervix Infections •Antifetal antibodies •Alloimmune disease •Radiation •Intrauterine contraceptive device •Smoking •Alcohol ingestion (see Alcohol use) •Heavy caffeine consumption •Antiphospholipid antibodies Effects Of Abortion When the subject of abortion arises, the question that is always in everyone’s mind is that is it really necessary. After all, if killing of life is murder then abortion should also be considered as murder. In cases like rape, or when the doctor finds out that the child is severely disabled or HIV infected then abortion can be a solution, but the bets are still out on it.

Abortion is an issue that has significant emotional and religious dimensions not to mention the physical dangers involved. While both its supporters and opposers are at loggerheads with each other due to the morality of the issue involved, the effect that abortion has on the mother is not given due consideration. That is why, while many women know the ethical concern involved in abortion, most have only a vague idea of the physical and emotional risks that the women undergoes during abortion.

To treat abortion as a simple medical procedure is naive, even if abortion pills are used. The effects are life changing, and sometimes the scars can stay for life. The physical risks are even more harmful. There are many instances of abortions not being performed properly, leading to disability, and sometimes death. The best way to avoid this is to get familiarized with all the side effects involved, so that there are better chances of addressing them. Read below to know more on the side effects of abortion.

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Mary Ann Warren–On Abortion

The question of abortion causes heated debates among politicians and moralists, sociologists and philosophers. The main problem society tries to solve is moral statue of fetus and its resemblance with the human being. In the essay “Abortion, and the concept of a Person” Mary Ann Warren proposes a unique vision on these problems and moral choice of women discussing a status of fetus and its moral rights.

Following Judith Thomson, Warren discuses the status of fetus as a person and impact of this approach on moral side of abortion. Warren distinguishes two dimensions: a biological and moral status of fetus. Warren believes that a proper understanding of human biology can somehow rule out the possibility that a fetus is a separate human being. Similar to pro-life advocates she invokes our understanding of fetus, particularly the resemblance between fetuses and babies. Warren states that if we consider fetus a person, it should have the same human rights as other citizens. She opposes this opinion and in her words: ‘in the relevant respects, a fetus, even a fully developed one, is considerably less person-like than the average fish` (Warren).

Warren singles out five main factors which could help to distinguish a person in moral and biological sense. A person has consciousness and can feel pain; it (he/she) has the ability to reason and act in ways that go beyond instinct (based on motives and goals). A person has “the ability communicate and a sense of self” (Warren). Warren rejects the idea that biological resemblance of fetus with the human beings is essential. She states that: [I]f the right to life of the fetus is to be based upon its resemblance to a person, then it cannot be said to have any more right to life than, let us say, a newborn guppy” (Warren).

If researchers and moralists accept this position, the implications for women, and for the law, would be staggering. Of course, the traditional immunity of women from prosecution for abortion would be untenable. Any woman who had or sought an abortion would at least be liable to punishment for attempted murder or for aiding and abetting the physician who performed the deed.

Warren gives a special attention to cloning and new technologies which could clone a cell from a human body. She asks: “Are all my cells now potential persons?” Trying to answer this question, she comes to conclusion that a part of a human body, “in some dim sense, [can] be a potential person” (Warren). Some might argue that a “person” comes into existence only at the point when there is a specific and determined chromosome genetic identity. Warren argues that if a new-born baby is “more-person like” and moralists justify abortion, they should also justify infanticide and murder.

This is one of the most controversial parts of her essay, because if we assume that infanticide is wrong we should accept that abortion is also wrong. Also, Warren includes the case of homosexuals into discussion. If the society does not treat a fetus as ‘a person’, it should treat homosexuals the same way. In this case, “we can make a limited point: because of the differences we have noted between a skin cell and a fertilized ovum, it is at least not clear that Warren`s analogy is a good one” (Warren). In answering that question on the premise that the fetus is a person, it is important not to underestimate the extent of the sacrifice being asked of the woman.

Critical remaining issues are whether a child which is never born alive is a person within the meaning of the statute, and whether it is possible to prove that the injury caused the unborn child’s death. Warren addresses mothers’ choice and their freedom stating that: “The minute the infant is born, its preservation no longer violates any of its mother`s rights” (Warren). It sometimes is permissible for a pregnant woman to have an abortion because by means of an abortion she stops herself from helping bring about the state that she finds stressful. If she were not helping to bring about the state of affairs in the particular way that she is, she could not interfere with its coming about.

Taking into account Warren’s arguments and logic, I suppose that she improperly uses different philosophical and moral categories, law and biological issues. Likewise, those who support abortion rights invoke principles of biology in support of their claim that whatever else it is, a fetus simply cannot be a separate “person”.  The same is true of the unfertilized ovum is alive. Warren’s arguments and approaches are not clear and even confusing in many points. Her argumentation lacks objectivity and logic that misleads and perplex readers.

Thus I agree with Warren that the status of fetus is central in this debate, but we should also take into account mother’s rights and civil liberties. Pregnancy and childbirth are always physically risky activities. More significantly, they produce between woman and child real and life-altering bonds, both psychological and physiological. Woman denied the right to decide whether or not to end a pregnancy is not merely being asked to refrain from killing another person but being asked to make an affirmative sacrifice, and a profound one at that, in order to save that person.

Still, there is some force to the moral argument that the right to choose abortion can be distinguished in cases of voluntary, as opposed to involuntary, pregnancy. To be sure, one powerful strand of feminist theory posits that within our society even most nominally sex, particularly in cases where the woman does not feel free to use or to suggest the use of birth control, involves coercion. But if one assumes a pregnancy that did not result from any sort of coercion, then perhaps the imposition of continued pregnancy on the woman may not be unjust.

Warren does not include into discussion such important things as fetal age and weight. There remains considerable disagreement over which of many criteria is most adequate in determining viability, and over the precision of any such measures. In addition, the viability rule is difficult to apply because it is an indeterminate concept that depends on the individual development of a specific fetus and the health of the mother.

The five factors she used to identify a person can be applied to many animals and primates but we do not consider them as ‘persons’. Thus, following Warren it is by no means enough to show that the fetus is person and that all persons have a right to life – so killing the fetus violates its right to life, i.e., that abortion is unjust killing.

Abortion will not be morally wrong if we apply another criteria and factors to analysis of its legacy: typical requirements of the statutes include: the existence of a ” person ” who has died; the death of the person from injuries resulting from a wrongful act, neglect, or default that would have conferred a cause of action upon the person who has died, had that person survived; and the act, neglect, or default that caused the fatal injury must have been performed by another. I suppose that the logical fallacies are that Warren takes into account only a fetus and compares it rights, moral and legal status with human beings.

It would be more important to compare rights and status of a mother vs fetus. The fetus, being person, has a right to life, but as the mother is a person too, so has she a right to life. I agree with Warren that a fetus in not a human yet, but I am disagree that we have a right to compare a fetus with a fish. Presumably they have an equal right to life. The main problem with Warren’s position is that she denies a moral status of fetus. Still, I agree with the author that: “a right of that magnitude could never override a woman`s right to obtain an abortion at any stage of her pregnancy` (Warren).

The major remaining basis of the inconsistency of establishing the rights of the unborn to a cause of action for wrongful death is the question of whether or not a fetus is a person under the appropriate statutes and, if so, at what point in gestation? A related question is whether or not the fetus must be live born before action is allowed. This issue is crucial, because if the fetus is defined as a person, the action will be recognized; if not, the action will be dismissed.

 

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Abortion Should Not Be Banned

Abortion is a widely debated topic that has been conflicting politicians and women around the world. Abaluck’s article, “Late-Term Abortion Should Not Be Banned” did not provide half as many sources or facts as Boland’s article, “Second Trimester Abortion Laws Globally. ” Boland provided more statistics and alternant resources for the reader. It can look impressive if an author throws in an extensive reference list, but if he does not persuade you in an argument, all he has done is give you a history lesson. This is a perfect example of what Boland did in his essay.

Of the two articles I researched, Abaluck’s article was more argumentative and forced me to question my own morals and view-points on abortion. Abaluck stated his opinion immediately by having his argument presented in his title. I loved this about his article because when I am reading something, it is hard for me to follow only numbers. I do not want a math lesson; I want my brain and beliefs to be challenged. I believe Abaluck’s article provides the necessary evidentiary support to persuade the audience to have mutual feelings about his stance on late-term abortion.

There are two completely different vibes given off in each article. Abaluck’s article, “Late-Term Abortion Should Not Be Banned” was definitely my favorite because he gave an actual argument. With all of the facts he provided, he seems to know a significant amount of information about abortion and acts so passionate about it. However, Boland’s piece is the polar opposite of an argumentative article. This is one of the most informative pieces I have ever read and I feel much more aware of how other countries view abortion.

I know this is the effect Boland was going for, and the article succeeded its purpose. Boland’s article was just straight facts and kind of boring. Although I was given more information in Boland’s article, I was not persuaded either way on the argument. The credibility of each author is high, but when it comes down to who I would want on my side in an argument, it would be Abaluck. Both authors work for Harvard in different areas. Jason Abaluck is the president of the Harvard Liberal Monthly Magazine and Reed Boland is a research associate at the Harvard School of Public Health.

This spikes heir credibility through the roof and gives me no doubt that they know what they are talking about when it comes to research. Since Abaluck writes for a liberal magazine, I am sure his argument is a little biased considering his political views, but unlike Boland, he actually has an opinion. I am more apt to be pulled towards something with a little bit of passion and heart. Part of human nature is forming an opinion by listening to, reading, or watching someone else’s opinion and deciding if you agree or disagree depending on your moral beliefs. I believe late-term abortion should not be banned.

A woman’s health should always be taken into consideration especially when there are expected complications. During a second trimester check up, you are likely to be able to see any abnormalities developing in your child. This is the time where it is not only crucial to be able to ensure your baby’s life is developing correctly, but also that the woman is remaining healthy. Most late-term abortions are not done just because a woman changes her mind about having a child. These abortions should not be banned because a lot of times, it is crucial to the woman’s life to have this done.

Not only does this affect her physical well-being, it also affects her mentally. For the rest of any woman’s life, she will remember and think about the baby she “almost” had and she will likely require therapy. Yes, there is always the chance a woman is not having an abortion for all the right reasons, but the attachment that forms between a mother and child cannot be torn so easily. If late-term abortion were to be made illegal, a woman would have no choice but to have a child and risk her own life due to the known abnormalities of her child.

The claim in Boland’s article is strictly informative. His article not only provides multiple, if not too many, statistics but also gives a table showing every country’s abortion laws. Maybe his intended audience was for people who were visiting the United States and wanted to see how their country lined up next to others. Most likely, he was writing this article just to inform whoever wanted to know about all the abortion laws worldwide. Regardless of who his audience is, he provides no information on what his personal view of abortion is.

This fact made it hard for me to assess which article is better all around. I decided against Boland’s article because with all of the numbers and statistics, it was hard for me to follow along. If Boland had provided a little of his own opinion to spice things up, I would have gladly and openly considered his stance. The claim in Abaluck’s article was argumentative in that he gave his opinion and allowed no room for the other option. I liked that Abaluck’s article was argumentative rather than being strictly factual because he states his opinion, but was not pushy about it.

Granted he does not acknowledge the other stand-point, he does not really make it seem like you should believe his argument. It is hard for an author to persuade their point without seemingly throwing it in your face, and I believe Abaluck demonstrated this perfectly. I was definitely persuaded by his article and took all of his ideas into consideration and even adjusted my view on the idea of late-term abortion. When beginning this assignment of researching my selected topic, I was completely against all types of abortion.

Now, I realize there are a couple of reasons to reconsider this because you must always take the woman’s health into consideration. By including three personal stories in his article, I was forced to put myself in another person’s shoes and asked myself, “What would I do if this were me? ” During the last few months of pregnancy, if the baby shows many signs of abnormalities or is going to threaten the life of the mother, late-term abortion should definitely be considered. If the unborn child stands little to no chance of survival, is it worth putting the woman’s life at risk?

If Abaluck were to read Boland’s article, I believe it would only reinforce his viewpoint by giving him more reason to pull for not banning abortion. Since Boland does not provide an argument, it is easy to state that there is no disagreement shown when comparing the articles. If I were to sit down with both authors, I would first ask both of them to state their opinions and hopefully allow them to hash it out. It would not be difficult for me to assume that it would be an interesting debate knowing both writers know so much about the topic.

Not knowing Boland’s stance makes it hard to assume that the two authors would argue, however I would love to assume there are at least a few differences in their beliefs. With Abaluck being a liberal, I am sure they would disagree on something. Or else, I hope they would because that would make sitting down with both of them way more entertaining. “When asked whether abortion should be legal, 80 percent of Americans say yes. When asked the same question about so-called ‘partial-birth’ abortion, 20 percent said yes. (Abaluck, 2007)

Seeing this statistic, it is proven that terminology is crucial when presenting an argument. This proves that regardless of your argument, it would be easy to persuade an audience using harsh language like “partial-birth”. Even when I read an article against abortion, they used harsh terms like this and it made me resent people who would even consider having an abortion. However, once I learned the facts, I became aware that the language you use in an article is crucial to how you may persuade your audience.

Abaluck brings this quote to your attention in the first paragraph of his article and clarifies the difference between real and harsh accusations against late-term abortion. By clarifying how to identify faulty terminology, Abaluck brings it to your attention that it is easy to sway people in your favor. I would undoubtedly say that Abaluck’s article was way better in not only getting a specific point across, but also persuading me and challenging my beliefs and morals.

Being informed and having an opinion always go hand in hand and Abaluck’s article depicts this fact perfectly. On the other hand, Boland’s article was informative but very boring. To keep my attention, it is important to incorporate your opinion in order to challenge my beliefs. Although I was educated thoroughly on the topic of late-term abortion, I was not able to form an accurate argument after reading Boland’s article. He did not attempt to persuade me in either direction on the topic, so it was easy for me to determine the better of the articles.

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Abortion Persuasive Speech

Introduction Abortion is one of the most debatable and controversial issues that exist today in our society. There are people who support the idea that it should be a choice of each and every woman – whether to do it or not, while others claim that no one has a power to decide, whether to bring life on the planet, or put an end to it. (writings) I believe that there is no other option than to choose life. 1. ) In my opinion many women are very unaware of how fast a baby develops. A. ) At three weeks the heart begins to beat with the child’s own blood and the backbone spinal column and nervous system are forming.

Also liver, kidneys and intestines begin to take shape. B. ) By week five eyes, legs, and hands begin to develop. C. ) By eight week the baby can begin to hear and every organ is in place, bones begin to replace cartilage, and fingerprints begin to form. D. ) At week twelve the baby has all of the parts necessary to experience pain, including nerves, spinal cord, and thalamus. Vocal cords are complete and the baby can suck its thumb. E. ) By twenty weeks the baby recognizes its’ mothers voice and you can tell the sex. (Development) 2. Most women facing an unplanned pregnancy who opt for an abortion do so early on; just over 61% take place in the first 8 weeks of pregnancy, and 88% occur in the first trimester, before the 13th week of pregnancy. Only 10% of abortions occur in the second trimester, between the 13th and 20th weeks of pregnancy. (Lowen) A. ) There are two different types of abortions: Surgical abortions and Medical Abortions. a. As the name suggests, medical abortions do not involve surgery or other invasive methods but rely on medications to end pregnancy. Lowen) i. A medical abortion involves taking the drug mifepristone; often called ‘the abortion pill,’ its generic name is RU-486 and its brand name is Mifeprex. Mifepristone is not available over the counter and must be provided by a health care professional. A woman seeking a medical abortion can obtain one through a doctor’s office or clinic and should expect two or more visits to complete the process, as another drug, misoprostol, must be taken to terminate the pregnancy. (Lowen) b.

All surgical abortions are medical procedures that must be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. There are several different surgical abortion options. ii. Aspiration is an abortion procedure that can be performed on a woman up to 16 weeks after her last period. Aspiration, also known as vacuum aspiration, suction aspiration or D&A (dilation and aspiration), involves the insertion of a tube through the dilated cervix into the uterus. Gentle suction removes fetal tissue and empties the uterus. iii.

In some circumstances, a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette is used to scrape the uterine lining to remove any remaining tissue. This procedure is called a D&C (dilation and curettage. ) iv. Dilation and evacuation (D&E) is typically performed during the second trimester (between the 13th and 24th week of pregnancy. ) Similar to a D&C, a D&E involves other instruments (such as forceps) along with suction to empty the uterus. In later second-trimester abortions, a shot administered through the abdomen may be necessary to ensure fetal demise before the D&E begins. Lowen) Conclusion All in all I believe that medical and/or surgical abortions should be illegal. I don’t believe anything can justify an abortion, because you are intentionally ending a human life. Works Cited Development, Fetal. http://www. nrlc. org/abortion/facts/fetaldevelopment. html. n. d. Lowen, Linda. http://womensissues. about. com/od/reproductiverights/a/AbortionTypes. htm. n. d. writings, Paper. http://www. paperwritings. com/free-examples/persuasive-speech-on-abortion. html. n. d.

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Abortions: The Choice is the Woman’s

Abortion is one of the most controversial topics of this era. What is abortion? Abortion is defined as the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus resulting or causing the death of the fetus or embryo. The people who believe abortion is wrong and should not be allowed are called Pro-Life activist. Those who believe abortion is the woman’s choice because it’s her body are called Pro-Choice activist. Pro-life activists debate that all life at conception is precious and deserves a chance at life.

They also believe that God not the mother chooses its time of life and death. Pro-choice followers often argue in favor of science and the United States Constitutional Ninth Amendment, which holds freedom of choice sacred (American Civil Liberties, 1997). They believe the first patient is the mother, and she is the one who allows the pregnancy to happen or not. The fact of the matter is if abortion is chosen to be banned people will find a way to have one done.

To save this from happening abortion should be kept legal because its the woman’s right, pregnancies due to rape are not usually wanted, and if health related problems arise and the pregnancy can not continue. Women have fought very long and hard to have their rights. On January 22, 1973 the Supreme Court decided in its landmark decision of the Roe vs. Wade case to make abortion a legal action for all women (American Civil Liberties Union, 1997).

Henry Wade was a district attorney from Dallas whom the Roe case was against (Lowenstein, 1996). When abortions were not legal the number of women who wanted or needed and abortions did not decrease. Before legalizing abortion thousands of women died or suffered serious medical illnesses after trying to do their own abortions, or going to non trained physicians who performed cheap abortions in unsanitary conditions (Abortion Law Homepage, 1996). A woman’s has a choice to say whether or not the fetus at hand is wanted.

Though is not believed that abortion should be used as a form of birth control. Pro-Life activist believe that the unborn baby living between the 18th and 25th day after conception, this is when the heart starts. They believe the fetus has more rights than the woman because it can not speak for itself. This is often argued because Pro-Choice activist believe the baby is not considered a baby until it reaches the viability stage, which is 24 weeks. Pro-Life activists almost always call women who have abortions are murderers.

Pro-Life activists, also call abortion clinics a butcher shop where babies are murdered. This is not true; they provide a place for a woman to have a safe choice. To say that a woman is not allowed to make a choice about her body defeating the purpose of her fight for her right. The AIG reported that there are about 90,000 rape cases reported yearly. Among those rape victims about five percent of them become pregnant, and from that 50% of them get abortions (Johnson, 2006).

Why should rape victims be forced to keep a child resulting from rape? This is a question that some Pro-Life activists’ struggles with. A woman that has been raped should be able to have an abortion because keeping the child, would cause the mother the hate the child when the mother had a though about the rapist (Steinmetz, 1998). The child would constantly remind the mother of the pain she went through on that day. Although some Pro-Life activists believe that the woman should give the baby up for adoption if there is rape involved.

Adoption is not acceptable because the woman would have to give birth to a child and then give it to a complete stranger. Most women are not able physically and mentally to give a baby up. The mother would have to pray constantly about the baby being placed in the best environment. The child will then have to be tossed from place to place in search for a family that wants them. Putting a baby up for an adoption is not always seen as the answer. Legal abortions not only protect a woman’s life but it also protects their health.

There are thousands of women with kidney disease, heart disease, severe hypertension, sickle cell anemia, and severe diabetes, and other illnesses that can be life threatening, the availability of legal abortions has helped lessen serious medical problems that could have came from having a baby (Steinmetz, 1998). There have been several cases that a woman has chosen whether she dies or the baby dies. This is also another case that Pro-Life activist struggle with. They believe that if it God’s will for the unborn child, the mother, or both to die it will be done.

Pro-Choice believes that God has blessed people with free will. To decide if a fetus is a human or a clump of cells is the choice of each individual walking throughout this land. Abortion remains a controversial topic among pro-life and pro-choice activists. As long as unwanted pregnancies continue to occur, abortions, more than likely, will also continue. In the end, however, it is the mother who has to live with the decision made. There is no way to say who is right and who is wrong. Abortion should be viewed as an anguished decision in which human beings struggle to do the best they can in trying circumstances.

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Abortion from a Kantian and Utilitarianism Perspective

Population Growth You and me, we aren’t that different. But when we compare ourselves to the 6. 2 billion people in this world or even the 287. 4 million in the United States, we start to become really different. Take all of the high-rises and stack them up and I bet we could go to the moon. Now you tell me that is not over-population. This world is growing with people everyday and it doesn’t stop. Because of the population and its growth our resources are becoming limited. Our garbage production on this planet is atrocious! It all needs to stop right now.

If we stop populating this world with more people we would become better off later on. Like I said our natural resources are limited and everyday a lot of them are getting thrown in the trash. These are all things that have to do with population. Everyday we are changing the environment around us, whether it is building roads, houses or any other thing in that matter. In doing so we are taking up space on Earth. Which means that we are running out of room to grow. And pretty soon we will have no room to grow on this planet. In Bangladesh there are 2,405 people per square mile.

Hong Kong is virtually made of high-rises that 6. 8 million people live in. The Chinese region of Macaa is 57,369 people per square mile. These numbers are all because we are running out of room to grow, thus we are turning to high-rises. Brazil has a population of 176. 5 million people and eight out of ten people live in towns or cities and it grows 1. 3% each year. 1. 3% is what the world’s average growth rate is. And you think that is bad, look at Africa, which has a growth rate of 2. 4% and of course is the highest in the world.

Tokyo, Japan, home of 34 million Japanese, is the largest city in the world. Mexico City, Mexico has 22. 4 million el locos living in it. New York, New York, has 21. 8 million people in its borders and is the 4th largest city. Sao Paulo, Brazil, has 20 million people that I get to go meet and it is the 5th largest city. The 8th largest city is Los Angeles, California that is home to 17. 8 million Americans. The 19th largest city is Rio de Janeiro, which is home to 12 million Brazilians who I also get to meet. Number 26 is Chicago, Illinois, home to 9. 7 million Americans.

Like I said, this world is growing. In 15,000 BC, 5 million people started hunting and gathering food for themselves. In 5,000 BC there were 66 million people in the world and they could finally settle in one place and farm. And now look at this world! The numbers of humans has never been on the downfall for very long. But the world’s growth rate has been falling at more or less . 1% annually. As you recall, the average growth rate is 1. 3%. In about 40 years from now, more than 50 countries will experience negative growth with a world growth rate at about 0. 34% per year.

Like I’ve said, there are some natural resources that are running out. 70% of the Earth is covered in water. Only 25% of water supplies are clean and healthy in Ethiopia. 69% of water we use is for farming. Since 10,000 BC, humans have destroyed half of our world’s forest. Lets face it; mineral resources are finite and should be recycled for future generations. For example, the 287. 4 million Americans use ten times the amount of oil Africa does with 840 million people. Although this is not a renewable resource, it is a natural one we are going to run out of real soon.

As common sense kicks in, we realize that the more people there are the more oil we use. Now you can take that fact and apply it to ANY resource. To set it straight, 2,000 years ago there were 250 million people in the world. 1700. 679 million people 1900. 1. 63 billion people 1920. 1. 96 billion people 1950. 2. 52 billion people 1990. 5. 29 billion people in the world. In 1999 the world hit 6 billion people. Today there is about 6. 3 billion and it is growing every day. This is not a good thing. Our environment is being stretched to its limits and it has to stop. We need to stop it by stopping population growth.

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Thomson vs. Marquis: Abortion

Thomson vs. Marquis Blake Place Philosophy 160 Monday Wednesday 10:40AM – 12:05PM

In submitting this assignment with this cover page, I am hereby stating that: (1) I have voluntarily read, understand, and agree to uphold and abide by the syllabus plagiarism policy for this class; (2) I have neither plagiarized any other author’s written material or unwritten ideas or enabled (intentionally or unwittingly) other students to plagiarize any part of this assignment; (3) I have neither shown or even discussed my assignment with any other student; and (4) I voluntarily accept the consequences stipulated in the syllabus plagiarism policy for this class should my statements in (1), (2), or (3) above prove false.

The question between whether abortion is morally right or wrong has been talked about for years and no common ground has been made. Judith Thomson, a believer in Pro-choice, argues that abortion is not wrong because the mother should have a choice of what happens to her body. In response to this, Donald Marquis who is against abortion believes every fetus is a human with a right to have a future like ours. Each Ethicist gives examples and theories as to why abortion is wrong or right. In this essay, I will attempt to show that abortion is okay in some cases, and Donald Marquis’s views and arguments are broad and incorrect.

Abortion has always struck an uncommon ground between people, especially when rape or contraceptive failure is the reason for the abortion. Judith Thompson starts by explaining the Violinist argument. The argument is something like this; you wake up in the morning and you find yourself back to back with an unconscious, world famous violinist. The Violinist, come to find out, has a rare kidney disease that can be fatal if he doesn’t have a donor with the same blood type. The Society of Music Lovers looked everywhere for someone with the same blood type, and found that you were the only compatible donor in the world.

So without your permission, they took you in your sleep and hooked you up to the violinist blood stream. The director of the hospital tells you that he is so sorry that the Society of Music Lovers did this to you, and they wouldn’t have let it happen if he knew what was going on. But unfortunately it happened, and to disconnect you before the nine month treatment would kill the violinist. After the nine months, you can be safely disconnected from the Violinist and move on with your life. 1. The violinist and the fetus (which is a result from rape) are both living and dependent on another person for survival 2.

The violinist possesses the trait of being attached to a person against their will leaving that person the choice to remain connected to the violinist. ________________________________________________________________________ 3. [Likely] The fetus also possesses the trait of being attached to a person against their will leaving that person the choice to remain connected to the fetus. Therefore, the violinist and fetus have no right to stay connected to another person’s body without their consent furthering the argument that abortion is allowed in the case of rape.

Thomson also gives an argument in the case that you have consensual sex and the contraceptive that you use fails. Suppose that people seeds floated around the air like little pollen and can attach themselves to the carpet inside your house. You decide that you do not want children, so you put a fine mesh screen in front of your windows so you can leave them open without one of the seeds attaching themselves to your carpet. On occasion, the mesh screens can have a default, and in your case, the mesh screen failed and a seed attached to your carpet.

Thomson does acknowledge that you intentionally opened your windows and knew that there could be risk of one of the seeds getting into your home. 1. The peopleseed and the fetus (which is a result from failed contraceptive) are both living and dependent on another person for their survival. 2. The peopleseed possesses the trait of being attached to a person against their will leaving that person the choice to remain connected to the peopleseed. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Likely] The fetus possesses the trait of being attached to a person against their will leaving that person the choice to remain connected to the fetus. Thomson concludes that even though peopleseed needed your help to survive, that you are not unjust or morally wrong when it comes to aborting a fetus. Don Marquis, on the other hand, believes that abortion is wrong. He first starts by stating, that in the thought of abortion being wrong, some cases like rape or contraceptive failure, abortion during the first fourteen days is an exception to his theory.

Marquis takes a stand on the fact that every fetus, regardless of age, sex, ethnicity, etc. has the right to life. Unlike Thomson, he believes that the right for women to decide what happens to her body does not give her the right to kill a human. Marquis has an argument in which he believes proves that abortion is wrong by using what he calls the F. L. O. Principle. 1. Killing any human removes that human’s potential future like ours or F. L. O. 2. Abortion by definition of terms is the killing of a human fetus which removes the F. L. O. from that fetus _____________________________________________________________________ 3.

Therefore, abortion is wrong Marquis comes up with four different arguments that help support the F. L. O. theory by showing that it not only does it apply to abortion but other cases as well. The first is the considered judgments theory which explains that fact of killing someone has to do with death by nature is a calamity. For example someone with cancer might say that the loss of FLO is what makes his early death such a sad event. The second is the worst of crimes argument, when someone is murdered it gets rid of their FLO immediately, rather than when someone is beat or robbed.

The third argument is the appeal to cases argument. Someone who is permanently unconscious has no FLO and it is not wrong to end the life of someone in this state, but you wouldn’t end the life of someone who was temporarily unconscious. The last is the analogy with animals argument which is simple, it states that is should be easy to see abortion is wrong because you wouldn’t cause pain or suffering to non-human animals. In Thomson’s two arguments about rape and failure of contraceptive she has some points that are in fact true and not much can be questioned.

In her first argument about rape, it makes sense to say that if someone were to use your body against your will and you have no say about it and be and you are forced to be stuck without a choice to get up and disconnect yourself even if it does kill the famous violinist is wrong. But when you deprive someone of their life it can’t be seen to be correct in any case. Thomson’s first premise is in fact true and gives her argument against rape logical strength. Both the violinist and the fetus are using the person’s body without consent or approval and this use of body was forced on the person.

The second premise in this rape argument also can be looked at and seen to be true. Any violinist no matter how famous can’t just expect to have someone let them use their body as they please. The violinist does possess the trait that if the person was disconnected from him then the violinist would die but that is not the person who is hooked to the violinist’s fault. They never did agree to help or even be a part of what now is a situation in which they must stay to keep a complete stranger alive. Thomson’s second premise is true which is what makes this argument a logical strength.

Also since both of the premises are true and logically correct, we are able to see the conclusion Thomson comes up with in the rape and contraceptive argument are both logically correct. In my opinion Thomson isn’t trying to say that abortion should be used as birth control, absolutely not, but she is just trying to get across that in certain cases it is completely okay and women have a right to decide whether or not they want to use their body for a fetus just like anyone would have a right to decide whether or not they wanted to help a stranger with a medical condition that involved being attached for a long period of time like pregnancy.

In Marquis’s arguments the premises he provides tend to be a little broad and very questionable. His first premise about killing any human removes them of their FLO, too many can be extremely questionable. What if that human is still a fetus and is diagnosed with severe disease that removes them a normal human’s FLO? You knew this fetus would be born and would live in a world where they couldn’t even tell you the difference in direction (right or left). One could say that this isn’t a “future like ours” anymore at this point this future would be very limited and not nearly like a future that someone without this sort of handicap would have.

With being able to find a way around Marquis’s argument it really shows the logical weakness in the argument. The FLO principle although backed by 4 different arguments is still very broad and has many different ways around it. You can see that Marquis backs his arguments not only with the FLO principles but the four arguments stated earlier in the paper. Marquis’s conclusion does not follow as a completely logical consequence of his two premises. Thomson’s argument is more logical then Marquis’s argument for a few reasons.

The main reason is that Thomson’s premises in both arguments (rape and contraceptive failure) provide valid evidence which allow us to see that the conclusion she gets from these is logically correct. Marquis’s FLO principle is a strong argument but at times raises questions in his premises that don’t allow me to be completely satisfied or make it logically correct. In this paper I attempted to show that Thomson’s argument on abortion being okay in some cases is logically stronger than Marquis’s Pro-Life argument on abortion.

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Abortion and Women’s Rights

I believe that abortion is a woman’s right in Africa.  The decision should be up to the individual woman without any outside influences from society. (2003, Thomas) Lynn M. Thomas explains how “Social controversies for women in Africa are looming presenting a risk of death” because of the laws in the country which ban women from having abortions, in which the issue of reproductive rights in Africa is an important aspect of women’s rights and is one of the central issues in human rights debated in various regions in Africa.

The problem of reproductive rights is therefore linked to larger women’s rights issues in that sex and reproduction are often used as ways of oppressing women in various cultures.     Reproductive rights therefore refer to the issue of choice and the right for women to decide for themselves – particularly with regard to their bodies and the important aspects of pregnancy and childbirth.

One study on this issue states the problem in the following way. “The Right to choose is just one aspect of a much larger issue of reproductive rights – women’s right to control their own bodies and reproductive lives,” according to Smith. ( Smith, 2004)

The right to abortion should be an African woman’s choice and right .  Women‘s reproductive rights and human rights in general, is the right to have an abortion, if she chooses and it essentially is a women’s prerogative.  We will discuss the right of a women and why she must  choose for herself, as well as be legally available to get an abortion in Africa..

For too many years, women who live in Africa have been giving birth to children in which many of them could not afford.  Women were never asked if they wanted to give birth to the child and never given the choice if she wanted to remain pregnant.  It was always assumed that if she got pregnant, she would carry the child without ever considering the possibility of aborting the fetus. A women should also have the full legal right with regard to choosing to have an abortion or not and this right should not be predetermined by society for cultural reasons, but by the woman who will be responsible for carrying the fetus.

Very often the issue of abortion is treated as if it is a separate aspect and not related to the context of the more “acceptable” view of the legitimate rights of women.   Very few people question the right of the woman when it comes to the issue of abortion but the issue of abortion on the other hand carries with it negative associations and connotations and have become a very cultural issue.  However, abortion is an issue that should, of necessity, be viewed in the larger context of women’s rights because the woman is the primary caretaker of the child, if she chooses to give birth, she is the person who must decide if the child can be properly cared for.  In impoverished nations, such as Africa, it should be especially legal since the living conditions are so bad.

Reproductive rights, as the essential rights of women over their own bodies and sexuality, are not something separate from other issues relating to gender rights where the central arguments put forward in this regard, that it is the woman that must make this choice and not a society that is dominated by a cultural view on abortion. It is the woman who offers her body as a vessel necessary for the growth of the unborn child, not a nation’s, such as

Africa, who doesn’t offer assistance for the growth of the child and therefore he leaves the woman to be solely responsible for the development and care for the child.  Since women are the ones who carry babies for nine months, African officials shouldn’t have a right to deny the woman the freedom to make a conscious choice, therefore, they shouldn’t be able to judge the African woman’s decision or her views concerning abortion.

It should also be noted that the issue of reproductive rights for women is a complex and convoluted area of moral and ethical discourse.  However the central fact is that the history of reproductive rights is intimately linked to the history of women’s rights and cultural issues in general, which have become prominent in society.  To speak of reproductive rights is to ask if it is safe for a woman to give birth in a nation that is sometimes incapable of aiding in the growth of the child.  Reproductive rights are sometimes compromised because of a nation‘s views on the subject.

The issue is debated differently from traditional point of view since many Africans believe that it is always necessary to give birth without considering the harmful effects that the pregnancy may cause.  The African woman has to make the choice of if she will carry a child for nine months of her life or if he will be solely responsible for the child’s care, both emotionally and financially since African men have often in the past, denied that they were involved in the child’s development and they certainly have never had to make the choice of carrying a child to full term.

One of the central arguments in favor of the right to abortion for women is that in many societies women are subjected to horrendous oppression and discrimination in terms of sexual role and norms. (2003, WHO) One example that is often quoted is that of Africa.  Many women in African countries have no control over their sexual and reproductive rights.  If, for example a husband contracts HIV/AIDS, in some cultures the wife cannot refuse to have intercourse with him – even though this would endanger her personal health and infringe her sexual rights.  In effect many women in the world have no say or control over their bodies and sexuality. This relates to the issue of abortion in that the right to undergo an abortion is an extension of these reproductive and human rights that should be accepted as ubiquitous in all societies.

Another issue that is often quoted in defense of women’s abortion rights is that, a large number of poor and working-class women die when abortion is illegal. According to the World Health Organization, 78,000 women around the world die from unsafe abortions every year. Abortion is every woman’s right. This aspect is also highlighted by the fact that the problem of deaths due to abortions usually occur among the poor, oppressed or disenfranchised women of the world.

This fact does not apply only to the less developed regions of the world according to (Rosenbaum, 2001) who says, “Women in Africa are at risk.” These cases are usually among the Black or Hispanic populations. With the high poverty rate for African women , it is not unreasonable to believe that the abortion rate would be high among these races. Abortion is every woman’s right, and should be closely looked at more closely when it comes to abortions in countries who offer little or no help to the mother.

In many countries in the world abortion is forbidden and can result in prison terms for women.  It is often the case that reproductive rights are denied in countries which are usually poverty stricken and with poor human rights records. Approximately 25% of the world population lives in countries with highly restrictive abortion laws, which is quite common in Africa. These are the countries where abortion is most restricted according to the law. “In Africa, women still are not allowed to obtain an abortion,” says Stuart Rosenbaum. (2001,Rosenbaum)

It therefore follows that allowing women their reproductive rights and providing for legalized abortions could save suffering and lives in these counties. This rationale also applies to the high incidence of rape in many countries where abortion is illegal.  Many women suffer both physically and economically as a result of laws that do not provide for the right to abortion as a fundament human right.

While there is the ethical argument that the unborn fetus also has rights, this is an aspect that must be considered in terms of the rights of the mother as well.  It must be admitted that the issue of the rights of the unborn child presents intricate and complex problems, which involves many often confusing and convoluted definitions of what constitutes life.  A comprehensive study in this regard is The House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human Rights Issue is explained, (Bohan, 1999). The author tells us that “No society that truly believes in human rights can fail to recognize the right to life of the unborn. Human rights are, by definition, rights which inhere in one simply by virtue of being a human.”

Notwithstanding these arguments, the problem of abortion rights finds its proper context in the general view of cultural regards. Therefore the question of abortion rights should be seen in the context of social oppression and other forms of societal discrimination of women.  The traditional view of women is for the African woman to get pregnant, carry the baby for nine month and then to give birth without ever questioning the option of abortion.  These cultural values do not recognize the importance of women’s health and well-being, and they do not ever take into consideration that the woman may die during childbirth or that she may give birth to a child who is born into poverty conditions and may die from starvation or illness. The topic of abortion should be discussed in Africa and offered as an option to the woman who has the right to choose abortion if she sees that it is necessary.

The argument for abortion rights for women should be linked to the larger issues and related to aspects in society that are all interconnected.  As one study suggests, the legalization of abortion rights is closely linked to issues such as class, race and economic discrimination, especially in Africa. “Abortion should be legal in Africa… because statutory bans on abortion during the twentieth century were selectively or arbitrarily enforced in ways that intentionally discriminated against poor persons and persons of color,” according to (Graber, 1996) and those rights should be given to every woman in Africa, so she can make her individual decision of if she will be giving birth to her child or getting an abortion.

Graber,Mark. (1996) Rethinking Abortion, p. 6

Rosenbaum, Stuart E. (2001) Pro-Life Verses Pro Choice, The Ethics of                          Abortion, p. 173

Thomas, Lynn M. (2003) Politics of the Womb, University of California                                     Press, p. 17

World Health Organization, (2003) Technical and Policy Guidance for                            Health Systems, p.6

 

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Abortions

Abortion means the loss of a fetus before it is able to live outside the womb of a mother. It is a relatively simple and safe procedure when done by trained medical workers during the first three months of pregnancy. It is less safe when performed after the 13th week of pregnancy. Abortion as a way to end unplanned pregnancy especially those unwed mothers, victims of rape and to younger woman who are not ready to be a mother

When abortion occurs spontaneously, it is often called a miscarriage. It can be intentionally caused, or induced. Abortion can caused deaths of many women from infection and bleeding. It also can cause sterility, or the permanent inability to have a child.

.Former abortionist, McArthur Hill, M.D., says, “I am a murderer. I have taken the lives of innocent babies and I have ripped them from their mother’s wombs with a powerful vacuum machine.”
“My heart got callous against the fact that I was a murderer, but that baby lying in a cold bowl educated me to what abortion really was,” ( former abortionist, David Brewer, M.D)

Body of the Paper

Abortion is rampant nowadays, news from radios and televisions forecasting the recovery of fetus thrown anywhere. Mostly young unwed women get involved in premarital sex then when get pregnant will go on the process of abortion.

There are types of Abortion namely;

Non-surgical Abortion

Non-surgical abortion is commonly called or known as “abortion by pill.” It is also referred to as medical abortion. It is a non-invasive procedure for terminating a pregnancy. The name of the abortion pill is Mifeprex, and it has also formerly been called mifepristone and RU-486.

Surgical Abortion

A first trimester surgical abortion, which is measured approximately up to 14 weeks from the first day of the last menstrual period, is completed by a procedure known as dilatation and evacuation. The procedure alone will take approximately 5 minutes, although the visit to the healthcare facility clinic may take several hours.

Emergency Contraception

Emergency contraception, more commonly known as the “morning after pill,” is a contraceptive or birth control method that can prevent pregnancy immediately after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure, but before pregnancy begins.

Before in the United States, the supreme court in their 1973 ruling  give rights of every woman to obtain abortion and through that law many abortions were performed legally in unskilled ways, that caused deaths of woman’s through bleeding and infections.

The Supreme Court has been responsible for most of the nation’s laws dealing with abortion. Their interpretation of the U.S. Constitution is considered the supreme law of the land.  laws dealing with abortion. The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution grants citizens the right to privacy. This right incorporates the right of a woman to kill her baby through an abortion. The Fourteenth Amendment was in no way ratified in order to grant women the right to an abortion.

The amendment was ratified in 1868 as part of the Reconstruction legislation following the Civil War ruling. “The Court simply fashions and announces a new constitutional right for pregnant mothers and, with scarcely any reason or authority for its action, invents that right with sufficient substance to override most existing state abortion statutes.” In other words, seven federal justices simply decided that they wanted to make abortion legal and then did it.

That law was opposed by many people especially the Roman Catholic Church because they believed that taking of a human life is a grave sin and it is against one of God’s commandments (Thou Shall Not Kill).It resulted to many debates and rallies.

Those who are in favor to the legal availability of abortion cite the right of a woman to control their reproduction and they also give judgment that it is also the right of a physicians to perform abortions without fears of criminal charges. Other arguments in favor of abortion Include population control, the social problems caused by the unwanted children, and the dangers of illegal abortion. There have been many attempts since 1973 to reduce free access to abortions. Laws have been passed by some states and at the federal level to:

Require counseling and/or a cooling-off period before an abortion is perform
Require an underage woman to notify, or obtain permission, from a parent, guardian or court.ed
Ban abortions after viability of the fetus unless required to preserve the woman’s life or health.

Require an underage woman to notify, or obtain permission, from a parent, guardian or court.
Ban abortions after viability of the fetus unless required to preserve the woman’s life or health.
Ban all abortions.
Ban a D&X abortion procedure, except when performed on a dead fetus or to save the life of the woman.
In 1989 to 1992, the United States Supreme Court in 5-4 rulings upheld the provisions of a Missouri Law and a Pennsylvania law restricting abortion. This provisions helps minimize the attempt of abortion nationwide.

Conclusion:

Therefore I conclude that abortion is killing the life of an innocent fetus inside the womb of a mother. Abortion is done intentionally and unintentionally especially that woman who is not ready to become a mother. Several women now engaged in doing the abortion process especially those who are unwed mothers, students who engaged in drugs, rape victims, and those mothers who have more kids in the family and cant afford to sustain the needs of their children they are not conscious of the consequences in doing that act. Some will put to danger that lead to infections and caused death of many of them. Churches protest the rampant killings of fetus

Because they believed that children’s are special gift from God and they have all the rights to live and enjoy the beauty of the earth created by our creator. Abortion is an illegal act and it should be punishable by law.

References:

Fettner Ann G. Abortions Retrieved November 14, 2006 from Compton’s Encyclopedia, Volume 1 p.11-12

What is Abortion? Retrieved November 14, 2006 from, http://mypeoplepc.com/members/bvpare/alternativestoabortion/id2.html

Major laws concerning abortion: U.S. and Canada Retrieved from http://www.religioustolerance.org/abo_supr.htm

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Research Essay on Being Pro Abortion

Research Essay on Pro-Abortion Every woman should have the opportunity to determine if they would want to keep their child or abort it. Growing up in today’s society, I find myself in an environment where kids are having kids, parents who aren’t capable to raise a child are having kids, and victims of sexual assault are having kids. And in most cases, the child ends up living a life that isn’t too well. This leads to children being neglected, abused, homeless, hungry and more importantly unloved. Imagine a woman not being allowed to have an abortion.

Abortions eliminate the risks of all of those tragedies happening. The problem shouldn’t be killing an egg that isn’t fully yet involved into a baby. The problem should be having children but later neglecting or mistreating them to the point where they can’t be a happy child. Sometimes you hear parents saying, “I wish I would have waited. ” or even worse “I don’t think I can do this. ” For a lot of pregnancies, they aren’t planned. If we don’t allow for abortions to continue to be legal that simply means we are allowing for unfit parents to have kids and by doing this we are failing our children.

I was taught to eliminate a problem before it escalates or before it becomes too late. We often hear stories about parents harming their children because the child might have cried too much or whined too much. Why should the child have to suffer? Why should a child be harmed in the first place? We can’t justify abortions not being legal. I feel that a human is born. Until then, you should be allowed to make the decision on whether or not you want to abort your child until it is too late. It’s a women’s right. A father can run away from his child but the mother will be there forever.

The grandma might not care or the uncle might not be there but the mother will always be around. When we actually think about it, abortion isn’t as bad as we make it seem. It’s simply an alternative for a lifestyle that a person is trying to avoid. A person can’t raise a child to their best abilities if they never wanted the child to begin with. There will never be true happiness or true love for that child. This is why I take the stand for pro-abortion. Every woman should have the right to decide what they want to do with their body.

With shows like “16 and Pregnant” or “Teen Mom”, we’re showed the struggles of being a teen mother but, we also notice that most of the mothers on Teen Mom are well off. Not only are they getting paid for being on the show but they have the assistance of others- most of them. But that’s not the case for many teens in the real world. USA Today reported that, “About 7% of teen girls got pregnant in 2006, a rate of 71. 5 pregnancies per 1,000 teens. That’s up slightly from 69. 5 in 2005, Guttmacher says. In 1990, when rates peaked, about 12% got pregnant. USATODAY)” Teen pregnancies are on the rise whether we can accept the fact or not. We shouldn’t be allowed to push a child into becoming a mother by eliminating abortions. Not only are we risking an unfit life for the child, we are also telling our teens that once you get pregnant having the bay is the only option when that is certainly not true. Amongst the group of teen pregnancies, we can’t forget about the minority group that isn’t lucky enough to get help from their parent. Prochoice states, “Low-income women and women in diverse communities are more adversely affected by limited access.

For example, low-income women often lack the funds necessary for an abortion, which can delay their care(prochoice). ” These teens have to rely on government assistance and fast money(stripping, drug dealing, prostituting, stealing, etc). The odds are already against them for the simple fact that they are minorities, they don’t have it all and they have to work harder than the next person. Having a child that they wouldn’t want makes the situation worse for both the child and the mother. Struggling to pay for an abortion beats struggling to raise a child for eighteen years.

USA Today also states that, “The issue here is clearly that we have a lot of teenagers who are having sex, but they aren’t careful enough at contraception to avoid pregnancy,” says Sarah Brown, executive director of the nonprofit National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, who has seen Guttmacher’s numbers. (USATODAY)” If teens aren’t wise enough to practice safe sex, how can we assume that that they will be wise enough to make the right decisions when raising their child. If we become anti-abortion, we’re sealing the deal for teens to have kids whether they want too or not.

With the issue of abortion, one’s attitude toward it is going to be based on many things such as religious background and personal morals. There is no black and white answer to the abortion issue. Luckily we live in a country where we are able to decide for ourselves whether something is morally right or wrong. Thus, ultimately, the choice is ours. As with the many other ethical issues which we are faced with in our society, it is hard to come to a concrete answer until we are personally faced with that issue.

All we can do is make an effort to know all of the aspects which are involved so that we may be able to make a sound decision if we were faced with this problem in our own lives. In conclusion, it is clear that although some things are important in order to save a life, I truly believe a woman should have the right to end the life of her unborn child if it’s any inconvenience at all. Even though it is stopping a beating heart, and the baby can feel pain at 20 weeks, I feel the convenience of the irresponsible mother is WAY more important.

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Preventing Abortion

Abortion should be prevented Why deny someone a well-deserved life? Abortion is one of the topics that cause more victims in the world, the decision to make it legal or illegal is discussed in several countries and even religious entities. I feel abortion can be prevented because of all the resources that are available today. Depriving someone the chance to live will not fix the problems you have in life, actually it will appear fixed but guilt and consequences will always be part of your life. Having an abortion is mostly a women’s decision, but some circumstances force them to make these decisions.

Having an abortion can have several consequences such as depression and stress. Family members involved can have mental instability. The act of abortion is almost always accompanied by suffering. Women who practice it experience emptiness, regret and even sadness. Consciously they may find an immediate solution and a relief for that moment. The most unfortunate consequence, depending on the circumstances in which the abortion was done, may be putting their life in risk and also the risk of not being able to become pregnant again.

Awareness is important when having unprotect sexual relations, not only because of undesired pregnancy, but also because of getting sexually transmitted diseases. Today resources are available to protect an undesired pregnancy, including information, medications, birth control and condoms, so this way, the only type of abortion performed are those that could not be prevented, such as rape victims, saving a mother’s life or when the unborn child would have a disease, mental or physical, that would allow them to not have a healthy life.

Most discussions about abortion are because of the belief that life begins at conception; however this belief does not have support of medical science or religion traditional. Before Christians did not view abortion as a murder until the conception, which their belief was that a soul enter the body at 40 to 80 days after conception. But later they started to believe that life begins at conception.

There are many different points of view about abortion, for example, men and woman will see it differently, education level, marital status, religion, political etc. As a partial solution to reduce abortions, even more resources should be provided to the population. Governments should work together with schools to provide even more healthy and sex information to teenagers so undesired pregnancies would be prevented, reducing the number of abortions and social problems.

The Governments should also make more programs available such as school aids, healthy care, and cash assistance that gives women the incentive to keep their children and motivate them to provide as mothers. The government needs to keep finding more ways and resources to prevent unintended pregnancies. Class requirements should be implemented and rules should be loosened to allow teenagers to familiarize themselves with the consequences of unprotected and premarital intercourse.

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Abortion in American Culture

American Pop Culture Americas culture is evolving everyday although, society is not aware of this change due to the everyday hustle that we exert on ourselves trying to accomplish what the media and advertising has imprinted in regard to what our lives should contain. Media and advertising have a huge impact on how society thinks, acts, feels, and what is expected therefore, Americans subconsciously are trying to achieve what the media has painted as the American Dream. There are many ways that societies thoughts have been altered with the assistance of the media, one action that evolved the entire country would be the Roe vs.

Wade ruling. Prior to Roe vs. Wade women throughout the country were making decisions on abortion but abortion was not legal at the time. “Abortion was widely available in many places across the United States if you were a woman who had good medical contacts and sufficient money. If you lacked either those contacts or the money, then abortion was either not available or available under exceptionally unsafe circumstances” (Garrow, D. 1999). During the 1960’s women received better medical services because of the higher social status they contained.

Compared to women who did not have those types of social contacts or the money, they would put their lives at risk when making the decision to continue with an abortion under unsafe circumstances. Decisions like this were made because of the consequences that society or culture would place on the woman. When Roe vs. Wade went to trial in 1973 to determine if a woman’s constitutional rights were being violated the final ruling had an enormous impact on the country. It gave women the chance to decide for themselves without the complications of being exposed to unhealthy or possibly deadly situations.

This did not change the way Americans felt about the issue but it did change the way women all over the country dealt with the issue. Women now had a voice of their own in regard to making a decision that would affect them for the rest of their lives. This also changed how the rest of the country would react because now it is not a secret, the issue is out in the open and everyone sees the outcomes whether positive or negative. The legal struggle of Roe vs. Wade has impacted the country with the assistance of the media and advertising.

The impact has affected all Americans but for some the impact on their lives is larger than others depending on the daily tasks. For example, physicians must deal with patients who are requesting an abortion. The physician must choose to assist the patient or have them seen by another physician because he or she does not want to participate in an action that they do not believe in. Politics is another example where the abortion issue is always discussed, especially during the election season. Running representatives are always careful in choosing pro-life or pro-choice, this type of decision can make or break their career.

As noted in Abortion in America, “Abortion is too much part of the American Scene” (Shostak, A. 1991) therefore this is an issue the country must deal with or years to come. References Garrow, D. (1999, March). Abortion Before and After Roe v. Wade: An Historical Perspective. Albany Law Review, 62(3), 833. Retrieved August 5, 2009, from International Security & Counter Terrorism Reference Center database. AB, S. (1991, July). Abortion in America. The Futurist, 25(4), 20-24. Retrieved August 5, 2009, from MEDLINE with Full Text database.

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Legal Abortion

The topic of abortion is one of the most controversial of our times. It has caused countless deaths and several violent confrontations between the two separate parties of opinion. The fight between pro-life and pro-choice supporters has been long and brutal. This is because, despite what several people may believe, abortion is neither right nor wrong. It is a matter of personal opinion. In this way, each side can say with certainty that the other is wrong. However, the question still remains; should abortion be legal?

Though some may disagree on this point, the fact is that legalized abortion is the only option that will protect the lives of American citizens. Therefore, present abortion laws according to Roe v. Wade should be upheld and maintained in the United States (Brown 2). Roe v. Wade was a landmark decision that legalized abortions in the United States. It was about a poor, pregnant woman who filed a lawsuit against the state law of Texas, which stated that abortions were illegal. The case went all the way to the U. S. Supreme Court, which meant that the decision made affected the nation as a whole.

On January 22, 1973, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Jane Roe and stated that “the 14th amendment guarantees an adult woman the right to seek a termination of her pregnancy until viability” (Guernsey 63). From this day on, abortions in the United States were legal. The definitions of the opinions taken on abortion are somewhat unclear to many people. Hopefully, the definitions stated below will be of some help in choosing an opinion. Pro-life supporters believe that a fetus’s right to live comes first, before the rights of a pregnant woman.

Pro-choice supporters believe that it is a woman’s fundamental human right to decide when and whether or not to have the child (Lowenstein19). Nevertheless, while the pro-choice side fights the right to have an abortion, they make a distinction between “pro-choice” and “pro-abortion,” These groups want women to be able to choose an abortion if it is right for them. However, they do not necessarily believe abortion is the solution for everyone (Lowenstein 52). There are many reasons why abortion should be legal. The single most important effect of legalization has been the substitution of safe, legal procedures for abortions that formerly were obtained illegally” ( Jaffe, Lindheim, and Lee 147). One only needs to look into American history to see the results of prohibiting abortions to women. The violence which occurs today because of the pro-choice/pro-life conflicts is minimal in comparison to the thousands of hopeless women who turned to illegal abortions. Women, seeing no other solution to their problems, turned to “back room” clinics. These clinics were located in poverty-ridden sections of the city and their conditions were deplorable.

The places themselves were layered in filth and disease. Inexperienced butchers using dirty and crude equipment treated the women. As if these backroom clinics were not bad enough, there was an even more appalling decision a woman might face. If she were unable to pay the exorbitant price for the illegal surgery, she would often perform the act herself. “Knitting needles, coat hangers, antiseptic douches, and poisons were used most often” (Welton123). It is better now that women have a place to go where abortions can be performed cleanly with minimal risk.

Legalization of abortion is the only choice no matter what side on takes in the debate. Women will try to do what they think is necessary to live as they wish, no matter what the risk. Each year 84,000 women die worldwide from failed abortion attempts (Lunneborg67) . Because of anti-abortion legislation, women avoid going to the hospital, often until it is too late, to avoid prosecution from police. In the cases of rape and incest, the very idea of being forced to have the child of the woman’s abuser is repulsive. There are also cases when a woman’s health is put in jeopardy by having a child at all.

Forcing a woman to bring the child to term would be no less than attempted murder (Steffen 49). If a woman is forced to give birth to a child she does not want, if left in that woman’s custody, the child could potentially face hatred and resentment from the mother for the rest of its life. In countries all over the world, children are found dead and abandoned in places as degrading as garbage dumps. The only effective method of preventing unwanted births is abstinence, and this is just not a realistic objective. There is no 100% effective form of birth control, and even men and women using birth control have unwanted pregnancies.

Some women for financial, occupational, social, and maturity reasons, see pregnancy as cessation of their lives. There are no accurate statistics on how many women attempt or succeed in committing suicide each year rather than live with their pregnancies. Women will continue to gave abortions with or without government legislation, but with legislation, the conditions under which they have their abortions can be sanctioned and observed. If abortion is the right choice for a woman, she shouldn’t have to worry about its safety. The procedure is perfectly safe. The earlier an abortion is done, the safer it is.

Most abortions, about 95%, are done during the first trimester (Lowenstein 52). Less than one percent are done after the twentieth week, and usually only for medical reasons (Safety 1). According to the National Abortion Federation, having an abortion in the first three months of pregnancy is safer than giving birth to a child. Women hardly ever die from legal abortions-only one in two hundred thousand (Lowenstein 52). Women are seven times likely to die from childbirth than from a legal abortion (Maguire 1). Many pro-life supporters believe that abortion should be banned because life begins at conception and taking a life is unlawful.

The individual sex cell consists of 23 chromosomes. It is only through combination, through merger, that the sex cells attain the full complement of heredity units that defines a human being (Shettles 17). The merger of the two sex cells is complete within twelve hours, at which time the egg is fertilized and becomes known technically as the “‘zygote. ” The inherited characteristics of a unique human being has been established, and in no circumstances will it change (Shettles 17). At eighteen days, the heart is pumping through a closed circulatory system, with blood whose type is different from that of the mother’s.

The brain starts working at forty days. and all of the fetus’s body systems are in place by the time it is two months old (Every child 1). Pro-lifers believe this evidence shows a fetus is alive. For these reasons, they feel the fetus has a soul and is a person worthy of respect. They conclude that aborting a fetus is the same as murdering a person (Abortion 3). Most pro-choice supporters agree that taking a human life is unlawful, however, they argue that unborn fetuses do not constitute fully developed human life. The possession of forty-six chromosomes does not make a cell a person.

Most of the cells in a person’s body contain these 46 chromosomes, but that does not make a white corpuscle a person. As for the significance of uniqueness, identical quintuplets are genetically identical, yet they have personal identities apart from their genetic endowment. Even though a fetus might have a heartbeat and brain waves, this does not make a fetus a person. To be a person, there must be evidence of a personality. Dogs, frogs, and earthworms have all characteristics listed, but that is insufficient to make them persons Zindler 25). Another major pro-life concern is the medical hazards of an abortion. Pro-lifers believe that abortions have many negative physical and psychological effects. They say that even though abortion has been legalized, it remains a complicated procedure that can potentially harm a woman’s ability to bear normal, healthy babies in the future (Hilgers 152). The most common early complications of legally induced abortion are infection, hemorrhage, perforation of the uterus, and laceration of the cervix (Hilgers 153).

There is also a pelvic inflammatory disease which can follow abortion, and happens up to 30 percent of the time (Lowenstein 44). Although the complications are physical, many pro-lifers say that the psychological effects are far more dangerous. They believe abortion has a particularly harmful effects on teenagers (Everyone’s Biography 1). The Medical College of Ohio studied how teenagers were able to cope with abortions as compared to adult women. They studied thirty-five women who had abortions as teenagers and thirty-six women who had abortions after age twenty.

They found there were two factors present in teenage abortions. First, people other than the teenager had control of the abortion decision. Second, teenagers are less knowledgeable about the procedure and may have false ideas about it. Also, teenagers were less likely to consult a professional before making their decision. The study showed teenagers experienced greater stress during the abortion (Lowenstein 45). Pro-choicers strongly disagree on this matter. It is a proven fact that legal abortions are now medically safe and simple.

Teenagers, for example, are 24 times more likely to die from childbirth than from a first-trimester abortion (Carlson 25). Death resulting from legal abortion is a very rare occurrence and easy to measure. In the first trimester, less that half of one percent of all abortion patients experience major complications (Jaffe, Lindheim, and Lee 150). Of course abortion involves some risk, but so do all medical procedures. According to the American Psychiatric Association report published in Science magazine in 1990, there are no significant psychological aftereffects of legal abortion.

Legal abortion requested by the woman does not cause emotional problems or depression. Some women may feel sad or guilty at first, but not any more or less than any other personal crisis (Lowenstein 53). In particular, teenagers who had abortions seem to behave more normally than others who gave birth to a baby. Teenagers who have abortions are more likely to graduate high school, go to college, and get good jobs (Lowenstein 54). The third most controversial topic on abortions involves so-called hard cases such as rape and incest.

The first point pro-lifers make is that the law allowing raped women to get abortions would only affect a few women, less than 1 percent of all abortions each year (Guernsey 68). Pro-life supporters believe the damage has already happened-that of the rape. An abortion will simply cause more psychological and physical harm. Even though half of the fetus if part of the rapist, half of the fetus is part of the woman, too. They believe it is unfair to kill a being who was not responsible for the rape (Lowenstein 47). Their feeling is the same for incest.

In cases where abortion is chosen, pro-life activists believe an innocent baby is killed for a crime its father commits. The father, instead, should suffer. Pro-lifers believe if abortion is chosen, it helps to hide the fact that incest took place and it might continue(Lowenstein 48). Should abortion be allowed in cases of rape and incest? Absolutely yes, say pro-choicers. There may be serious psychological effects from having a child that was a result of a horrible experience like incest or rape. Pro-choice supporters believe if the woman decides to raise the child, they say, she will have a constant reminder of the incident (Lowenstein 55).

Surveys have shown many people would accept abortion in cases of rape or incest (Women 2). Medical research has not determined whether there are genetic tendencies toward sexual crimes. The child may carry some of those genes (Lowenstein55). In summary, abortion is a personal choice. No should be able to tell a women whether or not to have a child. Therefore, keeping abortion legal will ensure that situations that involve crisis or health risks to the mother or the fetus can be handled safely and legally.

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Abortion Pro-Life

Abortion My conservative view on abortion highlights my views on life and how I believe that life starts at conception. Many people believe that it should be the woman’s right to decide what happens with her body but I disagree. Different news shows and newspapers broadcast their beliefs differently based on their political views. States are divided because they can’t seem to quite agree on this subject. Unborn babies have a fundamental right from the moment they are conceived to live their lives just like any other.

They are innocent human beings who don’t have a voice to speak their opinion and need responsible parents to speak for them and make good decisions for their future. Liberals would state that a women’s right to her body is her choice she should get to decide whether or not she gets to keep it. Conservatives would call the Liberals liars and state that the only reason that they want to abort is because they have no necessary need for a baby. They should have thought about that before they went baby-making in the first place. Conservatives like Kanwaljeet J.

S. Anand, a professor of Pediatrics, Neurobiology, and Anesthesiology believe that fetuses can feel pain if they are 20 or more weeks from the moment of gestation. She believes it to be excruciating pain. The bible’s sixth commandment also says that killing is a sin. Abortion involves killing a human being and defies a commandment from God. Liberals like Stuart W. G. Derbyshire, a PhD Senior Lecturer at the University of Birmingham states that fetuses don’t feel anything until they are born and surrounded by the real world.

They think fetuses are not human beings. A fetus is considered to be human only when they are born. They argue that abortion is not killing another human being; it is simply terminating a pregnancy. Nobody can prove that personhood starts at conception. Liberals aren’t religious so they argue that the anti-abortion position is usually a religious position which threatens the separation of church and state. Religious beliefs are not to influence law in the United States.

Conservatives say that the oath that doctors take when they become doctors forbids abortions when practicing medicine. An oath written by Luis Lasagna also forbids abortion in his line “Above all, I must not play God. ” If religious beliefs are not to influence law then there should not be the use of God’s name in the Pledge of Allegiance or on the nation’s currency. The fact that religion is implemented in our society shows that we are a nation that is religious and relies on God. Therefore, abortions should be illegal.

People that are pro-abortion would argue that abortions are safer than “back alley” abortions and reduce the number of deaths of mothers from 13 for every 100,000 during natural birth to less than 1 for every 100,000. A 1993 investigation found that a woman that has had 2 abortions has the same amount of chances of fertility as a woman that has had two natural births. Women should use contraceptives if they don’t want to birth a child, not abortions. A Center for Disease Control and Prevention found that 19-25% of women who received abortions had previously had one or more abortions.

If abortion weren’t an option, women would learn how to be more careful with their bodies. Women say they have to abort because they do not have contraceptives available to them. They need a doctor’s prescription to have access to most birth control methods, like the pill, the patch, or the shot. Half of all large insurance companies do not cover the cost of birth control and only a third covers the birth control pill. In the year 2009, researchers have found that over 17 million women are without insurance.

Women who abort are more prone to psychological diseases and damages. Studies show that women who aborted are 154% more likely to commit suicide than women who carried to term. Abortions also have a negative psychological effect on men. Men who’s partners have had abortions or forced them to feel regret, sadness, and go through depression. There are over two million couples that can’t have kids in the United States and there is a limited supply of kids available to adopt. There are only about 134,000 babies accessible to adopt as of June 2002.

There would be more happy couples and more happy children in the world if they hadn’t been aborted. Just imagine if the world’s most famous athletes and scientists had been aborted because their mother’s didn’t want them. It should not be the mother’s decision on whether or not she gets to keep the baby. Even if there are licensed abortion physician doctors that perform those types of procedures, they are not supposed to call themselves doctors if they are taking away a humans life. There are about 1,800 licensed doctors that perform these horrendous acts.

While selective abortion does give couples the option to choose not to birth babies with severe and life threatening conditions, it is based entirely on overt discrimination. The most famous people are people that were born with life threatening conditions much like the smartest guy on earth, Steven Hawking. There is an law called the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 that protects those people that need their civil rights protected for them to lead fulfilling lives. Abortion is an instrument of genocide especially for African Americans.

African American women are 4. 5 times more likely to abort than white women. 1,876 African American babies are aborted every day. Abortion increases the likelihood that women will develop breast cancer. It interrupts the breast milking process and leaves those cells to just sit there. Tulare County alone has the most teen pregnancies and abortions. If teens did not abort so many children and respected themselves there would be more doctors and positions filled. There would be more high school graduates and more educated people to do higher end jobs.

Minimum wage would be left to the high school students, while all the adults had higher end jobs. The unemployment rate would severely decrease and the unemployment claims would also decrease which would leave the state to spend more money on education and schools. The nation would be thriving with intelligent young adults and the world’s problems would get fixed much sooner like the deficit and all the money that comes out of the working class to pay for welfare. Works Cited http://abortion. procon. org/ http://www. dividedstates. com/abortion/ 12 December 2012

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Abortion Should Not Be Permitted

Why abortion should not be permitted When we hear the word abortion, we would think negative about it. The definition of abortion is the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most after performed during the first 28 week. In medicine, an abortion is the premature exit of the products of conception (the fetus, fetal membranes and placenta) from the uterus. Many women in this entire world do abortion. There are many reasons why they prefer abortion such as having a fear of raising the child, rape, or not having enough money to support their life and the baby.

Some important reasons of why abortion should not be permitted have to do with human morality, religious and values of conscience. First of all, why abortion should not be permitted is because of basic human morality. It is not the unborn babies fault and they have the right to live normally just like any other humans. Where is our humanitarian if we abort the unborn babies? Just because of our own mistakes and our selfishness we took away another one life that is so innocent and vulnerable. Furthermore, the baby doesn’t even know why and how he is here.

You don’t need to kill one life in order to live, instead there are many solutions to resolve this problem but an abortion is not the answer. Secondly, why abort should not be permitted is based on religious values. In almost all religions, a women is not allows to do an abortion. My thoughts as a Muslim, we Muslim regard abortion as wrong and forbidden. But, abortion can only be permitted if continuing the pregnancy would put the mother’s life of real danger in Muslim law. Nevertheless, in what religion you are, women should not do an abortion as the baby have the right to live in this world.

Finally, reason of why women should not do an abortion related to her conscience. When women do an abortion, she will never forget what happened and the thoughts of killing a one innocent life will always be with her. The future that could have happened with her baby which will always reminds her that she killed it. Her conscience reminds her of what she has done is terribly wrong. Conclusion is, there are many way rather that choosing an abortion. Killing an innocent unborn baby is like a woman with no heart and lack of human morality.

The truth is women need to think the consequences before having a sexual relation. I feel sad for the unborn baby because they deserve to have a normal life just like other kids, to see their mum face and the opportunity to see the world. Women in this world love their baby and I know a mother who had to do an abortion is not really willingly to abort it, in fact they are sad and scared but in order to live their life without bringing the ashamed in their life, they have no choice but to abort it.

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Abortion: Murder or Necessity

Abortion: Murder or Necessity Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo before it is viable. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is usually called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced. Abortion, when induced in accordance with the local law, is among the safest procedures in medicine. However, unsafe abortions (those performed by persons without proper training or outside of a medical environment) result in approximately 70 thousand deaths and 5 million disabilities per year globally each year, with 20 million of those performed unsafely.

Life begins at conception which forms an unborn child (or “fetus”). Abortion is an intentional violent act that kills an unborn baby, without any anesthesia, the baby is dismembered, torn apart, and vacuumed out of the mother. Dr. Micheline M. Mathews-Roth, Harvard Medical School, referenced medical textbooks that claimed that human life begins at conception. Dr. Jerome Lejeune, the “Father of Modern Genetics,” stated, “To accept the fact that after fertilization has taken place, a new human has come into being is no longer a matter of taste or opinion … t is plain experimental evidence. ” During pregnancy, even though you feel nothing, your baby is kicking; clenching his fists, curling and fanning his toes, and is generally very active and comfortable inside you. In the past few years, medical research has shown that unborn babies can feel pain. Dr. H. M. Liley, the leading authority on the study of babies before birth, stated, “When doctors first began invading the sanctuary of the womb, they did not know that the unborn baby would react to pain in the same fashion as a child would. But they soon learned that he would. One believes that every fertilized egg is a sentient human person; abortion would be horrific, tragic, and lethal. But it would be no more murderous than any other kind of accidental death. During abortion, doctors or abortionist (the person who performs the operation), uses long cylindrical rods. Starting from the smallest and moving up in size, he inserts them into your cervical opening, stretching it as he progresses. When the cervix is open wide enough, he will put a hollow plastic tube, with a knife-like edge on its tip, through your cervix up into your uterus.

The suction it creates is 29 times more powerful than a vacuum cleaner. It tears the baby’s body into pieces, and sucks it through the tube into a canister. The knife edge is used to cut the deeply rooted placenta from the uterine wall. The remains of the now-dead infant are then pulled out. Abortion is a tragedy not only for the unborn who will never experience life but for the mother also. What motivates an abortionist? What must they think as they slash and tear a baby apart or plunge a knife into its neck? Somehow, abortionists have become callused to the reality of their actions.

Like Shakespeare’s Macbeth, they have blood on their hands, and it cannot be washed off. Many people have become apathetic about abortion. Since they have already been born, abortion is no threat to them personally. Why should they care about someone else’s baby? If there is any lesson to be learnt, it is that we should value and protect innocent human life even if it is not our own. Abortion is an intentional violent act that kills an unborn baby, without any anesthesia, the baby is dismembered, torn apart, and vacuumed out of the mother.

Life begins at conception which forms an unborn child (or “fetus”). The unborn child’s DNA is that of an individual human being, distinct from its mother despite being naturally ‘within’ and attached through an umbilical. Abortion, as defined above, is the mother’s (and/or join parents’) decision to terminate the life of the unborn child. Any human being willfully taking the life of another human being (or ordering their death, such as “hiring a hit man” — or in the case of abortion — telling a doctor to perform an abortion) is committing a murder.

Rarely do people die from giving birth. Many more die as a result of complications after an abortion. But the bottom line is that the child is innocent of any crime, so why punish it? It is a human being of intrinsic value. One’s not saying it is an easy choice and can certainly sympathize with those who have had to make it. Perhaps they even made the wrong choice. But, God is a loving and forgiving God, who can even forgive murder; which

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Abortion: Pregnancy and Unwarranted Government Intrusion

Abortion Ever since the idea/decision of abortion there has been arguments if it is moral are not. Very many people are strongly against it and state very good information on why but I’m pro abortion. I’m pro abortion because first of all it should really be up to women if its legal or not because its their bodies that have to go through the process of fetal extraction. There are some circumstances in which an abortion is needed. Lets say a high school couple happens to get pregnant they’re not very capable to take care of a baby and be parents.

A baby would compound the already existing problems a teen already has like school, sports, getting ready for college. Thats not life for a baby especially an unwanted one, what kind of quality of life is that for the baby or parents. What if the expectant parents of that baby aren’t fit to be parents having problems with drugs and alcohol no one should grow up around that. If the baby did it could possibly follow in the corrupt footsteps of its failing parents and end up doing the same things.

If women are forced to carry unwanted pregnancies to term the result is unwanted children which then when they grow up are at a disadvantage, and sometimes inclined toward brutal behavior to others. Now even God forbid let’s say some woman had been raped and she has gotten pregnant because of that, she is probably going to want an abortion. This may sound vulgar and mean but what women would want to keep that baby and look at him or her and every day and be reminded of that time where she was highly helpless and being taken advantage of.

No one should have to keep reliving that moment over and over again that would be very traumatic. Now the big problems why abortion should be legal came out in the 1973 case of Roe vs Wade. This case came along after women started having behind the scenes abortions where women had it done by coat hangers and dirty instruments to perform these highly dangerous procedures usually done on themselves or buy a paid person who has done these horrid procedures before. Most women would end up having serious infections, internal bleeding and in some cases even death.

So abortion should be legal so we don’t have this back-room procedures anymore and women having fatal injuries. But if they already have a serious disease or complication such as heart disease, kidney disease, severe hypertension, sickle-cell anemia and severe diabetes. The availability of legal abortion can help advert serious medical problems that can occur from childbirth. If abortion was illegal the government would be pushing an “undue burden” on women and or families which is illegal anyway because the government can not intrude on a person or persons life like that.

And when an abortion is done a women only has 90 days to have on done or it becomes illegal regardless. (the trimester law that was established in the Roe vs Wade case)  We should not intrude on women and or families matters by saying what they can and cant do regarding matters such as these, abortion is even protected by the 14th amendment which gives women right to privacy. We should respect and support a woman and her family as they face the life altering decision of whether to have a child or not.

So its not about the fact that you are supposedly “killing” a unborn fetus its more that we have the decision and the option to do what that person needs to do. For some families an accidental pregnancy is okay but for some such an event can be very  catastrophic. It can result in increase tensions, disrupt stability and put way below the line of economic survival. The outlawing of abortion would also be discriminatory towards the poor women and families that must resort to the dangerous self-induced or back alley procedures.

Men with these very wealthy families can send their wives or girlfriends to other countries and pay to have it done legally. It will also if outlawed make more children bear children studies show that 44% of 14 year old girls will become pregnant before they turn twenty. This could happen to your daughter or some other loved one. Abortion and reproductive freedom more broadly defined are important pieces of ensuring this common dream. To obtain a better future, we must each be free to make profoundly personal decisions about our reproductive lives without unwarranted government intrusion.

As with all freedoms, there are limits. But a government that respects the personal integrity of its people both interferes in these essentially private decisions as little as possible and helps ensure that everyone has the opportunity to make these decisions responsibly. So overall there are a few circumstances where an abortion is needed such as early childhood, medical complications that can be averted, and could cause major problems for the family and the unborn child.

This is why I feel that abortion should be legal even though what the people against abortion are saying and try to throw in your face and make you believe. They have no evidence for their studies cause there is no proof behind what they say. The fetus can not feel pain before the first trimester (90 days) and no where in the bible does it say that its wrong because when the bible was written abortions weren’t even around at the time let alone thought of.

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Ethical Issue: Abortion

ETHICAL ISSUE: ABORTION INTRODUCTION The root question to ethics is whether abortion is considered murder or a justified killing? Is it morally wrong and if so, should it be made legal or illegal? There are mainly 2 views towards abortion. The pro-choice regard abortion as acceptable in some circumstances as women should be given a freedom of choice. Whereas the pro-life regard abortion an absolute act of wrong and should be criminalized. Let us first take a look at various approaches to help us better understand and justify both sides of the argument. RIGHTS APPROACH

A pro-choice would argue that women have the rights to her life, body and health. Before abortion was permitted, women will either have to carry their pregnancy to term or desperately seek to abort due to various reasons (eg. health, incest, rape, career), thus resorting to unsafe and life-threatening procedures. However, with access to safe and legal abortions, women will have the basic right of managing their own bodies and the risk of health will be reduced. One example is an article extracted from the National Organization for Women which mentioned the deaths of women who turned to illegal and unsafe abortions. Refer to Example 1) Besides, women have the rights to liberty and thus have the power to exercise their rights to abortion. In the event a woman needs to continue her employment or meet other obligations, she will not be forced to bear a child against her will which can result in misery as it becomes impossible for her to carry out her duties and obligations in the usual manner. An example is from the New York Times Magazine (LIVES – When One Is Enough). A woman named Amy Richards explains why she decided to go for abortion. (Refer to Example 2) In addition, women have the rights to sovereignty.

By allowing abortion, women would not be unjustly forced into motherhood which in turn forces them into submissive roles in society. Thus their rights to livelihood and continuation of education and profession will not be depleted. They can have the potential of being on equal status, dominion and power as men. Under the concept of personhood, it is argued that fetuses are not yet born and are not sentient beings. They do not have the capacity to have experiences (eg. feeling pain) and are not yet reasoning, self-aware beings capable of moral reciprocity.

Hence, they do not have a substantial right to life yet. However, I feel that fetuses are considered human beings from conception and thus they should enjoy the full moral status of born human beings. It is said that although fetuses may not be persons yet, they have the potential to become one and thus, fetuses should enjoy basic moral rights to life. Hence, the rights of an unborn should not be compromised against the rights of the mother. UTILITARIAN APPROACH On one hand, it is argued that legalizing abortion diminishes the maternal mortality rate of women within the society.

Studies have indicated that after the legalization of abortion, it has resulted in a much lower percentage of maternal death rates due to greater access to safer and legal methods of abortion and timely abortions, thereby reducing the risk of health complications. (Refer to Example 3) Besides, timely abortions can be made. Abortions done in early stages (1st trimester) will greatly reduce the fetus’s suffering compared to later stages where the fetus starts developing into a sentient being (capability to experience suffering).

In addition, it can potentially reduce the number of unwanted children. In the cases of rape or physical and mental defects of the unborn child, abortion will be the better alternative to reduce the potential physical and mental suffering the mother feels that her child will possibly face in future. For instance, the child suffers psychologically due to his peers teasing his physical defects. Furthermore, it can help diminish the growth of over-populated areas especially in countries like Singapore. The New Statesman indicated that “The world as a whole is overpopulated by 2 billion”.

A decrease in population can help to reduce the rate at which natural resources are being used and reduce competition for employment opportunities which results in a higher standard of living. However, I believe banning abortion has its benefits as well. A study revealed that women who had undergone abortions place themselves at a higher death risk than women who give birth. A Finland study revealed a 7 fold increased death rate among aborting women resulting from suicide due to post-abortion distress. Besides, it encourages economic growth.

Parents will have to spend financial resources on their child for the purposes of education, clothing and food. Due to the increase in expenditure, demand increases, leading to a rise in supply. The overall effect will lead to an increase in the country’s Gross Domestic Product. Furthermore, it encourages population growth in under-populated countries such as Australia. This prevents the excessive exploitation of resources such as food, energy and minerals and helps to better maximize the utility of such resources.

In addition, in the event that the mother decides to send her child for adoption due to reasons like being financially handicapped, there will be more opportunities for infertile couples to adopt a child. COMMON GOOD APPROACH On one hand, allowing abortion reduces the overall suffering of unwanted children in the society which; can be due to the inexperience and financial instability of the mother. Some children thus remain in the foster care where a sense of loss and overwhelming rejection is developed.

It also gives women the liberty to abort the baby based on their right to privacy as they might not want others to learn about their pregnancy. The US Supreme Court found that women have better mental health when offered abortion as an option. This means children who are born are wanted more by their family and thus they will be able to attain a better welfare and education. In addition, abortion has allowed women to have an opportunity to pursue their life and educational goals which they may not be able to pursue after being a mother.

Furthermore, legalizing abortion serves to protect the safety of women as now; many will not turn to illegal abortion but instead seek proper medical aborting procedures. Nonetheless, I feel that banning abortion emphasizes on the importance of responsible contraceptive usage and birth control methods which is crucial to help reduce the occurrence of accidental pregnancy.. According to the National Abortion Federation, 78% of teenage pregnancies are unintended, out of which 35% sought abortion.

It also increases the awareness of respect for sex. It is important to understand that a woman is not an “object” for sexual gratification nor is sex to be abused without regard. Thus, banning abortion stresses on the importance for taking responsibility for one’s actions. Furthermore, it helps us to better appreciate human lives. A life of an unborn cannot be undermined to the life of a born human. This teaches us to have compassion and empathy towards any human life. VIRTUE APPROACH By allowing abortion, one of the virtues developed is love.

Love leads the mother to abort the baby as she is unconfident of being a good mother to the child, thus she rather not let him live a difficult life in the long run. Self-accountability is also developed as the mother has to face possible consequences that could arise as a result of her abortion. (Eg. Depression, guilt) Besides, courage and fortitude is developed as the mother has to confront the reality of abortion and take courage to accept the responsibility of abortion and its aftermath effects (Eg. post traumatic stress disorder).

In addition, resilience is developed in the mother throughout the entire abortion process for having the strength and ability to cope with the reality and effects of abortion. This helps them to move on with their lives instead of being overwhelmed with emotional trauma and setbacks. On the other hand, by banning abortion, it gives the mother determination to carry on her pregnancy despite external factors that may sway her decision such as being a single mother and unconfident of bringing her child up singlehandedly.

It also develops self-accountability as one has to responsible for one’s own actions. In addition, courage and fortitude is developed as the mother may have to face possible consequences for taking responsibility for the child such as spending more financial resources for the child’s sake. Impartiality can also be developed as the mother is able to be objective in her views and preserve the life of an innocent despite the fact that her child was the result of rape. Self-sacrifice and selflessness can also be developed as the mother decides to put aside her own needs to keep the child.

She may have to quit her current job and terminate all other obligations even though she might not be mentally prepared to raise a child yet. Fore-sightedness is developed as the mother would have to plan ahead of time to provide her child the best treatment possible. FAIRNESS/JUSTICE APPROACH It is argued that if abortion is allowed, everyone will be given an option to abort regardless whether they want to. Since everyone is given a choice, it is fair as it respects everyone’s individual rights.

Since an unborn is only considered human when it is a sentient being, it is fair to abort it in its early stages and not treated as homicide. Furthermore, since it is not born yet, it does not possess human rights to life and thus its life should be decided by its mother. Furthermore, it is only fair that the mother has the right and option to decide what to do with her child since it is her flesh and blood. On the contrary, I believe a human life is determined at conception. Hence abortion equates to the murder of any born human. Thus, it is only fair to grant an unborn an equal right to living as any born human.

Additionally it is also fair to grant the baby the right to live as the baby is an innocent party that should not be dragged into abortion as a result of rape, incest, careless or irresponsible acts of humans. PERSONAL STAND In conclusion, multitudes have come to believe that they benefit from abortion. However, they had failed to realize that if a choice needs to be made, it should be done so before conception of the child. There is no real difference between killing a child before or after it is born. In the case of rape, it is true that the mother may not have come to terms ith carrying her pregnancy to term. However, it is important to adopt an objective view. An unborn should not be killed simply to alleviate the suffering of the mother. Moreover, if abortion is so easy attainable, how many would stop to think of the cruelty of taking away a life of an innocent? Now that legal abortion gives women a safeguard, more will turn to it. Since the Supreme Court handed down the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973, there had been a 64% increase in the number of abortions in the United States. In addition, family values may be distorted in generations to come.

By aborting her baby, the mother-to-be will lose part of her motherhood and respect. Legalizing abortion also makes it easier for one to overlook the negative consequences and take abortion for granted. Whereas, banning abortion allows people to think twice before acting and take responsibility for their actions. Therefore, I believe abortion should be banned. (1930 words) EXAMPLE 1 [pic] EXAMPLE 2 [pic] EXAMPLE 3 [pic] REFERENCES Josh Levinson. (2004). Abortion poses great ethical dilemma. In The daily campus. Retrieved 18 May 2012, from http://www. dailycampus. com/2. 7438/abortion-poses-great-ethical-dilemma-1. 067241. Josh Marshall. (2004). The Abortion Dilemma: Legal Isn’t Always Ethical. In Ethics scoreboard. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://www. ethicsscoreboard. com/list/abortion2. html Claire Pomeroy. (2008). Abortion and Women’s Rights: Unification of Pro-Life and Pro-Choice through Feminism. In Serendip. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://serendip. brynmawr. edu/exchange/node/1845 Amy Richards. (2004). LIVES; When One Is Enough. In nytimes. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://www. nytimes. com/2004/07/18/magazine/lives-when-one-is-enough. html Unknown. (2008). Utilitarianism vs.

Moral Duty: Ethical Dilemmas of Abortion. In ivythesis. typepad. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://ivythesis. typepad. com/term_paper_topics/2008/02/utilitarianism. html Abortion Access Project. (2003). The impact of illegal abortion. In ourbodiesourselves. org. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://www. ourbodiesourselves. org/book/companion. asp? compID=100&id=20 Unknown. (2005). When abortion was illegal. In socialworker. org. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://socialistworker. org/2005-2/562/562_06_Abortion. shtml EI. (2002). Abortion Increases Women’s Mortality Rate. In afterabortion. rg. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://afterabortion. org/2002/abortion-increases-womens-mortality-rates/ Austine Cline. (Unknown). Abortion is a serious ethical issue. In atheism. about. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://atheism. about. com/od/abortioncontraception/p/AbortionEthics. htm Kundan Pandey. (2011). Ethical Issues on Abortion. In goaccess. org. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://www. goaccess. org/ethical-issues-on-abortion. html BrookesB. (2005). Abortion: An ethical dilemma. In writework. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://www. writework. com/essay/abortion-ethical-dilemma

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Philippine Contemporary Issue-Abortion

Philippine Contemporary Issue – Abortion Why is abortion a social problem today? I think why abortion is a social problem is for the fact that not everyone agrees with that and everyone puts in their prospective. So then everyone else does to which leads into making it a big problem. The act of seeking or obtaining an abortion is not a real issue today. The personal issue of the people in the position of seeking an abortion hasn’t changed with the exception that these people don’t have to do it on a criminal basis from unsafe, illegal sources.

Personal issues of fear of discovery, regret, guilt (or lack thereof), and what this will mean to their future and future relationships has not changed overtime Predominantly Catholic, the Philippine Islands have banned all abortion, except that which saves the life of the mother. Yet there are an average of 470,000 abortions induced annually. Filipinas do not have the same socio-political climate as they do in the United States.

There is no taxi service to public abortion clinics, judicial waivers, or counseling sessions. If you are caught having an abortion in the Philippines, it’s against the law and you are thrown in jail – plain and simple. Of the women who are successful in inducing their own abortions, many go to great – and often grotesque – lengths to achieve their goal. Most of them take some form of anti-clotting or aspirin-related drugs, to induce bleeding.

Some drink incredible quantities of alcohol. When all else fails, they throw themselves down flights of stairs or beat on their stomachs, with the “help” of a local midwife… others self-catheter their vaginas. All of these violent practices greatly endanger the mother as well; it’s shocking that a woman would harm herself like that for an abortion. I’m not detailing this because I think pregnant Filipinas should have it cushy like they do in the States.

No way! I believe just the opposite: The Unites States needs to outlaw abortion, now. I’m amazed at how desperate we are, as a civilization, to kill unborn babies and end inconvenient pregnancies. It is stunning that the world feels so entitled to its desires and personal gain that we have huge social movements trying to protect murder on demand. Think hard about that. Murder on demand – on a worldwide scale.

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Abortion Should Be Legal

Abortion is the deliberate ending of a pregnancy by removing the fetus from the mother’s uterus and should only be carried out by trained medical personnel. Abortion was introduced at a very early age in society. I believe people should choose their own path and their own future, right down to abortions. I believe in choice. Pro-choice. People’s lives and rights should not be interfered by the opinion of another. There are certain rights given to a person which cannot be removed or changed.

This gives the choice-maker the right to live with his/her own decision without the guilt or disturbance of a third party. Live your own lives. A body belongs to one soul, giving one soul the rules and rights over it. People tend to forget that. As in an economy, when something is in demand, legal or not, people will sell and buy it. But what about those people who feel guilt over something that shouldn’t pressure them? May it be abortion or not. Most people would like to live under the choices they make without the world pushing them over or religions battering them with stones.

With the evolving moral standards of society, abortions are becoming more and more justified. Abortions, the practice of removing a fertilized egg from a mother has become a controversial issue in American society, but should be generally supported because there are circumstances where the mother to be is unable to sustain a pregnancy safely. Young low income women and or girls who become mothers have grim prospects for the future and in the case of rape or incest, forcing a woman made pregnant by this violent act would cause further psychological harm to the victim.

In, “The Cost of Choice”, the National Abortion Federation (NAF) and Planned Parenthood, among other pro-abortion advocacy groups and organizations, have formulated and published standards and guidelines for affiliated clinics and physicians. In fact, Planned Parenthood clinics, with few exceptions, must adhere to the operational standards and protocols mandated by the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. State legislatures have obtained copies of these standards and protocols and have used them to formulate minimum health and safety standards for abortion care. Encounter Books, 2004. p 128. ) Those who are against legalizing abortion/pro-life believe that a fetus is a person and should be granted life just as every other living being on this earth. Imagine a mother and child falling into dangerous river rapids and a family member or bystander must decide who to save. It’s a terrible decision that must be made. Regardless of the decision, one life will be lost and one saved. This situation differs so fundamentally from abortion on demand, which is to kill the unborn baby for convenience, as opposed to choosing which life will be saved.

Pro-life activist / believers think that abortion is murder, and that life begins at conception. “In biology and in medicine, it is an accepted fact that the life of any individual organism reproducing by sexual reproduction begins at conception (fertilization). ” “By all the criteria of modern molecular biology, life is present from the moment of conception. ” “Human life begins at the time of conception. ” “Human life begins when after the ovum is fertilized the new combined cell mass begins to divide. “The beginning of a single human life is from a biological point of view a simple and straightforward matter – the beginning is conception. ”(Boonin, 2002, p. 21) Pro-choice believer think that Adoption is a viable alternative to abortion and accomplishes the same result, however statistics show that most women who carry a child do not give their child up for adoption. They might also believe that, an abortion can result in medical complications later in life; the risk of ectopic pregnancies double.

Abortion for medical reasons where the mother’s life is in jeopardy that should be left to the discretion of the mother, family, and doctor. It’s true, the mother and the unborn baby are still two separate individuals/entities, but under these difficult circumstances, it’s truly a personal decision for those directly involved. Abortion in cases of rape and/or incest should be treated the same as abortion for medical reasons. It should be up to the victim of the rape or incest what she wants to do in this rare and terrible situation.

Some countries now with moderately restrictive laws permit abortions to protect a women’s health, to end pregnancies resulting from rape or incest, to avoid genetic or other defects, or in response to social problems such as unmarried status or low income. Rape one of the top reasons why I believe that a woman should be able to have an abortion. Rape is the act of sexual intercourse with a woman without her consent or with a minor. Having a child resulting from the mother being rape causes many metal problems for the mother as the birth of the child could be a remembrance of what happen.

Incest is sexual intercourse between people who are of blood relations this is one of the reasons why abortion should be legal. It is believed that 50% of all incest cases happen to children fewer than 17 years of age. It has also been stated that children who are conceived by incest are more likely to the possibly leading to mental retardation Birth defects are any abnormalities in the structure or function of the fetus. About twenty percent or more of malformed fetuses are aborted; the rest results in a newborn baby with a birth defect.

Each type of birth defect is rare . All live births can cause increased percent of infant deaths in the period immediately after birth. Low income is when people have little or no money coming into the home. To care for a child is very expensive you need to buy pampers, milk, formula’s, clothes, powder, cream, soap, towels, cribs and if u are working u need to pay for ah baby sitter. It takes an average of $15000 a year to care of a child. There are now 1. 3 million surgical abortions per year in the United States. 0 The Alan Guttmacher Institute (the research arm of Planned Parenthood) reports that women have abortions for two primary reasons: lack of financial resources and lack of emotional support. .(Encounter Books, 2004. p 198. ) One needs to take into consideration the developmental stages of the fetal life span. Most abortions occur soon after the confirmation of pregnancy, (usually prior to 12 weeks gestation. ) The first twelve weeks is known as the first trimester or the embryonic phase. At this time the fetus is about 3-3. inches long having a weight of 15-20 grams. The neurological system is primitive at best, demonstrating only vague swimming motions. In the late 1880’s, The American Medical Association led the fight to criminalize all abortions. The campaign was a total success, with every state outlawing abortion. However, criminal prohibition did not stop women from obtaining illegal abortions, which sometimes resulted in severe medical problems. (Abortion, 2002, para. 8) I think this would cause more harm than good to make abortion illegal.

Every woman should have the right to make that decision without the government getting involved. I do not recommend abortion as a birth-control method of choice. I merely state that it is a fact the most important single method of birth-control in the world today, and to cut down on population growth we should make abortion easy and safe while we continue to develop other and more “satisfactory” methods of family limitation. In addition to the 5 million women in the U. S. without access to birth-control for whom abortion would seem a mater of right when they want t, there are the uncounted thousands who after conception suffer some diseases of discover some defect which makes the birth of a live healthy baby unlikely, and the many, too, whose contraceptive methods occasionally do not work. Today abortion under modern hospital conditions is safer than childbirth. Instead of making abortion more difficult and dangerous for women, lawmakers should promote policies that reduce the need for abortion. Almost 50 percent of all pregnancies in this country are unintended, including over 30 percent within marriage.

And over half of all unintended pregnancies end in abortion. In the Roe vs. Wade the Supreme Court ruled that a woman was allowed by the Constitution’s 14th Amendment to receive an abortion before the first trimester. It now appeared that the pro-choice advocates had won the political tug-o-war at last. However, violence continues between the two groups as the animosity and resentment has grown to new heights. The most important part of reproductive rights is the principle that a woman has the right to decide whether and when to have a child.

Religious beliefs, politics, incident of pregnancy, support, economy, long term consequences, such as regrets and depression, being able to take responsibility, and health issues are major factors that must be taken in consideration before resulting to abortion. For any pregnant woman, making a decision to abort her child is painful and ruthless, but under certain situation such as rape, young age and financial reasons, a woman should have the right to choose to terminate her pregnancy if she chooses to do so by aborting her unborn child.

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Ethics: Religion vs. Abortion

Not every woman was meant to be a mother. Not every couple is meant to have a child. So what happens when an unprepared couple becomes pregnant? The first thoughts are not to carry a baby to full term for it to be adopted or to grant temporary custody. People look for the easiest way out which is to get rid of the baby. Our society has become so accustom to instant gratification that there are no thoughts that run through our minds when making such decisions. Our biggest concerns are how much it will cost and who will find out. At what point is the weight of this decision realized?

When do we realize that we are taking a life? For this specific reason there are people who boldly stand against abortion. Truly children are a gift from the Lord; the fruit of the womb is a reward (Psalm 127:3 KJV). There are many verses in the bible that explains how children are great gifts and should be cherished and welcomed into the world. The church has stepped in to remind us how gracious the gift of life really is. The religious war on abortion cannot be easily defined. Although people are religious and may fear God, the issue is that there are no consequences during life.

There is only a threat that people who have or perform abortions will go to hell in the after life. The churches only weapon is excommunication where they limit a person’s membership or exile them from the church. Originally Catholic Church’s position on excommunication was limited to the abortion of a formed fetus. The theory of a formed fetus came from Aristotle’s concept of ensoulment which was adopted by Christian philosophers. Aristotle believed that fetuses were conceived in a vegetative or animalistic state and that between 40 and 90 days a fetus undergoes “ensoulment” in which the fetus actually received its human soul.

So it was this concept that made abortion a homicide after the 90 period. Church councils usually grouped abortion earlier than the ensoulment with other sex crimes. After 1869 the Catholic Church agreed that ensoulment started at the time of conception, this now made abortion a homicide at anytime, in the eyes of the church. Abortion wasn’t always such a controversial issue in America; there was a time when it was taken lightly. In the early 1800s many mothers died during or after child labor. Lack of medical knowledge and equipment made delivery difficult and because of this aborting children was a norm.

Although there seemed to be less death surrounding abortion, the procedure was reevaluated in the late 1800s and anti-abortion laws were put into place. By 1910 almost all of the states had declared abortion illegal due to its immorality; some believed that laws were put into place because the early settlers feared being over populated by the immigrants that were traveling to our country at the time. Others believed that Doctors led lawmakers to criminalize abortion. This was their way of taking control of the practice. Many abortions were performed by female practitioners in women’s homes.

To get those women to get back into doctor’s offices they claimed that their main objective was to protect women from the dangerous abortion techniques practiced outside of the office. After these laws were put into place abortions were to be performed by doctors only after they determine if the pregnancy would endanger the mother or child. After six decades of illegal abortions throughout the United States they were convinced to give women back the rights to their bodies with Roe v. Wade in 1973. Legalizing abortion dropped the number of pregnancy related hospitalizations by 75 percent almost instantly.

That number has continued to drop over the years and has reached less than 1 percent. Legalizing abortion has saved a lot of lives but there are still many obstacles that woman face when making this grave decision. When it comes down to which law is more relevant it is easy to say the law of the land prevails. Simply because in our times there is not much respect for religion. Many people don’t know what they believe in or would rather believe in nothing. When it comes to something to have faith in or look up to it is often monetary.

These are the beliefs of the youths, that money will help them get through anything. Older generations know that you need to have faith in something that can make you feel loved. Money is not abundantly available to any of us, while God, Jesus and his word are readily available for us all. Many people do not attend church and don’t read the bible so to them there is no other law than what they see in front of them. The law of the land is gives direction to those who are seeking abortions. Protestors that harass and even use violence towards people seeking abortions will not enlighten them.

The church must find a way to reach out to people so they may realize what kinds of options they have. The state offers counseling, adoption agencies, and welfare to those seeking assistance with children. When it comes to assistance it doesn’t seem that the church has much to offer but it does seem that they are quick to judge. Researching this paper has enlightened me on abortion. I didn’t know that there were so many deaths involved with illegal abortions. I mainly focused on what has happened in the United States. Digging deeper I found that there are still many countries that have not yet legalized abortion.

Cuba and Guyana are the only countries in Central and South America that are allowed to practice abortion. In this area there are over four million illegal abortions done every year even though this region is the biggest Roman Catholic region in the world. Women who are well off are able to use large sums of money to get into professionals offices. While poor women take the risk of having abortions below medical standards. After already going through the trauma of an awful procedure when these women are taken to the hospital they are questioned and then often thrown in jail awaiting trial or even convicted.

There have even been convictions in the United States for performing late-term abortions. Most states prohibit abortions after viability or the point when a fetus can survive outside the womb. Viability is often around 28 weeks but at 21 weeks the fetus has already developed all its organs and body structures. I have never had an abortion and hope that it is never a decision I will have to struggle with. I am very safe and take the proper precautions that will save me and my unborn child. There is so much that is readily available for us, condoms, birth control, and abstinence plus many other ways to protect ourselves.

Although I agree that the procedure should be available, I also believe that they should know and exhaust all options. Ultimately I cannot give a stern opinion on the matter. I have never been in a place where I have to choose to take someone’s life or dedicate my own. I do understand the state of our economy and that many people are not in the proper place to raise a child. If you don’t know where your next meal will come from or how you will be making your next mortgage payment, you may not want to bring a child into a world of stress and frustration.

Bibliography “Abortion. ” Methods of. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. . “National Abortion Federation: History of Abortion. ” National Abortion Federation (NAF). Web. 09 Apr. 2012. . BBC News. BBC. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. . “Your Baby’s Developments in the Womb. ” Askamum. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. . “Baby’s Development in the Womb. ” – MyDr. com. au. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. . “Major U. S. Laws concerning Abortion. ” U. S. LAWS RESTRICTING ABORTION. Web. 08 Apr. 2012. . “The Bible and Abortion. ” What the Bible Says about Abortion! Web. 08 Apr. 2012. .

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Arguments for/Against Morality of Abortion

Morality of Abortion For Abortion (utilitarian): Anything having a net output of benefits with consideration of everyone is morally permissible [1, 7]. An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy and the procedure is performed by a licensed health care professional [2]. Medical or surgical abortions performed in the first trimester do not significantly affect later infertility, ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, or preterm or low-birth-weight deliveries, according to The Kaiser Family Foundation’s statistics on abortion [3], and shows no greater risk of breast cancer, according to research from the National Cancer Institute [8].

There is about 1 death per 100,000 legal abortions and the risk of complications from the abortions are rare, about less than 0. 3% [3]. In the question of whether fetuses can feel pain during an abortion, evidence from research concludes that “fetuses from 20-23 weeks do not feel pain” [6] – whereas abortions mostly occur before that time period [3]. In conclusion, since the legal abortions are performed by a professional and the benefits outweigh the costs, abortion is morally permissible. Against Abortion (kantian): Killing an innocent human life form is wrong.

The fetus is an innocent human life form, therefore it is wrong to abort the fetus [1]. According to the Women’s Center statistics, teenagers are more likely to delay having an abortion until 15 weeks of pregnancy, when the medical risks are greater [4]. The federal law dictates that states cover abortions under Medicaid under cases of rape, incest, or life endangerment [3], but having wider access to contraception would be a better solution to the problem of abortion and enable private companies to take on the burden of the costs[5].

A fetus “possesses a property, the possession of which in adult human beings is sufficient to make killing an adult human being wrong” [9]. The arguments for abortion are apt to “’speciesism’” [9] because the arguments center around the notion that a “human being” should have reasoning ability, critical thought, or consciousness in order to pass as a human being. We cannot focus on consciousness or rationality as a definition of a person because it has the fallacy of being too narrow of a definition since a erson in a coma is still considered a human being. In conclusion, since fetuses possess the ability to gain rationality, and don’t need it to be defined as a human being, abortion is wrong because it is murder, and murder is not justifiable. Works Cited Gensler, Harry J. “A Kantian Argument against Abortion. ” Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition 49. 1 (1986): 83-96. JSTOR. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. ;http://www. jstor. org/stable/4319811;. “Abortion”.

MedlinePlus. National Library of Medicine (US). Web. 2013 Jan 28. ;http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/abortion. html#cat22; “Abortion in the U. S. : Utilization, Financing, and Access. ” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. The Kaiser Family Foundation, June 2008. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. ;http://www. kff. org/womenshealth/upload/3269-02. pdf;. “Abortion Statistics, Facts About Abortion In The US. ” Orlando Women’s Centers. The Women’s Centers, n. d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. ;http://www. womenscenter. om/abortion_stats. html;. “Second-Trimester Abortion Overview. ” The Pro-Choice Public Education Project. Reproductive Health Technologies Project, n. d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. ;http://www. rhtp. org/abortion/documents/Second-TrimesterAbortionFactSheetExternal. pdf;. Christian, Brugger E. “The Problem of Fetal Pain and Abortion: Toward an Ethical Consensus for Appropriate Behavior. ” Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22. 3 (2012): 263-87. U. S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Web. 18 Feb. 2013. ;http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/23285794? tool=MedlinePlus;. Vaughn, Lewis. Doing Ethics: Moral Reasoning and Contemporary Issues. 3rd ed. New York: W. W. Norton ;, 2013. Print. “Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk. ” National Cancer Institute Factsheet. National Cancer Institute (NCI), n. d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. ;http://www. cancer. gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/abortion-miscarriage;. Marquis, Don. “Why Abortion Is Immoral. ” Journal of

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Legalizing Abortion

Topic: Abortion Question: Should abortion be legalized in East Africa? Claim: Yes, abortion should be legalized in East Africa. Outline: I. Introduction A. Definition of the term B. Historical background II. Reasons A. Abortion helps in stability and minimizing the effects of poverty in a family. B. It helps in controlling the population of a country. C. It helps in preventing the deaths of women caused by illegal abortion. III. Unstated assumption: It is good to have a decrease in population because when population of a country increases, it may lead to decrease in the national income and economic growth, and increase in unemployment.

IV. Opposing views A. Choosing adoption as an alternative to abortion. B. Abortion can lead to a decrease in population which may endanger the economy of a country. C. Legalizing abortion does not guarantee the survival of the woman after abortion. V. Responding to opposing view A. In Kenya, adoption in Kenya has a long process and restrictions. B. A decrease in population is also a positive impact to the country. C. Legalizing abortion reduces the unsafe abortions hence, gives hope to the woman aborting. VI. Conclusion A. Summary of points

B. Recommendations Abortion Abortion can be defined as ending of pregnancy or termination of pregnancy by choice or one that happens accidentally in case of miscarriage. The pregnancy is removed from the womb, either by taking pills which involves taking medicines to cause miscarriage or by surgery. In East Africa abortion is common and is almost always illegal and unsafe. Even though induced abortion is highly restricted in most of Eastern Africa, an estimated 2. 4 million unsafe induced abortion occurred in the region in 2008.

Nearly one in five maternal deaths can be attributed to unsafe abortion and more than 500 women die per 100,000 unsafe abortions. If compared with United State, where abortion is legal and safe the case fatality ratio is 0. 6 deaths per 100,000 abortions (Hussain, 2012). Hence, legalizing abortion will reduce unsafe abortions and the expense of the procedure. Abortion helps in stability and minimizing the effects of poverty in a family. Most of these abortions results from unwanted pregnancy, hence the family or the woman is unable to support the child decides to do abortion.

Because a child needs a lot of care and support therefore money is involved. And this will help in minimizing the effect of poverty that would have likely occur if the fetus was kept. Abortion helps in controlling the population of a country. Kenya is among the under developed countries. This means there are fewer resources compared to the number people in the country. There abortions help in decreasing the population of the country which reduces the dependency ratio in the country and increase employment.

It is good to have a decrease in population because when population of a country increases, it may lead to decrease in the national income and economic growth, and increase in unemployment. Abortion helps in preventing the deaths of women caused by illegal abortion. Most of the abortions performed in Kenya are unsafe due to lack of proper professional performing the abortion or lack of proper environment including equipments and surrounding where the abortion is being performed. Hence, endangers the health of the mother. I agree that women should choose adoption as an alternative to abortion.

The woman should give the child away to a needy family which lacks children instead of aborting. But that is not likely to happen in a country like Kenya. It’s because childless families most of the time takes the children of their relatives to take care of. And also Kenya adoption process is very long and the court is the only legal body that approves the adoption. I concede that abortion can lead to a decrease in population which may endanger the economy of a country. A country like Kenya is still growing hence needs human labor. Decrease in population may lead to decrease of the countries performance.

However, a decrease in population is also a positive impact to the country. Because it will lead to increase in employment which will lead to an increase in the country’s Gross domestic product (GDP) and also leads to an increase in living standard of people. While it is true that legalizing abortion does not guarantee the survival of the woman after abortion. This is because the chances of surviving the abortion is 0. 6 per 100,000 people but legalizing abortion reduces the unsafe abortions hence, gives hope to the woman aborting.

When abortion is legalized even the big hospitals will offer the services which are better compared to these illegal and dirty places where most of the abortions are performed. Abortion therefore helps in stability and minimizing the effects of poverty in a family, it helps in controlling the population of a country, and it helps in preventing the deaths of women caused by illegal abortion. However, the government of Kenya should limit the number of abortion to be done per woman and this should not imply in miscarriages.