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Investment vs fiscal regime in small scale solid mineral mining in west africa

Introduction

Small scale solid mineral mining (SSM) in the West African region of Nigeria and Ghana has been subject to analysis by many writers before to bring out the hidden aspects related to the outcomes of taxation and investment in the industry. However most of these studies are focused on the volume related outcomes rather than the strategic scenarios of the region. SSM industry output in Nigeria in 1959 contributed a mere 1% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country. By 2010 mining contributed just 0.3% to the total GDP[1]. This insignificant contribution made by the mining industry to the country’s GDP is attributed to the vast petroleum deposits (African Development Bank and the African Union, 2009).

In Nigeria the existing mining law is incorporated in the Federal Minerals and Mining Act of 1999 and the Ministry of Solid Minerals Development[2] is responsible for the oversight of all management of mineral resources in the country. The Law has been developed from the rudimentary system of regulations starting from 1903 when mining industry in Nigeria was launched by the British colonial government (Ayine, 2011). By the 1940’s the country was one of the leading producers of coal, columbite and tin. The government monopoly over SSM in Nigeria came to an end in 1999 when the government began to sell assets in mining corporations to private entrepreneurs.

However, it must be noted that the Law governing the SSM in Nigeria [3]was not as sophisticated as that of Ghana. Ghana’s fiscal policy measures were particularly conducive for the development of the SSM industry on a small scale. Though the country too has a sizable amount of oil it did not neglect the SSM related developments. The fiscal policy regime in Nigeria concerning SSM has been described by researchers as one-sided, i.e. it is overloaded with petroleum resources related developments while tax concessions to SSM business, especially private is almost non-extant. Thus this study analyses the outcomes related to the possibility developing SSM related fiscal and investment framework in Nigeria in comparison to Ghana (The Nigerian Minerals and Mining Act, 2007).

1. Analysis

1.1. Literature Review

Nigeria’s SSM cannot be well understood without a reference to its gradual neglect of the industry as well. For instance according to many writers on the subject during the 1980’s the country had relied on coal and wood as a source of fuel for most of the countryside population’s day-to-day cooking needs (www.dundee.ac.uk). Subsequently coal was sought to be replaced by diesel for the railways though the rural communities continued to use coal and wood into the foreseeable future for their cooking needs. Just 73,000 tons of coal were produced in 1986 as against a whopping figure of 940,000 tons in 1958. The same fate befell the columbite and tin mining because by the end of 1980’s high grade iron ore was almost completely depleted.

The Ministry of Mines and Steel Development was created with a view to developing the solid mineral industry in the country (www.mmsd.gov.ng). Though the Minster himself has assured the international investors of good opportunities and invited them to come and invest in the SSM industry there is a general trend of reluctance among investors primarily due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of fiscal regulations to assure good returns on their investments (Alison-Madueke, 2009). Fiscal policy [4]measures adopted by Nigeria concerning SSM have been known to be scanty and sparse. SSM related fiscal policy and investment measures in Nigeria have to be studied against the Ghanaian developments in SSM because the latter has adopted some of the far reaching changes in respect of the country’s SSM thus encouraging the small scale investors to identify and invest in more lucrative areas of the industry (Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Department, 2006).

Nigeria right now has one of the most undeveloped fiscal policy regimes in the whole continent concerning SSM while on the other hand Ghana has adopted some advanced features in the system of taxation. In addition to the macroeconomic policy reforms the country has extensively adopted MMS related policy reforms in order to attract investment to the country. The Mineral and Mining Law (PNDCL 153) of 1986 [5]vests all rights of ownership in the Ghanaian government thus creating one of the most successful pillars for effective governance of the industry (files.africanstudies.webnode.com). Subsequently two addendums were introduced – the Additional Profit Tax Law (PNDCL 122) and Minerals (Royalties) Regulations (LI 1349). These laws along with highly generous tax incentives and exemptions to foreign investors have served as the cornerstone of the entire SSM in Ghana. But nonetheless these laws were codified in the Ghana Internal Revenue Act [6]since 2000.

By 1994 the level of corporate tax in the industry was brought down to 35% in Ghana while the capital expenditure allowance to investors was increased to 20% in the first year. Subsequently in each year the investor is entitled to 15% .of allowances from 1986. The Royalty rate calculated at 6% of the total worth of the mineral was subsequently reduced to 3%. All other duties such as import duty, mineral duty and the foreign exchange tax were done away with. The import taxes on machinery and equipment were also exempted (www.dundee.ac.uk). These developments created a positive cumulative impact on the SSM scenario in Ghana. There was also the provision to permit the leaseholder to retain 25% of the foreign exchange earnings in a foreign bank account. This is intended to facilitate the purchase of equipment and machinery.

Ghana’s fiscal policy measures on SSM are wide and varied. For instance the net present value of the investment is sought to be maximized for the investor in conformance with a comparison on probable net returns from alternative investment vehicles such as purchasing government or/and corporate bonds, shares and other investments in funds (www.ghana-mining.org).

After tax yield of the investment matters so much that the net present value of the company ought to be maximized especially in an SSM environment. Mineral taxation systems [7]ought to take into consideration the realized profitability as against the potential and empower the firm to pay back capital borrowings at an early date. Tax duplication must be avoided and any structural adjustment initiatives undertaken by the company must come to a successful conclusion with the help of the tax system (Hossain, 2003). Since the SSM industry requires a higher level of capital investment for a longer period of time before adequate positive earnings are made the tax system of the country must be designed to accommodate concerns of the investor.

According to some recent research works tax systems on mineral exploration and development often run into rough weather in times of economic recessions because governments fail to provide adequate buffer against the investment failure (Economic Commission for Africa, 2004). If the government fails to maximize the net present value of tax revenue and earn more tax revenue during periods of high profit earnings by companies, then there would be some incapacities coming into the system to prevent it from registering positive growth. Marginally productive mines have to be brought into higher yield capacity through capital intensive production techniques. Internal cost drivers like administration and research & development [8](R&D) must be controlled in such a manner to avoid cost rises in production.

1.2. Research Methodology

Secondary data was collected through an extensive research effort conducted in libraries and online. The information regarding SSM was collected in order to analyze and come to conclusions. Secondary data is regarded as the second hand data or the data that have been exposed before for various reasons. It is not fresh data as the primary data. It is relatively easier to find secondary data than the primary data (Twerefou, 2009).

Various sources are used to implement the objective by using secondary data gathered from such sources as textbooks, professional journals, and various university publications, corporate reports of various companies and the government, and university theses. These sources were used to analyze and provide the reliable accurate inferences regarding the SSM in Nigeria and Ghana. These secondary data sources have provided an extensive understanding of the fiscal policy measures adopted by Nigeria and Ghana (Davis, Ossowski & Fedelino, 2003). The comparison has been made to show that Ghanaian system of taxation [9]is far superior in the solid mineral mining and exploration industry when compared to the Nigerian system.Various textbooks and publications were used to build and draw reliable theoretical conclusions and make findings.

References were taken from most of the research material available in the field. Theoretical analysis is much well facilitated than primary material which is basically limited to responses in the questionnaire and the survey. Also there is considerable reflection on the state and relevance of current research. Relevant web sites and official documents links were accessed to provide more credibility to the study and for further reference (Onugu, 2005).Future research possibilities in the field are discussed in depth to show how theoretical underpinnings evolve with time and space with specific reference to the current developments in the SSM field.

1.3. Deductive and inductive reasoning

This paper used deductive reasoning as against inductive reasoning. Deductive research refers to a process in which a more general approach leads to a more particular approach. For example the researcher may start off with a theory on the subject and then build up a series of hypotheses to arrive at specific details of the research topic (Campbell, 2009). Deductive reasoning is sometimes known as top-down approach. On the other hand inductive reasoning refers to the opposite process or approach. In inductive research the researcher starts from more specific hypotheses and then go on to generalized areas of study. This is sometimes known as bottom-up approach.

1.4. Research Limitations

The industry-centric research methodology aspect was focused on both the quantitative and qualitative paradigms but nevertheless the qualitative aspect was hindered by a variety of shortcomings including the inability of this researcher to obtain quality testing measures. However it must be noted here that this detailed study would pay more attention to qualitative shifts than to quantitative data shifts caused by an industry in transition (Daniel & Keen, 2010).

The skewed nature of published data cannot be stressed on too much either because such bias and prejudice are only too common at each level. However for the purpose of ascertaining the tax system related outcomes such skewed data did not have a greater negative impact on conclusions. Next the all too well known limitations, viz. cultural bias [10]and prejudice displayed by researchers in Nigeria and Ghana might have hampered the efforts of this researcher to a certain extent. By following strict control mechanisms and a set of relevant guidelines the accuracy of the analysis can be made right though. This tendency apart some data sets were characterized by a degree of inaccuracy with regard to analysis. The recent developments in the SSM were not adequately borne out by these analyses (MBendi, 2011). Thus the qualitative research aspect also assumes a significant dimension of right or wrong. Organizational settings could have hampered the data collection efforts of many researchers and as a result they might have been influenced by cultural attachments and biases.

The most significant data sets for any serious conclusions have been sifted to come to some conclusions that have a direct bearing on the learning outcomes of this study. For instance the Nigerian fiscal policy measures as based on attracting foreign investors to invest in solid mineral mining and exploration is particularly influenced by a desire on the part of the government to provide employment to local population (Chamber of Mines Newsletter, 2001).

1.5. Data Analysis

Source: http://www.developingmarkets.com/dma/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/minister-of-mines1.pdf

Table 2.5.1: Nigeria’s seven strategic solid minerals

Source:http://www.developingmarkets.com/dma/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/minister-of-mines1.pdf

Table 2.5.2: Gold Production in Ghana

Source:http://www.ghana-mining.org/ghweb/en/ma/mincom/mainStageParagraphs/06/childParagraphs/01/document/Major%20Minerals%20Prod%2090-07.pdf

1.6. Overall analysis

Tax analysis with emphasis on fiscal policy in Nigeria requires a systematic theoretical analysis of the net present value. When corporate taxes are considered the firm is entitled to interest expense deduction which enables it to increase value of its assets. According to Modigliani & Miller (1963) the tax exemption allows the firm to reduce the leverage-based premium in the cost associated with raising the equity capital. Subsequently Miller added personal taxes to the equation.

An investor ought to make an investment only when it has a positive Net Present Value (NPV). Those investments or projects whose returns are negative must be disregarded. The following formula is generally used to depict the NPV [1]of an investment or a project. The hypothetical example that follows the formula shows a positive NPV equal to ?123,928.60 at the end of the five year period. Here the opportunity cost of capital is assumed to be 12%.

Year Cash flow Discounted cash flow

0= ?-(10,000.00)

1 10,000.00 =? 8,928.57

2 20,000 .00= ? 17,857.14

3 40,000 .00= ? 35,714.28

4 50,000.00=?44,642.85

5 30,000 .00= ? 26,785.71

—————–

NPV= ?123,928.60

Thus by adopting it as the discount rate for all future cash flows one can effectively obtain the NPV for them. This gives a few advantages. In the first place proper financial management requires a realistic opportunity cost to be set against capital. Though over a period of 5 years there can be considerable pressure on interest rates, a steady return of earnings would be ensured through proper cash flow management. After all the above cash flow forecasts are assumed to be constant though, in reality they might vary.

The decision to make the investment is based on the apparent returns by way of future cash flows and it does not take into account the risk factor involved. For instance the investor has totally disregarded DCF method because he probably considers those future returns to be final and conclusive with respect to their values. The DCF calculations and the NPV figure of the total investment show that the decision is fairly justifiable because the NPV is equal to ? 123,928.60 which is a considerable value against probable future inflationary pressure, i.e. the opportunity cost of capital.

The importance of discounting future cash flows by using these formulas also depends on other factors as well. Discounted cash flows give a real picture of the future possibilities. Since DCF[2] is what an individual is willing to pay at present in order to have what he expects to have in the future, it’s a process of expressing future revenue flows in terms of today’s value. Probably the most important reason behind DCF is the fact that inflation erodes the value of money in times to come, i.e. future. Therefore it’s essential to make up for the loss. That is why in each subsequent DCF multiplied by the number of years, a lower value comes up (Notermans, 2000).

The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) [3]sets the present value of all future cash flows of an investment equal to zero. IRR usually holds the assumption that all future cash inflows would be reinvested at the internal rate as calculated at present. Assuming that there are investment projects with returns that exceed the cost of capital or interest, such projects would be seriously considered for investment. In other words when the IRR is greater the investment is more attractive. However it’s the NPV that every investor seeks to adopt because it has a less number of disadvantages or flaws.

However there is abatement or mitigation of systematic risk through hedging. Individual investment decisions concerning risk mitigation are inevitably focused on the capital adequacy rules. Concurrent decisions to mitigate risk and maintain capital adequacy are nothing new in the investment sphere.

Sharpe ratio is used to calculate the amount of systematic risk:

Here the performance evaluation is based on risk-adjusted measures.

Now the question “is the return adequate compensation for the risk?” has to be answered by working out the returns given the risk involved. The following explanations are used to work it out. The Sharpe ratio enables the adjustment of returns on investments to be conclusive with respect to risk-free returns and the degree of volatility of an investment.

Rp = Average return on the portfolio

Rf = Average risk free rate

Sp = Standard deviation of portfolio return (total risk).

While Sharpe ratio is useful in determining adjusted risk and performance of a portfolio, there are other measures as well that have to be used in order to determine the level of risk accurately.

Treynor ratio:

rp = Average return on the portfolio

rf = Average risk free rate

?p = Beta of portfolio (systematic risk)

Treynor ratio is used to measure returns that are in excess of what could have been made on risk-free investment. For example Treasury Bills are less risky than other volatility-prone assets. That’s why it’s sometimes called reward-to-volatility ratio. It uses systematic risk. Thus higher the Treynor ratio, the higher the returns made on investments. However it is not like Sharpe ratio which is a measure of the excess return and does not help much. Next there is the Jensen’s Alpha, a measure that calculates the excess returns above the security market line as done in the capital asset pricing model (CAPM).[4] CAPM also uses beta as a multiplier to determine the total value of returns. Jensen’s Alpha is a risk adjusted portfolio performance metric. It’s calculated by using a regression technique to determine the performance of a given portfolio of a manager tested against a benchmark.

On the other hand unsystematic (un-systemic) risk refers to a risk inherent in a particular industry or market that falters due to a specifically divergent variable. Unsystematic risk[5] (or residual risk or diversifiable risk) can be overcome by resorting to diversification of one’s portfolio (Lo, 2005). Since unsystematic risk is specific to a particular market/industry or market segment, diversification helps investors either to reduce risk or totally cancel out depending on the relative offsetting effect of less risky investments.

Unsystematic risk essentially presupposes the existence of a remedial measure without resorting to hedging which can be uncertain for a number of reasons. In the first place hedging is carried out with the intention of obviating systematic risk which occurs as the result of an exogenous variable going astray. In the case of unsystematic risk exogenous variables are assumed to behave in the predictable way (Lehmann, 1990). Thus forecasts are reliable to the extent that the individual potential investor does not feel the need to shuffle the basket of investments. Fund managers whose instincts the investor relies on, do not feel obliged to advice clients on the contrary decisions. In fact such advice depends not only the instincts of fund managers but also statistical forecasts. As the portfolio is more diversified unsystematic risk moves closer to zero. Accounting risk[6], financial risk [7]and economic risk[8] are all part and parcel of unsystematic risk. They signify the very nature of risk. For instance a financial risk might involve mistakes in cash flow forecasts thus leading to liquidity problems.

These residual risks do not have a big impact on the whole system. The systemic imperviousness stands out as the most credible security against risk. But nevertheless the degree of this imperviousness is determined by a number of other factors that are inherent to the system itself. Calculations involve the same process as above. However, CAPM is often used to measure an individual security or a portfolio. Additionally the security market line [9](SML) is used to measure the reward-to-risk ratio of a security in relation to the total market as shown below.

Finally total risk is the sum total of systematic risk and unsystematic risk. While the choice of the individual investor between different types of securities or investment instruments matters here, there is the need for the investor to make some decisive decisions involving which risk out of systematic and unsystematic risks to be reduced vis-a-vis the other. The following graph illustrates the hypothetical scenario of a company which invests in a given portfolio of securities. The red line is the Security Market Line.

the horizontal axis shows the betas of all companies in the market
the vertical axis shows the required rates of return, as a percentage

Assuming that the risk free rate is 5%, and the overall stock market will produce a rate of return of 12.5% next year the following would give a clearer picture of fundamental financial ratio analysis. The imaginary investor/shareholder/company has a beta of 1.7.

This result is obtained by substituting a few sample betas into the CAPM equation as follows.

Ks = Krf + B (Km – Krf).

Table 2.5.3: Beta Values

SecurityBeta (It’s a measure of risk)Rate of Return
‘Risk Free’0.05.00%
Overall Stock Market1.012.50%
Utopia Company1.717.75%

Source: www.teachmefinance.com

This figure and hypothetical data can be applied to understand all three types of risks in investing in the Nigeria’s solid mineral mining and exploration industry.

Conclusion

Time and again it has been argued that Nigeria’s existing fiscal policy regime in general and the tax system in particular regarding the SSM requires urgent revision to invite both local foreign investors. It has also been suggested that such a revision or an overhauling would be worked out in conformance with SSM’s current developments. Nigeria has been heavily dependent on its oil resource and in fact has been neglecting solid mineral mining industry [1]while another West African country Ghana has been systematically developing its solid minerals industry at a consistent pace. Thus the analysis is focused on a distinction between industry related features in Nigeria and Ghana to bring about a conviction of the existing tax anomalies in the former.

While the paper focuses attention on a variety of tax related shortcomings in Nigeria ranging from the near total absence of a well structured corporate tax system in the solid mineral mining industry[2] in general and the SSM sector in particular, it has stressed on the significance of fiscal policy measures that require a systematic effort sustained over the years to bring about both a qualitative and quantitative shift in the solid mineral mining industry. The comparison with Ghana is made to in order to delineate a series of positive developments that have taken place within the Ghanaian taxation system in the solid mineral mining and exploration sector. Ghana has put in place a number of corporate tax incentives and relaxed its rules and regulations on the acquisition of mining rights[3] to assure the potential foreign investor that net returns on their investment in the sector would produce more than anticipated net returns. Nigeria just needs this kind of change in its tax system to create a series of positive synergies.

REFERENCES

Books

African Development Bank and the African Union, 2009. Oil and Gas in Africa, New York: Oxford University Press.

Campbell, B., 2009. Mining in Africa: Regulation and Development, New York: Pluto Press.

Daniel, P. &Keen, M. (Eds), 2010. Charles McPherson (Editor) the Taxation of Petroleum and Minerals: Principles, Problems and Practice, Oxon: Routledge.

Notermans, T., 2000. Money, Markets, and the State: Social Democratic Economic Policies since 1918 (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Journals

Lehmann, B., 1990. ‘Fads, martingales, and market efficiency’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol .105, pp. 1–28.

Lo, A., 2005. ‘Reconciling efficient markets with behavioral finance: the adaptive markets hypothesis’, Journal of Investment Consulting, vol.7, pp.21–44.

Modigliani, F. & Miller, M. H., 1963). “Corporate Income Taxes and the Cost of Capital: A Correction”, American Economic Review.

Articals

Alison-Madueke, D., 2009. Opportunities in Nigeria’s Minerals Sector, Available at: < http://www.developingmarkets.com/dma/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/minister-of-mines1.pdf> [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Ayine, D., 2011. Natural Resource Investment Review In Developing Countries: Ghana’s Mininng Sector In Perspective, Available at: [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Chamber of Mines Newsletter, 2001. Tanzania Chamber of Mines Newsletter, Available at: [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Davis, J.M., Ossowski, R, & Fedelino, A. (Eds), 2003. ‘Fiscal Policy Formulation and Implementation in Oil-Producing Countries’, International Monetary Fund, Available at: < http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/nft/2003/fispol/index.htm#ch1> [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Economic Commission for Africa, 2004. Harmonization of Mining Policies, Standards, Legislative and Regulatory Frameworks in Southern Africa, Available at: [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Department, 2006, Ghana Country Environmental Analysis, Available at: [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Hossain, S.M., (2003). ‘Taxation and pricing of petroleum products in developing countries: A framework for analysis with application to Nigeria’, International Monetary Fund Working Paper, Available at: [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Kopinski, D., Undermining mining: the impact of the financial crisis on the mineral based economies of Sub-Saharan Africa, Available at: < files.africanstudies.webnode.com/200000108…/Undermining%20mining.pdf> [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Lawal, M. A., Constraints to Small Scale Mining in Nigeria: Policies and Strategies for Development, Available at: [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Nwete, B.O.N., Mineral and Petroleum Taxation How Can Tax Allowances PROMOTE Investment in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry, Available at: [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Onugu, B. A. N., 2005, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) In Nigeria: Problems and Prospects, Available at: [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

The Minerals Commission of Ghana, The Minerals Commission of Ghana, Available at: [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Twerefou, D.K., 2009. Mineral Exploitation, Environmental Sustainability and Sustainable Development in EAC, SADC and ECOWAS Regions, Available at: [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Websites

MBendi, 2011. Mining in Nigeria, Available at: < http://www.mbendi.com/indy/ming/af/ng/p0005.htm> [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

Acts

Ministry Of Mines And Steel Development, National Minerals and Metals Policy, Available at: [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

The Nigerian Minerals and Mining Act, 2007. Mining In Nigeria, Available at: < http://www.gbc-law.com/Mining_in_Nigeria.pdf> [Accessed 03rd May 2011].

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To what extent is politics in Africa fundamentally connected to ethnicity?

Introduction

The issues of ethnicity and its connection to Africa politics continue to be of great importance on the continent. In recent times, there have been debates on these matters, which have further intensified against the background of multicultural societies. The underline base of this essay is to examine and explore the extent to which politics in Africa are connected to ethnicity. For two to three decades now, ethnicity has been at the centre of politics not only in Africa but also on the global front. Political liberalization has meant that ethnic group can now express their interests and lay claims on the state. “In the case of the former Czechoslovakia, there came the emergence of the two independent states. Slovakia and the Czech Republic”. The compositions of ethnicity control in states of Africa continue to be unabated. The essay we will be looking at some case study of how ethnicity is fundamentally connected to the politics within the states of Africa, also we will try if there are any political connections to ethnicity. “Ethnicity is a dynamic concept which may have an ethnic character as well as a class character, and class and ethnic conflicts may be waged simultaneously”(Markakis, 1998).

According to Thomson, his definition of ethnicity is “an ethnic group community of people who have the conviction that there have a common identity and common fate based on issue of origin, kinship ties, tradition, cultural uniqueness, a shared history and possibly a shared language”.

Ethnicity, religion, tribalism, and politics, these entire elements have a close relationship in most Africa state, and almost on the same terms. However, ethnicity has play a great role in the politics both in the negative and the positive ways, this essay will look at the extent of which this is connected to politics in Africa. The reappearance of ethnicity will be in two opposite ways, one will be the ethnic community under threat, and the other is the group dealing with their lost with the state and other powerful neighbours and rivals. Ethnicity could be a framework that will build a bridge of solidarity and liberation between two groups (Markakis, 1998).

In Africa states, ethnicity and politics are one body since political parties will always find their root from an ethnic group. Often becoming major actors of that ethnic politics, and the principal instrument for it growth based on it ethnical foundation. An example of ethnicity playing a major role in Africa politics was seen in the colonial era where the Uganda army had recruited from the north tribe, while the people of the south were mainly in civil service. After independence, it became necessary to ‘Africanize the services’, however, it was difficult for the military because the commander in chief of Uganda army, and the same time the president of the country. ‘In fact, figures have indicated that in 1963 most that 50 per cent of the army were from Acholi, while others were from the West Nile (Markakis, 1998).

Except in the field have always argue about the power struggle within the government, may invoke regional sentiments and Obote, and could mobilize the military in his favour. Using of a national army in favour can be refer to as politics base on ethnicity since the majority of the military are from one ethnic group (Omara-Otunnu, 1987). Ethnicity could not be talk about without mention of ‘tribalism’, Ethnicity could not be talk about without the mention of ‘tribalism’, since there are frequently used as a self-explanation of political events in Africa. Conflicts are mostly associated with tribes or ethnic group belonging to one political party. Such tribalistic interpretations of politics in Africa, is however worthless. Political scientists have beyond it to make it simple, to find why one tribe will attack the other. In the same way, ethnic group will be in conflict against each other (Thomson, 2010). Ethnicity is not and will not been a new concept in the studies of African politics, it has become popular on the continent since the 1990s. Most of the conflict in Africa can be attributed to ethnic group, although they are much more complex and, there are instances, which they are not at all. Ethnicity will however, remain a contested concept, because scholars on both sides have always disagreed about what it means and how it come about (Hyden, 2006).However, there is tendency that of about fifteen years of conflict within some countries in Africa, it will fall back on the theory of ‘Ethnicity’.

Conflicts in Africa can be explained, as the same anywhere in the world and it is not always attributed to ‘tribalism’. “In the case of Rwandan political scientists should have look towards overpopulation, land competition… and the falling coffee prices”. The Tutsi domination of one state, made killings in Rwanda more ethnic base politics. “Ethnicity may often be the agent of political mobilisation in Africa, and it is rarely the primary cause of conflict” (Thomson, 2010). The primordial of tribal arguments are clearly wrong, as African ethnic groups are not of the past, or the leftover of history. However, ethnicity and ethnic group will continue to play a major role in social organisation and in the political and economic needs of the people on the continent of Africa. In as much as ethnicity is often regarded as a hindrance to Africa’s political and economic development in the post-colonial era. It has been view and power by some nationalist in their argument (Thomson, 2010).

Nevertheless, this condemnation of ethnicity, will not be necessarily accepted, due to the fact if operating in the right political gateway, ethnicity can become a progressive force of any type of social organisation. In the retrospect, ethnicity has made some positive contributions to politics in some Africa countries in the post-colonial era, in that it has managed to serve both state and civil society to some extent (Thomson, 2010). Moreover, there also are some negative contributions. According to “Justice Theodora Georgina Wood, she has condemned ethnicity in Ghanaian politics, saying that the phenomenon could create dangerous repercussions for Ghanaian society. She said what was required was the collective responsibility of all and sundry to sustain democratic governance in the country” (Wood, 1994). Based on these remakes, we will have a look at a case study on the effect of ethnicity on African politics. This case study will be about the ethnicity of Nigeria, Africa most popular nation. Located on the West cost of the continent, it consists of swamps and lagoons in the Niger River delta. Nigeria is also rank as one Africa is rich states, having benefited from the export of it oil reserves.

According to the study by Thomson (2010), “the northern Hausa-Fulani consist is made up of 30 per cent of the total population; the western Yoruba are 20 per cent, while the eastern lbo covers 17 per cent”. Having seen the tribal divisions, it will be clear to note how ethnic groups can influence politics within Africa states. Under the colonial rule, the relationship between the ‘Yoruba’ clans has change dramatically, meanwhile, prior to that, there was no such thing, as a Yoruba political unity or ethnic identity. The people of the south-west Nigeria were not familiar with the team ‘Yoruba’ until the nineteenth century (Thomson, 2010). The colonial administration needed a larger community to operate upon to reduce costs and problems administration. On the other side of the colonial authorities were the religious groups (missionaries), these groups also wanted a bigger community for their people, and for them to have a common language. Hence, the missionaries invented the Yoruba vernacular. Ethnic coalitions became larger for a new Morden states. The Nigeria had always enjoyed the ethno-regional constitution of their respective ‘culture brokers’ at the time of independence, by which there had the chance to change their chosen candidates, and consequently, giving the power back to the local regional community. This makes the domination of issues of ethnicity becoming more fundamentally connected to politics (Thomson 2010). Meanwhile, each region was governed by a political party that will be identify by one ethnic group. The Fulani-Hausa governed the north; the Yoruba were to the West, and the East to Ibo. In this, study Thomson draw our attention to the problem created after the military takeover in 1966, the intervention however was precipitated by more political turmoil. The politicians of the Ibo East did not agree with the northern Hausa-Fulani, who were the dominance of the military government. These moves of political reverie led the secession of the east, and the independent state of Biafra was declared in 1967. It was term as one the higher point in Nigeria’s political mobilisation based on ethnicity (Thomson, 2010). In Thomson’s conclusion he makes another remake of ethnicity playing part in the political conflict in the oil-producing Niger Delta region of the country.

In another case in which ethnic groups playing a roles in politics in Africa, is within the Ghanaian like the Akans, are considered the most important ethnic group of Ghana. There consist of two major group: the Ashanti and Fanti. The Ashanti ethnic groups occupied the central area of Ghana; Ashanti ethnic were powerful within the region and needless to say, the confederacy was hated and feared, by both the Fanti and the northern groups. While the Fanti were quick to ally themselves with the European outposts and settlements along the coast. However, both Fanti and Ashanti are stemmed from common ethnic backgrounds, which could have a strong influence on political arena. Their ethnicity and ethnic group will play a role in connected to politics within the country and in Africa (Apter, 1972).

“Indeed if were to decide on a nation’s conduct on political affairs based on religion and ethnicity, it will mean deliberately deciding that certain portions of our population be left out of political discourse in this country. Concerning ethnicity, the 2000 population census shows that the Akan are 69.1%, the Mole-Dagbani, 16.5%, Ewe, 12.7% and Ga-Adangbe, 8.0%. By these statistics, if we were to decide that we should conduct our politics based on religion or ethnicity, then some of us especially Northerners and Muslims would be effectively left out of political discourse in this land of our birth” (Mustapha, 1994).

These and other studies on ethnicity and it connection to politics in Africa, can go beyond in the inter-ethnic composition. According to Mustapha’s statistic and Apter’s studies on the Akan’s ethnic group, it could be draw that since there have majority of the population. The New Patriotic Party (NPP) candidate for the 2008 elections Nana Akufo-Addo, who is from the Akan ethnic group, and the NPP being an Akan based political party could play role in ethnic politics. However, according to an article by the statesman’s newspaper, there was the need to learn of what ethnicity has done to countries likeRwanda and Cote D’Ivoire (Gabby, 2007).

While these explanations and examinations to weather ethnicity may hold some contribution to politics in Africa, it is still risky to generalise. It has become evident to some class of scholars that while there is a national template for conflict, and each has its own scenario base on its own peculiarities and deserves to be studied in its own context. (Ake, 1996) The changing of socio-political realities in Africa and the dominate of traditional values has greatly influenced the study of ethnicity in Africa. The socio-economic pressure on one group of people in an Africa country can make a lot of difference to that group been it ethnic or social. Ethnic, tribal groups will not involve in a conflict just because there want to do so, but it will always begin with a one ethnic or tribal group. As to ethnicity being connected to politics in Africa, since no scholars of the field has or point to or give the conclusion; however, we have since that conflict and civil war has broken out among ethnic or tribal groups and since trilbies and ethnicity are base on the same principles, than there can be link within these ethnic groups.

References List:

Ake, C. (1996). “The Political question”, in: O Oyediran (ed.) Governce and Development in Nigeria . Ibadan: Agbo Areo.

Apter, D. E. (1972). GHANA IN TRANSITON 2ed Edition. New Jersey : PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS.

Gabby,Q.(2007,May11). thestatesmanonline.com. Retrieved 22/05/2011,from http://www.thestatesmanonline.com.

Hyden, G. (2006). African Politics in Comparative Perspective . New York: Cambridge University Press.

Markakis, M. S. (1998). Ethnicity and the State in Eastern Africa. Stockhlom: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.

Mustapha, A. H. (1994). ghanaweb. Retrieved 04 22, 2011, from www.ghanaweb.com.

Omara-Otunnu, A. (1987). Politics and the Military in Uganda. Palgrave Macmillan.

Thomson, A. (2010). An Introduction to African Politics Third Edition. Abingdon : Routledge.

Wood, J. T. (1994). ghanaweb.com. Retrieved April 17, 2011, from www.ghanaweb.com.

Categories
Free Essays

Managing human wildlife interaction: comparative study of Kenya, Canada and South Africa

Abstract

Watching wildlife draws thousands of tourists each year to Kenya, Canada and south africa. The combination of this large number of tourists and wildlife leads to a variety of wildlife human interactions. The nature and implications of this interaction is the focus of this essay. This essay will further explore some solutions to pervasive problems of conflict between human and endangered animals. There can be no doubt that human wildlife conflict has brought a decline to many species, woodroffe et al (2005) and these endangered species can equally cause serious damage to human lives and livestocks (Woodroffe et al (2005), therefore, examination of the nature of human wildlife interaction using the ideologies of sustainable tourism in form of economic, environmental and social impacts will be carried out. The essay goes on to evaluate the sustainable management tools being used in these areas of the case study to reduce these human wildlife conflicts. It shall also concisely treat the benefits of wildlife tourism to the local communities, the tourists, the country and the global tourism industry at large.

More than that, In the conclusion part, the Environmental, Economic and the Social impact of wildlife tourism will be discussed in a way that sustainable tourism could be better implemented in these areas (Kenya, Canada and South Africa).

Introduction

Kenya, South Africa and Canada are all considered to be well established and successful as tourism destinations, Irandu.M.E, (2004), Hudson. S and Lang. N. (2001), and Heath, E. (1992). Tourism is defined according to world Trade Organisation as “travelling to and staying in places outside ones’ usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited” (WTO, 1995). There are several forms of tourism which include eco-tourism, ski-tourism, whale watching, leisure travelling, winter tourism, mass tourism and wildlife tourism.

To the developing world, “tourism is one of the fastest growing industries, and wildlife tourism is the fastest growing component of this industry”, Gossling, (2000). Wildlife tourism is seen as a driving force for developing countries where many live in abject poverty, especially in the rural areas, Ashley and Roe, (1998). Tourism is vital to economy development in terms of the employment opportunities it creates and the huge foreign exchange it generates for those communities which rely on it. Sinclair. T. M (1998).

In recent years tourists have developed an increasing desire to watch wildlife in their natural environments, Reynolds & Braithwaite, (2001), This captivation and fascination has led to the creation of a sub-sector of tourism known as wildlife tourism. Duffus & Dearden, (1990), Reynolds & Braithwaite, (2001)

Wildlife tourism is a form of tourism that encompasses the watching of fauna and flora in their natural habitat. It is distinct to both eco-tourism and nature based tourism as it is about tourism that flourishes on specific interest in wildlife. Although in the general terms wildlife refers to both fauna (Animals) and flora (Plants), in the tourism sector it is generally understood to strictly mean fauna (animals), Braithwaite & Reynolds, (2002), Higginbottom et al., (2001), and Shackley, (1996).

Roe et al, (1997) added that Wildlife tourism is becoming an increasingly important component of tourism worldwide, while Duffus & Dearden, (1990), Reynolds & Braithwaite, (2001), further added that tourists have developed an increasing desire for the interaction with the natural environment and wildlife. Wildlife benefits has a direct impact on a country’s economy. For example, revenues generated from wildlife tourism are partly responsible for the development of wildlife as a major land use on private land in South Africa. Hearne & Mackenzie, (2000).

However, in spite the growing benefits of wildlife tourism, the close proximity of people and wildlife led to interactions that can pose threats which directly or indirectly cause injury to wildlife people have travelled from far and near to watch. Consequences of human wildlife conflict can be both direct, including injury and death from encounters with dangerous animals, and indirect, including loss of crops, livestock and damaged infrastructure, Okello and Kiringe, (2004). Example of Human wildlife conflict can be seen in Massai Mara, Kenya, where elephants destroy crops, killing and injuring human and livestock, Thouless, (1994). In South Africa; according to the research carried out by Anthony, Scott, and Antypas, (2010), 482 human wildlife conflict incidents were recorded from 1998 to 2004, and the most problematic species are buffalo, lion, elephant, hippopotamus and crocodile, again Frump, (2006) reported that between December 1996 and August 1997, 11 (possibly more) tourists making their way on foot from Mozambique across the Kruger National Park were reportedly killed by lions, and lastly, in Alberta, Canada, wolves caused 2,806 deaths among domestic animals, mainly, cattle and to a lesser extent dogs, horses, sheep, chickens, bison, goats, geese and turkeys in just within a period of 14 years (1982-1996), Musiani et al., (2003), and further research showed that polar bears have injured or killed people living and working in the Arctic region, Fleck and Herrero (1988: 155).

The basis of this conflict started from an increase in human population through reproduction and immigration, coupled with increasing land conversion from forest to farming (agriculture), Barnes (1996), Campbell et al. (1999), Gachago and Waithaka (1995). Concurrently, the wildlife populations in the ecosystem are growing as well, Carl-Erik and Anders, (1996), while outside protected areas wildlife are becoming constrained to smaller areas of the forest fragment. Moreover, due to the danger that most of these wildlife pose to people and the catastrophic damage that they inflict on crops, human wildlife conflict is more frequently reported and less easily tolerated by the local community, but “Wildlife tourism provides revenue to the local community, which is sufficient for local people to value, and therefore protect their wildlife heritage as a source of income”. Godwin (1996: 288).

BODY

Sustainable Tourism is defined by the World Commission on the Environment and Development (WCED, (1998)) as “Tourism that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs”, furthermore, Mowforth, (2008: 102) discussed about the issues of sustainability, he said, sustainable tourism can be seen in several facets; low impacts, responsible, green, and environmentally friendly.

Sustainability can be seen in the following forms; Area Protection (AP), Carrying Capacity Calculator (CCC), Visitor Management Techniques (VMT), Environmental Impact Assesment (EIA), Sustainability Indicators (SI) and Code of Conduct. Out of these tools afore listed, only three will be further discussed and scrutinized in the later paragraphs, including, the Area Protection, Carrying Capacity, and lastly, Consultation and Participation Techniques (CPT).

Area Protection also known as protected areas, simply means “a geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives, this is a form of legislation by the Government to protecting parks and reserves in other to aid sustainability. Protected areas can be in the form of Country parks, Biosphere reserves, wildlife refugee and reserves, biological reserves, areas of outstanding natural beauty and National Parks” Green and Paine (1997). The Importance of Protected Areas in Kenya, Canada and South Africa is basically to strictly shield wildlife from all commercial extractive activities such as Poaching, lumbering, hydroelectric projects, resource extraction, and hunting. Further more, it provides and supports the followings; scientific research, natural resources, educational opportunities and recreational activities. Arguing the success of, the implementation of this sustainable tool in Kenya, it has denied the Maasai their traditional access to, and use of their land, Talbot and Olindo, (1990). Secondly, the increase in the population of wildlife within Maasai Mara has increased the cost of livestock and agricultural production. For example, the migratory wildbeast, zebra and gazelle compete directly with the Maasai livestock for food and water, Croze et.al., (1978), Caughley and Sinclair, (1994) they also spread diseases, and wildlife are dangerous because they kill livestock and people. In response to these human-wildlife conflicts, the Maasai can destroy wildlife by killing in immediate defence of life and property, they can influence wildlife numbers and distributions through bush burning, and farming, by fencing around properties, waterholes and fields, and by erecting new infrastructures. Furthermore, they could actively deny access to tourists as opposed to passive denial following agricultural developments, Norton-Griffiths, (1995). In South Africa, Problems of animal and crop damages are minimal because most of the protected areas are fenced and hunters are been sent for training by the Department of Nature Conservation, to instruct them in the care and use of hounds and other methods of predator control, Allison, (1961).

Carrying Capacity, Baud-Bovy (1977, p. 184) quote a definition of carrying capacity as the “number of user-unit use-periods that a recreation site can provide each year without permanent biological and physical degradation of the site’s ability to support recreation and without seriously hampering the quality of the recreation experience”. Mathieson and Wall (1982, p. 184) also define carrying capacity by considering the physical impact of tourism on a destination from the experience and environmental aspects as “the maximum number of people who can use a recreational environment and without an unacceptable decline in the quality of the recreational experience”. For the sake of this essay, Carrying Capacity will be defined as the capacity of the destination area to absorb tourism before negative impacts of tourism are felt by the host country. In other words, this capacity is based on how many tourists are wanted rather than how many visitors can be attracted. Invariably, attention is placed more on the host community and the population of wildlife than the tourist. Carrying Capacity can be sub-divided into seven parts, which are: physical carrying capacity; ecological carrying capacity, social carrying capacity, environmental carrying capacity, limits of acceptable change, real carrying capacity and effective or permissible carrying capacity. (Mowforth, 1998. P. 116), but in this essay, only the physical carrying capacity and social carrying capacity will be discussed.

Physical carrying capacity (PCC), Hovinen (1982) defines physical carrying capacity as the maximum number of visitors that can be accommodated without causing excessive environmental deterioration and without leading to a decline in visitor satisfaction. In the case of an individual tourist attraction, it is the maximum number that can fit on the site at any given time and still allow people to be able to move. This is normally assumed to be around 1m per person.

“PCC per day = area (in metres squared) x visitors per metre x daily duration” (Mofworth, 2008. P. 102)

For South Africa, the Physical Carrying Capacity was implemented and adopted in 1960s to determine the maximum number of people who could use recreational area without hampering its essential qualities (Wager, 1964). Again, South Africa’s National Parks Act (South Africa 1976, as amended) makes provision for the utilization of national parks for the sustained benefit and enjoyment of the public while simultaneously maintaining their natural qualities and their potentials to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations (National Parks Board 1980. P. 143), in short, this has helped and is still helping in the significant reduction of the number of tourists. In Kenya, the same tool was adopted around 1960s. This stated definitions reinforces that there is no host population to consider when carrying capacity is to be used, the increase in price could be a way to limit the number of visitors in these areas. The following problems are associated with carrying capacity in the Kenya and South africa; inadequate Government funding, deforestation, indiscriminate hunting, and lack of management plans, but compared to Canada which is a more developed country, the Government has the responsibility of financing wildlife projects and ensuring a qualitative management plan. (sound of vehicles, alters reproduction levle of wildlife, it is seen that the followings affect physical carrying capacity calculation; area size, accessible space, visual impact, climate, aesthetics, accommodation quality, availability of facilities, transportation, number of people that can be accommodated, just to mention a few.

Effective carrying capacity (ECC) “is the real carrying capacity corrected to allow for the difference between the actual management capacity and the ideal management capacity. The actual management capacity of the monument is given by the number of personnel e.g. administrative staff, park guards, and guides employed. The ideal management capacity is given by the number that would be required to fulfil all functions allocated to the staff of the monument.” Mowforth, (2009). The formular is given bellow.

ECC=RCC?FM. – Mowforth, (1998. P. 108)

Social carrying capacity, “capacity thresholds are reached when the number of tourists approaches level which strain the ability of the host area to provide a good visitor experience. The scale and pace of tourism development should therefore respect the character of the area, Value for money, and a high-quality tourist experience should be promoted”, Elwyn Owen (1993: 463). Again, Socio cultural carrying capacity relates to the negative socio cultural activities peculiar to tourism development. its indicators include the followings; reduced local tolerance for tourism, Reduced visitor enjoyment and lastly, increased crime. For example, Steven, (1998) said “In December 1996, the capacity quotas (per entrance gate) were not strictly applied on public holidays, which resulted in a flooding of amenities, conflict between tourists and widespread littering at KNP in South Africa due to poor management of this sustainable tool. Although the policy of the KNP in the past was to control tourist numbers by using vehicle/road ratio and the zoning system which has been unsuccessful in preventing overcrowding in the Skukuza area (South Africa). The guideline of 0.75 vehicles per kilometre of road cannot be regarded as a scientific guideline to control tourist numbers, as the spatial variation of traffic in the park, as well as the preference of motorists for tarred roads, makes it an unusable criterion. Venter et al. (1998) proposed the idea of developing day visitor facilities at the camp to reduce the overnight visitors, providing environmental education and entertainment on the borders of the KNP could relieve the tourist pressure on picnic spots and day-visitor facilities at the main camps.

Lastly, Consultations and participation techniques, Stewart and Hams (1991) said “Sustainable development must be built by, through, and with the commitment of local communities. The requirements of sustainable development can not merely be imposed; active participation by local communities is needed.” In the tourism industry, sustainable development include the participation of the host communities as one essential element or principle of that sustainability. Therefore, consultation and participation has a lot to do with the Stakeholders, NGO’s, local community/host community, government, and the local authorities, just to mention a few. Consultation can be in the form of meetings, public attitude survey, stated preference survey, contigent valuation method and delphi technique, but for the sake of this essay, Meetings/ consultation will be explored in the next paragraph.

Meetings, When deligates are being sent to meet over the issue of sustainability, they delibrate, brainstorm and conclude on the way forward to better implement some essential tools of sustainability. In Kenya, KWS believes that conservation of wildlife outside the protected areas cannot be achieved by protecting animals and avoiding issues of people’s needs, rights and their conflicts with wildlife. Furthermore, conflicts cannot be eliminated without incurring a double loss: destruction of the animals that are the cause and maintenance of expensive control (shooting operations). A sustainable strategy of integrating wildlife management with landowners’ common objectives is preferable, and KWS aims to establish wildlife as a land-use alternative in areas outside the protected national parks and reserves.

Toward this end, KWS has started the Community Wildlife Service (CWS), a pilot extension service, to establish modalities for community partnership and management of wildlife. CWS encourages landowners in selected conservation units (COUs) to allow wildlife to inhabit their land and also to accept training and certain responsibilities delegated by KWS. In return, landowners receive certain wildlife-related revenue-sharing and consumptive-utilization enterprises. In Canada, the Canada Wildlife Service (CWS) “manages wildlife matters that are the responsibility of the federal government. These include the protection and management of migratory birds, nationally significant habitat and species at risk, as well as work on other wildlife issues of national and international importance. In addition, the department does research in many fields of wildlife biology and provides incentive programs for wildlife and habitat stewardship.” Canadian website, (2011b). CWS enforces a law against poachers after brainstorming and delibrating over a way of resolving the human wildlife conflict, most especially, conflicts regarding the grizzly bears.

In South Africa, Southern African Development Community (SADC) are responsible for the conservation of wildlife. They too partner with the local community toward the anti poaching exercise going on with the grizzly bears and the geese but this is done in a well developed way.

Conclusion.

Of all matters, through the afore-discussed ways and sustainable management tools, Kenya, South Africa and Canada are striving to manage the resultant issues and challenges in their peculiar human wildlife interactions. These conflicts can be continually managed through constant review and restructuring of these sustainable tools to meet their peculiarities. Kenya and South Africa should educate the locals on the conservation philosophy which is changing from the traditional approach of strictly managing reserves in other to give absolute protection to wildlife and moving to replacing it with a more realistic alternative that provides tangible benefits to local communities and empowering the locals in other to manage the resources. Martin, (1984), Lewis et al., (1990). but before alternatives can be designed, the relationship between protected area and local people must be clearly understood, the Government should brainstorm with all the stakeholders involved before concluding on a policy for protecting these areas. To succeed today, conservationists should take into account the needs of the locals who share their land with wildlife. This essay has examined some of the ways in which wildlife can be valuable to local people and made to pay for its own conservation.

According to Eltringham (1994), the locals are the one paying for the cost of wildlife conservation, for example in Kenya, the peasant farmer whose crops are distroyed by elephants becomes destitute while visitors from overseas enjoy watching wildlife at minimal cost. One can not expect the animals to be conserved and tolerated under such circumstances and it is now generally accepted that in the long term, wildlife will survive only if those people living in close contact with it want it to. The local are unlikely to do so unless they receive some benefits, this is not necessaryly to be in cash terms because wildlife can pay its way, for example, through the supply of meat to a community, Hudson et al, (1989), Robinson and Redford, (1991).

This essay also notes the lack of wildlife knowledge on the part of local community operators, a lack of consumer awareness on the part of the tourists and an underutilization of potentially advantageous partnerships between local product suppliers and tour operators. And the conflict rate is severe where reserves are sorrounded by high densities of people. Harcourt et al. (2001). Most significantly, Kenya lacks adequate and experienced manpower in wildlife tourism management, wildlife in this area can be better managed if the assistance from the government and an international aid can be increased towards educating (sponsoring staff for national and international training), sophisticated gadgets like investing in guarding weapons, helicopters and medicines.

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World Commission on the Environment and Development Towards Sustainable Development (1998). Our Common Future [Online] Available from: http://www.un-documents.net [Accessed 10 Apr 2011]

World Tourism Organisation. (1993). Sustainable Tourism Development: Guide for Local Planners. WTO. Madrid [Online] http://www.experiencefestival.com/world_tourism_organization. only the link can be provided [Accessed 20 March 2011]

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Medical study of type 2 diabetes in sub-saharan africa

Introduction

In recent times there has been a surge in non-communicable diseases, especially Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This is an extra burden upon the healthcare systems, which already have to cope with the high prevalence of communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. I chose to read up on this issue as it is a topic that is not really addressed in the field of diabetes.

Epidemiology

There were approximately around 200 million people with diabetes worldwide. This figure is on the rise and has the potential to reach around 380 million in the year 2025. This huge increase also is expected to be seen in Africa and Asia.

T2DM is the most common form of diabetes with around 90% of diabetic patients. The current prevalence of T2DM in SSA is only a third of the HIV prevalence, however it is estimated to reach the same as current HIV prevalence by 2025. The prevalence is around 1.4% or lower in most SSA countries, however it is raised to around 3% in South Africa. There is also a greater prevalence of the disease in urbanised areas, as apposed to the more rural locations. It has been. The prevalence of diabetes in Africa was around 3 million in 1994, rising to 7.1 million by the year 2000. In 2010 the figure was around 12 million and is set to rise up to around 24 million by the year 2030. This phenomenon may be due to the rapid urbanisation these countries are facing.

Risk Factors

These factors can be split into modifiable (i.e. can be changed) and non-modifiable. Modifiable risk factors include the rise in obesity seen in SSA. This rise can be attributed to the rapid urbanisation of SSA countries. A study in 2002 showed the extent of clinically overweight/obese people in South Africa to be 56% for females and around 29% for males. Other studies have shown diabetic patients in SSA have a higher BMI than non-diabetic patients. However, one may argue that it is truncal obesity, which is more closely linked to T2DM than BMI. One study has shown the level of truncal obesity in Cameroon to be 18% in males and 67% in females. This may be due to the consensus that women who are larger are deemed healthier and richer, especially in countries where HIV is prevalent.

The diet of the people of SSA is becoming more westernised including the rise of saturated fats, sugars and lower levels of fibre. This paired with rapid urbanisation leading to a more inactive lifestyle is likely to contribute to the rise in T2DM seen.

Countries of SSA are also increasing their GDP and so are becoming more prosperous. This is linked with the urbanisation, which has been mentioned. This has lead to the rise in processed foods consumed, inactive lifestyle and inevitable increase in obesity.

Non-modifiable risk factors include age and ethnicity. The most common age group for T2DM was 45-65 year. Some studies showed that more women had T2DM than women in certain SSA countries. There is also an effect from ethnic origin, for example some countries have a higher population of Indian people, where the prevalence of T2DM is higher.

Other risk factors include TB or the use of antivirals, which may increase the likelihood of contracting T2DM.

Complications

Complications arising from T2DM can either be classified as macrovascular or microvascular. Macrovascular complications include cardiovascular disease and stroke. Microvascular complications include nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. Patients from developed countries have greater macrovascular morbidity, whereas in SSA the opposite is true.

In developed countries T2DM mortality is due to CVD and renal complications, however in SSA the mortality is greatly due to infections and metabolic problems. Infections include sepsis and TB. Metabolic problems are usually keto-acidosis and hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma.

However there is still a lot of un-obtained data, which is due to the poor documentation of the cause of death. It is one of the challenges to increase the number of deaths reported, and also to report it accurately.

Treatment

The key to decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with T2DM is to maintain good control over the blood glucose levels. This can be achieved using a diet management plan, exercise and, if needed, the use of appropriate medication.

Drugs, which can be administered, include sulphonylureas, which promote insulin secretion after a rise in glucose levels. Meglitinides, which are insulin secretagogues. Biguanides such as Metformin, decrease the rate of gluconeogenesis and thus lower blood glucose. Insulin can also be used as a last resort in T2DM to maintain good glucose control.

A study has highlighted the poor blood-glucose control for patients with T2DM in SSA. These were patients who were on various different treatment regimens ranging from sulphonylureas to insulin. This maybe due to lack of availability of drugs, high cost of drugs/lack of funds, lack of adherence, lack of patient education and late presentation. One paper showed that a few health care settings in Tanzania only had a couple of sulphonylureas and insulin in their drug stores.

Major Challenges and Solutions

To understand why there is poor care of patients with T2DM in SSA, one has to identify the problems that are faced in order to create a solution. The economy of these countries is already stretched and so have low healthcare budgets. This means that there is not enough money to purchase drugs and provide optimal healthcare to T2DM patients who require chronic care. This problem is exacerbated due to the fact that communicable diseases such as HIV take up more of the budget, leaving a decreasing amount of money to be spent on non-communicable chronic conditions.

There is also a lack of qualified healthcare providers and so insufficient manpower. This maybe due to the lack of training and courses in order to create these qualified healthcare providers. There are also poor healthcare referral systems. This inevitably shows the lack of organisation within the healthcare systems in SSA. This needs to be tackled by reorganising the healthcare infrastructure and create/improve training programmes for the staff. Greater drug supply is also essential. One study showed that there was a lack of insulin in some SSA countries such as Mali. There also needs to be improved access to care, as many patients can’t reach the required level of care in order to manage their T2DM well.

There is also poor patient education in SSA, and so this leads to poor adherence of treatments as well as poor glycaemic control. T2DM is a chronic disease and so patient education is key in good management of the disease in order to decrease complications arising. Greater primary and secondary prevention strategies need to be established, as this will be economically beneficial. Interventions need to be cost effective as there are limited resources and funds.

A lot of the data collected regarding T2DM care is inaccurate or just simply not collected. In order to assess the characteristics of the disease in SSA, better data collection methods need to be initiated. Poor record keeping is detrimental to the care of the T2DM patient, where glucose monitoring ensures stable control.

An example to follow is the National Diabetes and Hypertension Program in Cameroon. This initiative saw the coming together of health-care providers, policy-makers and people from the community in order to tackle the growing epidemic of T2DM in SSA. Strategies are shown in figure 2. This program ensured greater monitoring, documentation as well as better interventions which all lead to better care for T2DM patients.

Conclusions

With the rapid urbanisation and greater prosperity seen in sub-Saharan Africa, T2DM is becoming an underestimated epidemic. With the focus on communicable diseases, the care of T2DM is not improving, as seen by the multitude of problems faced in SSA. Strained healthcare budgets mean that it is necessary, more than ever, to produce cost-effective initiatives. Governments need to understand the dangers of communicable diseases as well as non-communicable diseases. Better primary and secondary prevention strategies need to be created to target issues such as the rising levels of obesity. Governments need to issue better guidelines, training and promote policymaking. Initiatives such as National Diabetes and Hypertension Program in Cameroon have had very positive feedback and have set the standard for other governments within SSA.

If this problem is not addressed, there will be a negative impact on T2DM morbidity and mortality. This will inevitably reduce the socioeconomic growth in SSA countries, which is vital for the prosperity of the country.

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Hyundai Strategic Analysis and it’s Business in South Africa

Introduction

In recent times, it is sure that the importance of marketing research has increased due to serious competition between companies. That is why there are a plenty of method for information research in order to understand the mind of consumer which can be useful to make the plans and strategy for producing of marketing offering needed by consumer. In addition, through the researching of marketing, the company can build up the priority way to be connected in terms of closes between company and consumer. Therefore, most of companies in the world have tried to concentrate on the marketing area by investing a lot of money to investigate for gaining specific information which affects to increase a profit. In this essay, Firstly, the organisation selected is the company of Hyundai Motor. Secondly, target market is South Africa.

(sourse:www.autoblog.com/media/2006/06/hyundai.jpg)

What is the Hyundai Motor Company (HMC)

Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) is one of the most competitive companies in Korea. From 1960s to the early 1980s, Korean government supported automobile industry through special policies and laws like ‘Automobile Industry Protection Law’ and ‘A Long term Plan to Promote the Automobile industry’ in order to boost the economy after the Korean War(1950-1953). While developing continuously with this support, HMC started to export their technique and products to other countries. Their first export was carried out in 1980s in Quebec, Canada. However, their first attempt was unsuccessful closing their plant rather early and struggled to succeed again in India in 1998. Now, HMC is a global company which could survive among other companies in competitive relation: KIA and DAEWOO during economic recession and has continued to develop from both inside and outside of Korea. (A review by Russell et al. 2006)

South Africa and consumer (Target Market)

According to the table it can be seen below, it show that the growth of rating of economy in South Africa has developed rapidly. It means that for motor company the South African can be consumer marketing area to get a profit.

(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_South_Africa)

In addition, South Africa has launched a programme called ‘Black Economy Empowerment’, since 1994. This programme is aimed at promote the Black People who have more disadvantages relatively under the circumstance of apartheid economically. Despite some criticism on this programme, it plays a crucial role in developing South Africa’s economy. To be concrete, it encourages companies being run by black owners, especially the Petroleum and Liquid Fuels (P&LF) and Mining industry to achieve economic growth within some years. (A reviewed by Stefano Ponte et al 2007) With this series of economic strategy, South Africa has founded more growing economic system and increasing the black people’s right gradually.

From this information, it can be known that the quality of life style of Black People in South Africa among Africa is developing due to policy of government which support Black People. As a result, the people supported by BEE policy might have became middle class who get a confidence economically and the ability to buy products. Briefly, it can be said that this group can be great market if the HMC is aimed at there.

I20 Hyundai car (market offering)

In mind of consumer, it is sure that the extent of safety of product is main issue. I20 is the motor produced which is one of the most safeties cars in Hyundai motor company. I20 contains of both the condition of safety and modern design including superb interior made from material which feel people comfortable. I20 is the prestigious European National Car Assessment Programme 5 star which proves the quality of safety. In addition, it is cheaper than other motor companies. (I20 may be required http://www.hyundai.com/in/en/Showroom/Flash/SRFOVERVIEW/DF_IN_SR_BJ_080313131438.html , no date) It will be able to have a competitiveness of product to survive in business market if it is sold in South Africa. However, the Hyundai motor company need to have other market strategy for getting more powerful endurance. One example is that they put specific brand image and soul into I20 by using advertisement and giving people t-shirt drawn the picture and logo of I20 to connect with consumer. In conclusion, it should reach on the target group who became middle class in South Africa who has economical ability because of BEE policy established in time of Nelson Mandela. In addition, it should be focus on group which has educated under parent affected by BEE. They get a sense of selecting the car designed as modern and up to date and elegant.

(Source: Http://www.hyundai.com/in/en/Showroom/Flash/SRF/DF_IN_SR_BJ_080313131453)

Primary data and Secondary data

Generally, there are three types of information the company can obtain: Internal data, Marketing intelligence, and Marketing research. (The view proposed by Philip Kotler 2010 P.126-131).Three kind of information can be divided into two methods: Primary data, and Secondary data. Basically, the primary data is related to marketing research. Secondary data also is connected to marketing intelligence and internal data. When it comes to the principle of marketing, the mean of primary can be classified as ‘it consists of information gathered for the special research plan’. (Philip Kotler 2010 P.131) The secondary data can be defined as ‘it consists of information that already exists somewhere having been collected for another purpose’. Philip Kotler 2010 P.131)

Secondary data can be consists of two sorts of source: internal source and external sources. Examples of internal source are company reports, previous company research, salesperson feedback and customer feedback. The examples of external source are the published research, trade organisation, syndicated research and government source.

Primary data collection is divided into four types of collection: research approaches, contact methods and sampling plan and research instrument. (Philip Kotler 2010 P.133-142) Firstly, the research approaches consists of four types of researches: observational research, ethnographic research, survey research and experimental research. The observational research can be the technique to collect the primary data by observing the people in term of action and circumstance. The ethnographic research is to use the professional discover for understanding of natural the environment of consumer. The survey of research is generally the most useful skills for knowing of knowledge and attitude and preference. The experimental research is of collection general information. When it comes to contact method in a marketing research, generally, it is linked to the way of online to pick up the thought of consumer. The benefits of contact method by online are that it is cheap and speed. The representative examples of contact Methods are Mail and Telephone and personal interviewing. (Philip Kotler 2010 P.135)

According to principle of marketing, the definition of sample can be determined as ‘a segment of the population selected for marketing research to represent the population as a whole.’ (Philip Kotler 2010 P.139) In order to use this tactics, first of all, the company should consider who people to be selected for survey are. In addition it should be took into account how many people will be research as well as how the people can be chosen. Furthermore, the research instrument is questionnaires that it is general way by using phone and online. (Philip Kotler 2010 P.139-142)

What is the benefit of primary data?

Basically, there are advantages and disadvantages both primary data and secondary data. Compared with primary data, there are a number of secondary data so that it can be of use for the company faced with problem, indicating a way for overcoming of problem with developing of the understanding of problem.

(Illustrations of the Secondary VS Primary Market research can be found online. http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing/market-research/1310-1.html)

However, there are some problems in a secondary data up to whether its information is relevant with problem of company or not. Therefore it is necessary for the company to consider the extent of relevant, accurate, up to date and impartial with the problem faced with company. (Philip Kotler 2010 P.133) On the other hand, the main benefit of primary data is to get the information for target group in the time of makeing new products, which affect the company get competitiveness for winning against competitive company.

(Illustrations of the Secondary VS Primary Market research can be found online. http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing/market-research/1310-1.html)

In addition, this method will become the protection of wall for loss of profit by preparing the situation carried out. From the primary data, the company can obtain fulfilling conditions of information in term of accurate, up to date, relevant.

(Source:http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~renglish/370/notes/chapt08/index.htm)

The conclusion

For company both secondary data and primary data should be need. Even though the cost of making of primary data is expensive but help the company to succeed against competitive company. (Illustrations of the Secondary VS Primary Market research can be found online. http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing/market-research/1310-1.html) For improving of marketing research skill, firstly, the company has to define what the problem is and the target marketing is. In addition, should be created new idea what the market place is and the target consumer is as well as considering of which product the consumer want to buy. If company build up the creative strategy for specific target market with consumer, it will be able to succeed.

Bibliography

RUSSELL D. LANSBURY*, SEUNG-HO KWON**& CHUNGSOK

SUH (2006) ‘Globalization and Employment Relations in the Korean Auto Industry:

The Case of the Hyundai Motor Company in Korea, Canada and India’ Vol. 12, No. 2, 131–147, EBSCO (Online), available at (assessed: April 2006)

Stefano Ponte, Simon Roberts and Lance van Sittert (2007) ‘Black Economic Empowerment’, Business and the State in South

Vol. 38, Issue 5, p933-955. 23p. EBSCO (Online), (assessed: ep2007)

Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong 2010 Principle of Marketing, Thirteenth Edition, p 126-142.PEARSON

http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing/market-research/1310-1.html (no date and Author)

http://www.hyundai.com/in/en/Showroom/Flash/SRFOVERVIEW/DF_IN_SR_BJ_080313131438.html (No date and Author)

http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~renglish/370/notes/chapt08/index.htm

Available at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_South_Africa

[/level-freee-rstricted]

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Pipeline Inspection at Petronet, South Africa

Introduction

Petronet, a local company that transports natural gas through underground pipelines across South Africa, had approached MA2K Testing Labs to conduct an investigation on a leakage on the pipeline, which was found during a random leak inspection. The Pipeline operates from Johannesburg to Potchefstroom. Upon inspection a joint was singled out as being a major source of leakage. The affected area was joined using a butt weld and reinforced with a clamp. This section was dissected and inspection revealed that the leakage was due to incomplete fusion in the weld which initiated the formation of hook cracks and cavities in the parent material directly adjacent to the weld. External stresses from the environment may have accelerated the growth of the cavities and cracks yet the clamp increased the strength of the joint aiding in the prevention of any accelerated growths of the defects.

As a short term solution it is advised to replace the damaged section with a new pipe. It must be correctly welded of the same material and as an added precaution to weld an additional sleeve over the newly joined and welded section.

As a long term solution it is advised to replace the entire pipeline with a new combination of materials.

1. Background

Petronet, a leading company in South Africa which transports natural gas through underground pipelines conducted a random leak inspection survey on one of their pipelines operating from Johannesburg to Potchefstroom, and it was discovered that there was a gas leak at the specific joint. The pipe carries natural gas and it is imperative that the leak should be fixed, due to the volatile nature of gas as well as the loss of resource, in turn profits. The systems comprised of numerous seamless pipes and connected using a butt weld; these joints were reinforced by clamps bolted on.

MA2K Testing Labs had been approached by Petronet, to inspect the leakage and was employed to identify the true cause of failure and as well as make many suitable recommendations for the repair and prevention of malfunction of the joint. The pipeline was effective since the 20th February 1995; this put the pipeline age in the region of 15 years.

Figure 2.1 (Below) was taken on site

2. Description

The defective section of the pipe, including the clamp was then marked, cut out and removed from the site for further inspection and analysis. The inspection and analysis was carried out in MA2K Testing Labs in Durban.

Two grade A 106 GR.B SCH40 seamless pipes with outside diameters of 168.3mm and wall thickness of 9mm were butt welded end to end. A butt weld consists of the two pipes heated to a proper fusion temperature then joined by means of force. The joint was further secured by a clamp. The operating internal gas pressure was 2620 kPa (380 psi).

Chemical composition of the pipe:

Element

C

Si

Mn

P

S

Cr

Mo

Cu

Ni

V

%

? 0.30

? 0.10

0.291.06

?0.035

?0.035

?0.40

?0.15

?0.40

?0.40

?0.08

3. Possibilities Of Failure

3.1. Weld Defects

Penetration is poor at the start of welding
Ensure the grades of pipes are constant to optimize bonding strength
Poor quality welds caused by Inaccurate timing
Incorrect temperature
Incorrect pressure applied
Failure due to fatigue (welding lowers fatigue strength)
Fusion did not occur between weld metal and fusion faces.
Incomplete penetration
Weld metal does not extend through the joint thickness
Exposed to water and contaminants in the gas, such as O2, H2S, CO2, or chlorides.
A particular gas composition may cause corrosion under some operating conditions
Oxygen content (oxidizing salts)
Passing through soils of different mineral content
Contact of different metals, particularly at valves (galvanic corrosion)
Normally consists of gouges and dents.
Generally created by excavation or handling equipment during construction.
Results from cyclic stresses that are below the ultimate tensile stress, or even the yield stress of the material.
3.2. Incomplete Fusion

3.3. Internal Corrosion

3.4. External Corrosion

3.5. Mechanical Damage

3.6. Fatigue Crack

3.7. Material Defects

Material defects are unwanted contaminants at the melting of steel, the steel forming or the heat treating.
Furthermore faults can occur by improper storage or processing.
Material defects can appear in different forms.
Example of various defects mentioned below :
Non-metallic inclusions

bad microstructure

surface corrosion

mechanical damage

surface defect

3.8. Weld Cracks

Refers to fracture of weld caused as a result of poor parts fit-up, rapid cooling, and localized stresses exceed the ultimate strength of the metal etc.
Examples of weld cracks :
Arc Cracks

Longitudinal Crack

Transverse Crack

Crater Crack

Throat Crack

Toe Crack

Root Crack

Hot Crack

Cold Crack

Hook Crack

3.9. Hydrogen Blistering

A type of hydrogen-induced failure produced when hydrogen atoms enter low-strength steels that have macroscopic defects, such as laminations
4. Inspection

The clamp was removed for further inspection of the weld join. The removal of the clamp was done under supervision by National Energy Regulator of South Africa (NERSA).

The pipe surface was required to be cleaned. An acetone solution was used. Liquid Penetrant examination was performed on the weld area of the pipe. Surface discontinuities were visible on the bottom of the pipe. All examinations and analysis was carried out by MA2K Testing Labs. Through inspection it was deduced that a Butt weld was used to join the pipe line and macrostructure images revealed that there were defects on the welded area. Namely weld cracks, improper penetration and incomplete fusion. Cavities were discovered near/adjacent to the welded section of the pipe material.

Surface discontinuities were made visible by the Liquid Penetrant examination. These results further justify the suspicion that there was an improper weld process conducted on the joins of the pipeline and thus the cause of the gas leak. Cavities are visible in the pipe walls. This may be caused by vacancies in the material join in the weld.

The extracted sample was investigated by method of etching. A Nital solution was used to etch the pipe material. Nital is a solution of alcohol and nitric acid commonly used for routine etching of metals. It is especially suitable for revealing the microstructure of carbon steels. The alcohol can be methanol, ethanol or methylated spirits. By viewing the etched sample under a Scanning Electron Microscope it was revealed that there was an overlap of material and as a result, it was discovered that there is an irregularity or there is a non-uniform overlap or join of material. This could cause a weakness in the join due to variants in material or state of the material. The non-uniform joint of material gives weak point on the structure of the pipeline and thus resulted in a leak.

Arrows on figure 5.3 clearly indicate all the weld areas, the heat affected zones and the pipe parent material.

5. Results

Before the pipe was sectioned for detailed examination, a radiographic examination was performed on the premises of MA2K Testing Labs. The following image was revealed on the radiographic film. The radiograph picture shows the microstructure of the material and identifies the weld overlap with the parent material. There are clear indications of variant material or states which cause weakness in the join when added stress is applied. There are cut out root cavities visible in the radiograph which could be the cause of leakage in the pipeline.

Figure 6.2: Radiograph Of Material

In figure 6.3 below: The longitudinal cross section of the pipe showed the weld structure inside the pipeline. This revealed defects in the weld structure and cavities in the wall of the pipeline and a clear indication of the crack and fracture lines that could cause a leak in the pipeline. These defects occurred in the joining of the pipe and together with possible external stresses that act on it due to the environment, no corrosion had occurred and pipe was designed to withstand pressure of the gas within the pipe.

Longitudinal samples were taken from the extracted piece. Cuts were made across the weld line, to define the differences in the material used in the weld and the parent material.

The two cross sections through the wall thickness of the pipe was polished and etched with Nital. The one macroscopic image (Figure 6.4) revealed a clear leakage path through the wall thickness of the pipe. This shows that there was a weakness in the join between the weld material and the parent material. Further fracture and strain caused the weld to split at the join between the weld material and the parent material. Figure 6.5 shows that there was a lack of side wall fusion in the pipe and that there was another weld bead on the left, this had been made to try to fill the vacancies produced from the lack of fusion.

6. Conclusions

After thorough investigation of the defective area of the pipe it was found that the leakage was due to improper weld process and lack of fusion, lack of fusion causes cavities. Cavities form cracks over a period of time. Due to this hook cracks were formed and leakage had occurred. Therefore, the components used contain no post installation defects as there was no internal or external corrosion to the material. The design of the material is suited to the environment as it was able to withstand cyclic loading, fatigue stresses and no signs of hydrogen blistering was present on the material. Mechanical damage may have aided or accelerated the growth of the crack size. The clamp made detecting the source of the leak more difficult and may have helped in the prevention or retarded the rate in which the cracks had grown. The condition of the pipe or clamp base steel compositions or microstructures was as expected for the working life of the system. No softening was found associated with the weld and pipe Heat Affected Zone.

7. Recommendation

7.1. Short Term Solution

As a short term solution it is advised to replace the damaged section with a new pipe. It must be correctly welded of the same material and as an added precaution to weld an additional sleeve over the newly joined and welded section. This may suffice for the next 10 years

7.2. Long Term Solution

As a long term solution it is advised to replace the entire pipeline with a new combination of materials as per Petroleum Bulk Storage Regulations, the requirement is that all new underground pipelines be as follows:

vPipes must be either constructed of a non-corrodible material such as fiberglass reinforced plastic, nylon or engineered thermo-plastic, or metal such as steel with a cathodic protection system designed to protect it for 30 years.

vPipes may be in single or double-walled construction

vAccess ports must be installed to permit tightness testing;

vInstallation must be in accordance with recognized engineering practices

vPipes and joints must be tightness tested before being covered and placed in.

To reduce downtime and loss of profits, the new pipeline may be installed next to the existing pipeline and until completion will be ineffective. Thereafter the new pipeline will replace the old with minimal downtime. This is another advantage of laying down a new pipeline.

7.3. Prevention of Lack of Fusion

vSurface should be machined/ground smooth to avoid minute discontinuities.

vEnsure welding current is sufficient.

vWeld arcs should not be longer than the pipe diameter

vThe “V” angle should not exceed 7 degrees

vThe strip width should be appropriate and consistent for the diameter of the pipe

References
Alibaba.com, 1999. Sourcing Products And Suppliers (Carbon Steel Piping: ASTM A106 GR.B). (Updated 01 April 2011)
Available at: http://www.alibaba.com/product-gs/258930670/ASTM_A106_GR_B.html. [Accessed 24 April 2011]
Jernberg, John (1919), Forging, American Technical Society (Updated 29 April 2007)
Available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=-ksxAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA26

[Accessed 24 April 2011]

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To what extent has poverty masked awareness of issues of child abuse in africa? A study of poverty relief campaigns targeted at, or originating from, western countries”

Abstract

Child abuse is a global phenomenon that affects all societies and is driven by both the socio-economic factors and psycho-biosocial factors. Studies have, over the past few decades, shown an increasing prevalence of child abuse and a decline in awareness of issues of child abuse, with Africa reported to have the highest prevalence rates. The pervasive nature of child abuse and the lack of progress in creating awareness of issues of child abuse demand for urgent action to address this issue.

The proposed dissertation Seeks to examine the extent to which poverty in Africa has masked awareness of issues of child abuse in Africa. It comprises of an introductory section, rationale of the topic chosen, and literature review and the overall methodological approach that will be taken to address the objectives of the research. The literature review section presents the findings of previous research and identifies gaps or conceptual problems in existing research. The paper proposes the overall methodological approach which will be taken to gather data, and the sampling strategy that will be employed. Further, the paper identifies ethical issues and demonstrates how the validity and reliability of the research findings will be ensured

Introduction

Child abuse is a global phenomenon that affects all societies and is often driven by both the socio-economic factors and psycho-biosocial factors. The Female children are often the most affected with incidences of child abuse higher among the females than the males. According to a recent review by Pereda et.al (2009) that examined 65 studies from 22 countries, the global prevalence of child abuse was found to be higher among females, with estimates at 19.7% for females and 7.9% for male children.

The study also revealed that Africa has the highest prevalence rates of child abuse and that awareness of issues of child abuse in Africa has declined. The pervasive nature of child abuse and the lack of progress in creating awareness of issues of child abuse require urgent action to address this issue. Contributing to this topic, the proposed dissertation will examine issues of child abuse in Africa. In particular, the proposed dissertation will examine the extent to which poverty in Africa has masked awareness of issues of child abuse. This will include an exploration of poverty relief campaigns targeted at, or originating from, Western countries”.

Rationale of the study.

Children have a right to care and protection from abuse as specified under article 18 of the UNCRC (USAID 2011).Their right to protection is also upheld under the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACRWC) (USAID 2011). While the UNCRC and ACRWC ensure the protection of the rights of children and recognize the state’s ultimate responsibility in fulfilling these rights, studies have recently highlighted the alarmingly large number of children who are exploited, abused and neglected (USAID 2011).

Child abuse has become a serious global concern and is particularly pervasive in Africa. Incidences of child abuse that are particularly common in the African continent include child marriage, child trafficking, sexual abuse, child prostitution and pornography; and neglect (Shumba 2007). In spite of its prevalence, there seem to be a lack of progress in creating awareness and addressing issues of child abuse in Africa. Poverty seems to be masking issues of child abuse in Africa.

Research objectives

The proposed dissertation draws attention to issues of child abuse in Africa. In particular, the analysis examines the extent to which poverty has masked awareness of issues of child abuse in Africa. As such, the research objectives of the proposed study include.

To understand the magnitude and nature of child abuse in Africa
To examine the extent to which poverty relief campaigns targeted at, or originating from, Western countries” have masked awareness of issues of child abuse in Africa
To contribute towards reducing child poverty and increasing awareness of issues of child abuse in Africa.
Literature review

Although child abuse is a global phenomenon, it is particularly pervasive in Africa. There is a widespread concern about the high levels of assault, sexual exploitation and abuse of children in Sub-Saharan Africa. A recent Human Rights Watch report of (2001) documented increasing cases of rape, assault and sexual harassment of schoolgirls in South Africa. In three provinces in South Africa visited by Human Rights Watch, it was found that schoolgirls were raped by their teachers in empty classrooms, school toilets, and hostels and even in the hallways.

Lema (1997) notes that sexual abuse of children in Sub-Saharan Africa has escalated over the past few decades. He also points out that, the situation seems to have taken a dramatic turn for the worst in Malawi where there have been increased incidences of reported child sexual abuse. A conclusion shared by most of studies is that child abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is on the increase. Most of these studies have attributed the increase in child abuse to a range of factors such as breakdown of traditional culture, disintegration of clan authority, beliefs and rapid social change (Lalor 2004). Others view child abuse, especially sexual abuse as a product of modernization.

A feature of most of the African literature on child abuse is the perception that the abuse can in part be attributed to beliefs in the ‘cleansing’ nature of sex with children (Lalor 2004). As lema (1997) and Meursing et al. (1995) note, there seem to be a wider perception that sex with virgin girls may cure STDs and bring good fortune. While this finding may certainly seem true, the authors did not provide any empirical evidence in their studies. The extent to which such practices are carried out remain uncertain.

Lema’s speculations also reappear in the work of Madu & Peltzer (2000). While these authors acknowledge that the evidence is anecdotal, there is a danger in citing unsubstantiated anecdote as this leads to an undeserved credibility of the position held (Lalor 2004). Although a number of studies have identified a range of contributory factors causing the prevalence of child abuse, there remains disquiet in academia on the extent to which poverty has masked the awareness of issues of child abuse in Africa.

However, some authors have explored on the link between poverty and child abuse. Clark et al. (2007) & Larchman et al. (2002) have argued that the increase in prevalence of child abuse is largely attributable to increased levels of poverty. In fact, the mere existence of poverty has been labeled by Clark et al. (2007) as a form of abuse. They argue that when children from poor backgrounds are deprived of their basic elements, they suffer the same consequences as those whom these elements have been withheld intentionally (Clark et al. 2007).

Larchman et.al (2002) argues that the high levels of poverty in Africa have led to children being subjected to exploitative child labour, child trafficking and child prostitution. These authors also argue that while progress has been made to develop child protection programs, without the necessary steps to eradicate poverty in Africa, child protection will continue to be an academic issue.

A similar study on child abuse in Zambia by UNICEF (2001) showed that girls at the age of 12 to 15 years were forced by their parents to work in hotels, bars and brothels. Subsequently, a Human Rights Watch report (2009) showed that in 2004, more than 820,000 orphaned children in Congo were driven into prostitution for the survival of their families. Whilst it’s difficult to ascertain the scale of the problem, it is clear that poverty is masking issues of child abuse in Africa.

Children from poor backgrounds are being caught up in the daily struggle for survival and material gain (Larchman et al. 2002). This is the case especially in Kenya and Nigeria where parents send their children to the street to sell food, clothing and general merchandise, resulting in them becoming part-time street traders. Others are sent by their parents to beg in the streets. Whereas some others lead handicapped adults as they beg on the streets (Lalor 2004). Such practices in many respects are damaging to the lives of children and hold great danger for them. Some people may lure children by buying their wares and paying them to run errands.

Further, children from poor backgrounds who are sexually abused are often denied justice by parents who accept payoffs. When children are sexual abused, the persons responsible for the evil act pay their parents so that they won’t press charge (Shumba 2007). And since most of the African families are poor, they accept such pay offs and remain silent. Such a culture of child abuse is very common in Africa.

Clearly, poverty seems to be masking awareness of issues of child abuse in Africa. There is an urgent need to address the issue of child poverty and increase child abuse awareness in Africa. Given the close association between poverty and child abuse, it can be argued that the most effective way to address issues of child abuse would be to eradicate poverty.

Methodology

Research design

A key element of any research is to ensure an appropriate research design. As pointed out by Bickman et al. (1997), research design serves as the “architectural blueprint” of a research study. It comprises of the overall research approach, data collection methods and analyses of data. It links data collection and analysis activities to the research questions. In fact, the credibility and reliability of a research rests with the design implemented. For the proposed dissertation, the research design will be as follows:

Research philosophy

The research is going to take an interpretive philosophical approach. Not only will the researcher interact with the participants, but will also take into account the multiple versions of reality. Besides seeking the views of the participant on the extent to which poverty has masked awareness of child abuse issues, the researcher will also take into account counter-opposing views, explaining how poverty may not be masking issues of child abuse. The interpretive philosophical approach will enable the research to critically engage with the research topic, thereby providing rich insights.

Research approach

The overall methodological approach to the proposed dissertation will take the form of a mixed method research design involving a combination of both quantitative and qualitative research techniques. The advantage of the mixed method approach is that it combines the strength of both the qualitative and quantitative research approaches. As pointed out by Connelly (2009), the mixed approach is important as it draws on the strength and minimizes the weaknesses of the two research approaches.

Another important point to note is that the mixed approach will enrich the study by promoting clarity, accuracy and nuance (Connelly 2009). Research is more robust where it involves mix methods and more ethical in the sense that the plurality of interests and perspectives are represented (Connelly 2009). By combining both the qualitative and quantitative research approaches, the researcher will be able to produce a more comprehensive analysis of the extent to which poverty has masked awareness of child abuse in Africa

Interviews will be used to collect qualitative data. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with key informants, particularly international NGOs that deal with issues of child abuse such as the Coalition Against Child Abuse & Neglect (CACAN), Coalition of African NGO working with Children (CANGOC), Coalition Against Child Labour in Zimbabwe (CACLAZ), and African Network for the Prevention and Protection Against Child Abuse and Neglect (anppcan). Interviews with such key informants will help in developing rich insights on the topic under investigation.

The researcher will also scour through published and peer-reviewed literature on child abuse in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the limited number of peer-reviewed studies that examine the extent to which poverty has masked the awareness of child abuse in Africa, the researcher have to utilize grey literature as well including unpublished data and research reports. Whilst the secondary data will be based on a systematic review, the researcher recognizes that a full systematic review of the relevant literature may not be possible owing to the lack of availability of resources. Nonetheless, much of the relevant literature will be captured from a range sources. The collated evidence will then be used to address the research objectives.

Sampling

Purposive sampling method will be employed in selecting the participants to be interviewed. Purposive sampling method has been chosen for this analysis as it gives the researcher latitude in selecting the sample according to the purpose of the study which is to examine the extent to which poverty has masked awareness of issues of child abuse in Africa. The study will be confined to four African countries: Zimbabwe, Malawi, South Africa and Kenya. A sample of 40 participants will be selected, 10 from each of the coalitions. The participants will be subjected to semi-structured interviews and asked questions about the extent to which poverty has masked awareness of issues of child abuse in the four selected African countries.

Reliability and validity

Interviews with key informants such as CACLAZ, CACAN, ANPPCAN and CANGOC will ensure reliability and trustworthiness of the research finding given their expertise in the field of child abuse. Also, the use of mixed method approach will be particularly useful in achieving triangulation thereby increasing the study’s reliability and validity. Triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data will enable the research to cross-check reliability and validity of the research findings.

Ethical issues

It is important to take into consideration ethical issues when conducting a research as ethical considerations provide a basis for the credibility and objectivity of a research. By ethics, we imply the appropriateness of the researcher’s behaviour towards the subjects or rather the application of moral standards when conducting and reporting of the findings of a research. For the proposed research, the researcher will first seek consent of the participants and ensure that participants are treated with respect and due consideration.

Participants will be assured of confidentiality of their information. The researcher will also assure the participants that the findings obtained will not be used for other purposes other than to investigate the extent to which poverty has masked awareness of issues of child abuse in Africa. Also when conducting the systematic reviews of published and peer-reviewed studies and other relevant documented materials, the researcher will acknowledge the authors’ contributions.

Possible limitations to the study

While the study has laid out the framework to achieving the research objective, it is without doubt that there are likely to be certain drawbacks. These include:

The research findings of the 4 African countries may not be generalized to represent the entire African continent
The research is also likely to be faced with time and budgetary constraints.
Given the dearth of information on how poverty masks awareness of issues of child abuse, achieving the objectives of the research is likely to be challenging.
Conclusion

To this end, the paper has laid out the overall approach to addressing the research questions of the proposed dissertation and the rationale for the chosen topic and research method. The paper has also identified the main ethical issues that must be taken into consideration. Further, the paper has shown how the validity and reliability of the research findings will be ensured.

While the objectives of the study seem achievable, it is without doubt that the research will be constrained by certain factors such as availability of resources, budgetary and time constraints. Nonetheless, the researcher is positive that the primary objective of the research, which is to examine the extent to which poverty has masked awareness of issues of child abuse, will be achieved.

Reference

Bickman, L. and Rog, D.J., 1997. Handbook of applied social research methods. Oak: Sage

Clark, R.E., Clark, J.F. and Adamec, C.A.,2007. The encyclopedia of child abuse. Infobase Publishing

Connelly, L.M., 2009. ‘Mixed Methods Studies’. MEDSURG Nursing. Vol. 18, No. 1

Handley, G., Higgins, K., Sharma, B., Bird, K. and Cammack, C., 2009. Poverty and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa: an overview of the issues. Working paper 299

Human rights watch, 2009. Soldiers Who Rape, Commanders Who Condone Sexual Violence and Military Reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo. New York:

Human RightsWatch, 2001. Scared at school: Sexual violence against girls in South Africa. New York: Human RightsWatch.

Lalor, K., 2004. ‘Child sexual abuse in sub-saharan Africa: a literature review’. Child Abuse & Neglect 28, 439-460

Larchman, P., Poblete, X. and Ebigbo, P.O., 2002. ‘Challenges facing child protection: overview – lessons from the “South”’. Child Abuse & Neglect 26, 587-617

Lema, V. M., 1997. Sexual abuse of minors: emerging medical and social problem in Malawi. East African Medical Journal, 74 (11), 743–746.

Madu, S. N., & Pelzer, K., 2000. ‘Risk factors and child sexual abuse among secondary school students in the Northern Province (South Africa)’. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24 (2), 259–268.

Meursing, K., Vos, T., Coutinho, O., Moyo, M., Mpofu, S., Oneko, O., Mundy, V., Dube, S., Mahlangu, T., & Sibindi, F., 1995. ‘Child sexual abuse in Matabeleland’, Zimbabwe. Social Science and Medicine, 41 (12), 1693–1704.

Pereda, N., et al., 2009. The Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in Community and Student Samples: A Meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 29: 328-38.

Shumba, A., 2007. “Hidden Curriculum” Abuse in parts of Zimbabwe: is this a new form of child abuse or child labourAfrican Safety Promotion. A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention, Volume 5, No. 2. UNISA Press and medical Research Centre.

Simon, A., Hauari, H., Hollingworth, K. and Vorhaus, J., 2012. A rapid literature review of evidence on child abuse linked to faith or belief. CWRC Working Paper No.15

UNICEF, 2001. “Rapid Assessment of the Incidence of Child Abuse in Zambia.” UNICEF,

USAID, 2011. Child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of the literature. East Central and Southern African Health Community

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Free Essays

Analysing the impact of Chinese FDI in Africa: A case study of Nigeria and Ghana.

INTRODUCTION

Research Problem

The proposed research aims to examine the effect of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Ghana and Nigeria in order to perform a cross-country analysis of the respective impacts of such investments in these countries. Ghana and Nigeria share a number of similar characteristics, which make for a useful comparison, as it is posited in this study that the similarities between the two African countries will allow for a cross-national comparison of the impacts of Chinese FDI in these countries. The results of the analysis will be used to make recommendations on how Ghana and Nigeria should make appropriate use of China’s FDI to achieve development in these countries.

Analyzing the impact of Chinese FDI in Ghana and Nigeria has been the topic of some academic research. However, previous studies have focused on the individual relationships between these African countries and China (SWAC/OECD, 2011). With the rapid changes in the global investment environment, especially in light of the global recession, it is essential to identify the key determining factors of FDI inflows to Ghana and Nigeria, in order to analyze the impact of these FDIs in this region. Although economic growth has been specified as a developmental goal in this region, academic research exploring the nature of the economic relationship between China and Ghana / China and Nigeria suggests that the influx of FDI into these developing economies may have the effect of retarding the overall development in these countries, as it prioritizes the exploitation of natural resources over essential developmental goals (Oyeranti, et al., 2010).

Aims and Objectives

This research has two main goals. First is to assess the impacts of Chinese FDI in Ghana and Nigeria in order to conduct a cross-country analysis of their respective economic relationships. Second is to analyze the overall impact of Chinese FDI on the development of these countries.

In order to realize the primary goals of this study, the following objectives have been identified:

To establish a theoretical framework for analyzing the impacts of FDI in developing countries, specifically within the context of countries in the West African which have abundant natural resources
To construct a theoretical framework for measuring the impacts of FDI in Ghana and Nigeria, taking into consideration the differences in economic development and investment climate.
To determine the factors influencing the economic relationship between China and Ghana / China and Nigeria, and to analyze these in terms of the established framework.
To compare and contrast the respective impacts of Chinese FDI on Ghana and Nigeria in order to draw conclusions regarding how to manage and improve their relationships

Research Questions

A set of research questions has been formulated based on the main goals and objectives of the study. These questions help to guide the study by ensuring that the analysis stays focused on the primary research subject. Below are the research questions for this study:

What are the determinants of FDI impacts in African countries and how are these measured
What are the specific impacts of Chinese FDI in Ghana and Nigeria
How do these impacts correlate with the determinants identified in question 1
To what extent are the impacts of Chinese FDI in Ghana and Nigeria comparable
What cross-country recommendations can be made in order to ensure that developmental goals and positive determinants of FDI are achieved in both countries

Background information

Due to rapid globalization and the growing interdependence among countries, FDI has been recognized as one of the most significant means of international capital transfers. Over the years, FDI has grown to be an essential component in the economic development of many nations (Benacek et. al., 2000).

Morgan (2003) and Johnson (2005) have highlighted the beneficial impacts that FDI can provide to a host country. These include: (a) generating additional resources such as capital and technology, to help boost the level of domestic outputs and deliver better, more affordable goods and services; (b) outflow of human resources, management practices and technologies from foreign firms to domestic businesses , which enables the host country to improve their operations and competitiveness; and (c) increased involvement of the host country in transnational markets, such as foreign exchange market and international trade.

Due to the economic growth and welfare that FDI brings to the host country, this investment is preferred by most developing countries because it offers a faster way to achieve a more advanced level of economic development. However, FDI presents a lot of risks for investors. Due to these risks, countries are compelled to offer tangible incentives, as well as to put supportive regulation and systems in place to draw investors. Unfortunately, most developing nations frequently neglect to build an incentive system for foreign financiers (Botric & Skuflic, 2005). Consequently, the bulk of FDI is offered to developed countries such as the US, Germany, and Belgium (UNCTAD, 2011a).

Traditionally, investment relationships in Ghana and Nigeria are established with European and American investment partners, as these countries are the primary sources of FDI, trade, and financial and technical aid. These relationships involve a number of bilateral and regional agreements with Nigeria and Ghana. Despite the many years of economic relationships with these countries, there are still differing opinions as to the impact of these investments on the development of Ghana and Nigeria (Tsikata, et al., 2010).

FDI in Africa has been increasing steadily since 2002 with approximately $53 billion worth of FDI in 2007, representing an increase from 2006 of 47.2%. This increase was the highest recorded level of FDI in Africa at the time. With the global recession, the percentage of global FDI into Africa has experienced a significant decline from 3.2% in 2006 to 2.9% in 2007. Since then, however, the African economy has proved resilient, growing to over $61.9 billion in 2008, and the rate of return on FDI in Africa since 2004 has grown to 12.1%. In addition, mergers and acquisitions in Africa have risen by approximately 157% to $2 billion in 2008 (Oyeranti, et al., 2010).

Investment in Nigeria and Ghana by Chinese investors has grown substantially since 1971 as a result of the complementary nature of their economies. Chinese investment in Ghana has been growing consistently in the previous decade with significant increase seen from 2004 to 2005, representing $3.09 million and $17.87 million, respectively. Research indicates that the Chinese share, as a percentage of total investment by China in Ghana, implies that FDI is increasing (Frimprong, 2012). Investment by the Chinese in Nigeria reveals a similar situation, as Chinese FDI grew twice as much between 2003 and 2005, increasing from $3 billion to $6 billion.

Ghana and Nigeria lack significant investments in infrastructure that is needed to support the development required to result in measurable economic growth. To this end, China has developed a successful and competent construction industry, coupled with the ability to provide Nigeria and Ghana with the requisite capital needed to drive this infrastructure development (Oyeranti, et al., 2010). In this way, the flow of investment into Ghana and Nigeria is complementary due to the nature and needs of the respective economies. However, the Chinese industrialization drive and the subsequent inflow of FDI into China’s economy has led to rapid growth in the manufacturing sector, which entails the use of oil and mineral inputs that are overwhelming China’s internal resource capabilities (Ibid). As a result, China is looking to developing nations such as Nigeria and Ghana to supplement their energy resource requirements to support their growing economy. Consequently, the relationship between Chinese FDI inflows into Ghana and Nigeria are being described as exploitative and as having an upsetting effect on the Western development goals that have been set for the region (Tsikata, et al., 2010).

This negative perception about China’s interest in Nigeria and Ghana are due to the fact that the oil and gas sector accounts for more than 75% of Chinese investments. This implies that China seeks to exploit Nigeria’s natural resources. This further suggests that Chinese FDI in Nigeria is a relationship prone to exploitation and is potentially damaging to the developmental goals of the region (Oyeranti, et al., 2010).

Despite these negative views, Chinese FDI in Nigeria and Ghana has not been focused solely on the exploitation of natural resources. Chinese FDI has actually helped to achieve significant growth in the manufacturing and services industry in both countries (Frimpong, 2012).

The investment climate in Africa has become significantly more attractive as a result of the considerable efforts to liberalize investment regulations and offer incentives for FDI. The result, however, has not been as positive as originally intended due to significant concerns over the economic and political stability of the region.

LITERATURE REVIEW

FDI definition

The analysis of relevant literature has shown that there is not one universally recognized definition of FDI. Nevertheless, the various definitions of FDI do not differ considerably. FDI is commonly perceived as either a real phenomenon or a financial phenomenon (Moosa, 2002).

Within the perspective of a financial phenomenon, FDI is defined as:

A kind of transnational investment transfer; wherein FDI is the outcome of variations in interest rates between two economies, because the country with higher interest levels is more appealing for foreign businesses
An external supply of funding for the national economy ? FDI shows the influxes of foreign investment into the nation within a certain timeframe, which is indicated in the balance of payments
A means of reducing and eventually eradicating poverty through FDI-driven economic growth in developing countries, and in Africa, specifically in light of United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG) (Asiedu, 2006)

However, when FDI is considered exclusively in financial terms, there seems to be an underestimation of the degree to which FDI is related with a varied array of production elements. Among the most crucial non-financial inflows are managerial skills, expertise, and technology. This implies that although financial flows seem to a main component of FDI, it is not necessarily the leading element. Furthermore, according to Moosa (2002) a distinctive characteristic of FDI compared with other kinds of international investments is its function in directing management policies and decisions. As such, describing FDI as purely a financial phenomenon appears to undervalue this aspect.

A more inclusive definition of FDI that is mostly acknowledged by other international organizations (e.g. IMF, Eurostat, UNCTAD) is proposed by OECD. According to the OECD (1999, p.7), FDI ’reflects the aim of obtaining a lasting interest by a resident entity of one economy (direct investor) in an enterprise that is resident of another economy (direct investment enterprise).’

The term ’lasting interest’ refers to the formation of a long-standing association concerning the investor and the direct investment establishment This also involves important impacts on the management of such enterprise.
A direct investor is ’the owner of 10% or more of ordinary shares or voting stock‘(OECD, 1999, p.8). The IMF recommends applying this requirement of a minimum 10% ownership to differentiate direct investment vis-a-vis portfolio investment through shareholding. Based from this perspective, a direct investor can be any of the following entities: (a) individual, (b) group of associated individuals, (c) government, (d) incorporated or unincorporated company, private or public, and (e) group of associated companies, incorporated or unincorporated. The entity has a direct investment establishment situated in a country that is not where the direct investor resides (Duce, 2003).

Direct investment enterprise can have any of the subsequent forms:

Subsidiary ? a direct investor controls greater than 50% of the voting power allocated to shareholders. Controlling the shareholdings can be done either directly or indirectly, via a different subsidiary. The direct investor has the authority to secure or terminate members of the Supervisory Board or Management Board.
Associate Company ? a direct investor owns between 10 to 50 % of the voting power allocated to shareholders. Likewise the control of shareholdings can be done either directly or indirectly.
Branch ? a direct investor is also the owner of an unincorporated establishment (whole or joint ownership) in the host country. This can be in several forms, such as a joint venture, an unincorporated partnership, or a permanent office for the direct investor. This may also be in the form of fixed/immobile equipment, movable equipment, property, or constructions located in the host country (OECD, 1999).

Choosing a specific kind of direct investment business also depends on different considerations, the most significant of which is the present law in the host country (Duce, 2003). In considering the impact of Chinese FDI in Ghana and Nigeria, it is useful to consider the form of investment that FDI takes, with regard to the respective economies. Based from preliminary research, it is clear that Chinese FDI in Nigeria is significantly higher than its FDI in Ghana, when compared to one another.

Considering the high concentration of FDI in the oil and gas sector, it is possible that the economic relationship between Nigeria and Chinese may be contradictory to the developmental goals and overall well-being of the country. Whilst Chinese FDI in Ghana is seen across a variety of sectors such as aluminum, iron ore, manganese, alloy, timber, waste materials, cocoa beans, cotton linters, and frozen fish (Rahman, 2012). This indicates that the overall impacts of Chinese FDI in Ghana may be more attuned to developmental goals, compared to China’s relationship with Nigeria.

FDI determinants – Theoretical Approach

As FDI became a focal point in the current global economy, researchers have attempted to describe the conduct of multinational firms and FDI determinants through the proposal of different theories.

Adam Smith (Concept of Absolute Advantages) and David Ricardo (Theory of Comparative Advantages) had originally discussed FDI as a feature of international trade. Smith and Ricardo proposed that countries should focus on producing goods where they can offer a cost advantage (i.e. absolute advantage for Smith; comparative advantage for Ricardo). The surplus of goods generated by a country is intended for export. Simultaneously, the country imports goods that it cannot produce domestically because it lacks cost advantages for their production (Sen, 2010). The theories of Smith and Ricardo are the foundations of current views on FDI. Therefore, these will be considered in the design of the theoretical framework.

Heckscher and Olin linked international trade and with the benefits brought by the factors of production. Thus, a country must focus in producing final goods of which the raw materials are reasonably plentiful in the country. Conversely, the country is recommended to import the basic components of goods that are in limited supply. This theory regards FDI as a component of transnational capital movement. FDI flows are seen amongst economies and are described by various capital concentrations. Countries that are well-off in terms of capital transfer their production to countries that have abundant labor supply. This is characterized by more returns to capital and lesser returns to labor. This process continues till labor and capital are equalized in the countries involved (Benacek et al., 2000). While these theories were able to associate FDI with labor costs and higher rates of investment returns, these were unable to completely rationalize FDI phenomenon (Assuncao, 2010). As such, these will not be fully utilized in the creation of this study’s theoretical framework.

Another FDI theory is given by Kindleberger (1969), who presumes that direct investment can be cultivated in situations where market shortcomings or government interferences exist. In this context, particular economies produce commodities in which they can demonstrate a comparative advantage; while other products are exported because the country cannot produce them efficiently. Thus, the relationship between FDI and trade can be either substitutable or complementary. Kindleberger’s (1969) theory is applicable to the context of Ghana and Nigeria because of its considerations of market imperfections and government interventions. These will be helpful in explaining some aspects of the theoretical framework.

Obstacles to commerce may affect FDI in two contradictory ways. On one hand, high trade barriers tend to boost FDI because these result in high export costs. This contention stresses the location advantage aspect of FDI. In contrast, high trade barriers are a hindrance for the parent company, especially in situations with high levels of trade with associated firms. Other researchers have also discussed the relationship between FDI and trade openness (Balasubramanyam et al., 1996) and majority of studies find a positive association among these variables (Benacek, 2000).

Dunning (1993) combined the components of Trade Theory and the Theory of the Firm. Based on the OLI model, Dunning (1993) classified FDI determinants into three groups. These are: (a) Ownership-specific advantages such as technology and know-how; (b) Location-specific advantages including market size, transport costs, etc.; and (c) Advantages that are particular to internationalization, wherein the firm supposes that selling of ownership advantages to third parties is not as lucrative as internally employing these advantages. Moreover, Dunning (1993) came up with the Investment Development Path based from the findings of his study. This framework identified five stages in the development of a country. These stages have a substantial effect on FDI inflows (Gorynia et al., 2005; Benacek et al., 2000). These stages of development will be one of the components in the theoretical framework; thus, this study is important to this research project.

The institutional approach presents a different perspective on the subject. Root & Ahmed (1978) and Bond & Samuelson (1986) suggested that the environment, where the enterprise conducts its operations, is unpredictable and unsure. Thus, the firm’s decisions will be greatly affected by institutional forces (i.e. regulations and incentives). However, in actuality, government policy defines the options that are presented to a company and which influences the firm’s decisions regarding FDI, licensing, and exporting (Assuncao, 2010). The role of government in FDI is another aspect which will be explored in the theoretical framework. The institutional approach will be part of this analysis.

Last but not least, it is beneficial to consider Ozawa’s (1992) study, which connects the patterns in developing countries with Porter’s theory of a country’s competitive advantages. According to Porter, there are four groups of attributes that can be applied to a country. These are: (a) factor conditions; (b) demand conditions; (c) firm strategy, structure and rivalry; and (d) related and supported enterprises. These have an influence on the nation’s competitiveness (Smith, 2012). Ozawa argues that the foreign investment received by developing countries, which are mainly allocated to labor-intensive sectors, results in a process of learning and technology purchase. It aids developing economies to raise their competitive advantages and thus, push the economy onward along the various stages of development ? moving from the fundamental factor-driven stage to the innovation-driven stage. This is described by an increasing external FDI (Ozawa, 1992). The discussion on competitive advantage is again a major component of the theoretical framework which will be the outcome of this research. As such, the study by Ozawa (1992) presents some arguments that are crucial to the discussion of this research.

FDI determinants – Classification

Dunning (1998) identified four groups of FDI motives. The first two groups of motives are features of the initial stage of FDI, while other groups are related to sequential FDI (Gorynia et. al., 2005).

Resource Seeking – the firm intends to obtain specific resources at less costs than in the local/national market
Market Seeking – the firm intends to operate in a specific overseas market because of its size or anticipated growth. The firm builds a global strategy for the foreign market, or reduces the expenditures related to serving a certain market from a neighboring facility instead of from outside the country
Efficiency Seeking – the firm intends to justify its production, distribution, and marketing (Gorynia et. al., 2005, p.65)
Strategic Asset Seeking – the firm seeks to extend its strategic goals; for instance, supporting their competitiveness in international markets

Clause (1999) and Calderon et al., (2002) categorized FDI determinants in two groups: (a) ‘Push factors’ or investor’s intentions to position capital/investment overseas: (b) ‘Pull factors’; or country-specific determinants, also referred to as location determinants. These factors influence the decision of the investor to find capital in a specific country. Additionally, pull factors are political, including growth estimates, or the country’s system of rules/regulations and rewards/incentives. The authors also highlighted other pull elements in the case of transitional economies. These include the process of privatization and the intensification effect, in which a direct investment results in other direct investments (Vita and Kyaw, 2008).

Lastly, UNCTAD (2011a) segregated FDI determinants into three categories: (a) policy framework such as economic and political stability, competition policy, etc.; (b) business facilitations, including the costs of business operations, investment motivations, etc.; and (c) economic determinants such as market growth and infrastructure. Although these determinants help to ascertain the overall desirability of the country, the significance of specific groups differs depending on the sector and entry modes.

The various FDI determinants will be explored as components of the theoretical framework. These will be investigated to find out which FDI determinants are applicable to the Ghanaian and Nigerian context.

Investment Climate in Ghana and Nigeria – A Comparative Analysis

Attracting increasing amounts of FDI has been a significant priority of Ghana’s government when developing and reforming economic policy. The Ghana Investment Advisory Council (GIAC) was formed with the help of the World Bank and is comprised of local and multinational companies and institutional observers from around the world. The aim of the GIAC is to ensure the removal of any regulations, which may discourage FDI in the country. The GIAC, however, does not have regulatory power over the natural resources sector, but does regulate investment in all other sectors, such as banking and other financial institutions, telecommunications, energy and real estate (Tsikata, et al., 2010). The most beneficial element of the investment climate in Ghana is that there is no general economic or industrial strategy aimed at discriminating against foreign owned business or subsidiaries, but conversely there are incentives offered if the projects are deemed critical for national development.

Prior to 1995, Nigeria was considered one of the most unsuitable countries in Western African for FDI due to a combination of considerable restrictions and unsuitable investment climate ? the result of social, economic, and political tensions that continue to plague the country. In 1995, however, Nigeria changed the investment climate substantially by opening the economy to FDI and reversing these severe restrictions. The Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission (NIPC) was created to manage the approval of business licenses and motivations to improve the investment climate. All restrictions on limits in foreign shareholding were also abolished in order to promote and facilitate FDI. According to current Nigerian investment law, 100 % foreign ownership of firms is allowed in every sector, with the exception of the petroleum sector. In this sector, investments are restricted to existing joint ventures or new production sharing contracts (Oyeranti, et al., 2010). This, however, is not necessarily a restrictive provision specific to Nigeria, since production sharing contracts have become a modern way of ensuring that ownership over natural resources is held by the host nation.

It is evident, therefore, that both the Ghanaian and Nigerian investment climates are conducive and receptive to FDI from China. In determining the potential impacts of these investments on the economies of the country, it seems evident that there is a need and desire for large capital investments. At the same time, there is the need to stay in control of their natural resources, namely oil and minerals, which has resulted in the only restriction on FDI in the respective economies. The crucial difference between the two countries is the vast superiority of Nigeria with regards to their oil resources and the far-reaching effects that this has had on the country as a whole. This factor must, therefore, be critically considered to assess the impact of Chinese FDI in the country.

Chinese Interest in West Africa – FDI Analysis

China provides an ideal investment partner to African countries and is often more beneficial to the host nation that traditional investment partners for a number of reasons, including fewer demands on the host country in exchange for investment, fewer conditions for assistance, offered assistance at lower rates of repayment and lower interest rates, and offered training for technical and professional personnel in doing so (technology transfer) (Renard, 2011). Historically, the interest in Africa from the Chinese perspective has been primarily based on the need to supplement their own natural resources, with the rapid development of their manufacturing industry necessitating a significant amount of resources far outweighing any domestic production in China itself and with an abundance of these resources in West Africa, China sought to increase their investment in and trade participation within the region. In 1987, China exempted raw materials and other components due for re-export from custom duties which bolstered their international trade with African countries as being a significant source of these products and raw materials (Renard, 2011). With the Chinese accession to the WTO, the protectionist barriers were further removed and this served to increase trade even further. Trade in components is therefore a significant part of Chinese interest in West Africa, as well as raw materials in exchange for consumer products with low capital intensity with a commitment to moving towards more technology-intensive products.

In addition to the trade investment in West Africa, diplomacy in the region has focused on bilateral agreements with African governments. In 1994, the Exim Bank (China Export-Import Bank) was founded to encourage Chinese exports and FDI in Africa, with a specific focus on improving the infrastructure (Wang, 2007). On the other hand, China Development Bank (CDB), also established in 1994, opened the China-Africa Development Fund to assist Chinese FDI distribution into Africa, through the financing of Chinese firms looking to invest in the region. Finally, SINOSURE (China Export and Credit Insurance Corporation) provides these firms with insurance and protects against the risks associated with Chinese exports and foreign investment (Renard, 2011). These banks have a less risk-sensitive profile than most private banks in traditional Western investment partners, making them more willing to encourage to investment in often high-risk African countries, including Nigeria.

The opportunity to invest in Africa by Chinese firms is as a result of the long-standing history of trade relations and supported by less risk-sensitive banks. These banks aim to encourage FDI in West African countries in order to sustain and potentially increase trade relations with the Chinese economy. With many of the major players in the Chinese economy being state-owned (as a result of the prevailing political regime), there is a significant interest in encouraging FDI with these West African countries due to China’s desire to sustain its high economic growth. This supports the main assumption of this research that China’s FDIs into Ghana and Nigeria are exploitative in nature. Because China’s desire to sustain its economic growth as the main driving factor for its FDI, there is a lot of suspicion that Chinese state-owned investors will not care about the long-term effects of FDI, especially as it focuses on extracting natural resources and raw materials from Ghana and Nigeria.

METHODOLOGY

Research Philosophy

This study applies the positivist philosophy, based on the presumption that experiment and observation are highly significant in perceiving human behavior. According to this philosophy, the world can be understood in a rational way. This approach focuses on analyzing facts and seeks to understand connections; reduces experience to simple components; and tests formulated hypotheses. It usually produces qualitative data, which seeks to be unbiased and precise (Saunders et. al., 2009).

Research Approach

This study is empirical and it acknowledges the significance of gathering and utilizing data, to achieve precise and clear conclusions. Inductive and deductive research approaches will be employed in the study.

The deductive approach is described as highly structured. Theories of FDI motivations are first presented, since they are especially relevant to the Chinese FDI climate. Next, the relevance of these theories to both Ghana and Nigeria is discussed through the analysis of empirical data.
An inductive approach is observed throughout the gathering and examination of empirical data from trustworthy sources. From this perspective, the researcher analyses the data obtained by others, which has been integrated with the research procedures.

Given the research objectives, this study has an explanatory quality . Explanatory research aims to explain if there is an association among two or more variables of a specific incident or phenomenon.

The aim of this study is to ascertain whether there is an association between FDI inflows from China to Ghana and Nigeria using a framework for the measurement of these impacts based on economic, political or social factors which may be influenced by foreign investments.

Data Collection Process

Primary and secondary data will be gathered to analyze the possible impacts of FDI inflows from China. Selected economic indicators will also be analyzed using multiple regression analysis.

This research will examine the following economic indicators: GDP growth rates; GDP per capita; inflation rates; employment rates; unit labor costs; trade balances (represented as a percentage of GDP); foreign exchange rates; Corporate Income Tax Rates; percentage of people with higher education; developmental goals identified by the host country and other international bodies, and public spending on higher education.

The data that will be used in this research will be taken from several different secondary research sites. Data sources are national statistics, scholarly publications, UNDP, IMF and the World Bank, as well as any other directed research that is seeking to understand the relationship between Chinese FDI and its impacts in Ghana and Nigeria countries.

Limitations of Research

The current research is limited to the extent that Ghana and Nigeria are compatible in conducting the comparative analysis. The main concern is that the vast difference in the oil dependency of these two countries will lead to a number of conclusions, which are not compatible with one another, due to the fact that the Nigerian economy revolves around oil production. It is reasonable, therefore, to think that the application of this theory to Ghana may lead to conclusions or recommendations for improvement, which cannot be applied to the Nigerian context due to its resource dependency and the influence of the social, political and economic climate. In order to mitigate this limitation, the researcher aims to look specifically at the dependence on natural resources (mineral and oil) in the Ghanaian economy in order to ensure that this factor is given sufficient consideration in reaching the conclusions of this theoretical research.

Secondary Publications

Published secondary resources will also be utilized in this study. These sources discussed FDI determinants from a general perspective and presented global outflows of FDI from China. These also analyzed the general determinants of FDI impacts in Africa as a developing region, with a specific focus on Ghana and Nigeria, and compared these impacts against one another to determine recommendations for the improvement or mitigation of FDI impacts. The application of secondary data in addressing the objectives of this research will add to the overall clarity of the research. Secondary data will be gathered by studying documents from various sources, such as international organizations and statistics offices. Other materials are peer-reviewed articles, research papers, books, and other scholarly publications. These will aid in recognizing and incorporating the most relevant literature within the context of the main research questions.

Limitations of Secondary Sources

There are some limitations in using secondary sources. One limitation is that it involves the possibility of incurring knowledge gaps. This refers to the occasions when researchers are unable to find the specific data they are looking for. Moreover, data might be outdated or is not relevant to the research problem. Furthermore, the researcher might find contradictory points of view in the secondary data, which will result in confusion and ambiguities.

To lessen these kinds of risks, the researcher will seek the advice and guidance of academic staff specializing in this research subject regarding suggestions on literature. The researcher will also come up with a comprehensive list of international databases of FDI to find the most current data.

Data Analysis

The data analyses that will be applied in this research are comprised of four important steps.

Data will be arranged in a rational way. The arrangement of primary and secondary data is based on the selection process (based on the researcher’s judgment).
Data will be sorted into three categories. The categories are as follows: (a) Theoretical application of FDI in a Chinese context; (b) Ghanaian and Nigerian investment climate and context; (c) the relationship between Chinese FDI and the Ghanaian and Nigerian political, social, and economic factors.
Data will then be analyzed using a number of qualitative research techniques.
Results will be organized in terms of theoretical FDI themes identified in the initial research.

DISSERTATION PLAN

Below is the Gantt chart for the dissertation. This outlines the main activities that will be conducted for this research.

Project TasksStartDuration
Task 1: Writing the research proposal05
Task 2: Writing the project plan55
Task 3: Conducting the literature review1014
Task 4: Gathering of secondary data247
Task 5: Creation of theoretical framework3120
Task 6: Analysis of the data5114
Task 7: Writing the final research report6514

Note:

Start – Represents the number of days from the start date of the research project

Duration – The number of days required to complete the task

REFERENCES
Asiedu, S. (2006) Foreign Direct Investment in Africa: The Role of Natural Resources, Market Size, Government Policy, Institutions and Political Instability. United Nations University Publication [online] Available on: http://www.people.ku.edu/~jbrown/virus.html [Accessed 1 April 2013]

Assuncao, S., Forte, R. and Teixeira, A. (2011) Location determinants of FDI: a literature review. Porto: FEP.

Benacek, V., Gronicki M., Holland, D. and Sass, M. (2000) The Determinants and Impact of Foreign Direct Investments in Central and Eastern Europe: A Comparison Survey and Econometric Evidence. Journal of United Nations. 9(3). Pp. 163-212.

Bevan, A. and Estrin S. (2004). The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments into European Transition Economies. Journal of Comparative Studies.32. Pp.775-787.

Botric, V. and Skuflic, L. (2005) Main determinants of Foreign Direct Investments in the South East European Countries. Zagreb: Institute of Economic.

Calderon, C.L. and Serven, L. (2002) Greenfield FDI vs. Mergers and Acquisitions. Does the distinction matterChile: Central Bank of Chile.

Duce, M. (2003) Definition of Foreign Direct Investment: a methodological note. Madrid: Banco de Espana.

Dunning, J.H. (1993) Multinational Enterprise and the Global Economy. Essex: Addison-Wesley Publication Company.

Frimprong, S. (2012) Research on Relationship between China and Ghana: Trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 3(7), pp. 51 – 61

Gorynia, M., Nowak J. and Wolniak R. (2005) Motives and Modes of FDI, Firm Characteristics and Performance: Case Study of Foreign Subsidiaries in Poland. Journal of Transitional Management.10 (3). Pp.55-87.

Johnson, A. (2005) The effects of FDI inflows on host country economic growth. Jonkoping: Jonkoping International Business School.

Moosa, I. (2002) Foreign Direct Investment: Theory, Evidence and Practice. NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Morgan, T. (2005) How does FDI affect host country developmentUsing industry case studies to make reliable generalizations. [In:] Morgan T., Graham, E. and Blomstrom, M., Does Foreign Direct Investment promotes developmentWashington: Institute for International Economics.

OECD (1999) OECD benchmark definition of Foreign Direct Investment.3rd edition. Paris: OECD.

Oyeranti, O., Babatunde, A., Ogunkola, E. & Bankole, A. (2010) Chinese-Africa Investment Relations: Case Study of Nigeria. Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium

Ozawa, T. (1992) Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Development. Transnational corporations. 1(1). Pp. 27-54.

Rahman, M. (2012) Political Economy of China’s Foreign Direct Investment in Ghana. GhanaWeb [online] Available on: http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=236093 [Accessed 1 April 2013]

Renard, M. (2011) China’s Trade and FDI in Africa. African Development Bank, Working Paper Series, no. 126. Belvedere: African Development Bank

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009), Research methods for business students. 5th Ed. Harlow: FT Prentice-Hall.

Sen, S. (2010) International Trade Theory and Policy: A review of the literature. NY: Levy Economic Institute.

Smit, A.J. (2010) The Competitive Advantages of Nations: Is Porter’s Diamond Framework a New Theory That Explains The International Competitiveness of CountriesSouthern African Business Review.14. Pp.105-130.

Tsikata, D., Fenny, A. & Aryeetey, E. (2010) Impact of China-Africa Investment Relations: An In-depth Analysis of the Case of Ghana. Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research University of Ghana: African Research Consortium

UNCTAD (2011a) World Investment Report 2011.Non-equity modes of international production and development. NY: United Nations.

UNCTAD (2011b) World Investment Prospect Survey2011-2013.NY: United Nations.

Vita, G. and Kyaw, K. (2008) Determinants of FDI and Portfolio Flows to Developing Countries. A panel co-integration analysis. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 13.Pp. 161-168.

Wang, J. (2007) What Drives China Growing Role in Africa. IMF Working Paper, WP/07/211. International Monetary Fund, African Department.

Categories
Free Essays

To what extent are developmental states emerging within Africa and what policies could be adopted to support them?

Introduction

This essay is concerned with analysing what role, if any, the model of the ‘developmental state’ can play within Africa. The concept of the “developmental state” has origins in the fruitful development in Eastern Asia. This research will look to examine the relevance of the existing model to contemporary Ghana. The paper will also look at the extent to which the favourable conditions for growth that existed in East Asia could ever be replicated in Africa (for a brief summary of the contemporary debate see: United Nations Economic and Social Council (UNESC), 2013).

As a form of introduction to the topic, this study will start with a brief definition of a developmental state according to the literature before moving on to look at what characteristics make up a typical developmental state. A brief analysis will determine the extent to which there is agreement within the literature. From here, the paper will look at the origins of the “developmental state model” born out of the experiences in East Asia as well as exploring some of the major academic contributions to the developmental state debate. Here, the research will touch upon the relevance of these contributions within the African context.

The second section will be the main critical analysis around the extent to which developmental states are emerging within Africa or whether the ‘impossibility theorem’ (Mkanadwire, 2001) continues to hold water. Following that, the paper will examine what policies are needed to support these fledgling developmental states, according to the literature.

The third and final chapter will provide case studies from Ghana, examining whether this nation possesses any of the defining features that constitute a developmental state. The aim here is to show, via a practical example, that “developmental states” are possible in Africa but are also far from similar to East Asian examples. Here, the paper will also offer a critique to show the struggles and developmental threats for Africa as a counter argument that developmental states are emerging within Africa.

Starting first with a definition of a developmental state, the study immediately encounter some points of contention. Firstly, as Mbabazi and Taylor (2005) point out, “the definition of a developmental state does not correspond directly with economic performance.” That is, a country which is performing well economically is not necessary ‘developmental’. Rather, the current accepted definition of a “developmental state” is one that is ideologically directed towards development, where the state “seriously attempts to deploy its administrative and political resources to the task of economic development” (Mbabazi and Taylor, 2005: 2).

Traditionally. “developmental states” are associated with locations that have economic development as a leading governmental policy which has the potential to form bodies which can facilitate these policies and targets. To be classed as a developmental state, there must be a governmental ability to “weave formal and informal networks of collaboration” between civilians and public officials whilst promoting “macro-economic stability” and maintaining an “institutional framework that provides law and order, effective administration of justice and peaceful resolution of conflicts, ensures property rights and appropriate infrastructure investments, and advances human development” (Mkandawire, 1999, 2010; UNESC, 2013; 2).

Others have added to the definition of a developmental state in that it must be willing to engage itself directly with the direction and pace of economic development using ‘market conforming’ mechanisms to allocate economic resources, rather than simply falling back on a uncoordinated, laissez-faire attitudes to market forces (Johnson, 1982: 319-20; Mbabazi and Taylor, 2005: 4; Meyns and Musamba, 2010 :13, UNESC, 2013: 2).

Now that a clear definition of what a developmental state is, along with a taste of what key theoretical features need to be present has been established, this paper will take a step back to look at the origins of the developmental state in terms of East Asian experiences. Here, the study will see some of the main contributions made to the literature from leading scholars, which will shed some light on what are held to be the key theoretical features of developmental states. This will then be used as an entry point into the discussion about to what extent these theoretical features are feasible, and how it might be applied within the context of this research.

As touched upon above, much of the contemporary discussion about developmental states has its roots in research conducted on the experiences faced by the East Asian tigers (for the original research see: Amsden, 1989; Haggard, 1990; Johnson, 1982). There seems to be a general consensus within the academic literate as to the key features that facilitate the Asian tigers to superior levels of growth and these are the following:

Embedded autonomy of state bureaucracy:

Put forward by Peter Evans (1989, 1995), he argued that strong state institutions have a significant influence towards the promotion of development in the Tiger economies because they avoided being ‘captured’ by vested interests. The East Asian states have professional bureaucracies, in which the employees had real opportunities for advancement so they avoided the temptation to engage in extra rent-seeking (income providing) activities. Simultaneously, Evans noted that the state administration remained attached to or embedded in society so that it did not become isolated and self-serving, so that it could continually redefine its policy goals and aims.

Market conforming intervention

Charlmers Johnson (1982), who studied Japan’s highly successful post-war recovery, found similar results to Evans. He notes that “small, inexpensive, professional and efficient state bureaucracies or pilot bureaucratic agencies”, like the Japanese Ministry for International Trade and Industry (MITI), which had authority over economic policy, allowed those states to promote civic interests whilst maintaining a high level of prestige and legitimacy (Johnson, 1982: 49). Most importantly for Johnson, however, was the fact that the government of Japan provided national administrators with the tools and authority to intervene directly in the economy under the condition that all work would stick to neo-liberal market principles (Johnson 1982: 315-316).

Political primacy

According to Adrian Leftwich; “politics is the dominant variable which determines the concept of the developmental state as well as the developmental success or failure in all human societies” (Meynes and Musamba, 2005:16). Leftwich (2000: 4) argues that developmental states possess the following six factors during their emergence:

“The presence of development-oriented political elite who possess high levels of commitment and will to attain economic growth.”
“A powerful, professional, highly competent, insulated and career-based bureaucracy”
“Civil society is relatively weak and disorganised”
“A high capacity for the effective economic management of both domestic and private economic interests”
“An uneasy mix of repression and non-adherence to human rights”
“Performance-based legitimacy of the governing political elite, and which takes precedence over procedural legitimacy” (Leftwich, 2000:174).

It seems that Leftwich differs in his arguments from Evans, in that Leftwich observes an imbalance. Yet it can be seen that there exists a significant state body which has a powerful bureaucracy which can effectively take care of the interest of the private economic. Then, this leads to a frail society which has no way of influencing the ruling elite.

Alternatives to neo-liberal economics:

Conceptually speaking, the developmental state is often located in-between a “free market capitalist economic system” and a centrally-planned economic system “conjoining private ownership with state guidance” (Woo-Cumings 1999: 2). This means it is neither purely capitalist nor totally socialist.

With regards to the relationship between the developmental state and “interventionism” is concerned, “the developmental state is an embodiment of a normative or moral ambition to use the interventionist power of the state to guide investment in a way that promotes a certain solidaristic vision of national economy” (Loriaux 1999: 24).

Ha-Joon Chang, demonstrates that “economic development requires a state which can create and regulate the economic and political relationships that can support sustained industrialisation – or in short, a developmental state” (Chang, 1999:183). Therefore, the creation of the developmental state concept leads to the formation of a interventionist state.

Are developmental states emerging in Africa

Several African states have endured a surge in development across the independence years, that started from the early 1960s onwards (Woo?Cumings 1999: 19?20). However, subsequently, governance deteriorated and efforts to spread education stalled: “National armies discredited themselves through bloody coups and internal divisions along ethnic lines” (Woo?Cumings 1999: 19?20).

Since those dark times, there has been increasing evidence to suggest that developmental states are now emerging in sub-Saharan Africa. However, existing literature expresses concerns with regards to if this the correct route for the African countries. For example, Woo-Cumings warns us that the developmental state can be “good in relation to its (economic) effectiveness but it can also be a grim model in terms of human rights and lack of democracy” (Woo-Cumings 1999: 19?20).

After initial developmental optimism, by the 1990s, things had changed; “the African state had become the most demonised social institution in Africa, vilified for its weaknesses, its over-extension, its interference with the smooth functioning of markets, its repressive character, its dependence on foreign powers, its ubiquity, its absence” (Mkadawire, 2001: 293). The legacy this has left behind is an academic thesis that posits that the developmental state concept is “not feasible under prevalent conditions in Africa known as the impossibility theorem” (Mkadawire, 2001: 293).

Lewis and Stein (1997) for example, when investigating the possibility of translating the Asian model and replicating it in the African context argue that “while greater political insulation of economic policy makers could reasonably be achieved in African countries, the extensive coordinated economic interventions of the East Asian states are far beyond the administrative capabilities of most African governments”.

Scepticism has been widespread within the literature regarding the prospects for the formation of viable developmental states, owing mostly to the poor record of state-led development efforts during the immediate post-independence era of African governance. State intervention in the economy, according to Ake, became a way for the governing elite to accumulate wealth for themselves (Ake, 1996). Others have put forward that the African continent lacks “adequate political superstructure and the leadership necessary for implementing policy of a developmental nature” (Birdsall, 2007: 580).

The ‘impossibility theorem’ is a collection of arguments that posits that the developmental state concept in Africa is not possible, and, in particular, demonstrates scepticism towards the East Asian development experiences and if these could act as a model for Africa (Mkandawire 2001) . Those who advance the ‘impossibility theorem’ also argue that this model is incompatible with globalization. They argue that the current “international regulatory architecture and the dominance of the neo-liberal paradigm” – supported by the World Bank, the IMF and the Washington Consensus – have created an environment that is largely “inhospitable for the viability of the developmental state approach” (Beeson 2006: 34-39).

Yet, supporters of the emergence of African developmental states argue that “the poor performance and lack of potential for African countries to achieve rapid state-led development is due to a biased and unfair comparison of the achievements of the East Asian models” (Mkandawire, 2001, Chang, 2006, UNCTAD, 2007).

The fact is, developmental states are emerging in Africa and there evidence for them to promote a developmental-state approach. It is now accepted that “market-based economies” need a successful state to function and develop. African nations are beginning to satisfy the fundamental needs of their people (Manzavinos, 2004).

This journey of rediscovering the “role” of the state has been simultaneous with the recognition of that of economic institutions. Douglass North published a book in 1990 called, Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance, which argues against the idea that “institutions simply come about as a by-product of economic growth, and put forward that improvements in institutions are essential preconditions and determinants of growth” (Manzavinos, 2004).

The final part of this paper now turns to the Ghana case-study in order to find out what policies could support the growth of African developmental states.

Ghana was the initial nation in Africa to gain independence and has since undergone a stable transition since then. The Nkrumah were soon established as the popular legitimacy of the state, Ghana has since managed to escape the violence that has occurred in other Sub-Sahara states.

As within all academic debates there are two sides to the argument: those that put forward that Ghana is a model of a developmental state and those who argue the contrary. Put simply, Ghana has failed to capture successful long-term development but that does not necessary mean it is not a developmental state. Ghana’s growth could be seen as a “mirage” rather than a “miracle” as some key structural changes as highlighted in the introduction of this paper have not occurred. However, Dzorgbo (2001: 5) observes that “it has confronted the challenge of increasing dependence on foreign aid, an exponential external debt, high rates of unemployment and poverty, and de-industrialization resultant from the elimination of protective measures”.

In terms of what policies Ghana can implement to support itself as a developmental state; it could start with intervening with its fiscal and monetary policy as done by the East Asian tigers during their developmental phase. The main aim of this would be to reduce government spending; “The CCP adopted an exaggerated, bloated vision of development of which the crucial feature was the number of physical structures and general infrastructure that could be constructed rather than assessing the actual social and material needs of the people” (Osei, 1999: 6). This would mean that Ghana should instead rely on state monetary policy to restore macroeconomic balance and cease to continue along the path of government spending which is dependent on bank credit. This creates an environment which is “inhospitable to foreign and private investment because excess lending and inflation results in low (even negative) interest rates that further discourage future investment” (Osei, 1999: 6).

This paper puts forward that the policy that Ghana should adopt is one of state intervention in its monetary policy instead of a laissez-faire attitude to economics. However, in the case of Ghana it is easy to see why the over extension of the state could become a problem given that the Divestiture Implementation Committee, established in 1990 under the patronage of the IMF, “gradually auctioned off state enterprises to the highest bidder” (Rothchild, 1991; 206). As such, Ghana has an uncomfortable history of state interference within the economy.

Once hailed as the frontier of Africa and in many ways similar to the Asian tigers, Ghana still must endure significant obstacles as such “formulas for success” set by the IMF and the Washington Consensus have continually failed to bring about change.

Taking into account the dynamic and unpredictable periods of economic policy formation we must ask ourselves if it even possible to generalize a developmental theory for Ghana or even Africa as a wholeAke strongly disagrees; “because development paradigms largely ignore the specificity and historicity of African countries, it puts them in a position in which everything is relevant to them and nothing is uniquely significant for understanding them” (Dzorgbo, 2001:13).

In conclusion, it can be seen that drawing on the experience of the East Asian tiger’s economies cannot be effectively applied to Africa as the contexts too different. As we have seen, developmental theory can be utterly misleading and inappropriate for Africa even if there is evidence to suggest that some nations of Africa ‘fit’ the developmental state model.

References:

Ake, Claude (1996). Democracy and Development in Africa. Washington, D.C. The Brookings Institution.

Amsden, A. (1989). Asia’s Next Giant. South Korea and Late Industrialization. New

York: Oxford University Press.

Beeson, Mark (2006). Politics and Markets in East Asia. Is the Developmental State

Compatable with GlobalisationIn, R. Stubbs., and G. R. D. Underhill (eds.), political Economy and the Changing Global order, 3rd edition, Ontorio: Oxford University Press

Birdsall, Nancy (2007). Do no Harm. Aid, Weak Institutions and the Missing Middle in Africa.

Development Policy Review, 25(5), 575-598.

Chang, Ha-Joon (2006). The East Asian Development Experience. The Miracle, the Crisis and the Future, London: Zed Books.

Dzorgbo, D. (2001). Ghana in Search of Development: The Challenge of Governance, Economic Management, and Institution Building.

Evans, Peter B. (1989). Predatory, Developmental and Other State?Apparatuses. A Comparative Political Economy Perspective on the Third World State. Sociological Forum, 4 (4), 561?587.

Evans, P. (1995). Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Haggard, Stephan (1990). Pathways from the Periphery. The Politics of Growth in Newly

Industrialising Countries. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Lewis, P. and Stein, H. (1997). Shifting fortunes: the political economy of financial liberalisation in Nigeria. World Development, vol. 25, no. 1, 5–22.

Loriaux, M et al (1999). Capital Ungoverned: Liberalizing Finance in Interventionist States, (Ithaca: Cornell), pp 57-91

Mantzavinos, C., North, D. C., & Shariq, S. (2004). Learning, institutions, and economic performance. Perspectives on politics, 2(01), 75-84.

Mbabazi, P., & Taylor, I. (2005). Botswana and Uganda as developmental States. The Potentiality of Developmental States’ in Africa: Botswana and Uganda Compared, pp. 1-15.

Meyns, P. and Musamba, C. (2010 [eds]). The Developmental State in Africa: Problems and

Prospects. Institute for Development and Peace, University of Duisburg?Essen INEF-Report, 101/2010).

Mkandawire, T (2001). Thinking about developmental states in Africa. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 25 (3), 289-13.

Osei, A. (1999). Ghana: Recurrence and Change in a Post-Independence African State. Peter Lang Publishing

Rothchild, D. (1991). Ghana: The Political Economy of Recovery. Lynne Rienner Publishers

United Nations Economic and Social Council (2013). ‘The Developmental State: What Option for AfricaAn Issues Paper’ in Economic Commission for Africa Governance and Public Administration Division Third Meeting of the Committee on Governance and Popular Participation (CGPP-III). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia , 20-21 February 2013 .

UNCTAD (2007). Economic Development in Africa. Reclaiming Policy Space: Domestic resource mobilization and developmental states. Geneva: UNTAD.

Woo?Cumings, Meredith (ed.) (1999). The Developmental State. Ithaca: Cornell University

Press.

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Free Essays

Microeconomic Impact of AIDS in Africa

The world has been greatly affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic indiscriminately although some parts have proved to be more vulnerable than others. It has ravaged the people since the 1980’s when it was first discovered. Despite this, it has been established that more than two thirds o those who are infected by the scourge are found in Africa and especially in the sub-Sahara part of Africa.

This is in spite of the fact that this area consists of only 10% of the population in the world. This then means that a very big percentage of those in Africa are suffering from HIV/AIDS. It is sad to realize that the majority of those who are infected and affected by the disease are those in the working age bracket. This then affects all aspects of life including social, cultural, and economic.

In all these aspects, there has been a change towards the negative. Those who are not infected are affected by having someone close to them suffering from the disease. In almost every household, there is someone suffering from it. It affects the economy by reducing the laborer force and at the same time increasing costs. This affects the industries, households and enterprises.

It also affects the government because of reduced taxes yet the expenditure has been increased on those who are in need of health care. In these countries, there was already an economic problem before the advent of the disease and this has been escalated by the impact of the disease. It leads to the inability of these economies to advance since most of the resources are channeled towards efforts of curbing the disease (Chaminuka P., Anim F., Debustus L. K. & Nqangweni S. 2-8).

The mainstay of most of the African countries is agriculture. The majority of people practice small-scale agriculture and it is among the most affected sectors in the continent. This is because resources are withdrawn from farming and directed to the healthcare of the ailing individuals. This occurs in various ways as will be explained in this paper.

First, the labor resource is reduced greatly because those who are working in the farms are the same ones who get sick. This then leads to lack of labor for the farms and hence the productivity of these farms is greatly reduced. Furthermore, the money that can be used to hire laborers is already being used in the healthcare of the sick person (http://www.avert.org).

Secondly, the monetary capital required in the advancement of farming is already being used by the family in the purchasing of drugs and general health care of the sick person. This then means that the implements necessary for the improvement and increase of productivity are not purchased. It is also affected by the loss of income earners either through death or to the ravages of the disease.

If the person who is required to infuse monetary capital to the farming business loses his or her job due to the disease, then it means that the household is by-passed by much technological advancement related to the agricultural field. When unable to purchase these technologies, productivity is low and hence the amount of income that can be earned from the farming is greatly reduced.

Lastly, in order to deal with the situation brought about by the disease, children end up becoming the laborers in the farms. They do this because their parents may both be suffering from the disease, as is the case most of the times, and therefore unable to work in the fields. Since the children cannot be able to work as efficiently and effectively as the adults can, they end up producing for subsistence use only.

This means that food insecurity is on the rise because not enough is being produced to support the countries demand for food. This ends up leading to a very acute shortage of food and the countries end up depending on food aid from other countries. Since agriculture as pointed out earlier is the mainstay of most economies, it means therefore means that even the economy is greatly affected (Chaminuka P., Anim F., Debustus L. K. & Nqangweni S. 2-8).

In Africa, there is a high rate of illiteracy and this affects their ability to compete for work on both the local and the international level. This has always been so since the independence era of most countries such that most of the policies put in place were aimed at reducing the level of illiteracy that was there. Since most of these policies failed it means that the problem was still prevalent even before the onset of the disease. This problem was made even worse, by the presence of HIV/AIDS through the impact it has on the education sector.

When the disease hits a family, there is need to use all the resources available in taking care of the patient and also in the funeral expenses, in case the person dies. The reduction in money for use in the house leads to a reduction in the previously experienced expenses. The most reduced expenses are spending on some of the basic needs that are deemed disposable. These basic needs usually include clothing and education. The money to cater for the school uniform and for school fees is used in health care of the patient and hence leads to low education and in the long run an increase in the rate of illiteracy (http://www.avert.org).

Education is also affected when both parents die of the disease and this is very common. It then means that some or all of the children end up dropping out of school so as to take care of themselves and also the young ones. If the parents are still alive but suffering from the disease, the children, especially the female children, drop out of school so as to take care of the parents.

The lack of education means that the majority of youngsters are only able to get menial manual jobs. They are unable to get technical jobs that need skills because they have not learned them in school. It ends up making the country look for expatriates to do the jobs that could have been done by local people if they had the skills.

This impacts on the economy negatively because the expatriates demand for more money than what would have been paid to the locals if they were the ones employed in the same capacity. This ends up straining the resources available because the amount used in salaries for the expatriates reduces the profits that could have been made. In other words, the profits are not maximized.

The low levels of education also lead to a lot of unemployment because the manual jobs can be done through the technologies introduced. The manual employees end up replaced by the machines increasing unemployment level. The high rate of unemployment leads to lack of consumption of goods and services because the people do not have money to spend (http://www.avert.org).

The decrease in labor also affects the foreign direct investment. This is because the demand for labor becomes higher than the supply. This leads to an increase in wages and the necessity for the use of expatriates. The foreign direct investment is important in the improvement of the economy but the foreign investors can only be attracted if there is a chance of making profits. For the profits to be made, the resources required must be available at the minimum costs possible.

Once labor, which is one of the resources, becomes too expensive to enable the company maximize its profits, the investors tend to shy away from the country. This means that the one of the various avenues through which the country can be able to improve its economy has been affected.

The various companies that have been put up also make a lot of losses leading either to closure due to reduced profits or the company may not close down but the profits being made are affected. This is because of the increased costs caused by the diversion of the productive resources towards health care, funeral benefits and also the pension fund.

This is brought about by the early retirement caused by the incapacitation of the ailing workers due to poor health. The skills are also reduced as an increased number of skilled workers succumb to the disease. This affects the company especially since resources have been used to train the workers and they may not have recovered the cost by the time the person retires or dies.

Businesses are also affected in that there is low productivity by workers. This is because the disease brings about an increase in the rate or absenteeism. Once the workers are constantly absent due to the necessity to seek medical care, it then means that the work is not done well and this affects the amount of profit that the businesses make. Furthermore, with the effect that the disease has on individual households, it leads to a reduction in the demand for the goods and services that are provided. This leads to an increase in dead stock which in turn may lead to the closure of some businesses.

The lack of good profits by businesses and companies affects the economy as a whole in that it affects the taxes that the government gets from the business sector. This leads to reduced revenue thus affecting the services that the government is able to provide to the citizens. This is combined with the increase in health care spending by the government.

The government ends up having to borrow from both foreign and local lenders so as to be able to meet the targets of the budget that they have fixed in any given financial year. The result of the heavy borrowing is an increase in the rate of inflation. This affects each household because the money they have now purchases less than it would have before (http://www.avert.org).

In the provision of health care, it has become very expensive for the individual households. This is caused by the fact that there is massive drainage of health care workers in most of these countries. There are too many people who are infected with the disease causing an increase in the workload of the healthcare workers.

When this is combined with the low wages that they get, it leads to their immigrating to other areas where they can get more money for the services that they give. In order to maintain those who have been left in the service, there is need to increase their wages and this cost is pushed on to those who are seeking health care making it next to impossible for them to acquire it especially the HIV/AIDS patients.

There is also a problem of having a large number of infected health care workers, this is because a major cause o death in the industry thus depleting the number of workers further. This combined with the other two factors are a cause of increase in the cost of attainment of healthcare.

This affects households by reducing the amount of income that can be used for consumption thus affecting the economy. The hospital resources are also under strain because the disease is chronic yet the numbers of HIV/AIDS patients that are using the hospital’s resource are more than those who are suffering from other diseases.

The death of income earners in the various households means that the children who are orphaned become dependants on other income earners. This is if they do not become the heads in their houses. The increase in dependants on the income earners leads to less income used for consumption. There are now more people who depend on the same income thus reducing the real income of the household. There is also the reduction of customers that a business can get because the same amount of money that was initially used by one household is now being used by two households.

Also, the increase in amount of dependants on the few income earners who are now available leads to depletion of savings. Since the income earned cannot be enough to sustain the increased number of dependants, the income earner is forced to use up the saving that they had kept aside. Since savings and investments go hand-in-hand, it means that the rate of investment is also affected. There is less investment by households and also the various businesses because decreased savings causes an increase in the interest rate of borrowing. The decreased rate of investment affects employment.

The income earners usually have to quit working because they have to take care of the ill. This especially affects the female income earners because they have to take care of the family. The female workers and students may end up becoming commercial sex workers which is a job description that is not taxed by the government. In other words, it means that the number of taxpayers has reduced yet the number of workers has increased. By becoming commercial sex workers, they increase their chances of contracting the disease and dying thus continuing the vicious cycle of poverty.

The increase in the work load of caregivers affects their output in their various workplaces. The women who work in industries are unable to produce at optimum level because of increased absenteeism at work. This reduces the amount of income that they get since their working hours are greatly reduced. They may also be fired because they end up becoming a liability to the company because the cost of maintaining them as workers becomes too high for the company. This leads to a decrease in the amount of money that can be spent by the household on consuming. Furthermore with reduced income, there is reduced saving since all the money earned goes directly to consumption.

The assets that people own end up being sold in order to acquire treatment for the sick. Even after death of the sufferers, there are still funeral expenses and hence further sale of the assets. The households are then left very poor with nothing to fall back on especially once the income earners in the household succumb to the disease. Since the savings have already been used up, there is no way that the households can recover their previous economic status and this increases the rate of poverty. In other words, there is an increase in the amount of poor people in the continent (http://www.avert.org).

The households which have been affected by the disease end up depending on other households. They become a burden to them and cause an increase in the debts that these people have. These debts are even made worse by the fact that there are high chances of the income earners losing their employment. To avoid this, the older children end up becoming laborers to support their families.  This has changed the composition of workers to having more children than adults in the labor force. Since the children are unable to be as productive as the adults they are paid poorly. This pushes them further into poverty.

Work cited

AVERT. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Africa. Retrieved on 29th November 2007 from http://www.avert.org/aidsimpact.htm

Chaminuka P., Anim F., Debustus L. K. & Nqangweni S. impact of HIV&AIDS on Agriculture and Food Security. The Case of Limpopo Province in South Africa 2006 FANRPAN pg 2-8

 

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Nowhere in Africa

Desperate situations create good autobiographical novels. To meet those situations, an individual looks out for desperate remedies. To face worst situations, the best and the bravest within the human personality, surfaces. For the new and unexpected situations solutions are found. The seemingly impossible, becomes possible. New situations not only become tolerable, but acceptable. One comes to enjoy beautiful experiences. The routine and protected life, when suddenly disrupted, finds new vibrant alternatives. The new way of life, gives rise to new views about life. The strange surroundings turn out to be divine blessings. Nowhere in Africa turns out to nowhere in Africa!

The Film:

The autobiographical novel-based movie is about such happenings in the life of Stefanie Zweig. Walter Redlich was a successful lawyer in Germany, when Hitler rode to power. The persecution of Jews in Nazi Germany was gathering speed, and to remain in Germany was to invite grave danger to life and property for the Jews.  Walter moved to Kenya. But his wife Jettel and daughter Regina stayed back. This decision of Jettel, shows her love for the social life in Germany, her reluctance to give up the comforts of city life. She also wishes to keep her daughter under her protective wings.

She doesn’t like the dark and backward country Kenya. She is a prominent figure in the social circles in Germany, and she is enamored by the glamour of social life in Germany. As the Nazi persecution goes on unabated, Jettel has no alternative and she joins her husband in Kenya along with Regina. Her worst fears about the life and living in Kenya come true. She is accustomed to live a cozy life in Germany, and she resents the rugged farm labor imposed in her new Kenyan pattern of life.

Another psychological problem surfaces for Walters as he discovers that Germans are not liked by British settlers in Kenya. The young Regina suffers the most, initially. She finds herself lost in the new and unfamiliar surroundings and nothing fascinates this young girl—except their African family cook, Owuv. Gradually, she begins to like the natural beauty of Kenya. A deep friendship sprouts between Owuvr and the young child.

Subsequently Germany invades Africa, and the German National Walter is taken to a British internment camp along with his wife and daughter. The beauty Jettel, seduces a British Army Officer, Walter is put in charge of another farm, and Regina is admitted to a boarding school. The strength of the movie is that it searches the real Africa, its soul, through the innocent and affectionate view point of the child, which has malice towards none. She is kindled with curiosity to know the ways of the world around her.

The vast gorgeousness of Kenyan plains has tremendous appeal to her. The transformation that takes place in the city -kitten Jettel as a professional farmland Manager, is real and worth noticing. She understands now, and is not fussy. But human nature being what it is, she continues to be culturally insensitive. She came to Kenya to escape torture and certain death at the hands of Nazis, but it is tormenting to watch how she discriminates against the native Kenyans –then where lies the difference between her and the Nazis?

The strength of the film lies in the authentic portrayal of the characters, how they face the ups and downs of the family relationship and the gradual growth and the relevant changes related to its characters. This film is suitable for family viewing. But the short sex scenes and those related to animal sacrifice do not contribute to the overall dignity of the movie.

Nowhere in Africa, an Autobiographical Novel, Stefanie Zweig.

That the movie is based on this best-selling autobiographical novel won the 2002 Academy Award for the best foreign language film speaks about the merit of the novel. The book describes the harsh realities for the Redlich family, moving from a western country, Germany, to the remote farmlands of Kenya. Regina, their five year old daughter has no problems to adjust and adopt the new way of life. Their cook, Owuor is their language teacher as well. They begin to love the country of their forced choice, but when the war is over, the real problem surfaces. Walter wishes to return to Germany, but once the- Kenya-hater Kettel, wishes to stay back in Kenya. The German children, on their return to Germany after the War, are strangers in their own land. They have to learn German from the beginning.

Whenever a book is made into a film, changes in many areas are inevitable. The actress shown in then film (Kettel) and the real mother of the novel are diametrically opposed to each other. Many other parts of the film are true to the contents of the novel. The African cook speaking Swahili gives the genuine touch to the conversation. Stefanie wrote the book under strange circumstances. The paper for which she was working closed down and then she joined a tabloid paper in Frankfurt, as Arts Editor. There she did many a film reviews. She admits the limitations of making a film out of a book, when she says, “So I knew that the film and the book weren’t going to be the same.”

The reality of Walter family returning to Germany after the end of the war has been very well depicted in the book. The great love of Stefanie for her father is also touchingly narrated on more than one occasion in the book. She was asked to do a thing, which she did not like-returning to her own Germany, which was a strange land to her on all counts but she did it for the sake of her love for her father. In a novel the author has lots of freedom to write detailed descriptions, but the director of the film has limitations. Therefore, then film is not the true representation of her life, as compared to the book.

The emphasis in the book is for the story of the little girl Regina (Stefanie), but in the film it shifts to her parents and their marital problems. In a highly complicated novel like Nowhere in Africa, with several characters interacting with each other and shifting locales, film adaptation is very different from the original text. The undercurrent of love is seen through the characterization of all characters in the novel, that’s why it is said, the novel tells something deep within the author. It was her father’s advice not to hate. Also the life of 1938 as depicted in Kenya is much different from what is portrayed in the film.

More importance is given in the film to the Walter couple and they talk of their marriage incessantly, sidetracking the real problems of their forced migration. Their intense talk about adjusting and saving their marriage looks unrealistic in the given circumstances. At least that is not what is described in the novel. The family escaped from Nazi Germany certainly not to settle scores about their marriage relationship, they had other priorities in life, according to the book. But the film ignores it. That is moving from the tracks of reality.

From the point of view of generating revenue for the film, the leading lady of the novel has got to be glamorous, she has to have some peculiar characteristics either positive or negative, and Jettel has been accordingly shown as a cold, calculating and a woman filled with vanity. The book views the qualities in a different perspective. She is not at all that had as shown in the film. To be unhappy is one thing. But what is chiseled in the film is no justice to Jettel.

The film presents a more luxurious pattern of life than what is depicted in the novel. As a child Regina was very poor and she could not afford the costly costumes shown in the movie-that is not what is shown about her at that age. But the Regina of age 12 in the book and the movie are one and the same. Her deep love for Ouwor is shown realistically in the movie as compared to the book.

The book was hailed as the Society’s best juvenile title in The Netherlands. So also, the movie, whose main focus is on the parent’s relationship. She wrote the book out of respect for her parents. The strong influence of her father played a big part in shaping of the book, which the film could not show in detail due to the limitations of time and other related factors. The actress does not convey the real Jettel in the book. Besides being tough, she was a charming human being also. You see and experience the lasting human love between her and the family cook Ouwor. That’s a great characterization in the book.

————————

References:

Nowhere in Africa, DVD, 2003

Zweig, Stefanie, Nowhere in Africa: An Autobiographical Novel, Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press; 1st edition (March 15, 2004) ISBN-10: 0299199606 ISBN-13 :
978-0299199609

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The History of the Noose and its Significance to African

The origins of the noose, also known as the hangman’s knot, has been associated with the capital punishment more pronounced during the Elizabethan times. The noose has strikingly evoked a kind of historical perspective quite commonly associated with death as a punishment for crimes committed. In Britain, the noose was often looped into one end where a man’s neck could easily fit and allowed to hang and apparently die of strangulation from the tightening loop or by a breakage of the hanged man’s vertebra. Its positioning is seen to coincide with the angle of the jaw in order to make sure that the head is thrown backwards by the rope so that the force is transmitted into the neck vertebrae rather than being thrown forward and the force taken on the throat which tends to cause strangulation.

In our modern era however, the noose signifies for many a corrosive ingredient to an otherwise risky social practice of racism. In the first part of the 20th century, the practice of lynching was ascribed to stifle mob violence due in part to an ineffective law enforcement agency (Apel, 2004:49). From the torturous slave trade era, the nooses of the Ku Klux Klan evoked a sign for the Black society to remain passive and stand defenseless in the face of any racist assault (Bobo et.al, 2004: 140). In the historical opposition to black voting rights, representation and summary punishments, the lyncher’s noose represented white supremacy (Grant, 2001: 101).

Purpose of the Study and Statement of the Problem

It is therefore to the best interest of everyone to be able to identify the origins of the hangman’s knot or the noose in the current period. Such knowledge leads to the understanding of how the hangman’s noose is currently associated to an issue of importance to the Black American society in the US. In the history of hate crimes and lynching against the Black Americans and other marginalized sectors, the rope has often symbolized hatred.

In the face of modernity and globalization, and equal rights for every American, the interpretation of the hangman’s noose as an action is still often seen as an over reaction in a climate full of questions relative to racism and supremacy. The meaning behind the noose and its presence has been seen by the Black community as denoting racial hatred and white power.

However, amidst a modern and diverse society that has publicized political correctness; every American is faced with the question on its proper interpretation and to discuss the rightful censorship of the act. Will there be a chance when people will stop reacting to the noose and somehow understand that this is just an overblown racial rhetoric or will the culture and climate of racism fit for censorship or punishment?

Review of Literature

When a white police officer placed a hangman’s noose on the motorcycle of a black policeman in Boston, the black policeman complained that he was being victimized by the white officer. Although investigative reports did reveal that no racial motives were behind the act, the black officer claimed that, “no one can just hang a noose near any black man who knew his history and say that it does not have a tremendous significance” (Blum, 2002:2).

The consequences for such an action in some states like Miami has allowed black employees who were subjected to an intimidating presence of a hangman’s noose in the office of Adelphia Communication’s manager to collect a $1 million settlement (Apel, 2004:17). Suddenly a spate of similar incidents are happening across the country where a noose was left for a black workman at a construction site in South Elgin while a woman in Queens, New York brandishes a noose to threaten her black neighbors. Pitts also reported for the Chicago Tribune how a noose was left on the door of a black professor at Columbia University that stands to investigate the recent spate actions (Pitts, Oct. 2007).

History had associated the noose as a tool for capital punishment against criminals during the Elizabethan times. The United States whose justice system was patterned after England’s has adapted death by hanging to convicted and ruthless crime offenders. The fall of slave trade after the Civil War marked a quest for civil rights that soon catered to the emergence of groups opposed to Black freedom and rights. The Ku Klux Klan became an effective and organized movement against Black rights who once exercised a reign of terror using the symbolic gesture of the noose to evoke fear among the blacks and other minorities (Grant, 2001: 100).

The memory of lynching still runs fresh on the hearts and minds of the targeted Black population along with other minorities (Reid-Pharr, 1999: 126).In the last few years of the 20th century, even after the successful allowance of equal rights for every American citizen, random incidents of lynching with the symbolic use of the hangman’s noose despite progress and modernization (Diuguid, 2007: 149).

Findings and Analysis

Despite progress and modernity, it is observed that the memory of lynching particularly with the symbolic use of the noose is seen as a persistent wound to the Black American society. Authors Bobo, et, al (2004) Apel (2004) Blum (2002) have a similar idea that the noose is seen as a predicament for the Blacks and other minorities in the societies whether they were intended as a joke or otherwise. The noose has seen an association and a symbol of white supremacy and hatred against the African Americans in the United States.

In light of the spate and re-emergence of noose lynching around the country, many Black populations could not bring themselves to understand despite comprehensive investigation that it was a prank (Pitts, 2007). Many look back to the atrocities committed against the blacks and other minorities and regard the handful of happenings as an apparent move to stifle violence perpetrated by the marginalized communities (Wallace, 1999:32).

Random incidents which have happened in relations to actions commonly associated with the hangman’s noose dismissed such incidents although an astonishing response that condemned such atrocity could be heard by both white and black communities who were both offended (Diuguid, 2007:19). Although nothing was done, many African-Americans were hurt about the incident (Diuguid, 2007:21).

In the exercise of political ideals in the face of diversity, such racial slurs and symbolic forms of hatred has no room in the American egalitarian society as the black population struggle to pursue a more decent and humane existence for their families (Wallace, 1999: 32). Such things that should be forgotten cannot simply be delegated immediately to the memory banks because many still experience feelings of hurt and marginalization after hearing of community members being subjected to such treatment. Although the youths have experienced minor blows to resulting from racism in comparison to their forefathers, Black culture still appreciates the deep roots of their black culture and will continue to feel hurt and rejection as a response to random and symbolic act of the hangman’s noose.

Conclusion

The notoriety of the noose however, lies not only in its use as a method of capital punishment. It has also been associated as a racial hate symbol, so far being used in the United States against African-Americans. This is in reference to the various forms of extermination performed against African-Americans in the rural South in the past. To address such, the use of nooses for the intention of perpetrating a hate crime, or using nooses as a racial hate symbol, was actually made illegal under U.S. law. Recently, there have been cases where the hanging of nooses was done at American universities in what many see may be a resurgence of the symbol.

In totality, nooses however can be said to be very significant to African-Americans, as it tries to represent a direct attack on their African American race. The move to make it illegal was definitely a step in the right direction. Just as the noose gained its reputation with being a form of capital punishment, it too has become a racially charged symbol that continues to affect African-Americans today.

It will therefore be a difficult option to encourage Black Americans to forget about the noose and its symbolism. Their deeply embedded culture is taught to every Black child in order for him to appreciate his importance in the struggle for equality.

Reference

Apel, Dora. 2004. Imagery of Lynching: Black Men, White Women, and the Mob. Rutgers University.

Blum, Lawrence. 2002. I’m Not a Racist, But.. The Moral Quandary of Race. Cornell University Press.

Bobo, Jacqueline, Hudley, Cynthia and Michel, Claudine. 2004. The Black Studies Reader. Routledge.

Diuguid, Lewis. 2007. Discovering the Real America: Toward a More Perfect Union.

Grant, Donald. 2001. The Way It Was in the South: The Black Experience in Georgia. University of Georgia.

Pitts, Leonard. 2007. The History of the Rope. Chicago: Tribune.October.

Reid-Pharr, Robert. 1999. Conjugal Union: The Body, the House, and the Black American. University Press.

Roberts, James D. 2005. A Black Political Theology. Westminster John Knox.

Wallace, Michele. 1999. Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman. Verso.

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Narrative essay on African American people

The issue on African-American exemplifies the problem on racism / racial discrimination. Among the whites, the African-American class comprises the minority group in United States of America. In history, the Civil War was caused by disagreement of Confederates States of America to free African-American slaves. The fear to African-Americans excluded them in military.

After the Civil War, the slavery of African-American people was still prevalent. African-American people were still treated as slaves, they do not have equal right as the whites, and abused by the larger groups in almost all American societies. (Until today) Although laws pertaining for equal rights to all citizens of America were instigated, racial discrimination is implied / seen in United States (Franklin, J. H. and A. A. Moss, Jr., http://www.randomhouse.com/acmart/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780375406713).

Education

The effect of racial discrimination causes separation / segregation in schools in the south and in the north of America. In United States, two worlds were created between the white society and black community. The culture, customs, practices, beliefs between the two races can not meet / come across. The American-Africans were excluded in the mainstream of American societies. Conversely, there were cases where African-Americans were not allowed to be educated. Bylaws of the society issue a criminal case to any educating African-American (before).

Unequal education between the whites and American-Africans arises. The public schools issue racial discrimination over American-Africans. In any cases, American-Africans were given little attention when it comes to consultation (between black students and teachers), resources (books and school supplies), and concerns of teachers.

Despite of the separation between the whites and American-Africans education, American-Africans focus on the church as center in their educational and political living. Today, the bilingual education helps American-Africans to respect their own culture, tradition, beliefs, and customs. American-Africans do have equal rights to the system they wanted to be educated. The bilingual education enhances the student’s capability in studying since American-Africans can educate in their own languages / lingo.

Community

The community easily identifies slaves with regards to the appearance, color, and language of African-Americans. Early in the history, African-Americans were castigated since they were in greater supply. Specifically, women were abused, they were treated as animals, and sex slavery was abundant in United States. The African-Americans children were automatically become slaves. The whites implemented laws prohibiting African-Americans to owned guns, create business, and possess equal rights to the community.

The African-Americans comprises a portion in the community. These people are inapt in American societies. The whites feel superior, dominance, authority to the black community. In a particular community in United States, the whites prefer to favor the whites instead of an African-American. A whites tend to gives more importance to a white person rather than help a poor African-American.

In any community, a dominant class would be authoritative, racist, abused the minority. It is actually natural / normal to any community / nation / society. In a white’s perspective, they hated blacks. They think that blacks were criminals, without education, and belong to lower classes of the society. The white community discriminates those blacks. In any situations, the hospital gives first priority to a white patient, a (white) employer gives favor to a white applicant, and the white community would only hear a white’s complaint.
Family

Slavery causes division / separation of African-American families. Because the blacks were given a monetary value, they were forced to work as slaves. Unfair employment was given to the African-Americans. The society looks at an African-American family inferior to the social order of United States.

Society

The society directs to how its environment will works. Through the globe, slave trade is seen between two (strong) nations. Muslims were able to exchange African slaves. In the societal scheme of the whites, they enslaved African-Americans. The whites were able to utilized African-Americans in their farms, and other business works (Franklin, J. H. and A. A. Moss, Jr., http://www.randomhouse.com/acmart/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780375406713).

Nevertheless, the whites gave the African-Americans low degree of employment (blue-collar job). The whites worry to the destabilization in their economic expansion and hierarchy. African-Americans were the ones involved in harvesting crops, security, peon, and soiled works. The slave trade in United States produced tobacco, cotton, and sugar. In the last 100 years, the high mortality rate and abused of African-Americans open an opportunity for a social change.

Although there are free African-Americans, they were controlled in the society. In history, slaves purchased their own freedom. In the political system of the United States, African-Americans could vote. They were not given the right to take part in the election since they were included in the lower classes. Threats exist to exclude African-African from voting. As much as they couldn’t do businesses, they also prohibited to own any property.

The whites wanted to contain and continue supremacy over African-Americans. No African-Americans can complaint to any crimes done by the whites. In the movie Crash, there was an incident where an African-American woman was molested by a cop (white), her husband wasn’t able to charge a court case since he was an African-American.

Miscegenation (interracial marriage) was not allowed by the society. Such cases would issue a lawsuit and incarceration of any African-American. The society enforced segregation on hotels, buses (transportation), theaters, and restaurants between the whites and African-Americans. The society does not recognize talents, music, intelligence, and capability of blacks.

Summary

In any develop nation, two races creates a chaotic situation of education, community, culture, customs, and beliefs. Abused and mistreatment of the minority groups is prevalent in these societies. African-Americans suffer from racial discrimination; unemployment, inability to take part in the elections, isolation of education, and abused on the rights of African-Americans as a citizen of the United States.

Until today, African-Americans were given the right to vote, fair employment, inclusion in military forces, and given important position in the government. People can’t do away with the differences in appearances, culture, and beliefs, but, people can meet halfway in order to attain equality.

Work Cited

Franklin, J. H. and A. A. Moss, Jr. From Slavery to Freedom
A History of African Americans (8th Edition). Random House, Inc. 2004. URL http://www.randomhouse.com/acmart/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780375406713. Retrieved October 4, 2007.

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African-American Civil Right Movement

The African-American Civil Rights Movement During the frail moments in history there are times to be seen as a great movement. One of those moments in the history of America was the African-American Civil Rights Movement. This movement came by storm with different views on how civil rights should be fought. With the extremism of Malcolm X or the prolific voice of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. There were key court cases Brown v. Board of Education and the world wide known Rosa Parks. This action by African-Americans to fight for equality was a battle which they had to endure.

However, the African-American people would be able to succeed in the goals which they set. One of the greatest social movements within the United States was the African-American Civil Rights Movement. This movement wanted to rid or outlaw racial discrimination against African-Americans. The movement had a major campaign of civil resistance which were acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience that would create a disturbance to federal, state, and local governments. The segregation between “White” and “Colored” was the main cause for these protests. The segregation was nonsense.

With separate drinking fountains, restrooms, and other miniscule areas the segregation between whites and coloreds kept the rift between these two races. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is known for his heroic speeches that describe that to thrive as a nation, a nation must be united. With his superior charismatic skills he was able to grab the attention of the nation. His most famous speech which is known by most as “I have a dream” speech was the high point of the 1963 March on Washington. Another leader during the African-American Civil Right Movement was Malcolm X.

Though many peers viewed him as a advocate that charged racial issue, he undoubtedly brought the attention of racial injustice. An example of his actions was a New York Police beating on Johnston Hinton. Malcolm X went to the police station to see Mr. Hinton and was denied. Malcolm then created a crowd of protesters and with the growing numbers of his peers the police station then allowed him to see Hilton. It was protests like these which lead the charge to equality throughout the nation. But there were also key law suits and court cases that would make justice history.

During a movement there has to be examples to which are known, and can be used to show either the highest achievements of the movement or show how the old justice system is broke. It was the series of court cases known as Brown v. Board of Education. This case was brought to the attention of the court system to allow the education of Black and White Children. The lawyers of the NAACP stated that segregation of the school were unconstitutional and did not promote democracy. With this on May 18, 1954 Greensboro was the first city in the South to execute the ruling of the U.

S. Supremes Court’s Brown v. Board of Education. This had a positive effect for the movement forward to equality. Another famous court case was the Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Due to her actions taken on December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was dubbed “the mother of the Civil Rights Movement”. Rosa Parks refuse to leave her seat on a public bus to leave room for a white passenger. She was arrested, tried, and convicted for her actions that day. However, due to this incident 50 African-American leaders organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

With the support of approximately 50,000 African Americans in the Montgomery area, the boycott lasted for 381 days. The results of this boycott lead to the local segregating of African-American and Whites to be lifted. With the mass amount of boycotters the revenue for the bus decreased 80% until a federal court ordered the Montgomery’s bus service to desegregate in November. Other legislative achievements during this movement were the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968.

With the African-American Civil Rights Movement being a concrete example of the determination of making a nation move forward to a more acceptable place, it was due to these key people which stood up a led a group whom wanted the same privileges as those whom already had. A movement with such importance must be taught and understood. During any movement in history there will always be those who emerge as leaders, sometimes those want to be a leader and some of those who are leaders unintentionally and lead by peaceful actions.

These movement leaders: Rosa Parks, Malcolm X, and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. made history which will be concreted into the books of history and will be forever known as leaders in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. End Notes 1. Henretta, J. A, Brody, D. , America a Concise History, Volume 1, Fourth Edition. Boston: Bedfords/St. Martin’s, 2012. 2. Bruce, Perry, The Last Speeches, (New York: Pathfinder, 1998) 978-0-87348-543-2 (accessed October 8, 2012), 165. 3. Klarman, Michael J. ,Brown v.

Board of Education and the civil rights movement: abridged edition of From Jim Crow to civil rights : the Supreme Court and the struggle for racial equality, Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 55 4. Chafe, William Henry, Civilities and civil rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black struggle for freedom, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980) 0-19-502625-X (Accessed October 8, 2012), 81. Bibliography Henretta, J. A, Brody, D. , America a Concise History, Volume 1, Fourth Edition. Boston: Bedfords/St. Martin’s, 2012. Perry, Bruce. The Last Speeches. New York: Pathfinder, 1989. 78-0-87348-543-2 (accessed October 8, 2012). Klarman, Michael J. ,Brown v. Board of Education and the civil rights movement: abridged edition of From Jim Crow to civil rights : the Supreme Court and the struggle for racial equality, Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2007 Chafe, William Henry (1980). Civilities and civil rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black struggle for freedom. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-19-502625-X. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. J. A. Henretta, and D. Brody, America a Concise History, (Boston: Bedfords/St.

Martin’s, 2012), 828. [ 2 ]. Bruce Perry, The Last Speeches, (New York: Pathfinder, 1989)978-0-87348-543-2 (accessed October 8, 2012), 165. [ 3 ]. Klarman, Michael J. ,Brown v. Board of Education and the civil rights movement: abridged edition of From Jim Crow to civil rights : the Supreme Court and the struggle for racial equality, Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 55 [ 4 ]. Chafe, William Henry (1980). Civilities and civil rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black struggle for freedom. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-19-502625-X.

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African American Stereotypes in the Media

Jakaya McCambry 10/02/12 African American Stereotypes in the Media When I first heard someone say, “All African American people are Ghetto,” I was very offended that someone would make this type of assumption about my culture, and I thought how ignorant this person must be; but then I stopped and wondered why other people would think this about us. I asked her why she would say something like this, and she instantly listed shows like Tosh. O and Chelsea Lately, which highlight my culture in a negative view.

It was clear to me that she had made up her mind about black people through watching the media and seeing African Americans fulfill that stereotype in person. This led me to question: Where exactly do these stereotypes come from? Are African American stereotypes still apparent in the media? What shows, movies, etc have made others portray our race as “Ghetto” or other lists of stereotypes? Are there any solutions to stop African American stereotypes? When we subscribe to the belief that groups of member are expected to possess certain characteristics, we are engaging stereotypes.

When these groups are evaluated based on what the perceiver believes the target ought to be, judgments are made. These judgments concerning these individuals, based on their membership in a group or judgments made about people are not particularly based on facts. Stereotypes about our race dates all the way back to slavery. The beliefs that we were dishonest, promiscuous, and violent were evident during slavery of our black race. More recently the media sets the tone for morals, values, info about our culture; leading people to believe everything they see on TV including black stereotypes.

It is a fact that one out of three people are said to have more than one TV in their house, which shows that media is a source for how people form perceptions about people (Tosi 13). Perception thus becomes a reality to people, and once people perceive it, stereotyping is born. Stereotyping of African Americans in the media has stemmed from how the media has presented African Americans to the world. There is a theory by George Gerbner that states, “Individuals who frequently watch high contents of television will begin to believe that they are living in a world similar to what is portrayed on the screen (Gerbner&Gross, 1976). It is the idea that whether something is being portrayed as negative or positive on television, most people will believe it. There is a fact which says that about six percent of African Americans are seen in comedies and dramas (Tosi 14). Within that category, they are mostly illustrated as being lazy, loud, uneducated and poor. For example, in movies like The Color Purple and shows like Good Times demonstrates negative perceptions of our race. On the other hand, shows like The Cosby show and Fresh prince of Bel Aire try and broaden the viewer’s idea of a typical “black” family.

These shows highlight black people living a very high class, educated, wealthy lifestyle. And so, as we see, the media ultimately controls how our race as they perceived, whether it is negative or positive. Since the media has a strong influence on the people’s perceptions of each other, they are the real deciding factor on how to solve the problem of stereotyping. We could possibly find solutions by matching every negative stereotype with a positive one, so that the good and bad cancel each other out.

This is just a start; we want it so that when other cultures look at us, degrading stereotypes pertaining to our race will not come to mind. I believe we as inviduals also have the power to choose not to conform to our own stereotypes. Bordewich once said, “ Only by abandoning many long-held, lovingly-held, myths and fantasies; we will become able to shape a healthy rational policy for people’s whose real life s far more complex and interesting, than our persistent fantasies. ” So although the entertainment in the media may be interesting, we as a culture need to lead and be as catalyst in ending these demeaning stereotypes.

Stereotypes can be good or bad, but given the evidence from my research on this topic, I can conclude that most African American stereotypes are negative. The way entertainment in the media portrays us has greatly affected how others identify us. Movies and shows like; Madea’s family Reunion, Bringing down the House, Love and Hip Hop, and Basketball Wives all portray us in a degrading way. People sometimes find it comical of course, but the fact that it is comical does not justify it being debasing. This image of us has evolved from things in the media, and its’ power to shape people’s idea of us.

We as a race must stop living up to our stereotypes. As soon as we take action in not succumbing to our own stereotype, people will not think we are “Ghetto” or any other undignified term they think of us; therefore in the media we won’t be perceived in that way. As Colin Powell once said, “Fit no stereotypes. Don’t chase the latest management fads. The situation dictates which approach best accomplishes the team’s mission. ” Although African American stereotyping is prevalent in the media now because of its’ entertaining quality; it perpetuates a cycle of harmful stereotypes.

As long as this cycle continues, our culture will always be illustrated negatively. Works Cited Dixon, Travis L. “Network News And Racial Beliefs: Exploring The Connection Between National Television News Exposure And Stereotypical Perceptions Of African Americans. ” Journal Of Communication 58. 2 (2008): 321-337. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Oct. 2012 Horton, Yurii, Eric Brown, and Raagen Price. “PORTRAYAL OF MINORITIES IN THE FILM, MEDIA AND ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRIES. ” PORTRAYAL OF MINORITIES IN THE FILM, MEDIA AND ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRIES.

Ethics of Development in a Global Environment (EDGE), 1 June 1999. Web. 02 Oct. 2012. <http://www. stanford. edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/mediarace/portrayal. htm>. Retirethechief. “Stereotypes and Symbolism: Images Can Hurt. ” Stereotypes and Symbolism: Images Can Hurt. RetireTheChief. org, May 2003. Web. 02 Oct. 2012. <http://www. retirethechief. org/Essays/stereotype0503. html>. Sanders, Meghan S. , and Srividya Ramasubramanian. “An Examination Of African Americans’ Stereotyped Perceptions Of Fictional Media Characters. ” Howard Journal Of Communications 23. (2012): 17-39. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Oct. 2012. Tosi, Paula. “Thinking About What We See: Using Media Literacy To Examine Images Of African Americans On Television. ” Black History Bulletin 74. 1 (2011): 13-20. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Oct. 2012. Ramasubramanian, Srividya, and Mary Beth Oliver. “Activating And Suppressing Hostile And Benevolent Racism: Evidence For Comparative Media Stereotyping. ” Media Psychology 9. 3 (2007): 623-646. Academic Search Premier. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. Moon J. Lee, Shannon L. Bichard, Meagan S. Irey, Heather M. Walt & Alana J.

Carlson, (2009)Television Viewing and Ethnic Stereotypes: Do College Students Form Stereotypical Perceptions of Ethnic Groups as a Result of Heavy Television Consumption?. Howard Journal of Communications 20:1, pages 95-110. Bradley W. Gorham, (2006) News Media’s Relationship With Stereotyping: The Linguistic Intergroup Bias in Response to Crime News. Journal of Communication 56:2, pages 289-308. C. Mo Bahk & Fred E. Jandt, (2004) Being White in America: Development of a Scale. Howard Journal of Communications 15:1, pages 57-68. “Stereotypes In Media. ” Stereotypes In Media. N. p. , n. d.

Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://serendip. brynmawr. edu/local/scisoc/sports03/papers/lgataullina. html>. Monique Kloosterman, et al. “‘Shake It Baby, Shake It’: Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes And Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents. ” Sex Roles 63. 11/12 (2010): 844-859. Academic Search Premier. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. Hutchison, Phillip J. “Reexamining Jack Johnson, Stereotypes, And America’s White Press, 1908–1915. ” Howard Journal Of Communications23. 3 (2012): 215-234. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Nov. 2012 Pickering, Michael. “Sex In The Sun: Racial Stereotypes And Tabloid News.  Social Semiotics 18. 3 (2008): 363-375. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. Li Chen, et al. “Male Mammies: A Social-Comparison Perspective On How Exaggeratedly Overweight Media Portrayals Of Madea, Rasputia, And Big Momma Affect How Black Women Feel About Themselves. ” Mass Communication & Society 15. 1 (2012): 115-135. Academic Search Premier. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. Hermes, Joke. “On Stereotypes, Media And Redressing Gendered Social Inequality. ” Contemporary Readings In Law & Social Justice 2. 2 (2011): 181-187. Academic Search Premier. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.

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Africa Since 1940

The colonization of the African nation has played an important part on the world and how blacks were treated. What they endured as a people, showed the high element of inequality and injustice brought on by a group of people on to another. This period in time brought a change in a nation rocked with pain and anguish. Intervention and invasion from other countries saw the decline in the wealth that Africa once possessed. The notion that Africans were uncivilized was the mindset of the Europeans as they made their presence known. What they did was to manipulate the minds of the African people to gain what they set out to attain.

Their goal has always been to rob them of their livelihood, to destroy and steal what were rightly the Africans. Ignorance and defiance became the downfall of many, as they trusted the words of the whites. The destruction and atrocities that Africans faced was indicative of the cruel way in which European invaded the nation and took control in the name of colonization. Many books made note of the colonizing of the African nation. Three of those great books are: African Since 1940 The Past of the present by Frederick Cooper, The Nigerian Civil war by John de ST. Jorre and African Perspectives on Colonialism by A. ADU Boahen.

However, of the three books Boahen provides more supplemental materials that support my thesis. The most important economic change that occurred in Africa was during the period 1880-1960. This period marked the colonization and the scramble for African colonies. Boahen writes “The first and the most important of the economic changes that had occurred in Africa by 1880 were the abolition and suppression of that most inhuman and abominable of all trading activities- namely, the slave trade-and its replacement by trade in natural products, which has become known in typical Euro- centric terms as legitimate trade” (Boahen pg. 1).

Slave trade exemplified the harsh cruelty that Africans faced. They were sold into slavery and beaten and many die during that time. The middle passage journey of slaves that were sold across the world to work on plantations proved to be the worst journey in history. Slave trade only profited the European as slaves were an aspect of making money for their masters. Not only were the African people forced to leave most of the power countries’ economies weak and on the brink of collapse. They needed new ways to generated money which they did by overflowing Africa and retaining most of the Natural resource such as ivory, diamond, and gold.

The scramble for Africa open door to a new way of thinking: the county did not just change economically but socially. According to Cooper by the 1700s the era in, “Pan- Africanist was at its highest point of mobilization in African political history”. (Cooper 24) . For the first time westerners such as Marcus Garvey from African decedent who was captives of slavery, began to challenge imperialism. They launch organizations: International African Service Bureau based out of London. Regional linkages were established between countries and hybrid culture was form. People of western African coast began referring to themselves as nations.

Black influential understood the gravity of slavery and knew that the change has to begin with them. The 1880 was a better time period in Africa because Slavery was abolished and therefore, the old African country way of life have been abolish to some degree in that now people were no longer under bondage. These individuals were free to live a life in less fear and with a more renew sense of hope for the future. It was good that a new Africa was emerging because this means that individuals will be more incline to want to strive for a better life for themselves and their families and to make a better future for their children.

Moreover, after the abolition of slavery the formation of legitimate trade means that individuals could have a source of gaining employment to help to support their family. Boahen mentioned that in the 1880 (African had become more deeply integrated into the capitalist world-economy than before, a development which the ensuing colonial system was to intensify,) which exemplify the fact that Africa was become more stabilize as an economy in of itself where job can be provided for its citizen. (Boahen pg 5). The economy development of Africa in the 1880 meant that the qualities of life for the people were going to improve over time.

With the economy improving this would open up individual access to job opportunities. The invasion of European forces into Africa brought a division among the African people. Elements that were formulated such as governmental, educational and their religious system were imposed in a cruel manner as many Africans throughout that time in history were brutally harmed by the Europeans. This abuse was due to the fact Different language religion and other aspects of life were enforced by the Europeans colonization.

So, with the abolishment of slavery individuals learn both the language of their ormer ruling countries and the original language of their ancestors through parents teaching of their children. Language plays a crucial part in an individual culture as it is the mean through which communication took place. Cooper mentioned that “At any one moment, Africa appears as a mixture of diverse languages and diverse culture; indeed, linguistically alone, it is the most varied continent on earth” (Cooper pg11). This mean linguistically speaking Africa came out of the slave trade become a more diverse country.

This diversity is obvious in more than one language that which is spoken by individuals from the continent of Africa. The African people depended on their cultural languages to bind them together. This help them to confuse their colonizers in their intent and goal of enforcing slavery. African understood the importance of language and how they could use it to their advantage. Additionally, the 1880 was a period in which the Christian missionary was also experiencing dramatic change. The change in the Christian missionary mean that individuals where having a renew view of religion and how it should be practice.

Boahen also mentioned that change in the religion in African societies resulted in stratification, which means that there were different groups of individuals in the African society; therefore, the further stratification of African societies into a relatively small Christian educated elite, particularly in western and southern Africa, and a large traditional and illiterate group” (Boahen, 17). So, it is obvious that as people were becoming more educated they were more able to view religion from a different perspective.

The 1880 was also a period in which there was changing political trends that were towards a sense of greater centralization. Boahen mentioned that even though there was a change in some of the empires in terms of disintegration such as empires such as Asante and Oye empires some empires became even stronger (Boahen, 2008). So, there were the emerging of new empires such as the Sokoto empire and the Tukulor empire of Masina that were in much larger existence especially in certain area state as the century in West Africa begins to emerge.

New political change in Africa was evident in Nigeria such as constitutional experimentation (Boahen, pg 12). So, the constitution help to lay out the foundation for how individuals in the new African, societies wanted to be treatment by their government in making sure those individuals in the societies was educate. So, with modernization there came a renew way of engaging in political activities as it will benefit the country of Africa. However the prosperity and flourishing of the countries of economy depended on the mobilization of African leaders yet this did not come forth.

Cooper writes “The development effort of late colonial regimes never did provide the basis for a strong national economy; economies remained externally originated and the state’s economic power remained concentrated at the gate” (Cooper 5). He was also concern about where the blame for the wars lie cooper writes “By looking at the post-war era as a whole, one can begin to explain the succession of crises that colonial and postcolonial states faced, without getting into a sterile debate over whether a colonial legacy or the incompetence of African governments is to blame” (Cooper 6).

The African nation had many crises to deal with mainly poverty that resulted from the war. Colonization of the African people drove them deeper into poverty many regions had to sell their labor. Cooper writes “In parts of African, colonization drove rural dwellers into deepening poverty, sometimes as a deliberate policy to create labor reserves where people had little alternative to selling their labor cheaply, sometimes as a result of actions which made difficult ecosystems worse” (21). Poverty is one of the worst elements of people’s lives and this epidemic led the African people to seek for help.

War is the most dreaded and the resulting effect of break-down of laws and orders in a civilized society. The Nigerian civil war which is known as the “Biafra War” took place on July 16th 1967 to January 15th 1970, political conflict was caused by the attempted secession of the southern providence of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed republic of Biafra. The conflicts accrued when Great Britain invaded Africa and divided up the some of it colonies causing a great separation among the African people; where people in the north were Muslims and in the south were Christian.

However due to the division it ended in economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tension among the various peoples of Nigeria. During the war millions died and many were displaced leaving the colony in a state of distress. Due to the war hunger and starvation arose in Biafra many young children died; soldiers were out raged and they decided to take matters into the own hands St. Jorre writes “hungry soldiers tried to hijack a food convoy, and he beat them to a pulp” (St. Jorre pg. 251) this provided the severity and level of starvation that was felt in Biafra that even those responsible for aintaining the law put their needs above the people.

Starvation does not respect anyone and during this period it evident that hunger claimed many lives. The depth and continuance of the war resulted in more deaths as starvation continued and no help was evident. As the Biafra’s people would look for help from the western world it was eminent that something needed to be done. The starvation was not ending and if they could only receive a little help it could go a long way this could be attain by pricking the conscience of the western world.

ST. Jorre writes “By striking at the heart of the Western world’s moral conscience with the real threat of millions starving to death if the war continued, backed up the imagined one of genocide if they surrendered, they succeeded where all their other tactics intensive lobbying, signing the oil away repeated appeals to the religious, ideological and the political sensibilities of the outside world had failed” (ST. Jorre pg. 241). This sad way of life was the start of new recognition for other African countries that had to deal with the epidemic of starvation.

ST. Jorre writes “The immediate benefits of such concern were useful enough, especially the money, the lobbying publicity and public support that followed each new starvation newspaper story or television film” (ST. Jorre pg. 242). Even in such distraught moment in history something good came of it as the Western nation would become aware of it and help to prevent an occurrence elsewhere. African people endured the worst life possible due to greed from their European colonizers.

Their lands were invaded and lives were destroyed as many were taken as slaves to work on plantations to make money for them. What the Europeans did not only hurt the African people physically but emotionally too they have never recovered. This led to war on the Continent as poverty took over and the means of survival was as the height in the minds of all Africans. Many aspect of their lives were taken away their culture, their language and their believe were destroyed. The European brainwashed the African people and took over and kill many in the process.

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African Transformation from 1865-1920

The Progression of African Americans from 1865 to 1920 America has changed, as a whole, throughout this time period. There have been many different presidents, elections, wars and other world issues. These factors contribute to the drastic change in America and to the American people. African Americans have gone through many different changes other than those of the other races. With the end of the Civil War, African Americans went through a lot of change with the end of slavery.

Throughout this essay I will explain the legislature, economic, philosophies, leaders, movement of people and other factors that contributed to the drastic change of the African American people between 1865 to 1920. In 1865 Reconstruction stared after the end of the civil war. Even though President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, Slavery did not officially end until congress passed the 13th Amendment, which outlawed slavery. Freedmen were no allowed to be citizens until 1868 when congress passed the 14th amendment.

The 14th amendment also allowed blacks the right to equal protection under the law. The first Supreme Court Interpretation of the 14th amendment was in the Slaughterhouse Case. This case extended the 14th amendment to all citizens. Even with the end of slavery and the right to citizenship, African Americans still didn’t have an easy life. With the end of slavery African Americans faced the issue of not being able to vote or in some not being allowed to own land.

The Black codes, which laws were passed by state legislatures to suppress blacks and put them is form of slavery that was legal at the time. To fix the problem of blacks not being able to vote, congress passed the 15th amendment, which made it legal for blacks to vote. Even with the right to vote blacks were suppressed by and scared out of voting be the Klu Klux Klan which used tactics such a lynchings to scare blacks of voting. Ida B. Wells was a black journalist who exposed lynchings in the U. S.

Literacy test and poll taxes were also tactics used by white surprimisist to get blacks not to vote. Even with black codes and the KKK, this time period of Reconstruction was still a successful time for freedmen. They had three amendments passed in that addressed a few of the problems they faced. The blacks had come a long way from the end of the Civil War; they had gotten a lot of rights. Although they got many rights now they were at a large disadvantage to the whites. Blacks could not go to school because they had work or even were not allowed to go.

Because of this disadvantage blacks could not get the same jobs as whites because they did not have the same education. There were two main leader of the movement to get blacks better education and jobs, but the two of them had completely different views of how to get what they wanted. The first was Booker T. Washington, who believed that blacks should not push for what they wanted and that they should prove their selves to get the same education and jobs as whites, this is also called gradualism. African Americans disliked this because they thought that their equalization was being put off.

He believed that they should not rock the “Racial Boat”. The Second was W. E. B Dubois, who believed the exact opposite of Washington. He believed that the blacks could force the whites to give them what they wanted. He also believed that they should not what for the whites to give it to them he thought that blacks should push and force them to give it to them. Dubois also published the book of essays called The Souls of the Black Folks (1903). The blacks also ran out of labor in the South and choose to migrate to the North were there was an abundance of jobs.

This sudden movement of blacks from the South to the North started the Great Black Migration. This era after reconstruction was a very successful time for freedmen and brought about great change not only in the lives of African Americans but also in the lives of all Americans. After slaves were free the US tried to start the Back to Africa Movement. This movement was brought about to try to get freedmen with African decent to go back to Africa and their homeland. For blacks that did not want to return to Africa there were very few options for them if they choose to stay.

The first main problem was should they stay in the South or go somewhere else to find shelter and a job. The next problem was to find a job. To replace the slaves plantation owner implemented share cropping. Share cropping was a form of paid slavery that gave the families that choose to work on the plantation as share croppers a plot of land to farm and a place to live. The share croppers would give a large portion of what they had farmed to the owner of the land and they would get to keep a small amount of what they had harvested for themselves to live off of.

For those who had joined the Union army during the Civil War, they had to try to get what they were promised which was forty acres of land and a mule to plow it. Though promise was rarely met this was an option for some freedmen who choose to stay in the U. S. To help freedmen get what they needed such a job, food, or education the Freedmen’s Bureau was started. This bureau was started to help get recently freed slaves on their feet after the Civil War. Former slaves had a hard time finding jobs but they did it anyway.

During reconstruction the Southern Democrats wanted to get rid of the collation of Republicans that controlled the post war south. The Bourbon Democrats that want to oust this collation of freedmen, carpetbaggers, and scalawags were known as Redeemers. These Redeemers did not get their way until reconstruction ended in 1877. With the end of reconstruction man freedmen were scare by the rumor of the reinstitution of slavery and the fact that the leaders of the old south were back in control meant that discrimination would run rampant.

With this in mind they fled to the north and west most settling in Kansas. These freedmen who fled were known as exodusters. The Democratic Party regained the political power of the South. This total political power of the Democratic Party was known as the Solid South. During the time period of the Solid South, blacks were greatly discriminated upon. Freedmen who held office during reconstruction were stripped of their political position. To suppress blacks, white surprimisist implemented Jim Crow laws.

Jim Crow laws were a set of laws passed by state legislatures in witch in some cases pulled the African Americans Right to vote. The term Jim Crow comes from a show that was put on to show a stereotypical black. In this show whites would wear black and pain themselves and then act as they thought blacks were. They would act stupid and show the idea that blacks were not equal to whites. In most states a grandfather clause was put into the state constitution which stated that if your grandfather had voted before the civil war than you could vote even if you were illiterate.

This clause was meant to keep blacks who could not pass the literacy test from voting and allowed for the whites who failed the literacy test a way to vote. Under the Jim Crow laws the thought of “Separate but Equal”. This basically meant that as long as the state gave blacks the same conditions as whites it was ok to segregate them. The first major time the idea of “Separate but Equal” was challenged was in the case of Plessey vs. Fergusion (1896). In this case Homer Plessey was accused of sitting in the whites’ only car of the East Louisiana Railroad y and refused to leave.

Plessey was seven eighths white and one eighth black, an octoroon. Even though he was just on eighth African American he was still consider black by Louisiana law and thus required to sit in the colored car of the train. The courts stated that Louisiana could not regulate railroad that went between two or more states but that they could regulate railroads that were only within the state. Both the state and federal Supreme Courts ruled against Plessey. It was not until the ca of Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) the “Separate but Equal” would no longer be the law of the land.

During this time of Separate but Equal the type of segregation that took place was de jure segregation which meant to be segregated by law. This differs from today in that even though the law does not permit segregation in still happens by custom which is de facto segregation. W. E. B. Dubois organized a group that meet on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls. Because they meet at Niagara Falls they came to be known as the Niagara Movement (1903). They meet to discuses to problems facing blacks on a political and social level. They also discussed ways to fix the problems that faced the blacks.

This movement was made of only blacks. The Niagara Movement led to the creation of the NAACP, which was made up of both blacks and whites and also fought for the solutions to problems facing blacks and whites on a political and social level. The Niagara Movement was thought to be more radical than that of the NAACP. Booker T. Washington; the president of the Tuskegee Institute, the first all black collage; was the architect of the Atlanta Compromise which stated that blacks would work week in and week out and summit to white political rule in exchange for basic education and due process.

W. E. B Dubois used the term the Talented Tenth to show the 1 out of 10 blacks who will rise to be a leader of his or her race. He argued that blacks needed a more classical education rather than a vocational or industrial education. Marcus Garvey was a Jamaican political leader that founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association, African Community League, and the Black Star Steamship Line. The Black Star Steamship Line was shipping line that was supposed to facilitate the transportation of goods and eventually African Americans throughout the African global economy.

The Black Star Steamship Line derived its name from the white star line which was a key factor to the success of the back to Africa movement. Garvey thought he could simulate the success of the White Star Line. The Universal Negro Improvement Association founded the newspaper Negro World which had a front page editorial from Garvey and poetry and articles of international interest of people of African Ancestor. These men and there association were civil rights leaders that shaped the African American world.

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The Scramble for Africa in Late 19th Century to Early 20th Century.

During the late 19th century and the early 20th century, European countries began their scramble for Africa which caused African to suffer from violence like wars, slavery and unfairness, but there was also a positive, peaceful and diplomatic consequences and events in Africa like fair trade system, new technology and the security given to Africans under European rule. An additional document written by an African commoner would help to further assess the African actions and reactions by telling what happened to them during that time period and their reaction towards that issue.

European imperialism in Africa mainly caused violent acts and suffering to the African natives but there were positive event. Before European imperialisms, Africans lived their usual lives and attended their crops. However, during the imperialism, Africans had to attend European crops because they were treated like slaves and had to do the bearings for their colonizers (Doc. 4). There were also wars and rebellions against the Europeans to fight off their colonization deed because of the unfairness and suffering they had to endure.

For example, machine guns, cannons and strategies and formation skills helped to efficiently kill people and cause suffering (Doc 5). Also the violence against Africans can’t be merely described in words, for Europeans took away their land and possessions. They burned their villages, killed and plundered and so their wickedness and injustice against the Africans were seen (Doc 9). A German officer said that the Africans had a magic medicine that would give them good harvest and invulnerability to Europeans.

This would help them fight off the unfairness of slavery, under-wage labor, bulletproof ability and strength women and children from the hardships of war (Doc. 8). But by analyzing this document, we should take into account that this is written by a German officer. By interpreting this, we could see that the German officer is mocking the Africans for being superstitious and using petty medicines to fight off their supreme power.

Because the Germans saw themselves as a powerful nation through strong military tactics and improved technology, they are making fun of the Africans for using this medicine to win over their rule. However, Africans had a strong sense of nationalism, especially women, like Yaa Asantewa. As queen she saw the cowardliness of the chiefs and gave them a long speech about the bravery of Ashanti is gone and if they aren’t willing to go forward and protect the country, the women will. They would hold arms against the Europeans until the last of them dies (Doc. ). Also chief Maherero wrote a letter to another chief in order to help persuade him to take arms against the Europeans, to fight rather than die from weakly disease or maltreatment, etc. (Doc 7). This shows that’s strong sense of nationalism within Africa. Even though there were mostly war and violence, the source of suffering in Africa, there were also peaceful and positive means in colonization. Africans and Europeans signed a contract calling for equal trade, fairness, bettering of the people, no war and not interfering with native laws and customs. Doc. 1) However, because of the contact between African and Europeans through wars and other forms of contact, improved technologies were brought to African through the Europeans (Doc. 5). For example, machine guns, cannons and strategies and formation skills helped influenced the warfare in Africa, like the Battle of Adowa, where Ethiopians fought against the Italians and won. Also, Prempeh I declined British’s offer to become one of its protectorates, however he wants to stay under peaceful terms with them and traditional at the same time (Doc 2).

When analyzing this document, we should take into account that Prempeh I is the king. So by interpreting this document, we could conclude that because he’s the king of Ashanti, if he became part of British’s protectorate countries, he would lose his power as king. Because by declining, it benefitted him, he decline British’s offer. The Emperor of Ethiopia also declined to become a protectorate under the Europeans because God had protected them and would continue to protect them for God doesn’t want to divide up Ethiopia (Doc 3).

He also stated that God would help aid them in recovering their lost lands to Muslims. With this, we could conclude that Ethiopians during that time period is very Christian and believed in God. Europeans countries began to their imperialisms in Africa during the late 19th century and the early 20th century, where they caused violence and suffering like rebellions, slavery and unfairness to the Africans, but there was also a positive, peaceful and diplomatic events in Africa like fair trade system, new technology and the security given to Africans under European rule.

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Poverty in Africa

Africa – At the dawn of a new millennium, the continent that some say witnessed the birth of the first human civilizations — may be dying. As widespread drought, starvation and the unchecked spread of deadly diseases continue — the numbers of people dying on a daily basis throughout Africa is staggering.

Causes of poverty in Africa

In many parts of Africa, the production of food depends upon the intense manual labor of every family. When large areas of Africa are dislocated by war, or adults die from the scourge of AIDS, fields cannot be worked, and food cannot be produced. Many, especially women and children are forced to depend upon hand outs of food. Unpredictable weather can also aggravate the situation. The majority of the poor population in Western and Central Africa (about 100million people) are poor farmers who live in villages and farm just to feed themselves and their families. They depend mostly on agriculture for their livelihoods.

However, about one in every five of these people live in a country affected by warfare. War destroys families and farms leaving most people with nothing at all but extreme poverty and starvation. Famine follows wars in most cases in Africa. poverty in Africa In conflict-torn countries such as Angola, Burundi, Mozambique, Liberia, Ethiopia, Sudan, Congo, Sierra Leon, and Uganda, the capacity of rural people to make a livelihood has been dramatically curtailed by warfare, and food production has plummeted.

Lack of good drinking water

Lack of good drinking water is another major problem in almost all African villages especially in desert countries like Niger, Sudan and Mali. Water is very scarce and lack of good drinking water is a major problem in Ethiopia and surrounding countries where most people and farm animals share same water sources. Children walk miles upon miles everyday to nearby streams to fetch water. Although there are many rivers and streams in the Western, Central, and Southern parts of Africa, good drinking water is a major problem in these areas. Most of the water sources in these areas are infested with water related diseases such as bilharzia, sleeping sickness, river blindness, guinea worm disease ( guinea worm disease is a major problem in Northern Ghana. 2010) and ofcourse malaria. Besides these, diseases such cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery and pneumonia continue to kill children in record numbers.

Facts of poverty in Africa:

•315 million people – one in two of people in Sub Saharan Africa survive on less than one dollar per day •184 million people – 33% of the African population – suffer from malnutrition •During the 1990s the average income per capita decreased in 20 African countries •Less than 50% of Africa’s population has access to hospitals or doctors •In 2000, 300 million Africans did not have access to safe water •The average life expectancy in Africa is 41 years

•Only 57% of African children are enrolled in primary education, and only one of three children complete school •One in six children die before the age of 5. •Children account for half of all civilian casualties in wars in Africa •The African continent lost more than 5,3 million hectares of forest during the decade of the 1990s

How to Help our continent

•Having more educated women with greater rights could make the single biggest positive difference to reducing poverty, the rate of childhood diseases and death and the spread of AIDS in developing countries. •Reduce child mortality

Thirty years ago, one in five children in the world died before their fifth birthday. This has now been halved to less than one in ten. Better access to vaccinations and other basic health services and improved living standards have contributed to a steep decline in global deaths among infants and children over the past 30 years.

•Improve maternal health

Every year, more than half a million women die from complications in pregnancy or childbirth. Almost all of them would still be alive if they had access to a skilled midwife or doctor in childbirth and effective emergency care for women who have complications.

•Combat HIV and AIDS, malaria and other diseases

In Africa, in 2003, some 26.6 million people were living with HIV, 3.2 million people became infected, and AIDS killed 2.3 million. •Develop a global partnership for development The targets in the global partnership for development millennium development goal include a fairer trading and financial system. Getting rid of barriers to trade could lift almost 300 million people in the developing world out of poverty.

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Maalouf – Leo Africanus

Amin Maalouf’s novel Leo Africanus, a fictionalized memoir by an actual sixteenth-century Muslim adventurer, is an often-interesting account of life during the turbulent end of the Middle Ages, told from the point of view of a man who survived his life’s ample turmoil and bridged conflicting cultures without wholly belonging to any.

The narrator of this work, a traveler and author known in his lifetime as Jean-Leon de Medici or Leo Africanus, was born in 1488 as Hasan al-Wazzan, son of a prominent Muslim family in Granada, Spain.  At the time, southern Spain’s Andalusia region (of which Granada was its chief city) was Muslim-dominated, with Catholics, Muslims, and Jews alike coexisting in a cosmopolitan, relatively tolerant atmosphere.  Maalouf depicts Granada as an intriguing, exotic, tolerant place for its time, despite its corrupt rulers and ultimate weakness before the invading armies of Aragon and Castile.

Shortly after his birth, Spanish forces conquered Granada and soon started persecuting all non-Christians, forcing them to convert to Catholicism or flee, depriving them of their wealth in either case.  Though European history depicts Spain’s liberation from Muslim rule as a glorious event, it was a tragic blow for the Muslims who had lived there for centuries and built a prosperous, learned society.  As his uncle Khali, a wealthy diplomat, laments, “See how the people . . . have been forced into slavery after their surrender!  See how the Inquisition has raised pyres for the Jews . . . [and] for the Muslims as well!  How can we stop this, except by resistance, mobilization, and jihad?”  (Maalouf, 1988, p. 25)  Though the word “jihad” today carries ominous meanings for Westerners, in this context it meant self-defense in the face of an intolerant enemy.

The Spanish appear in a distinctly negative light, as bloodthirsty, vindictive conquerors who used the Inquisition to crush their enemies, real or perceived.  Maalouf offers in interesting inversion of Western opinion here, and he shows post-1492 Granada as a dark, dangerous place whose intellectual life is crushed.  Also, while modern readers think of Jews and Muslims as mortal enemies, Maalouf demonstrates that they enjoyed peaceful relations in medieval Andalusia, and Leo laments the Spanish edict mandating “the ‘formal termination of all relations between Christians and Jews, which can only be accomplished by the expulsion of all the Jews from our kingdom’” (Maalouf, 1988, p. 59).

His uncle Khali assumes a dominant role in Leo’s life, helping educate him and, more importantly, taking him along on his 1504 diplomatic mission to Timbuktu, then an important Muslim cultural and commercial center in sub-Saharan West Africa.  Even as a teenager, he demonstrates keen insights to the world around him, particularly to the appearances, peoples, and attributes of the cities he visits en route.  For example, he describes Ain al-Asnam, an ancient city destroyed during Islam’s spread, as “sole witness of the age of ignorance” (Maalouf, 1988, p. 155), implying that despite its former glories, it symbolizes the dark era before Islam spread its enlightened message.

In addition, he reveals a gift for vivid descriptive prose when he says of Sijilmassa, a once-thriving city on the road to Timbuktu: “Of its walls, once so high, only a few sections remain, half-ruined, and covered with grass and moss.  Of its population, there remain only various hostile clans . . . [who] seem merciless toward each other [and] deserve their fate” (Maalouf, 1988, p. 157).  Though he is not intolerant of peoples different from himself, he also does not shy from passing judgments on unfortunate places, though his own life is full of misfortunes; he accepts fate’s fickle nature, which perhaps sustains him through his difficulties.

His uncle dies en route back to Fez and Leo returns home to work in a hospice and marry his cousin Fatima, who is far less pleasing than Hiba, the slave girl who becomes his longtime mistress (similar to Warda, the servant whom his father chose over his wife, Leo’s mother).  He also tries to save his sister Mariam from the leper colony, where an influential suitor, a highway robber named the Zarwali, had had her banished for refusing to marry him.

One sees by this point that women have a difficult position in Muslim society; denied many rights, they live tightly circumscribed lives and are subject to male commands and whims at all times.  Maalouf does not impose modern sensibilities here; he remains within the character of the times and accepts this lack of freedom as Muslims of the time did, and Leo laments his sister’s fate less because she lacks freedom than because her punishment was unduly cruel.

As he enters adulthood, his life continues a pattern of good fortune followed by personal or financial disasters from which he always recovers and rebuilds.  Leo becomes a successful merchant in Fez and fathers a daughter with Fatima, but when his longtime friend Harun (who has married his unfortunate sister Mariam to liberate her from the leper colony) causes the Zarwali’s death, Leo is expelled from Fez for his complicity and loses his fortune on the road to a band of thieves.  He finds some relief in Hiba’s native village, where her former peers buy her back from Leo, restoring some of his wealth but costing him the love of his life.

He accepts these reversals surprisingly well by modern standards, but Maalouf implies that the late medieval/early modern world was a cruel and fickle place, with few certainties in life other than misfortune.  A common theme throughout the book is that such events are simply God’s will; when he loses both his fortune and Hiba, Leo laments, “Such is the judgment of the Most High!” (Maalouf, 1988, p. 214).  His faith does not waver throughout the story, even when Christians abduct, enslave, and force him to become a Catholic.

Leo’s destiny seems to be the roads he travels throughout his adult life; his form of geography and travelogue seem to be his calling in life, and he demonstrates a keen grasp of how to describe people and places.  His travels take him throughout northern, western, and central Africa, and he states without obvious boasting, “When our geographers of old spoke of the land of the Blacks, they only mentioned Ghana and the oases of the Libyan desert. . . . I myself, who am only the last of the travellers, know the names of sixty black kingdoms . . . from the Niger to the Nile” (Maalouf, 1988, p. 216).  Such knowledge would later serve him well.

He becomes involved with the era’s political intrigues when he meets and marries Nur, the widow of the Ottoman ruler’s nephew.  While Leo supports the Turks in the vain hope that they will liberate Andalusia from the Spanish and make it safe for Muslims again, Nur opposes it and fears that Turkish agents will murder her infant son to prevent him from assuming the throne.  Reflecting on the discord within his own faith, Leo asks, “Is it not in the blade of a knife brandished by the Friend of God above a pyre that the revealed religions meet?”  (Maalouf, 1988, p. 245)  He longs for the tolerance and unity of his youth in Granada, hence his somewhat naïve support for the Ottoman Empire, of which he says, “the turbans of the Turks and the skull caps of the Christians and Jews mingle without hatred or resentment” (Maalouf, 1988, p. 258).

His destiny as a geographer and scholar is realized when Sicilian pirates kidnap him in Tunisia and present him to Pope Leo X as a slave.  As with the rest of his life, this misfortune leads to another lucky phase, as the pontiff, impressed with Leo’s intellect, employs him as a protégé.  Forcing him to become a Christian and renaming him John-Leo de Medici (for the pope and the family that takes an interest in him), the pope employs him as a teacher of Arabic while tutoring him in European languages, so that he can produce a volume of his travels, Description of Africa.  He earns his freedom but becomes embroiled in papal intrigues, so he must flee yet again – this time for Tunisia, where he can again be a Muslim.  In closing, he advises the reader to be himself in the face of adversity, saying, “Muslim, Jew or Christian, they must take you as you are, or lose you” (Maalouf, 1988, p. 360).  Though he has kept his Muslim faith inwardly intact, Leo’s ability to adapt has ironically saved and sustained him.

The book illustrates the uncertainty of life in the pre-modern era, since peaks and valleys of instability mark Leo’s life from the beginning.  His family loses its fortune and is driven from Granada by conquering Spanish Christians, who then launch a wave of intolerance against Jews and Muslims, forcing them to either become Catholic or leave.  In addition, he loses his fortune to thieves, his wife Fatima dies young, he remarries Nur (who leaves him after his abduction), and he is enslaved by Christian pirates in the Mediterranean.

He handles it philosophically, accepting the fact that his life is destined to be itinerant, turbulent, and beyond his ability to control.  As he tells Nur, “Between the Andalus which I left and the Paradise which is promised to me life is only a crossing.  I go nowhere, I desire nothing I cling to nothing, I have faith in my passion for living . . . as well as in Providence” (Maalouf, 1988, p. 261).

Overall, Leo Africanus is a solid effort to take the modern reader into the mind of an educated, influential Muslim living at an unstable time in European history.  Maalouf does not inject modern sensibilities into his narrative but depicts the Muslim culture of the times fairly, without a pro-Western bias.  In addition, he strives for authenticity by using a sort of formal, occasionally wordy prose that one assumes is based on the actual writing and conversational style of Leo Africanus’ times.  In the process of producing this interesting historical figure’s tale, Maalouf also makes clear one of the chief realities of this era in history – that life is uncertain and fickle, and that the intelligent, resourceful, and adaptable are best suited to endure these shifts of fortune.

REFERENCES

Maalouf, A. (1988).  Leo Africanus.  Chicago: New Amsterdam Books.

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Maalouf – Leo Africanus

Amin Maalouf’s novel Leo Africanus is a novel based on an actual sixteenth-century Spanish-born Muslim geographer and writer born under the name Hasan al-Wazzan.  The author gives the reader clear insights into the conflicts between the Muslim world (whose influence in Europe was then waning) and that of Christianity (which reasserted control over his native Spain and to which he became a somewhat unwilling servant).

The theme of the title character’s life is conflict and misfortune, which seem to plague him from early childhood.  Born in 1488 to a rich Muslim family in Granada, Spain, he witnesses as a small child the Catholic victory over the ruling but weakened Muslim elites, followed by a wave of vengeance and intolerance against not only Muslims but also the Jews, who have also lived peacefully in Spain with Christians for centuries.  Hasan (the name he uses throughout his life, except when in service to the Pope) demonstrates some of this by mentioning how members of the different religions interact and how some cultural exchange occurs.

For example, when discussing dates, he frequently refers to Christian and Muslim holidays in tandem, showing their mutual acceptance: “It all happened on the ninth day of the holy month of Ramadan, or, rather . . . on St. John’s Day, the twenty-fourth of June, since Mihrajan was celebrated not in accordance with the Muslim year but following the Christian calendar” (Maalouf, 1989, p. 63).

Here, Maalouf makes clear that Islam was then the much more tolerant religion, accepting aspects of Judaism and Christianity that the Catholic Church refused to allow.  Because Christianity and Islam were fighting for territory, intolerance was an instrument of control and oppression, and the victorious Spaniards had to qualms about driving out or murdering Jews and Muslims who refused to accept forced conversions to Christianity.

His family, deprived of its wealth, flees for the North African city of Fez, where they live as refugees under the care of his kindly uncle, who provides for his education.  As he comes of age, he shows a remarkable ability to observe and understand the peoples and places he encounters – a gift he sharpens when, as a teenager, he accompanies his rich, well-connected uncle on a diplomatic excursion to Timbuktu.

For example, he writes of Sijilmassa, a once-thriving city on the road to Timbuktu: “Of its walls, once so high, only a few sections remain, half-ruined, and covered with grass and moss.  Of its population, there remain only various hostile clans . . . [who] seem merciless toward each other [and] deserve their fate” (Maalouf, 1989, p. 157).  Though he is not intolerant of peoples different from himself, he also does not shy from passing judgments on unfortunate or blighted places, though his own life is full of misfortunes; he accepts fate’s fickle nature, which perhaps sustains him through his difficulties.

Hasan’s adult life is generally unstable and rife with misfortune, which seems to be the norm in a world where little other than hard luck is guaranteed.  After his uncle dies, he returns to Fez to work in a hospice for the sick and insane, marries a rather plain cousin (despite his long relationship with Hiba, a slave mistress), later becomes a prosperous merchant, and seems to live a somewhat conventional life.  However, he is not destined to enjoy a stable, uneventful life.

When he starts his business career, his mother makes a prediction that seems to foreshadow the direction of his life: “Many men discover the whole world while seeking only to make their fortune.  But as for you, my son, you will stumble on your treasure as you seek to discover the world” (Maalouf, 1989, p. 187).  Indeed, fate – so strong a presence in the novel that it almost seems like a character – intervenes and his life is again turbulent.  When he becomes embroiled in his childhood friend (and brother-in-law) Harun’s plot to avenge his sister Mariam’s confinement to a leper colony, the authorities expel Hasan from Fez and thieves on the road rob him of his fortune.  In addition, he is forced to sacrifice his mistress, Hiba, in order to regain some of his riches.

However, his destiny is to discover the world, which indeed is why modern readers even know of his existence.  Always astute and insightful, Hasan compiles his observations during his many travels, forming the basis for his lasting renown as an early geographer and expert on sub-Saharan Africa.  He travels throughout the continent’s northern and central regions and, when speaking of other writers’ ignorance of Africa, states, “I myself, who am only the last of the travellers, know the names of sixty black kingdoms . . . from the Niger to the Nile.  Some have never appeared in any book, but I would not be telling the truth if I would claim to have discovered them myself, since I only followed the ordinary route of the caravans” (Maalouf, 1989, p. 216).

He moves to Cairo (then under Ottoman Turkish rule) to restart his often-disrupted life, commenting that “I was suddenly certain that after the tempest which had destroyed my fortune a new life was awaiting me in this land of Egypt, a life of passion, danger and honour” (Maalouf, 1989, p. 218).  Here, he again finds himself on the wrong side of destiny when he marries into the Turkish sultan’s family and supports them in their political maneuverings, in the vain hope that they will retake Granada in the name of Islam.

He dreams his entire life of his birthplace and the words of a visiting delegation from the sultan foster the naïve faith that he can return: “A great Muslim empire is in the process of coming to life in the East, and we in the West should stretch out our hand to it.  Until now, we have been subjected to the law of the unbelievers” (Maalouf, 1989, p. 257).  However, this scheme also goes awry and he is enslaved by Italian pirates, who give him to Pope Leo X.

This phase of Hasan’s life is a strange twist of fate, in which apparent tragedy turns into great luck.  The pontiff, seeing that the learned, sophisticated Hasan is no ordinary captive, employs him as a tutor of Arabic and requires him to learn Latin, Turkish, and lessons in the Christian faith.  Hasan deems this “a refined form of forced labour . . . [and] proof of [the Pope’s] own enthusiastic interest in me” (Maalouf, 1989, p. 294).

The end result of this gentle captivity is Description of Africa, a book describing his many travels in a continent with which Europeans were still largely unfamiliar.  He wins his freedom but again finds himself on the wrong side of a larger political conflict (this time within the Catholic Church), so he escapes Rome for Tunisia, where he can openly practice Islam again.  In closing, he advises the reader to be himself in the face of adversity, saying, “Wherever you are, some will want to ask questions about your skin or your prayers.  Beware of gratifying their instincts . . . beware of bending before the multitude!” (Maalouf, 1989, p. 360).  Though he has kept his Muslim faith inwardly intact, his ability to adapt and “go with the flow” preserves him.

Without dwelling on the point, Maalouf makes clear to the reader that in this unstable, uncertain medieval world, Fate plays an exceptionally strong role in everyday life.  Indeed, Hasan witnesses plenty of calamity in his life; his birthplace is seized and made repressive by Spanish Catholics; he and his family see their wealth rise and vanish repeatedly; he marries twice and loses both wives (the first dies young, while the second abandons him after his enslavement); and he is forced to seek his fortunes elsewhere several times in his life.

He accepts the fact that he is meant to live on the move and takes little for granted, seemingly aware that his fortunes can be reversed at any time (and frequently are).  However, he never becomes embittered; he accepts his fate but laments, “Such is the judgment of the Most High” (Maalouf, 1989, p. 214).  His faith does not waver throughout the story, and even when Christians abduct him and force his conversion to Catholicism, he follows but keeps his innermost religious beliefs to himself.  He excels as a chameleon and thus survives.

His second wife comments on his tendency to travel and disrupt his own life, asking, “What substance are you made of that you accept the loss of one town after another, one homeland after another, one woman after another, without ever fighting, without ever regretting, without ever looking back?”  ” (Maalouf, 1989, p. 261).  He responds by telling her that “life is only a crossing.

I go nowhere, I desire nothing I cling to nothing, I have faith in my passion for living, in my instinct to search for happiness, as well as in Providence” (Maalouf, 1989, p. 261).  Indeed, in this exchange, Maalouf presents the reader with the essence of Hasan’s character.  He is well aware of life’s transience and thus is passionate only about his religion; though he seeks wealth and happiness, he wastes little time mourning the loss of either and looks ahead to “the final Place where no man is a stranger before the face of the Creator” (Maalouf, 1989, p. 360).

Leo Africanus is more than simply a fictionalized memoir.  It is a classic fish-out-of-water story, illustrating how this educated, well-connected Muslim merchant, traveler, and scholar finds reverses and radical changes in his life at several turns but adapts to each.  In addition, it demonstrates how people of that era were very much at Fate’s mercy; little could be taken for granted in such unstable times, but the narrator never loses faith in the “Most High,” the God to whom he turns for sustenance.

In somewhat formal prose that one suspects was the norm for educated people of that era, Maalouf does not impose a modern viewpoint but offers a fair, compassionate, historically-aware portrayal of both Muslim society and one of the more unusual figures within it.  The story of Hasan al-Wazzan is, more than anything else, the tale of an accomplished scholar and a consummate survivor who never forgot who he was, the culture that produced him, or the deity that showed him mercy amidst the world’s turbulence.

REFERENCES

Maalouf, A. (1989).  Leo Africanus.  Chicago: New Amsterdam Books.

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Negative Images of African Americans in the Media

Mass media is a powerful force in American pop culture. Images seen on billboards, television, magazines, and the big screen create lasting impressions. Sometimes these impressions have a negative impact. Mass media can be very detrimental to society if it is not criticized. Many groups of Americans are negatively affected by the images and content of mass media. African Americans are at the top of this list. Images of African Americans in television, music, and film are often less than stellar.

Black men are often portrayed as drug pushers, pimps, thugs, and dead beat dads, while black women are portrayed as poor, lazy, and promiscuous. This needs to stop! That is a given! Question is, how are these negative images going to be stopped? Several steps should be taken in order to prevent these negative images in the media. The origins of these images need to be examined, and modern racism and prejudice need to be exposed. There may be some accuracy to the negative images of African Americans in the media, but that is no excuse.

The media should focus more on uplifting people. African Americans have historically had a disadvantage when compared to their white counterparts. This should not be exploited for entertainment purposes. African Americans are often placed in roles that portray them as poorly educated. This dates all the way to minstrel shows! This is still a problem today! Americans are more comfortable laughing at blacks as appose to understanding blacks. The main problem with images of African Americans is that they are one dimensional.

African Americans are diverse and come from a variety of backgrounds. If an African American is portrayed as a druggie or a convict, then there should be some reasoning behind this. People don’t become drug addicts for the fun of it; they become drug addicts because they want to numb themselves from the pain and suffering of their everyday lives. Black men and women don’t become criminals because they are horrible people. They become criminals because they are taught that they have no other option!

African Americans have to stand up for themselves and fight against the media. That is the only way things will change. While doing this, they may have to criticize other African Americans. This should be done with love. Black rappers, singers, and actors should be held with some responsibility. Black leaders like Oprah Winfrey and Bill Cosby have spoken out about this. Rappers, including Ludacris and 50 Cent have been criticized for their lyrics.

It is unclear if they are rapping about their experiences in order to expose their struggles, or if they are exploiting the black struggle with their lyrics. Violence, sexuality, and the lack of education are unfortunately a part of African American society. The media should show this. Rappers and singers should perform songs about this. Black actors should play roles that depict this. Black actors, singers, and rappers should not exploit these disadvantages. Instead they should use their craft to create solutions to these problems. Drugs and violence should not be glamorized!

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Africa – 5

“Before the twentieth century, it would have been incorrect to speak of the Igbo as a single people” (XIX, Achebe). Although all these people lived in Igboland, there were hundreds of different variations of Igbo, resulting in cultural differences and differences in language so great, that one Igbo group could be misunderstood by another only thirty miles away (XIX). Colonialism, a disease that spread through Africa causing destruction, disarray, and fear, was also directly responsible for the overall unity of the Igbo people observed throughout the twentieth century.

Although colonialism broke up the unity of villages and forced different political, social, and economic lifestyles on the groups of Igbo people, colonialism also had a direct impact in forming national unity; in forming “a common Igbo identity” (XIX). Although colonialism diminished the values each Igbo group held dear to them throughout the generations, this was necessary in the development of the identity of Igbo people as a whole as they were becoming part of a new, industrialized world.

Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe, showed both how destructive colonialism was and how detrimental it was to the close-knit Igbo villages. Destruction of entire clans by massacre was not out of line for white men during the beginning of colonialism, as this was the punishment of the Abame clan for killing the first white man they saw. The Umuofia and Mbanta clans knew better than to kill any white men before discovering their purposes, and reluctantly allowed the white, Christian missionaries to enter their villages.

Okonkwo, a strong, important man from Umofia, was serving his seven-year exile in his motherland Mbanta when these missionaries became more profuse and active. He despised the white men and their new religion, and wanted action to be taken against them. At first, the churches were only able to attract people without a title, however, as time progressed, outcasts were attracted and women who despised their village laws, such as throwing their “abominable” twins away, also joined (101). Christianity appealed to the people who had nothing if they followed their village’s culture and beliefs.

It eliminated the emotional burdens women had to face if they had twins, allowing the twins to live freely, rather than to be disposed of in a forest of death. During his exile, Okonkwo’s own son, in spite of his father, joined the missionaries in his hatred of village law, especially the fact that innocent children could be killed so easily, such as the boy Ikemafuma, taken prisoner by Umuofia and eventually killed. When Okonkwo returned to an unrecognizable Umuofia, his hatred of the white men increased. Real trouble began after a man from the Christian church unmasked one of the sacred egwugwu, an ancient god.

This led to the council of chiefs from Umuofia to take action and burn the church down, leading to their imprisonment by the white District Commissioner, leader of the white law. The ex-leaders of the village were shackled at the leisure of white men. No longer did these esteemed Umuofia chiefs hold the power; they were not the “men” of the village anymore. The white men were more powerful than them, subjugating them to their religion and law. Politically, white men now ruled Umuofia, with punishment settled by the white men in command, rather than a council of chiefs.

After the release of the chiefs, an assembly of men met in the village to decide what they would do in response to these latest happenings. A group of white messengers arrived at the meeting and informed everyone that the District Commissioner said the assembly was to end. Okonkwo, in his anger, killed one of the messengers, and when no one else reacted, letting the others escape, he realized there was nothing he could do. White men were breaking up his community, and no one was man enough to take action and fight.

Inside “he mourned for the warlike men of Umuofia, who had so unaccountably become soft like women” and he realized his community was lost to colonialism (129). Okonkwo knew that all of his hard work for power had been for nothing. He lived in a town filled with people readily allowing their selves to be taken over by foreign men implementing their own beliefs, religion, and power, and as a result he ended his own life. In the early phases of colonialism, it is easy to see how destructive its effects were on the idea of community; the churches separated people from each other, while the colonial law stripped the village of its power.

Buchi Emecheta’s, The Joys of Motherhood, not only shows how Igbo communities are broken up, like Things Fall Apart, but it also shows how Igbo groups are brought together. In the time of Nnu Ego, wealth was not determined by the amount of wives a man had or how big his farm was, as it was in pre-colonial times. Instead, wealth was measured with money, money earned from hard labor, usually serving the white men and women or working for the government. People of Igbo groups, like Nnaife, Nnu’s husband, moved from farming lands to cities to attempt to live “better” lives. Moving to these cities, many different groups of Igbo people were iving together and had to learn to get along, because as Igbo people realized, although they may speak a little different, it was extremely difficult to live in a new place without being able to relate with anyone. In Lagos, the British colony where Nnaife and Nnu lived, Yoruba people and Igbo people did not get along well, practicing very different beliefs and ideas. With tension from other cultures, there was no need for any tension among the subgroups of Igbos, which is why regardless if they came from west or east Igboland, they would be understanding of each other.

Being friendly with people of other Igbo groups provided a sense of family in a place where family did not exist. The Igbo people met in the cities, regardless of the clan they were from, became the “brothers” and “sisters” of the newcomers, who left their real family in their homeland, far away. Igbo groups living in cities merged together, not seeing each other as different groups, which was common in their own lands, but recognizing each other as Igbo; another who understands the same language and beliefs.

Although moving to cities assimilated to Western culture was beneficial to Igbo people as a whole, the idea of family was greatly diminished, especially in the eyes of women. At a young age, Nnu Ego felt being a mother was an extremely important part of her life. She felt it was her purpose to have many kids, because they would eventually take care of her and bring her happiness. However, she discovered how hard being a mother actually was in a society dominated by Western beliefs and culture.

In a farming society, such as Ibuza, having more kids meant having more help around the farm and the house. In an industrial society, like that of Lagos, the more kids meant more mouths to feed, more clothes to buy, and more money spent on education. Not only did the Nnaife have to work, but Nnu also had to devote all of her energy to earning money, specifically to make sure her kids received an education to be successful. As a result, children growing up in these societies lost their sense of responsibility for their family, an important part of Igbo beliefs.

With all the hard work and suffering Nnu put forth for her children, just to have food in the house, her two oldest sons she sent to college didn’t even show their thanks and send anything back to her (224). Her idea of a family and happiness coming from her children was only a dream, and Nnu died a lonely death on the side of a road. Socially, western culture viewed it to be more beneficial to achieve self-success than care for family, which eventually drove Nnu’s family apart, and led to Nnu’s death. Colonialism affected every Igbo person, whether they liked it or not. It gave women different outlooks on life, on being a mother.

It stripped men of their power and manlihood. It brought a different religion, with a single god and different morals. It brought a new type of wealth, and education. Colonialism changed the ways of the Igbo forever. The groups were not all separate anymore, if you were Igbo, you were Igbo. That was all that mattered in a society run by Europeans, filled with people of many cultures for different reasons. Colonialism took away unity, but it created a new kind of unity. Colonialism not only introduced it’s economics, politics, and lifestyle; it also gave Igbo a reason to come together, which is important in an ever-changing society.

For a culture that took generations to build, it is surprising that within a matter of a century, the distinguished characteristics of each Igbo clan were diminished, as each clan assimilated into the Western way of living (XLVIII, Achebe). However, in the larger scheme of things, maybe the Igbo knew they were placed in a war they could never win, unless they gave in to their opponent; unless they gave in to change. Works Cited Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. South Africa: Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann Educational, 1996. Print. Emecheta, Buchi. The Joys of Motherhood. New York, New York: George Braziller, Inc. , 1979. Print.

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The daily life of an African living

What should a billionaire give and what should you-speech Good afternoon ladies and gentleman my name is George France. Welcome to the fourth business lunch. Today I will be talking to you about Peter Singers views on charity. The daily life of an African living in poverty is a lot different compared to yours or mine. Africans living in poverty barely survive day to day. 1 billion people don’t have access to clean drinking water and others must walk miles just to get clean drinking water, whereas people like us can walk mere meters and get it straight from a tap.

There are about 7 million people in African that are dying from starvation this very second and wont be able to get food unless they are lucky enough to find a charity handing it out, where as we can pick up a phone and order food from a number of places and get it in a matter if minutes. 2. 2million people in Africa die every year of curably diseases like cholera, which can be cured for under $30 whereas if we have an illness we would just see the doctor and get a prescription to cure our illness.

No one wants to put a price on a human life but if we did I am sure everyone in this room would agree that it would be millions of dollars. This strongly backs up the point that everyone is equal which Peter Singer constantly uses as a strong argument. This means it is wrong to evaluate people based on how wealthy they are but instead we should give them money so that they are also equal in the wealth. I’m sure everyone would agree that it is wrong that children in the developing world are dying from diseases that are easily treated in the developed world.

Children’s lives are valuable and most people would value the lives of children as equal and perhaps even give their own life to save a child. Yet thousands of children every day are dying and may people don’t even donate money to try and stop it. This point is backed up by the quote “when will people finally accept that the death of a child in the developing world is just as tragic as the death of a child in the devolved world” As I’m sure you know there are lots of celebrities that donate millions to charities every year, like Bill Gates.

So the question arises that if Bill Gates is donating millions and leading by example what should we donate? Peter singer writes that we should donate as much as we can without going into poverty ourselves but I know this can be inconvenient for many of you so I would suggest that you donate as much as you feel comfortable with. But as I am sure many of you are wondering most celebrities donate huge amount of money to improve their image and if this is so should we really follow them.

Even if celebrities are only donating to look better the money still goes to charity and helps millions of people so the motives to giving the money don’t matter as long as it helps. Peter Singer makes a vey strong point that people are born into poverty and can not help that fact that they are poor and the same thing applies to the rich, that they are only rich because they were born into good circumstances.

For example if Bill Gates was born in a slum with parents that can barley afford to feed him in Africa I’m sure he would not be as successful as he is today. What I am saying is if people can’t get a good education they will struggle to get a job and they will live in poverty. So we need to donate to charity to make the circumstances better for people in developing worlds by building things like schools so they can get an education and then a job so they earn money breaking out of the poverty trend.

I’m sure a lot of you would argue that you have earnt your money and therefore no one has the right to tell you what to do with it but Peter Singer would argue that we owe people from developing countries because we are partially responsible for their suffering. The rich are rich because the poor are poor. Also I’m sure that a lot of you would argue that money doesn’t always get to the charity and the people that need it because people divert it and take it.

But as Peter Singer says, “a little bit of something is better than a whole lot of nothing”. This means that if only say half the money donated actually gets to the people that need it the money can still help save lives and is better than no money at all. I hope that I have changed your views on charity and I hope all these arguments will help to convince you to donate and support charities in the future. Thank you for letting me speak to you all today I hope to see you all again. By George France

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Three West African Kingdoms

To what extent did geography determine the location of the three West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali and Songhai? Ghana, Mali and Songhai were the three largest Kingdoms to exist in the history of West Africa. They were located in West Africa during the 11th, 14th and 15th century. West Africa is the region in the western part of the African continent, it lies approximately 15° north of the equator. Geography is the study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere.

These three prominent western african kingdoms flourished due to strategically located trade routes, abundance of natural resources and diverse types of land. These three factors primarily determined the location of the kingdoms and sustained and supported their societies. The existing trade routes greatly influenced the location of where the empires were built and expanded upon. One of the most commonly used and oldest trade routes in the world is the Trans Sahara route which crosses the Sahara desert and leads to the West African coast.

As a result to the location of this trade route all three empires were located south of the desert to be the first civilization traders would reach after their journey. Map A (Trade Routes in Western Africa at the time of the Mali Kingdom) shows the location of the kingdoms in relation to the different trade routes coming from and to western Africa. This gave the kingdoms the direct link to different cultures from Europe, Asia and India whom all frequented this path. As the kingdoms prolonged more routes were opened up, leading northeast across the Sahara for example.

As well as this, the positioning of trade routes allowed the empires to stabilize a flourishing economy with little risk of failure. The kingdoms proximity to the routes gave the population exactly what they wanted from all over the world. Merchants coming from Europe, Asia and India brought a variety of goods to Africa, including ceramics, silk, spices, camels and slaves. These items could be traded for a range of natural resources the West African region was enriched with. Not only could items be traded, but the kingdoms were able to enforce taxes on all trades within the area.

The Ghanaian King imposed taxes on all people passing through the kingdom; in return he provided soldiers who protected the trade routes from unwanted intruders. The king also created the system of silent barter. An issue faced by people who traded with Ghana was the language barrier. To eliminate the use of language in trade, silent barter was used to trade goods. The location of the kingdoms in relation to the trade routes, the use of taxation and the system of silent bartering made trade with West African Kingdoms safe and efficient, helping them become prime trading centers.

The western African region was enriched with large quantities of different natural resources, which not only allowed trade and economic success but also helped prosper a sustainable civilization. As shown in Map B (Mineral Resources of W. Africa), the area occupied by the kingdoms was filled with natural resources such as gold and iron. Also shown on Map B, the areas to the north and south of the kingdoms were rich in common salt, iron, titanium, copper, diamonds and zinc.

Even though the region of the kingdom might have not been the location with the largest quantities of resources, their territories were in the middle of the northern and southern trade in Africa, allowing them to be in control of all internal African trade. The access to valuable resources subsequently allowed the economy to depend largely on trade and due to its economic success earned the title “Gold Coast”. Not only were natural resources used for trade, however they were also used to advance machinery and tools in order to sustain and develop the empires.

Metals such as iron and copper were used to create tools (Image of iron tools found in western Africa on right), weapons and to increase efficiency of work. Iron smelting and manufacture was not only prominent in West Africa but also among the Nok culture of Nigeria and various other parts of the continent. The productions of iron tools let agriculture, hunting and warfare progress and improve, and soon became a fundamental part of life. In conclusion, the diversity of natural resources found in the area helped flourish the economy and extend the technology and knowledge of the population in the kingdoms.

The West African regions was not only a center of trade and home to many natural resources but also possessed a number of different types of land which were successfully used to increase agriculture and make a self-dependent society. As indicated on Map C (Land use in West Africa), this region had a combination of permanent crops, arable, grazing and forest land. Native plants such as pearl millet, sorghum and cowpeas were grown in large quantities to feed the majority of the population. This permitted the population to adapt to farming and agriculture using the land for different crops.

In addition, West Africa is also coastal region bordering the Atlantic Ocean as shown on Map D. This gave the advantage of having fertile soil near the coast all year round. The European influence and steady trade greatly encouraged farming and consequently led the region to become extremely agriculturally productive as merchants would be looking for places to stock up on food and supplies whilst passing through the trade routes. Alongside this, the introduction of iron farming tools enhanced the production of crops immensely.

This contributed to the many ways of how the African kingdoms became successful and self-sufficient civilization. After close examination, it can be concluded that a efficiently managed system of trade routes (including taxation and silent barter), diverse use of the different types of land (including arable, grazing and forest land) and an abundance of natural resources which were used to the kingdoms’ advantages, Ghana, Mali and Songhai were able to sustain themselves by using the geographic factors available. Word count: 1,044

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Language needs African American Language

The difficult part of the Ebonics controversy is an extremely old problem in the United States that the status of African American as American and their dialect. It was greatly makes it difficult to develop a state national level educational policy for using it in the classroom as a way to move toward Standard American English that was long to implementation is local.

It was probably standard when it we proposed for the state or in national, we run in to problem of identifying exactly what is the meaning of it. This problem can be Avoid by addressing the issue in less effective as “home language”. If in practice the policy were, directed generally at all home languages the special needs of African American Vernacular English speakers would be unaddressed. however, the policy were expanded to national educational policy directed at the African American Vernacular English there would be strong pressure to identify or even develop a standard version for African American English in order to properly implement. Which would continue to neglect those who do not speak the new standard, and worse it would result in the need for African Americans to learn two standards. The Standard English and African American English were the two standards that the African American needs to know.

The validity and systematically of the home language is reasonable However, the use of contrastive analysis ends up sending exactly the message that the resolution was intend to eliminate. If the student’s home language is allowed in the classroom and then systematically translated by the teacher of Standard American English and then no matter what the language or method used there is the implication that what is being corrected is an mistake, the home language is in error. In this, such of way, the decision could result in even greater stigmatization of the African American Language than already exists.

The proposal to use Bilingual education methodology to move one language system to another has intrinsic logic that there are systematic differences between two languages and the methods and materials have already been develop and tested. However, the message sent here in practice would be one that is consistent with the intent of the Ebonics Resolution. By classifying African Americans among immigrants populations and the implication is that, immigrants they remain outsiders until they were assimilate themselves to another language or culture. In effect there us an implication that African American do not gain their full citizenship by birth but earn the assimilating to American culture which by implication is a culture that is not their own.

The status of the home language of African Americans is controversial even among those whose sociopolitical goals are one and the same providing equal opportunities for employment and education to a minority group that has historically received less that its fair share of the American trance. The issue remains contentious because nobody agree the use of their language variety towards African Americans. The United States continues to struggle with two worthy but often contradictory ideas in integration and the celebration of diversity. At the end, little was clarified or even changed by the Ebonics resolution but the African Americans continues to underachieve in the United States educational system nearly guarantees another discussion of this matter.

 

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Africans Before Columbus

BLACK CIVILIZATIONS OF ANCIENT AMERICA (MUU-LAN), MEXICO (XI) Gigantic stone head of Negritic African The earliest people in the Americas were people of the Negritic African race, who entered the Americas perhaps as early as 100,000 years ago, by way of the bering straight and about thirty thousand years ago in a worldwide maritime undertaking that included journeys from the then wet and lake filled Sahara towards the Indian Ocean and the Pacific, and from West Africa across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Americas.

According to the Gladwin Thesis, this ancient journey occurred, particularly about 75,000 years ago and included Black Pygmies, Black Negritic peoples and Black Australoids similar to the Aboriginal Black people of Australia and parts of Asia, including India. Ancient African terracotta portraits 1000 B. C. to 500 B. C. Recent discoveries in the field of linguistics and other methods have shown without a doubt, that the ancient Olmecs of Mexico, known as the Xi People, came originally from West Africa and were of the Mende African ethnic stock.

According to Clyde A. Winters and other writers (see Clyde A. Winters website), the Mende script was discovered on some of the ancient Olmec monuments of Mexico and were found to be identical to the very same script used by the Mende people of West Africa. Although the carbon fourteen testing date for the presence of the Black Olmecs or Xi People is about 1500 B. C. , journies to the Mexico and the Southern United States may have come from West Africa much earlier, particularly around five thousand years before Christ.

That conclusion is based on the finding of an African native cotton that was discovered in North America. It’s only possible manner of arriving where it was found had to have been through human hands. At that period in West African history and even before, civilization was in full bloom in the Western Sahara in what is today Mauritania. One of Africa’s earliest civilizations, the Zingh Empire, existed and may have lived in what was a lake filled, wet and fertile Sahara, where ships criss-crossed from place to place.

ANCIENT AFRICAN KINGDOMS PRODUCED OLMEC TYPE CULTURES The ancient kingdoms of West Africa which occupied the Coastal forest belt from Cameroon to Guinea had trading relationships with other Africans dating back to prehistoric times. However, by 1500 B. C. , these ancient kingdoms not only traded along the Ivory Coast, but with the Phoenicians and other peoples. They expanded their trade to the Americas, where the evidence for an ancient African presence is overwhelming.

The kingdoms which came to be known by Arabs and Europeans during the Middle Ages were already well established when much of Western Europe was still inhabited by Celtic tribes. By the 5th Century B. C. , the Phoenicians were running comercial ships to several West African kingdoms. During that period, iron had been in use for about one thousand years and terracotta art was being produced at a great level of craftsmanship. Stone was also being carved with naturalistic perfection and later, bronze was being used to make various tools and instruments, as well as beautifully naturalistic works of art.

The ancient West African coastal and interior Kingdoms occupied an area that is now covered with dense vegetation but may have been cleared about three to four thousand years ago. This includes the regions from the coasts of West Africa to the South, all the way inland to the Sahara. A number of large kingdoms and empires existed in that area. According to Blisshords Communications, one of the oldest empires and civilizions on earth existed just north of the coastal regions into what is today Mauritania.

It was called the Zingh Empire and was highly advanced. In fact, they were the first to use the red, black and green African flag and to plant it throughout their territory all over Africa and the world. The Zingh Empire existed about fifteen thousand years ago. The only other civilizations that may have been in existance at that period in history were the Ta-Seti civilization of what became Nubia-Kush and the mythical Atlantis civilization which may have existed out in the Atlantic, off the coast of West Africa about ten to fifteen thousand years ago.

That leaves the question as to whether there was a relationship between the prehistoric Zingh Empire of West Africa and the civilization of Atlantis, whether the Zingh Empire was actually Atlantis, or whether Atlantis if it existed was part of the Zingh empire. Was Atlantis, the highly technologically sophisticated civilization an extension of Black civilization in the Meso-America and other parts of the Americas? Stone carving of a Shaman or priest from Columbia’s San Agustine Culture

An ancient West African Oni or King holding similar artifacts as the San Agustine culture stone carving of a Shaman The above ancient stone carvings (500 t0 1000 B. C. ) of Shamans of Priest-Kings clearly show distinct similarities in instruments held and purpose. The realistic carving of an African king or Oni and the stone carving of a shaman from Columbia’s San Agustin Culture indicates diffusion of African religious practices to the Americas. In fact, the region of Columbia and Panama were among the first places that Blacks were spotted by the first Spanish explorers to the Americas.

From the archeological evidence gathered both in West Africa and Meso-America, there is reason to believe that the African Negritics who founded or influenced the Olmec civilization came from West Africa. Not only do the collosol Olmec stone heads resemble Black Africans from the Ghana area, but the ancient religious practices of the Olmec priests was similar to that of the West Africans, which included shamanism, the study of the Venus complex which was part of the traditions of the Olmecs as well as the Ono and Dogon People of West Africa.

The language connection is of significant importance, since it has been found out through decipherment of the Olmec script, that the ancient Olmecs spoke the Mende language and wrote in the Mend script, which is still used in parts of West Africa and the Sahara to this day. ANCIENT TRADE BETWEEN THE AMERICAS AND AFRICA The earliest trade and commercial activities between prehistoric and ancient Africa and the Americas may have occurred from West Africa and may have included shipping and travel across the Atlantic.

The history of West Africa has never been properly researched. Yet, there is ample evidence to show that West Africa of 1500 B. C. was at a level of civilization approaching that of ancient Egypt and Nubia-Kush. In fact, there were similarities between the cultures of Nubia and West Africa, even to the very similarities between the smaller scaled hard brick clay burial pyramids built for West African Kings at Kukia in pre Christian Ghana and their counterparts in Nubia, Egypt and Meso-America.

Although West Africa is not commonly known for having a culture of pyramid-building, such a culture existed although pyramids were created for the burial of kings and were made of hardened brick. This style of pyramid building was closer to what was built by the Olmecs in Mexico when the first Olmec pyramids were built. In fact, they were not built of stone, but of hardened clay and compact earth. Still, even though we don’t see pyramids of stone rising above the ground in West Africa, similar to those of Egypt, Nubia or Mexico, or massive abilisks, collosal monuments and structures of Nubian and Khemitic or Meso-American civilization.

The fact remains, they did exist in West Africa on a smaller scale and were transported to the Americas, where conditions such as an environment more hospitable to building and free of detriments such as malaria and the tsetse fly, made it much easier to build on a grander scale. Meso-American pyramid with stepped appearance, built about 2500 years ago Stepped Pyramid of Sakkara, Egypt, built over four thousand years ago, compare to Meso-American pyramid Large scale building projects such as monuent and pyramid building was most likely carried to the Americas by the same West Africans who developed the Olmec or Xi civilization in Mexico.

Such activities would have occurred particularly if there was not much of a hinderance and obstacle to massive, monumental building and construction as there was in the forest and malaria zones of West Africa. Yet, when the region of ancient Ghana and Mauritania is closely examined, evidence of large prehistoric towns such as Kukia and others as well as various monuments to a great civilization existed and continue to exist at a smaller level than Egypt and Nubia, but significant enough to show a direct connection with Mexico’s Olmec civilization.

The similarities between Olmec and West African civilization includes racial, religious and pyramid bilding similarities, as well as the similarities in their alphabets and scripts as well as both cultures speaking the identical Mende language, which was once widespread in the Sahara and was spread as far East as Dravidian India in prehistoric times as well as the South Pacific. During the early years of West African trade with the Americas, commercial seafarers made frequent voyages across the Atlantic.

In fact, the oral history of a tradition of seafaring between the Americas and Africa is part of the history of the Washitaw People, an aboriginal Black nation who were the original inhabitants of the Mississippi Valley region, the former Louisiana Territories and parts of the Southern United States. According to their oral traditions, their ancient ships criss-crossed the Atlantic Ocean between Africa and the Americas on missions of trade and commerce.. Some of the ships used during the ancient times, perhaps earlier than 7000 B.

C. (which is the date given for cave paintings of the drawings and paintings of boats in the now dried up Sahara desert) are similar to ships used in parts of Africa today. These ships were either made of papyrus or planks lashed with rope, or hollowed out tree trunks. These ancient vessels were loaded with all type of trade goods and not only did they criss-cross the Atlantic but they traded out in the Pacific and settled there as well all the way to California.

In  fact, the tradition of Black seafarers crossing the Pacific back and forth to California is much older than the actual divulgance of that fact to the first Spanish explorers who were told by the American Indians that Black men with curly hair made trips from California’s shores to the Pacific on missions of trade. On the other hand, West African trade with the Americas before Columbus and way back to proto historic times (30,000 B. C. to 10,000 B. C. ), is one of the most important chapters in ancient African history. Yet, this era which begun about 30,000 years ago and perhaps earlier (see the Gladwin Thesis, by C. S.

Gladwin, Mc Graw Hill Books), has not been part of the History of Blacks in the Americas. Later on in history, particularly during the early Bronze Age. However, during the latter part of the Bronze Age, particularly between 1500 B. C. to 1000 B. C. , when the Olmec civilization began to bloom and flourish, new conditions in the Mediterranean made it more difficult for West Africans to trade by sea with the region, although their land trade accross the Sahara was flourishing. By then, Greeks, Phoenicians, Assyrians, Babylonians and others were trying to gain control of the sea routes and the trading ports of the region.

Conflicts in the region may have pushed the West Africans to strengthen their trans-Atlantic trade with the Americas and to explore and settle there. Ancient sea-going vessel used by the Egyptians and Nubians in ancient times. West African Trade and Settlement in the Americas Increases Due to Conflicts in the Mediterranean The flowering of the Olmec Civilization occurred between 1500 B. C. to 1000 B. C. , when over twenty-two collosal heads of basalt were carved representing the West African Negritic racial type.

This flowering continued with the appearance of “Magicians,” or Shamanistic Africans who observed and charted the Venus planetary complex (see the pre-Christian era statuette of a West African Shaman in the photograph above) These “Magicians,” are said to have entered Mexico from West Africa between 800 B. C. to 600 B. C. and were speakers of the Mende language as well as writers of the Mende script or the Bambara script, both which are still used in parts of West Africa and the Sahara. These Shamans who became the priestly class at Monte Alban during the 800’s to 600’s B. C. ( ref.

The History of the African-Olmecs and Black Civilization of the Americas From Prehistoric Times to the Present Era), had to have journied across the Atlantic from West Africa, for it is only in West Africa, that the religious practices and astronomical and religious practices and complex (Venus, the Dogon Sirius observation and the Venus worship of the Afro-Olmecs, the use of the ax in the worship of Shango among he Yoruba of West Africa and the use of the ax in Afro-Olmec worship as well as the prominence of the thunder God later known as Tlalock among the Aztecs) are the same as those practiced by the Afro-Olmec Shamans.

According to Clyde Ahmed Winters (see “Clyde A. Winters” webpage on “search. ” Thus, it has been proven through linguistic studies, religious similarities, racial similarities between the Afro-Olmecs and West Africans, as well as the use of the same language and writing script, that the Afro-Olmecs came from the Mende-Speaking region of West Africa, which once included the Sahara. Sailing and shipbuilding in the Sahara is over twenty thousand years old. In fact, cave and wall paintings of ancient ships were displayed in National Geographic Magazine some years ago.

Such ships which carried sails and masts, were among the vessels that swept across the water filled Sahara in prehistoric times. It is from that ship-building tradition that the Bambara used their knowledge to build Thor Hayerdhal’s papyrus boat Ra I which made it to the West Indies from Safi in Morroco years ago. The Bambara are also one of the West African nationalities who had and still have a religious and astronomical complex similar to that of the ancient Olmecs, particularly in the area of star gazing.

A journey across the Atlantic to the Americas on a good current during clement weather would have been an easier task to West Africans of the Coastal and riverine regions than it would have been through the use of caravans criss-crossing the hot by day and extremely cold by night Sahara desert. It would have been much easier to take a well made ship, similar to the one shown above and let the currents take it to the West Indies, and may have taken as long as sending goods back and forth from northern and north-eastern Africa to the interior and coasts of West Africa’s ancient kingdoms.

Add to that the fact that crossing the Sahara would have been no easy task when obsticales such as the hot and dusty environment, the thousands of miles of dust, sand and high winds existed. The long trek through the southern regions of West Africa through vallies, mountains and down the many rivers to the coast using beasts of burden would have been problematic particularly since malaria mosquitoes harmful to both humans and animals would have made the use of animals to carry loads unreliable.

Journeys by ship along the coast of West Africa toward the North, through the Pillars of Heracles,  eastward on the Mediterran to Ports such as Byblos in Lebanon, Tyre or Sydon would have been two to three times as lengthy as taking a ship from Cape Verde, sailing it across the Atlantic and landing in North-Eastern Brazil fifteen hundred miles away, or Meso America about 2400 miles away. The distance in itself is not what makes the trip easy. It is the fact that currents  which are similar to gigantic rivers in the ocean, carry ships and other vessels from West Africa to the Americas with relative ease.

West Africans during the period of 1500 B. C. to 600 B. C. up to 1492 A. D. may have looked to the Americas as a source of trade, commerce and a place to settle and build new civlilzations. During the period of 1500 B. C. to 600 B. C. , there were many conflicts in the Mediterranean involving the Kushites, Egyptians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, Sea Peoples, Persians, Jews and others. Any kingdom or nation of that era who wanted to conduct smoothe trade without complications would have tried to find alternative trading partners.

In fact, that was the very reason why the Europeans decided to sail westwared in their wearch for India and China in 1492 A. D. They were harrassed by the Arabs in the East and had to pay heavy taxes to pass through the region. Still, most of the Black empires and kingdoms such as Kush, Mauri, Numidia, Egypt, Ethiopia and others may have had little difficulty conducting trade among their neighbors since they also were among the major powers of the region who were dominant in the Mediterranean.

South of this northern region to the south-west, Mauritania (the site of the prehistoric Zingh Empire) Ghana, and many of the same nationalities who ushered in the West African renaissance of the early Middle Ages were engaged in civilizations and cultures similar to those of Nubia, Egypt and the Empires of the Afro-Olmec or Xi (Shi) People. Nubian-Kushite King and Queen (circa 1000 B. C. ) It is believed that there was a Nubian presence in Mexico and that the West African civilizations were related to that of the Nubians, despite the distance between the two centers of Black civilization in Africa.

There is no doubt that in ancient times there were commercial ties between West Africa and Egypt. In fact, about 600 B. C. , Nikau, a Pharaoh of Egypt sent ships to circumnavigate Africa and later on about 450 B. C. , Phoenicians did the same, landing in West Africa in the nation now called Cameroon. There they witnessed what may have been the celebration of a Kwanza-like harvest festival, where “cymbals, horns,” and other instruments as well as smoke and fire from buring fields could be seen from their ships.

At that period in history, the West African cultures and civilizations, which were offshoots of much earlier southern Saharan cultures, were very old compared to civilizations such as Greece or Babylon. In fact, iron was being used by the ancient West Africans as early as 2600 years B. C. and was so common that there was no “bronze age” in West Africa, although bronze was used for ornaments and instruments or tools. A combination of Nubians and West Africans engaged in mutual trade and commerce along the coasts of West Africa could have planned many trips to and from the Americas and could have conducted a crossing about 1500 B.

C. and afterwards. Massive sculptures of the heads of typical Negritic Africans were carved in the region of South Mexico where the Olmec civilization flourished. Some of these massive heads of basalt contain the cornrow hairstyle common among West African Blacks, as well as the kinky coiled hair common among at least 70 percent of all Negritic people, (the other proportion being the Dravidian Black race of India and the Black Australoids of Australia and South Asia). Collossol Afro-Olmec head of basalt wearing Nubian type war helmet, circa 1100 B. C. Afro-Olmecs Came from the Mende Regions of West Africa

Although archeologists have used the name “Olmec,” to refer to the Black builders of ancient Mexico’s first civilizations, recent discoveries have proven that these Afro-Olmecs were West Africans of the Mende language and cultural group. Inscriptions found on ancient monuments in parts of Mexico show that the script used by the ancient Olmecs was identical to that used by the ancient and modern Mende-speaking peoples of West Africa. Racially, the collosal stone heads are identical in features to West Africans and the language deciphered on Olmec monuments is identical to the Mende language of West Africa, (see Clyde A.

Winters) on the internet. The term “Olmec” was first used by archeologists since the giant stone heads with the features of West African Negritic people were found in a part of Mexico with an abundance of rubber trees. The Maya word for rubber was “olli, and so the name “Olmec,” was used to label the Africoid Negritic people represented in the faces of the stone heads and found on hundreds of terracotta figurines throughout the region. Yet, due to the scientific work done by deciphers and linguists, it has been found out that the ancient Blacks of Mexico know as Olmecs, called themselves the Xi People (She People).

Apart from the giant stone heads of basalt, hundreds of terracotta figurines and heads of people of Negritic African racial reatures have also been found over the past hundred years in Mexico and other parts of Meso-America as well as the ancient Black-owned lands of the Southern U. S. (Washitaw Proper,(Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Arkansas), South America’s Saint Agustin Culture in the nation of Colombia, Costa Rica, and other areas) the “Louisiana Purchase,” lands, the south-eastern kingdom of the Black Jamassee, and other places including Haiti, see the magazine Ancient American).

Various cultural clues and traces unique to Africa as well as the living descendants of prehistoric and ancient African migrants to the Americas continue to exist to this very day. The Washitaw Nation of Louisiana is one such group (see www. Hotep. org), the Garifuna or Black Caribs of the Caribbean and Central America is another, the descendants of the Jamasse who live in Georgia and the surrounding states is another group. There are also others such as the Black Californian of Queen Calafia fame (the Black Amazon Queen mentioned in the book Journey to Esplandian, by Ordonez de Montalvo during the mid 1500’s).

Cultural artefacts which connect the ancient Blacks of the Americas with Africa are many. Some of these similarities can be seen in the stone and terracotta works of the ancient Blacks of the Americas. For example, the African hairline is clearly visible in some stone and terracotta works, including the use of cornrows, afro hair style, flat “mohawk” style similar to the type used in Africa, dreadlocks, braided hair and even plain kinky hair. The African hairline is clearly visible on a fine stone head from Veracruz Mexico, carved between 600 B.

C. to 400 B. C. , the Classic Period of Olmec civilization. That particular statuette is about twelve inches tall and the distance from the head to the chin is about 17 centemeters. Another head of about 12 inches, not only posesses Negroid features, but the hair design is authentically West African and is on display at the National Museum of Mexico. This terracotta Africoid head also wears the common disk type ear plugs common in parts of Africa even today among tribes such as the Dinka and Shilluk.

One of the most impressive pieces of evidence which show a direct link between the Black Olmec or Xi People of Mexico and West Africans is the presence of scarification marks on some Olmec terracotta sculpture. These scarification marks clearly indicate a West African Mandinka (Mende) presence in prehistoric and ancient Meso-America. Ritual scarification is still practiced in parts of Africa and among the Black peoples of the South Pacific, however the Olmec scarification marks are not of South Pacific or Melanesian Black origins, since the patterns used on ancient Olmec sculpture is still common in parts of Africa.

This style of scarification tatooing is still used by the Nuba and other Sudanese African people. In fact, the face of a young girl with keloid scarification on here face is identical to the very same keloid tatoos on the face of an ancient Olmec terracotta head from ancient Mexico. Similar keloid tattoos also appear on the arms of some Sudanese and are identical to similar keloid scars on the arms of some clay figures from ancient Olmec terracotta figurines of Negroid peoples of ancient Mexico. Bronze head of an ancient king from Benin, West Africa, The tradition of fine sculpture in West Africa goes back long before 1000 B.

C. Collosal head of Afro-Olmec (Xi) warrior-king, circa 1100 B. C. Descendants of Ancient Africans in Recent America In many parts of the Americas today, there are still people of African Negritic racial backgrounds who continue to exist either blended into the larger African-Americas population or are parts of separate, indigenous groups living on their own lands with their own unique culture and languages. One such example is the Washitaw Nation who owned about one million square miles of the former Louisiana Territories, (see www. Hotep. org), but who now own only about 70,000 acres of all their former territory.

The regaining of their lands from the U. S. was a long process which concluded partially in 1991, when they won the right to their lands in a U. S. court. The Black Californian broke up as a nation during the late 1800’s after many years of war with the Spanish invaders of the South West, with Mexico and with the U. S. The blended into the Black population of California and their descendants still exist among the millions of Black Californians of today. The Black Caribs or Garifunas of the Caribbean Islands and Central America fought with the English and Spanish from the late fifteen hundreds up to 1797, when the British sued for peace.

The Garifuna were expelled from their islands but they prospered in Central America where hundreds of thousands live along the coasts today. The Afro-Darienite is a significant group of pre-historic, pre-columbian Blacks who existed in South America and Central America. These Blacks were the Africans that the Spanish first saw during their exploration of the narrow strip of land between Columbia and Central America and who were described as “slaves of our lord” since the Spaniards and Europeans had the intention of enslaving all Blacks they found in the newly discovered lands.

The above mentioned Blacks of precolumbian origins are not Blacks wo mixed with the Mongoloid Indian population as occurred during the time of slavery. They were Blacks who were in some cases on their lands before the southward migrations of the Mongoloid Native Americans. In many cases, these Blacks had established civilizations in the Americas thousands of years ago. An early Black Californian, a member of the original Black aboriginal people of California and the South Western U. S.

A member of one of the original Black nations of the Americas, the Afro-Darienite of Panama. Stone carving of Negroid person found in area close to Washitaw Territories, Southern U. S. THE USE OF ANCIENT AFRICAN SHIPS AND BOATS TO TRADE WITH THE AMERICAS Protohistoric, prehistoric and ancient Negritic Africans were masters of the lands as well as the oceans. They were the first shipbuilders on earth and had to have used watercraft to cross from South East Asia to Australia about 60,000 years ago and from the West Africa/Sahara inland seas region to the Americas.

The fact of the northern portion of Africa now known as a vast desert wasteland being a place of large lakes, rivers and fertile regions with the most ancient of civilizations is a fact that has been verified, (see African Presence in Early America, edt. Ivan Van Sertima and Runoko Rashidi, Transaction Publishers, New Bruinswick, NJ “The Principle of Polarity,” by Wayne Chandler: 1994. ) From that region of Africa as well as East Africa, diffusions of Blacks towards the Americas as early as 30,000 B. C. re believed to have occurred based on findings in a region from Mexico to Brazil which show that American indians in the region include Negritic types (eg. Olmecs, Afro-Darienite, Black Californians, Chuarras, Garifunas and others). Much earlier journeys occurred by land sometime before 75,000 B. C. according to the Gladwin Thesis written by C. S. Gladwin. This migration occurred on the Pacific side of the Americas and was began by Africans with Affinities similar to the people of New Guinea, Tasmania, Solomon Islands and Australia.

The earliest migrations of African Blacks through Asia then to the Americas seemed to have occurred exactly during the period that the Australian Aborigines and the proto-African ancestors of the Aborigines, Oceanic Negroids (Fijians, Solomon Islanders, Papua-New Guineans,and so on) and other Blacks spread throughout East Asia and the Pacific Islands about one hundred thousand years ago. The fact that these same Blacks are still among the world’s seafaring cultures and still regard the sea as sacred and as a place of sustinence is evidence of their ancient dependance on the sea for travel and exploration as well as for commerce and trade.

Therefore, they would have had to build sea-worthy ships and boats to take them across the vast expanses of ocean, including the Atlantic, Indian Ocean (both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans were called the Ethiopean Sea, in the Middle Ages) and the Pacific Ocean. During the historic period close to the early bronze or copper using period of world history (6000 B. C. to 4000 B. C. migrations of Africans from the Mende regions of West Africa and the Sahara across the Atlantic to the Americas may have occurred.

In fact, the Mende agricultural culture was well established in West Africa and the Sahara during that period. Boats still criss-crossed the Sahara, as they had been doing for over ten thousand years previously. The ancient peoples of the Sahara, as rock paintings clearly show, were using boats and may have sailed from West Africa and the Sahara to the Americas, including the Washitaw territories of the Midwestern and Southern U. S. Moreover, it is believed by the aboriginal Black people of the former Washitaw Empire who still live in the Southern U. S. , that about 6000 B. C. there was a great population shift from the region of Africa and the Pacific ocean, which led to the migrations of their ancestors to the Americas to join the Blacks who had been there previously. As for the use of ships, ancient Negritic peoples and the original Negroid peoples of the earth may have began using boats very early in human history. Moreover, whatever boats were used did not have to be sophisticated or of huge size. In fact, the small, seaworthy “outrigger” canoe may have been spread from East Africa to the Indian Ocean and the Pacific by the earliest African migrants to Asia and the Pacific regions.

Boats of papyrus, skin, sewed plank, log and hollowed logs were used by ancient Africans on their trips to various parts of the world. Gigantic stone head of Afro-Olmec (Xi People) of ancient Mexico, circa 1100 B. C. Face of Afro-Olmec child carved on the waste “belt” of an Olmec ballplayer This stone belt was used by the Olmec ballplayers to catch the impact of the rubber balls in their ball games. This face is typical Negritic, including the eyes which seem to “slant,” a common racial characteristic in West Africa, the Sahara and in South Africa among the Kong-San (Bushmen) and other Africans.

TRADE ROUTES OF THE ANCIENT BLACKS During the years of migrations of Africans to all parts of the world, those who crossed the Atlantic, Indian Ocean and Pacific also used the seas to make trips to the northern parts of Africa. They may have avoided the northern routes across the deserts at particular times of the year and sailed northward by sailing parallel to the coastslines on their way northward or southward, just as the Phoenicians, Nubians and Egyptians had done. Boats made of skin, logs, hollowed ttee trunk, lashed canoes and skin could have been used for trading and commerce.

The reed boat is a common type of watercraft used in West Africa and other parts of the world, yet there were other boats and ships to add to those already mentioned above. Boats similar to those of Nubia and Egypt were being used in the Sahara just as long or even longer than they were being used in Egypt. In fact, civilization in the Sahara and Sudan existed before Egypt was settled by Blacks from the South and the Sahara. The vessels which crossed the Atlantic about 1500 B. C. during the early Afro-Olmec period) were most likely the same types of ships shown in the sahara cave paintings of ships dating to about 7,000 B. C. or similar ships from Nubian rock carvings of 3000 B. C.. Egyptologists such as Sir Flinders Petrie believed that the ancient African drawings of ships represent papyrus boats similar to the one built by the Bambara People for Thor Hayerdhal on the shores of Lake Chad. This boat made it to Barbadose, however they did not reinforce the hull with rope as the ancient Egyptians and Nubians did with their ancient ships.

That lack of reinforcement made the Bambara ship weak, however another papyrus ship built by Ayamara Indians in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia was reinforced and it made it to the West Indies without difficulty. Naval historian Bjorn Landstrom believes that some of the curved hulls shown on rock art and pottery from the Nubian civilization (circa 3000 B. C. ) point to a basic three-plank idea. The planks would have been sewn together with rope. The larer version must have had some interior framing to hold them together.

The hulls of some ot these boats show the vertical extension of the bow and stern which may have been to keep them bouyant. These types of boats are stilll in use in one of the most unlikely places. The Djuka and Saramaka Tribes of Surinam, known also as ‘Bush Negroes,” build a style of ship and boat similar to that of the Ancient Egyptians and Nubians, with their bows and sterns curving upward and pointing vertically. This style of boat is also a common design in parts of West Africa, particularly along the Niger River where extensive river trading occurs.

They are usually carved from a single tree trunk which is used as the backbone. Planks are then fitted alongside to enlarge them. In all cases, cabins are built on top of the interior out of woven mat or other strong fiberous material. These boats are usually six to eight feet across and about fifty feet long. There is evidence that one African Emperor Abubakari of Mali used these “almadias” or longboats to make a trip to the Americas during the 1300’s. (see, They Came Before Columbus, Ivan Van Sertima; Random House: 1975)

Apart from the vessels used by the West Africans and south western Sahara Black Africans to sail across the Atlantic to the Americas, Nubians, Kushites, Egyptians and Ethiopians were known traders in the Mediterranean. The Canaanites, the Negroid inhabitants of the Levant who later became the Phoenicians also were master seafarers. This has caused some to speculate that the heads of the Afro-Olmecs represent the heads of servants of the Phoenicians, yet no dominant people would build such massive and collosol monuments to their servants and not to themselves.

Check for historical references and literature ANTHROPOLOGISTS BELIEVE THERE WAS AN ANCIENT BLACK PRESENCE IN THE AMERICAS During the International Congress of American Anthropologists held in Bacelona, Spain in 1964, a French anthropologist pointed out that all that was missing to prove a definite presence of Negritic Blacks in the Americas before Columbus was Negroid skeletons to add to the already found Negroid featured terracottas. Later on February of 1975 skeletons of Negroid people dating to the 1200’s were found at a precolumbian grave in the Virgin Islands.

Andrei Wierzinski, the Polish crainologist also concluded based on the study of skeletons found in Mexico, that a good portion of the skulls were that of Negritic Blacks, Based on the many finds for a Black African Negroid presence in ancient Mexico, some of the most enthusiastic proponents of a pre-columbian Black African presence in Mexico are Mexican professionals. They conclude that Africans must have established early important trading centers on the coasts along Vera Cuz, from which Middle America’s first civiliztion grew. In retrospect, ancient Africans did visit the Americas from as early as about 100,000 B.

C. where they stayed for tens of thousands of years. By 30,000 B. C. , to about 15,000 B. C. , a massive migration from the Sahara towards the Indian Ocean and the Pacific in the East occurred from the Sahara. Blacks also migrated Westward across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Americas during that period until the very eve of Columbus’ first journey to the Americas. Trade, commerce and exploration as well as the search for new lands when the Sahara began to dry up later in history was the catalyst that drove the West Africans towards the Atlantic and into the Americas.

REFERENCES Washitaw Nation (www. Hotep. org) Clyde A. Winters (The Nubians and the Olmecs) Blacks of India dalitstan. org Blacks of the Pacific and Melanesia: www. cwo. com/~lucumi/pacific. html If you ever visit the ancient Afro-Olmec monuments of Mexico, the Washitaw Nation of Louisiana, the monuments of Nubia, Egypt or West Africa you need to take great pictures: www. photoalley. com Trinicenter PanTrinbago RaceandHistory HowComYouCom BLACK CIVILIZATIONS OF ANCIENT AMERICA (MUU-LAN), MEXICO (XI)

Gigantic stone head of Negritic African during the Olmec (Xi) Civilization By Paul Barton The earliest people in the Americas were people of the Negritic African race, who entered the Americas perhaps as early as 100,000 years ago, by way of the bering straight and about thirty thousand years ago in a worldwide maritime undertaking that included journeys from the then wet and lake filled Sahara towards the Indian Ocean and the Pacific, and from West Africa across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Americas.

According to the Gladwin Thesis, this ancient journey occurred, particularly about 75,000 years ago and included Black Pygmies, Black Negritic peoples and Black Australoids similar to the Aboriginal Black people of Australia and parts of Asia, including India. Ancient African terracotta portraits 1000 B. C. to 500 B. C. Recent discoveries in the field of linguistics and other methods have shown without a doubt, that the ancient Olmecs of Mexico, known as the Xi People, came originally from West Africa and were of the Mende African ethnic stock.

According to Clyde A. Winters and other writers (see Clyde A. Winters website), the Mende script was discovered on some of the ancient Olmec monuments of Mexico and were found to be identical to the very same script used by the Mende people of West Africa. Although the carbon fourteen testing date for the presence of the Black Olmecs or Xi People is about 1500 B. C. , journies to the Mexico and the Southern United States may have come from West Africa much earlier, particularly around five thousand years before Christ.

That conclusion is based on the finding of an African native cotton that was discovered in North America. It’s only possible manner of arriving where it was found had to have been through human hands. At that period in West African history and even before, civilization was in full bloom in the Western Sahara in what is today Mauritania. One of Africa’s earliest civilizations, the Zingh Empire, existed and may have lived in what was a lake filled, wet and fertile Sahara, where ships criss-crossed from place to place.

ANCIENT AFRICAN KINGDOMS PRODUCED OLMEC TYPE CULTURES The ancient kingdoms of West Africa which occupied the Coastal forest belt from Cameroon to Guinea had trading relationships with other Africans dating back to prehistoric times. However, by 1500 B. C. , these ancient kingdoms not only traded along the Ivory Coast, but with the Phoenicians and other peoples. They expanded their trade to the Americas, where the evidence for an ancient African presence is overwhelming.

The kingdoms which came to be known by Arabs and Europeans during the Middle Ages were already well established when much of Western Europe was still inhabited by Celtic tribes. By the 5th Century B. C. , the Phoenicians were running comercial ships to several West African kingdoms. During that period, iron had been in use for about one thousand years and terracotta art was being produced at a great level of craftsmanship. Stone was also being carved with naturalistic perfection and later, bronze was being used to make various tools and instruments, as well as beautifully naturalistic works of art.

The ancient West African coastal and interior Kingdoms occupied an area that is now covered with dense vegetation but may have been cleared about three to four thousand years ago. This includes the regions from the coasts of West Africa to the South, all the way inland to the Sahara. A number of large kingdoms and empires existed in that area. According to Blisshords Communications, one of the oldest empires and civilizions on earth existed just north of the coastal regions into what is today Mauritania.

It was called the Zingh Empire and was highly advanced. In fact, they were the first to use the red, black and green African flag and to plant it throughout their territory all over Africa and the world. The Zingh Empire existed about fifteen thousand years ago. The only other civilizations that may have been in existance at that period in history were the Ta-Seti civilization of what became Nubia-Kush and the mythical Atlantis civilization which may have existed out in the Atlantic, off the coast of West Africa about ten to fifteen thousand years ago.

That leaves the question as to whether there was a relationship between the prehistoric Zingh Empire of West Africa and the civilization of Atlantis, whether the Zingh Empire was actually Atlantis, or whether Atlantis if it existed was part of the Zingh empire. Was Atlantis, the highly technologically sophisticated civilization an extension of Black civilization in the Meso-America and other parts of the Americas? Stone carving of a Shaman or priest from Columbia’s San Agustine Culture

An ancient West African Oni or King holding similar artifacts as the San Agustine culture stone carving of a Shaman The above ancient stone carvings (500 t0 1000 B. C. ) of Shamans of Priest-Kings clearly show distinct similarities in instruments held and purpose. The realistic carving of an African king or Oni and the stone carving of a shaman from Columbia’s San Agustin Culture indicates diffusion of African religious practices to the Americas. In fact, the region of Columbia and Panama were among the first places that Blacks were spotted by the first Spanish explorers to the Americas.

From the archeological evidence gathered both in West Africa and Meso-America, there is reason to believe that the African Negritics who founded or influenced the Olmec civilization came from West Africa. Not only do the collosol Olmec stone heads resemble Black Africans from the Ghana area, but the ancient religious practices of the Olmec priests was similar to that of the West Africans, which included shamanism, the study of the Venus complex which was part of the traditions of the Olmecs as well as the Ono and Dogon People of West Africa.

The language connection is of significant importance, since it has been found out through decipherment of the Olmec script, that the ancient Olmecs spoke the Mende language and wrote in the Mend script, which is still used in parts of West Africa and the Sahara to this day. ANCIENT TRADE BETWEEN THE AMERICAS AND AFRICA The earliest trade and commercial activities between prehistoric and ancient Africa and the Americas may have occurred from West Africa and may have included shipping and travel across the Atlantic. The history of West Africa has never been properly researched.

Yet, there is ample evidence to show that West Africa of 1500 B. C. was at a level of civilization approaching that of ancient Egypt and Nubia-Kush. In fact, there were similarities between the cultures of Nubia and West Africa, even to the very similarities between the smaller scaled hard brick clay burial pyramids built for West African Kings at Kukia in pre Christian Ghana and their counterparts in Nubia, Egypt and Meso-America. Although West Africa is not commonly known for having a culture of pyramid-building, such a culture existed although pyramids were created for the burial of kings and were made of hardened brick.

This style of pyramid building was closer to what was built by the Olmecs in Mexico when the first Olmec pyramids were built. In fact, they were not built of stone, but of hardened clay and compact earth. Still, even though we don’t see pyramids of stone rising above the ground in West Africa, similar to those of Egypt, Nubia or Mexico, or massive abilisks, collosal monuments and structures of Nubian and Khemitic or Meso-American civilization. The fact remains, they did exist in West Africa n a smaller scale and were transported to the Americas, where conditions such as an environment more hospitable to building and free of detriments such as malaria and the tsetse fly, made it much easier to build on a grander scale. Meso-American pyramid with stepped appearance, built about 2500 years ago Stepped Pyramid of Sakkara, Egypt, built over four thousand years ago, compare to Meso-American pyramid Large scale building projects such as monuent and pyramid building was most likely carried to the Americas by the same West Africans who developed the Olmec or Xi civilization in Mexico.

Such activities would have occurred particularly if there was not much of a hinderance and obstacle to massive, monumental building and construction as there was in the forest and malaria zones of West Africa. Yet, when the region of ancient Ghana and Mauritania is closely examined, evidence of large prehistoric towns such as Kukia and others as well as various monuments to a great civilization existed and continue to exist at a smaller level than Egypt and Nubia, but significant enough to show a direct connection with Mexico’s Olmec civilization.

The similarities between Olmec and West African civilization includes racial, religious and pyramid bilding similarities, as well as the similarities in their alphabets and scripts as well as both cultures speaking the identical Mende language, which was once widespread in the Sahara and was spread as far East as Dravidian India in prehistoric times as well as the South Pacific. During the early years of West African trade with the Americas, commercial seafarers made frequent voyages across the Atlantic.

In fact, the oral history of a tradition of seafaring between the Americas and Africa is part of the history of the Washitaw People, an aboriginal Black nation who were the original inhabitants of the Mississippi Valley region, the former Louisiana Territories and parts of the Southern United States. According to their oral traditions, their ancient ships criss-crossed the Atlantic Ocean between Africa and the Americas on missions of trade and commerce.. Some of the ships used during the ancient times, perhaps earlier than 7000 B.

C. (which is the date given for cave paintings of the drawings and paintings of boats in the now dried up Sahara desert) are similar to ships used in parts of Africa today. These ships were either made of papyrus or planks lashed with rope, or hollowed out tree trunks. These ancient vessels were loaded with all type of trade goods and not only did they criss-cross the Atlantic but they traded out in the Pacific and settled there as well all the way to California.

In  fact, the tradition of Black seafarers crossing the Pacific back and forth to California is much older than the actual divulgance of that fact to the first Spanish explorers who were told by the American Indians that Black men with curly hair made trips from California’s shores to the Pacific on missions of trade. On the other hand, West African trade with the Americas before Columbus and way back to proto historic times (30,000 B. C. to 10,000 B. C. ), is one of the most important chapters in ancient African history. Yet, this era which begun about 30,000 years ago and perhaps earlier (see the Gladwin Thesis, by C. S.

Gladwin, Mc Graw Hill Books), has not been part of the History of Blacks in the Americas. Later on in history, particularly during the early Bronze Age. However, during the latter part of the Bronze Age, particularly between 1500 B. C. to 1000 B. C. , when the Olmec civilization began to bloom and flourish, new conditions in the Mediterranean made it more difficult for West Africans to trade by sea with the region, although their land trade accross the Sahara was flourishing. By then, Greeks, Phoenicians, Assyrians, Babylonians and others were trying to gain control of the sea routes and the trading ports of the region.

Conflicts in the region may have pushed the West Africans to strengthen their trans-Atlantic trade with the Americas and to explore and settle there. Ancient sea-going vessel used by the Egyptians and Nubians in ancient times. West African Trade and Settlement in the Americas Increases Due to Conflicts in the Mediterranean The flowering of the Olmec Civilization occurred between 1500 B. C. to 1000 B. C. , when over twenty-two collosal heads of basalt were carved representing the West African Negritic racial type.

This flowering continued with the appearance of “Magicians,” or Shamanistic Africans who observed and charted the Venus planetary complex (see the pre-Christian era statuette of a West African Shaman in the photograph above) These “Magicians,” are said to have entered Mexico from West Africa between 800 B. C. to 600 B. C. and were speakers of the Mende language as well as writers of the Mende script or the Bambara script, both which are still used in parts of West Africa and the Sahara. These Shamans who became the priestly class at Monte Alban during the 800’s to 600’s B. C. ( ref.

The History of the African-Olmecs and Black Civilization of the Americas From Prehistoric Times to the Present Era), had to have journied across the Atlantic from West Africa, for it is only in West Africa, that the religious practices and astronomical and religious practices and complex (Venus, the Dogon Sirius observation and the Venus worship of the Afro-Olmecs, the use of the ax in the worship of Shango among he Yoruba of West Africa and the use of the ax in Afro-Olmec worship as well as the prominence of the thunder God later known as Tlalock among the Aztecs) are the same as those practiced by the Afro-Olmec Shamans.

According to Clyde Ahmed Winters (see “Clyde A. Winters” webpage on “search. ” Thus, it has been proven through linguistic studies, religious similarities, racial similarities between the Afro-Olmecs and West Africans, as well as the use of the same language and writing script, that the Afro-Olmecs came from the Mende-Speaking region of West Africa, which once included the Sahara. Sailing and shipbuilding in the Sahara is over twenty thousand years old. In fact, cave and wall paintings of ancient ships were displayed in National Geographic Magazine some years ago.

Such ships which carried sails and masts, were among the vessels that swept across the water filled Sahara in prehistoric times. It is from that ship-building tradition that the Bambara used their knowledge to build Thor Hayerdhal’s papyrus boat Ra I which made it to the West Indies from Safi in Morroco years ago. The Bambara are also one of the West African nationalities who had and still have a religious and astronomical complex similar to that of the ancient Olmecs, particularly in the area of star gazing.

A journey across the Atlantic to the Americas on a good current during clement weather would have been an easier task to West Africans of the Coastal and riverine regions than it would have been through the use of caravans criss-crossing the hot by day and extremely cold by night Sahara desert. It would have been much easier to take a well made ship, similar to the one shown above and let the currents take it to the West Indies, and may have taken as long as sending goods back and forth from northern and north-eastern Africa to the interior and coasts of West Africa’s ancient kingdoms.

Add to that the fact that crossing the Sahara would have been no easy task when obsticales such as the hot and dusty environment, the thousands of miles of dust, sand and high winds existed. The long trek through the southern regions of West Africa through vallies, mountains and down the many rivers to the coast using beasts of burden would have been problematic particularly since malaria mosquitoes harmful to both humans and animals would have made the use of animals to carry loads unreliable.

Journeys by ship along the coast of West Africa toward the North, through the Pillars of Heracles,  eastward on the Mediterran to Ports such as Byblos in Lebanon, Tyre or Sydon would have been two to three times as lengthy as taking a ship from Cape Verde, sailing it across the Atlantic and landing in North-Eastern Brazil fifteen hundred miles away, or Meso America about 2400 miles away. The distance in itself is not what makes the trip easy. It is the fact that currents  which are similar to gigantic rivers in the ocean, carry ships and other vessels from West Africa to the Americas with relative ease.

West Africans during the period of 1500 B. C. to 600 B. C. up to 1492 A. D. may have looked to the Americas as a source of trade, commerce and a place to settle and build new civlilzations. During the period of 1500 B. C. to 600 B. C. , there were many conflicts in the Mediterranean involving the Kushites, Egyptians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, Sea Peoples, Persians, Jews and others. Any kingdom or nation of that era who wanted to conduct smoothe trade without complications would have tried to find alternative trading partners.

In fact, that was the very reason why the Europeans decided to sail westwared in their wearch for India and China in 1492 A. D. They were harrassed by the Arabs in the East and had to pay heavy taxes to pass through the region. Still, most of the Black empires and kingdoms such as Kush, Mauri, Numidia, Egypt, Ethiopia and others may have had little difficulty conducting trade among their neighbors since they also were among the major powers of the region who were dominant in the Mediterranean.

South of this northern region to the south-west, Mauritania (the site of the prehistoric Zingh Empire) Ghana, and many of the same nationalities who ushered in the West African renaissance of the early Middle Ages were engaged in civilizations and cultures similar to those of Nubia, Egypt and the Empires of the Afro-Olmec or Xi (Shi) People. Nubian-Kushite King and Queen (circa 1000 B. C. ) It is believed that there was a Nubian presence in Mexico and that the West African civilizations were related to that of the Nubians, despite the distance between the two centers of Black civilization in Africa.

There is no doubt that in ancient times there were commercial ties between West Africa and Egypt. In fact, about 600 B. C. , Nikau, a Pharaoh of Egypt sent ships to circumnavigate Africa and later on about 450 B. C. , Phoenicians did the same, landing in West Africa in the nation now called Cameroon. There they witnessed what may have been the celebration of a Kwanza-like harvest festival, where “cymbals, horns,” and other instruments as well as smoke and fire from buring fields could be seen from their ships.

At that period in history, the West African cultures and civilizations, which were offshoots of much earlier southern Saharan cultures, were very old compared to civilizations such as Greece or Babylon. In fact, iron was being used by the ancient West Africans as early as 2600 years B. C. and was so common that there was no “bronze age” in West Africa, although bronze was used for ornaments and instruments or tools. A combination of Nubians and West Africans engaged in mutual trade and commerce along the coasts of West Africa could have planned many trips to and from the Americas and could have conducted a crossing about 1500 B.

C. and afterwards. Massive sculptures of the heads of typical Negritic Africans were carved in the region of South Mexico where the Olmec civilization flourished. Some of these massive heads of basalt contain the cornrow hairstyle common among West African Blacks, as well as the kinky coiled hair common among at least 70 percent of all Negritic people, (the other proportion being the Dravidian Black race of India and the Black Australoids of Australia and South Asia). Collossol Afro-Olmec head of basalt wearing Nubian type war helmet, circa 1100 B. C. Afro-Olmecs Came from the Mende Regions of West Africa

Although archeologists have used the name “Olmec,” to refer to the Black builders of ancient Mexico’s first civilizations, recent discoveries have proven that these Afro-Olmecs were West Africans of the Mende language and cultural group. Inscriptions found on ancient monuments in parts of Mexico show that the script used by the ancient Olmecs was identical to that used by the ancient and modern Mende-speaking peoples of West Africa. Racially, the collosal stone heads are identical in features to West Africans and the language deciphered on Olmec monuments is identical to the Mende language of West Africa, (see Clyde A.

Winters) on the internet. The term “Olmec” was first used by archeologists since the giant stone heads with the features of West African Negritic people were found in a part of Mexico with an abundance of rubber trees. The Maya word for rubber was “olli, and so the name “Olmec,” was used to label the Africoid Negritic people represented in the faces of the stone heads and found on hundreds of terracotta figurines throughout the region. Yet, due to the scientific work done by deciphers and linguists, it has been found out that the ancient Blacks of Mexico know as Olmecs, called themselves the Xi People (She People).

Apart from the giant stone heads of basalt, hundreds of terracotta figurines and heads of people of Negritic African racial reatures have also been found over the past hundred years in Mexico and other parts of Meso-America as well as the ancient Black-owned lands of the Southern U. S. (Washitaw Proper,(Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Arkansas), South America’s Saint Agustin Culture in the nation of Colombia, Costa Rica, and other areas) the “Louisiana Purchase,” lands, the south-eastern kingdom of the Black Jamassee, and other places including Haiti, see the magazine Ancient American).

Various cultural clues and traces unique to Africa as well as the living descendants of prehistoric and ancient African migrants to the Americas continue to exist to this very day. The Washitaw Nation of Louisiana is one such group (see www. Hotep. org), the Garifuna or Black Caribs of the Caribbean and Central America is another, the descendants of the Jamasse who live in Georgia and the surrounding states is another group. There are also others such as the Black Californian of Queen Calafia fame (the Black Amazon Queen mentioned in the book Journey to Esplandian, by Ordonez de Montalvo during the mid 1500’s).

Cultural artefacts which connect the ancient Blacks of the Americas with Africa are many. Some of these similarities can be seen in the stone and terracotta works of the ancient Blacks of the Americas. For example, the African hairline is clearly visible in some stone and terracotta works, including the use of cornrows, afro hair style, flat “mohawk” style similar to the type used in Africa, dreadlocks, braided hair and even plain kinky hair. The African hairline is clearly visible on a fine stone head from Veracruz Mexico, carved between 600 B.

C. to 400 B. C. , the Classic Period of Olmec civilization. That particular statuette is about twelve inches tall and the distance from the head to the chin is about 17 centemeters. Another head of about 12 inches, not only posesses Negroid features, but the hair design is authentically West African and is on display at the National Museum of Mexico. This terracotta Africoid head also wears the common disk type ear plugs common in parts of Africa even today among tribes such as the Dinka and Shilluk.

One of the most impressive pieces of evidence which show a direct link between the Black Olmec or Xi People of Mexico and West Africans is the presence of scarification marks on some Olmec terracotta sculpture. These scarification marks clearly indicate a West African Mandinka (Mende) presence in prehistoric and ancient Meso-America. Ritual scarification is still practiced in parts of Africa and among the Black peoples of the South Pacific, however the Olmec scarification marks are not of South Pacific or Melanesian Black origins, since the patterns used on ancient Olmec sculpture is still common in parts of Africa.

This style of scarification tatooing is still used by the Nuba and other Sudanese African people. In fact, the face of a young girl with keloid scarification on here face is identical to the very same keloid tatoos on the face of an ancient Olmec terracotta head from ancient Mexico. Similar keloid tattoos also appear on the arms of some Sudanese and are identical to similar keloid scars on the arms of some clay figures from ancient Olmec terracotta figurines of Negroid peoples of ancient Mexico. Bronze head of an ancient king from Benin, West Africa, The tradition of fine sculpture in West Africa goes back long before 1000 B.

C.

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African American Civil Rights – Short Essay

African American Civil rights The African American people were the real winners of the Civil Rights Movement. For nearly two centuries blacks had little to no civil liberties whatsoever. In a country that was founded and declared by our founding fathers as a nation “…for the people, by the people, and of the people” African Americans were not even considered as fellow citizens. A century of slavery and half a century of Jim Crows segregation laws, the African American people were finally victorious when the civil rights act of 1964 and the Voting Rights act of 1965 were passed.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities and women. Congress finally asserted their authority to regulate interstate commerce under Article One (section 8). Their duty is to guarantee all citizens equal protection including African Americans under the laws of the Fourteenth Amendment. Also the fourteenth Amendment protects voting rights under the Fifteenth Amendment, which prohibits the government from denying any citizen the ability, or right to vote based on race or color. For so long African Americans have been held back due to slavery and Jim Crow laws.

After Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) racial segregation was necessary in all public facilities under the doctrine of “separate but equal”. The fact of the matter is that whites and blacks were never equal, just separate. Jim Crow laws were adopted throughout the south to alienate black citizens and physically separate African Americans and whites. These laws institutionalized segregation of African Americans and whites and did not allow access use of the same schools, hospitals, prisons, public parks, housing communities, and even restrooms. Lets remember these facilities were completely unequal.

The white facilities were obviously more luxurious in every way, and throughout the whole country it was obvious that in no section blacks were treated equal. The most important goal of these laws was to keep blacks from voting. Whites realized that once blacks were able to vote freely they truly were equal to every citizen. The best way they kept blacks from voting was through literacy tests. Through all the efforts whites were putting to keep blacks from voting they have been successful allowing less than 10% of blacks voting in the south in 1910. These segregation laws stayed until Brown v.

Board of Education (1954), which overturned the ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson. The decision stated that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. It was realized after this that racial segregation was ruled a violation of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This decision paved the way for integration in the south and throughout the United States and was a major win in the civil rights movement. Blacks were most successfully when they were organized. The organized bus boycott, sit-ins, freedom rides, and march on Washington brought national attention to the war on civil rights.

Martin Luther King Jr. led these events; his “I Have a Dream” speech is world famous now due to the significance of the civil rights movement. These demonstrations were pivotal for the African American community in declaring their liberty. Finally when the Civil rights Act of 1964 passed along with the Voting Rights Act of 1965, discrimination because of race was outlawed and any color human being could vote. Blacks were finally free and were the true winners of the civil rights movement 1950s and 1960s. They were finally equal and there rights were fully instilled. (Sources: The Logic of American Politics)

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The Effects of Slavery on African-Americans

Slavery obviously had no small affect on the lives of millions of African-Americans in America. Both the North and South had strict rules on how the race was placed in society, rules that placed them far beneath any social class in America. It could be said that even free slaves, could never actually be “free” due to a complete lack of social equality granted by the American Government. Blacks were treated as something less than a human being, something like a product; this product was sold and traded around the country, and was the basis of the entire country’s economy.

Working in the fields from dusk to dawn not only hindered African-American’s physically, but also exhausted them in the social and mental aspects of life. Slavery affected the lives of African-Americans in the South and the North by hindering them socially, mentally, and physically. Socially, African-American’s were at the complete bottom of the list. Even the backwoods, workless “hillbillies” who lived nearly as harsh of lives as the African-Americans did were well above the slaves in social aspects.

African-Americans in the South were completely deprived of any sort of education, including the simple knowledge of reading and writing. Black schools in the North were much despised, in one case, a school dedicated to the teaching of African-Americans was drug into a pond by a group of local whites. Blacks, horribly mistreated had virtually no legal rights, and could not even testify against a white person in court. This meant that no matter how brutally a slave was beaten, he could not do a thing about it.

The “free” blacks had little freedom also, and were treated as a kind of “third race” in society. These people were essentially slaves still, only without a master. Secondly, African-Americans were hindered very much in the mental aspect. Blacks had no hope of social mobility in their country and recognized this. This, to many blacks became a degrading truth. They also felt deprived of their dignity and responsibility in the world. Knowing all of these depressing truths, many blacks esentially gave up and stopped putting so much effort into their role in society.

Thus began the stereotype of the “lazy” African-American, who did just enough to get by, or purposely destroyed machinery in hopes of dodging work. Treatment of blacks within the family varied, some blacks in the upper South were treated as family while blacks in the deep South were whipped and branded on a regular basis. Lastly, the most apparent type of abuse that the African-Americans had to deal with was the physical abuse. Blacks toiled in the fields of cotton from dusk to dawn during their long work days.

Masters were allowed to punish their slaves as they pleased, allowing them to whip their slaves if they weren’t pleased with their effort. The Government offered no real type of protection to slaves due to the law that forbidded any African-American to testify against a white in court. Even African-Americans that were finally free had to fear that they may be recaptured at any moment, and they could do nothnig about it. In the North, blacks were definitely a rare race. The blacks that were seen were discriminated against significantly, some blacks weren’t even allowed entrance to certain states!

In conclusion, African-Americans were placed at the pit of society throughout the 19th century. They had virtually no rights, and were worked tirelessly for a lifetime. African-Americans were not only exhausted by physical work, but they were also beaten in the mental and social aspects. Blacks almost always kept hope, and used the idea of being a free black as motivation, though this third race didn’t have such a well-off life either. Slavery affected the lives of African-Americans in the South and the North by hindering them socially, mentally, and physically.

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Imperialism in Africa and India

Section 1: A Scramble For Africa • European nations needed to fuel industrial production • Competed for new markets for goods and took huge interest in Africa • Imperialism- Seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country o Occurred throughout most of Africa o Europe came in and dominated • Mid 1800’s Africans divided into ethnic and linguistic groups • Some converted to Islam and Christianity • Most kept traditions and religion For 400 years African army able to keep Europeans out • Until late 1800’s Europe only dominated coast of Africa • Couldn’t navigate rivers • Disease also kept them out • Specialized trade networks • Introduction of steam powered river boats allowed Europeans to dominate more of Africa’s interior • Those who did get in were against slave trade • People learned about Africa through their publications The Congo Sparks Interest: • Dr. David Livingstone traveled with group of Africans into deep Africa to promote Christianity • Several years past and people thought he was dead Henry Stanley went to find him and succeeded • Stanley wanted to trace course of Congo River • In 1879 and 1882 Stanley signed treaties with local chiefs of the Congo River Valley • Gave King Leopold II of Belgium control of these lands • Leopold II claimed wanted to abolish slave trade and promote Christianity • Brutally exploited Africans by forcing them to collect sap from rubber plants • About 10 million Africans died due to abuse In 1908 Belgian govt. took control of Congo away from king • Congo 80x larger than Belgium • This alarmed France because they had signed treated that gave them control of north bank of Congo • Soon More European and Latin American countries began to claim parts of Africa Forces Driving Imperialism • Industrial Revolution drove European countries to obtain more land • European countries searched for more markets Europeans viewed themselves as the greatest nation and race • Racism- the belief that one race is superior to others • Social Darwinism- theory that those who were fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were superior to others • Non-Europeans on lower scale of cultural and physical development because didn’t make technological progress • Europeans thought was their job to bring advancements to other countries • European missionaries sought to convert lands to Christianity • Hoped Christianity would bring end to evil practices like slave trade • Also wanted to civilize lands

Factors promoting Imperialism in Africa: • European’s technological superiority • Europeans had guns • Europeans had steam engines that allowed them to control deep Africa • Europeans had railroads, cables, and steamships that allowed them to communicate within colony and to controlling nation • Drug quinine prevented Europeans from catching diseases • Africa wasn’t unified due to diversity and wars fought between different ethnic groups Divison of Africa: • Discoveries of diamonds and gold in south Africa increased European’s interest in conquering Africa • All European countries became part of race

Berlin conference divides Africa: • Berlin Conference- 14 European nations who met to lay down rules for the division of Africa • Competition between European countries • Any country could conquer land but had to notify other European countries • How Africans felt about it wasn’t a factor • Didn’t pay attention to how ethnic and linguistic groups in Africa were distributed • By 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia were free from European control Demand for Raw Materials Shapes Colonies: • During colonization Europeans believed Africans would buy their goods • Only few Africans did this Businesses still needed raw materials • Greatest wealth obtained from Africa was large mineral sources • Congo contained copper and tin • This nothing compared to diamonds and gold in south Africa • Developed cash crop: peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber • Replaced food crops needed by farmers to feed families Three Groups Clash over South Africa: • Zulu chief, Shaka used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create large centralized state • Shaka’s successors unable to keep control • Zulu nation eventually fell to British control

Boers and British Settle in the Cape: • Boers- Dutch settlers (Boer=farmer in Dutch) who took African’s land and established large farms • When British took control of Cape Colony there was clash over British policy of slaves and land • Boers moved north in Great Trek to escape from British • Started fighting fiercely with Zulu and other African groups whose land was getting taken • When Diamonds and gold found in south Africa Boers tried to keep outsiders from gaining political rights • British tried to rebel against Boers and failed Boers rose against British in Boer war • The war was brutal (no mercy) • Many black southern Africans also participated • Many were captured and put in British concentration camps • Britain won war • Europeans made efforts to change political, social and economic lives of people they conquered Section 2: Imperialism: • Imperialism of 18th and 19th century different than previous imperialism • Europeans demanded more influence over all aspects of African lives • Determined to shape economies to help benefit European economies • Wanted people to adopt European customs

Forms of Control: • 4 types: o Colony- a country or territory governed internally by a foreign power o Protectorate- A country or territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power o Sphere of influence- an area in which and outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges o Economic imperialism- an independent but less developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other govts. • Also had direct and indirect control • Britain and U. S. preferred indirect France and most other European nations preferred direct • Indirect control: o Relied on existing political rulers o Rulers adopted British Authority o Rulers handled much of daily management of colony o Each colony had legislative council: ? Colonial officials ? Local merchants ? Professionals ? Colonial governor • Direct Control: • French and other European didn’t think Africans could run country • Paternalism- the idea that the people in authority restrict freedoms to their subordinates for the subordinates’ good • Gave them needs but not rights Europeans brought in own bureaucrats • Didn’t train Africans in European methods of govt. • Assimilation- the idea that the local population would adopt the superior culture in order to become more like them • Africans adopted French culture • All schools, courts, and businesses patterned after French institutions • In practice idea of assimilation abandoned • French resided to indirect control • Recognized African culture but saw it as inferior |Indirect Control |Direct control | |Local govt. fficials used: |Foreign officials brought in to rule | |Limited self-rule |No self rule | |Goal: to develop future leaders |Goal: assimilation | |Govt. institutions based on European styles but may have |Govt. institutions are based only on European styles | |local rules | |

A British Colony: • Britain gained control of southern Nigeria • Some local rulers agreed to sign treaties of protection and accept British residents • Others opposed intervention and rebelled against it • British defeated rebellions • Royal Niger Comp. gained control of palm oil trade over Niger River Delta • In 1914 British claimed entire Nigeria as colony Managing the Colony: • Nigeria culturally diverse • Three main groups were: o Hausa-Fulani: ? Muslim ? Had strong central govt. o Yoruba Followed traditional religion ? Relied on chiefs for control o Igbo ? Same as Yoruba • Didn’t have enough British troops to govern such complex area • British resided to indirect control • Worked well with Hausa-Fulani but not with other two groups • Local chiefs of Yoruba and Igbo resented limited power African Resistance: • Africans resisted European attempts to colonize • But Europeans had more advanced weaponry • Therefore, Africans didn’t succeed in most cases Unsuccessful Movements: There was resistance and resistance through religious movements • Algeria’s almost 50 year resistance against France • West Africa’s Samori Toure’s 16 year resistance against France • African villagers resisted Germans in spiritual defense o Believed magic water would turn German’s bullets to water o 20 groups came together and fought against Germans o Fighters believed God and their ancestors would return to life and assist them o Over 75,000 Africans died o Twice that many Africans died in famine to follow o Germans shocked and passed some reforms

Ethiopia: A successful Resistance • Only African nation that successfully resisted Europeans • Menelik II- became emperor of Ethiopia in 1889 • Successfully played Italians, French, and British against each other • Built up large arsenal of modern weapons he purchased from Russia and France • Menelik II signed treaty with Italy while Italians were invading the country • Menelik II declared war in 1896 • Battle of Adowa was largest battle in history of Africa • Ethiopians won and kept independence Legacy of Colonial Rule: • Negative effects: Africans lost control of land and independence o Lost many people to disease and rebellion o Famine o Breakdown of traditional culture o Traditional authorities replaced o Homes and properties transferred o People lost jobs o Identity issues o Division of Africa o Unnaturally divided groups o No Unity • Positive Effects: o Local warfare reduced o Sanitation improved o Hospitals o Schools o Lifespans increased o Literacy increased o Economic expansion o Railroads, dams, telephone, telegraph lines built in Africa o However, this only really benefited the Europeans

Section 4: British Imperialism in India: • Area controlled by East India Company grew overtime • Both directly and indirectly governed southern India, Bangladesh, and territory along Ganges River in north • British govt. regulated East India company • Company ruled India without British interference until 19th century • Had own army with British officers • Sepoys- Indian soldiers • Army was dangerous because could easily turn against British Britain’s “Jewel in the Crown”: • Industrial revolution turned Britain into world’s workshop • India supplied Britain with many raw supplies India’s 3,000,000 people also large potential market for British made goods • India was “brightest jewel in crown” because it was the most valuable of all Britain’s colonies • British made restrictions that prevented Indian economy from operating on its own • Indians could only produce raw materials for Britain • Indians were not allowed to compete with Britain British Transport Trade Goods: • Railroad system built in India • India became more valuable • Most of raw materials transported included: o Tea o Indigo o Coffee o Cotton Jute o Opium • Sold trade opium for tea from China • Sold tea in England Impact of Colonialism: Negative impact on India: • British held most of economical and political power • British restricted Indian owned industries • Many villagers couldn’t be self sufficient due to emphasis on cash crop • Food production reduced • Famine • Racism • Forced conversion to Christianity Positive impact on India: • Had world’s third largest railroad system • Railroad system united brought modern economy that India • Sanitation and public health improved India modernized by railroads, telephones, telegraphs, dams, bridges, irrigation canals • Schools and collages founded • Literacy increased • Idea cleared of bandits • Local welfare amongst competing rulers The Sepoy Mutiny: • British controlled most of India • Believed British were trying to convert Indians to Christianity • There was so much racism • Nationalist idea emerged • The Indians decided to rebel • Gossip spread amongst sepoys that the cartridges of their new rifles were greased with beef and pork fat • To use cartridges Indians had to bite off ends Cows were sacred to them and Muslims didn’t eat pork so they were very angered • Soldiers who refused cartilages were imprisoned • Next day they rebelled • Sepoy Munity- rebellion of the Indian soldiers • Uprising spread from Delhi to much of northern India • British and sepoys tried to slaughter each others armies • Took company more than a year to regain control of country • Indians couldn’t unite against British due to weak leadership and conflict between Hindus and Muslims • Hindus preferred British rule over Muslim rule

Turning Point: • After munity Britain took direct control over India • Raj- British rule after India came under British crown during reign of Queen Victoria • To reward many princes who stayed loyal to company during munity, Britain promised to respect all treaties they had with them • Also promised that Indian states that were still free would remain independent • Regardless, British gained control of free states unofficially • Munity fueled racist attitudes of British Munity increased distrust between Indians and British • Hindus and Muslims felt they were being ruined under British rule Nationalism Surfaces in India: • In early 1800’s some Indians began demanding modernization • Ram Mohum Roy, a modern thinking, well educated Indian began campaign to move away from traditional Indian practices • Ram Mohum Roy believed that if practices weren’t changed India would continue to be controlled by outsiders • Ram Mohum Roy’s writings inspired other Indians to press for social reforms and adopt western ways • Nationalist feelings also began to surface in India Indians hated system that made them second class citizens in own country • Made much less money than British workers Nationalist groups form: • 2 nationalist groups formed: o Indian National Congress in 1885 o Muslim League in 1906 ? Focused on Indian’s concerns ? Wanted self government ? Divided in to Hindu and Muslim section ? Separation made it hard for them to unite in calling for independence ? In 1911 British regained control and divided them differently • Conflict over Indian control continued to develop between Indians and British Key Terms: Imperialism- Seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country • African goods: copper, tin, gold, diamonds, rubber, cocoa, palm oil, and peanuts • Racism- the belief that one race is superior to others • Social Darwinism- theory that those who were fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were superior to others • Berlin Conference- 14 European nations who met to lay down rules for the division of Africa • Shaka- was a Zulu chief used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create large centralized state in South Africa.

His successors weren’t as successful • Boers- Dutch settlers (Boer=farmer in Dutch) who took African’s land and established large farms • Boer War- War between British and Boers over land and minerals in which British won • Colony- a country or territory governed internally by a foreign power • Protectorate- A country or territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power • Sphere of influence- an area in which and outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges • Economic imperialism- an independent but less developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other govts. |Indirect Control |Direct control | |Local govt. officials used: Foreign officials brought in to rule | |Limited self-rule |No self rule | |Goal: to develop future leaders |Goal: assimilation | |Govt. institutions based on European styles but may have |Govt. institutions are based only on European styles | |local rules | | • India was “brightest jewel in crown” because it was the most valuable of all Britain’s colonies • Indian goods: Tea, Indigo, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, and Opium • Menelik II- became emperor of Ethiopia in 1889.

He was the only one who was successful at preventing his state (Ethiopia) from being conquered. • Sepoys- Indian soldiers • Sepoy Munity- rebellion of the Indian soldiers • Raj- British rule after India came under British crown during reign of Queen Victoria • Ram Mohum Roy- a modern thinking, well educated Indian began campaign to move away from traditional Indian practices and bring nationalism • Paternalism- the idea that the people in authority restrict freedoms to their subordinates for the subordinates’ good • Assimilation- the idea that the local population would adopt the superior culture in order to become more like them •