Categories
Free Essays

Critical Study of Alcohol and Hepatocytes Cell Necrosis

Introduction

The tissue shows vast inflammation, there are large gaps in between the hepatocytes due to cell necrosis and the hepatocytes remaining are large and swollen. There are fatty deposits throughout the tissue and fibrous structures present which are most likely collagen. The hepatocytes themselves are not only swollen but have the presence of globular material within. This is identified as Mallory bodies, seen in cases of alcoholic hepatitis. These globules are aggregates of intermediate filaments in the cytoplasm which have resulted from hepatocyte injury. Neutrophils can be seen in the sample which is the likely cause of inflammation. These would have been called to the tissue due to the necrosis of the hepatocytes and the presence of cellular debris within the lobules [1]. An infiltration of macrophages can be seen which would also be due to the debris present.

The first stage of alcoholic liver disease is the increase of fatty deposits in the liver. Heavy alcohol consumption causes the production of large fatty globules a process known as macrovesicular steatosis collecting in the liver cells. Ethanol consumed is metabolised by alcohol dehydrase in the mitochondria into toxic acetaldehyde which is metabolised by aldehyde dehydrogenase into acetic acid [1][2][3]. The production of acetaldehyde causes a higher NADH: NAD ratio which is the main mechanism in the development of this condition. This NADH production causes increase in lipogenesis and a decrease in fatty acid oxidation. The higher levels of fatty acids signal the hepatocytes to compound glycerol into triglycerides [3]. This is seen in the first stage of liver damage known as alcoholic hepatitis [2]. Excess alcohol intake can also cause hepatocyte injury via oxidative stress from increased NADH production in which free radicals damage the hepatocytes (increased production by the kupffer cells); and from lipid peroxidation where acetylhyde binds to proteins forming adducts [1]. This binding triggers humoral and cellular immune responses resulting in tissue injury. There is an increase in pro inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor and interleukin -6 and a decrease in anti inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin -4 [1]. These cytokines in particularly TNF are secreted by the kupffer cells (macrophages) located in the liver. They’re activated by the increased levels of endotoxin released from the breakdown of alcohol by intestinal bacteria; this binds to the CD14 receptor on their surface initiating response. The release of these cytokines leads to the hepatic stellate cells producing increased levels of collagen which leads to liver fibrosis and also causes destructive damage to the hepatocytes. This leads to the last stage of liver disease known as cirrhosis which can occur in prolonged alcoholic hepatitis, seen in 40% of cases [1][4].

Individuals suffering with alcoholic hepatitis have an increase in serum bilirubin due to the inability of the damaged liver to process it. Bilirubin is normally removed from the blood by the liver, processed by it and released into the bile [4][5]. They’ll also have prolonged prothrombin time which reflects decreased hepatic synthetic function [4][5]. A number of clotting factor proteins are produced in the liver so an increase in coagulation time suggests a decrease in these factors indicating dysfunction of the liver. Decreased serum albumin can be observed in cases of liver injury as this is the main protein produced in the liver. Thyroid tests can indicate liver dysfunction such as testing for T3- triiodothrynonine which appears decreased in individuals with alcoholic hepatitis and is proportional to the level of damage[6][4]. There is also a decrease in serum cholesterol level seen in this condition.

In cases where excessive alcohol consumption is not the cause of hepatitis further testing should be done. Individuals can develop hepatitis due to drug use as currently 1000 drugs are seen to be hepatotoxic [7]. There must be a chronic correlation seen between when the medicine was first taken and the observation of hepatitis. There must also be a correlation between the removal of medication and the recession of the condition [4].

Other causes of hepatitis must also be tested for such as viral hepatitis. There are 5 subsets of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and the less common D and E forms. Hepatitis A is the most common form and is passed on by the faecal– oral route. It’s tested for by the presence of the anti-HAV IgM antibody which tests positive before the development of clinical hepatitis and remains positive for at least 4months. Hepatitis B is tested for by the presence of surface antigen HBsAg. Anti HBC total and Anti – HBC IgM is also tested for. A soluble protein HBeAg is produced by the virus in acute and early chronic stages of hepatitis B so positivity of this indicates infection. Hepatitis C infection has the presentation of Anti-HCV seen in 90% of individuals with this infection [7].

The possibility of autoimmune hepatitis can be ruled out by testing of HLA class II expression on the surface of the hepatocytes. There is also an increase seen in IgG antibody and a variety of other antibodies such as SLA/LP (anti soluble liver protein) [8].

References

[1] Hopkins. J. Alcoholic liver disease – Introduction, gastroenterology and hepatology. Baltimore M.D 2010

[2] www.britishlivertrust.org . Accessed 28.11.10

[3 ]Drriad. Pathogenesis of hepatitis infection from chronic alcoholism, Figure 1. 2007

[4] www.hepatitis.org. Phillipe.L, Hepatogastroenterology department, Brugmann University Hospital Brussells Accessed 28.11.10

[5]http://www.gastro.com/Gastro/liverdisease/liver_function.aspx, Gardner. P.W and Waldstreicher.W, American Liver Foundation 1995 Accessed 28.11.10

[6] Borzio. M et al, Thyroid function tests in chronic liver disease: evidence for multiple abnormalities despite clinical euthyroidism. GUT Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, Vol 24(7), Jul 1983. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1420033/. Accessed 28/11/10

[7] http://www.oaml.com/PDF/CLP012.pdf. Guidelines for clinical laboratory practice, revised March 2000, Accessed 28.11.10

[8]Krawitt. E.L Autoimmune hepatitis: classification, heterogeneity, and treatment, January 1994. Am. J. Med. Vol 96 (1A): 23S–26S.

Categories
Free Essays

Under the Influence: the role of alcohol in culture

Introduction

Drinking alcoholic beverages existed as early as the Stone Age era, and there it remarkably spread across the globe from the ancient pyramids of Egypt to the popular Silk Road of China. This cultural tradition begun only for the sole purpose of religious rituals based upon sociological and geographical conditions of the empire; but now, it has spread to where ignorant humans would never imagine possible. Consuming alcoholic beverages has made a vast transition and now it is merely seen as a jubilant event for excitement. Drinking has commenced its aim on the immature youth with the assistance of modern-day media and influential pop culture. This admired custom developed into the latest social trend that can only disperse to more innocent peers. Juvenile drinking should not be kept active and is in an immense need of an immediate stop. The dangers of drinking are taken carelessly when they should be taken into cautious consideration. Juvenile drinkers do not believe the seriousness of this crisis. Drinking severely clouds human judgment and therefore humans have the natural outcome to perform poor decisions that can become regrettable, since mature drinking is beginning to target the adolescent youth, alcoholic advertisement must be banned and juvenile drinking laws should become strictly enforced with consequential punishment.

The advertisement of alcohol is growing seemingly toward the audience of innocent minors. This universal advertising can only lead to a heavy youth exposure. Advertisements of merchandise is made for the purposes of increasing sales and revenue and to strike the audience to become interested in the product shown. The extent of alcohol marketing comes from all directions to target the youth, such as on common television, everyday magazines, ordinary in-store beer displays, local billboards , standard beer promotional items or branded merchandise, etc. If these advertisements are coming from all directions then the youth is bound to eventually give in and become a drinker. One of the biggest brand of beer is Bud Light and, with their sport beer commercials, they capture the audience of minors based upon their slogan “A sure sign of a good time” and “Here we go” Alcoholic beverages are displayed on television as an important aspect for an enjoyable time and these advertisements only accelerates the youth to start drinking. Young people are more likely to start drinking than smoking cigarettes or using illegal drugs, therefore the earlier teenagers begin to drink, the chances of becoming more dependent on alcohol later in life are at a greater risk (Jernigan 3). Drinking comes with a mature sense of responsibility and an understanding of the effects of consuming alcohol. Heavy advertisement only increases the chances of a person drinking before the age of twenty one, thus depicting advertisement as the initial spark that encourages the adolescent youth to drink without understanding the important consequences. A 2001 to 2007 poll was taken, by the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, stating youth ages twelve to twenty were twenty two times more likely to see the product shown in the advertisement than the industry-funded “Drink Responsibly” message (Jernigan 5). The “Drinking Responsibly” message is spotted at the end of the commercial just seconds before ending; it fails to deliver its purpose to prevent audiences from drinking alcoholic beverages because the audience sees the exaggerated product and ignores this pointless, pathetic message.

If the banishment of alcohol advertisement cannot be met then the only choice is to regulate beer and liquor advertisement for the benefit of alcohol education. Alcohol is the leading drug problem among the youth therefore the ads should be regulated in a public manner because the people have a long lasting tradition of regulating drug ads to protect and secure the public interest (Leo 2). The public can regulate the advertisement of beer commercials to display at certain scheduled times, such as 1:00 AM- 6:00 AM or anti-alcohol organizations can develop more commercials about the consequences of alcohol like drinking and driving and health problems. This could be beneficial to the community because, if more realistic visuals was displayed on national television, it could maybe strike the youth how drinking is a responsible privilege that should not be taken casually (Lowe 1). Alcohol advertisement gives a negative outcome toward the youth by increasing their chances to become more dependent on alcoholic beverages, therefore alcohol advertisement should be banned, but if not then it should be at least regulated with better commercials that will intimidate the youth to wait for the right age and become aware of the outcomes of drinking.

The minimum age ,21, drinking law is enforced inadequately and should be reenforced strictly. Only two get arrested out of every thousand occasions where a minor has violated illegal drinking under the age of 21 and then in every 100,000 juvenile drinking occasions 5 result in an administrative action against an alcohol outlet (Wagenaar). With the arrest at hand the punishment for underage drinking should be increased by the violators and with this an effective administrative system to rule the penalties. As the community, the public interest should reduce the alcoholic accessibility how the youth is able to obtain alcoholic beverages so therefore there can be a less probability of alcohol-related occasions. By an increase in the juvenile drinking laws prohibiting the sales or provisions of selling alcoholic beverages to the youth and consumption and prohobition of the minor, resource limits the quantity a business could sell and other barriers to make an increase in the arrest rates for minors in the possession of alcohol (Wagenaar). The community can stop the valuable lives being thrown away for a can of alcohol and stop the ignorance of the youth by just preventing the alcohol accessibility being sold over the counter where it is taken advantage of by the minors.

The most important component of juvenile drinking is to contain and reduce the audience of minors. The public can follow through with the demands of the strict law enforcement and effectively support anti-juvenile drinking by striking the youth at a young age, therefore it will give them the opportunity to learn how to drink carefully and responsibly. This obtainable goal can be met with police outreach organizations, a better drinking awareness program, and with the aid of parent and community guidance the young minors can learn how to drink responsibly with knowing the consequences of their actions as well as the dangers of illegal abuse (DiMatteo). After the community can invite the well-informed youth to training sessions that offer information about the health issues related to alcohol and penalties of alcohol. The guidance counselors need to be motivational to, “Teach, and Not Preach,” this causes the young adults to be treated fairly and equally like adults, thus showing how much the youth want to do the right thing and shown in the right direction (DiMatteo). This will cause a chain reaction for all of the youth to become unified and respond to each lesson learned according to their own special gifts. The local police can play a significant role by assigning one local officer to juvenile drinking, therefore a reduction in minor drinking will occur. Law enforcement agencies often receive a lack of support from their local communities and from their own departments; for a successful effort to reduce the audience of influenced drinkers and enforcing the minimum drinking age, a political will of the public will determine to take a meaningful stand against juvenile drinking.

Reference

David Jernigan. “Children Are Overexposed to Alcohol Advertising.” Opposing Viewpoints: Advertising. Ed. Roman Espejo. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Cypress Falls High School. 24 Mar. 2011 .

Leiber, Laurie. “Alcoholic Beverage Advertising Should Be Restricted.” Contemporary Issues Companion: Teen Alcoholism. Ed. Laura K. Egendorf. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2001. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Cypress Falls High School. 24 Mar. 2011 .

Leo, John. “Television Liquor Ads May Promote Underage Drinking.” Opposing Viewpoints: Alcohol. Ed. Scott Barbour. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1998. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Cypress Falls High School. 24 Mar. 2011 .

Lowe, Paul. “Perhaps Madam Would Prefer Something Less Robust.” Alcohol Cartoons and Comics. 27 March 2011 .

National Clearinghouse For Alcohol And Drug Information. “Teenage Drinking Can Lead to Automobile Accidents.” Contemporary Issues Companion: Teen Alcoholism. Ed. Laura K. Egendorf. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2001. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Cypress Falls High School. 24 Mar. 2011 .

Ralph DiMatteo. “Education And Police And Community Support Are Necessary.”At Issue: Should the Legal Drinking Age Be Lowered?. Ed. Stefan Kiesbye.Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Cypress Falls High School. 27 Mar. 2011 .

Services, U.S. Department Of Health And Human. “Underage Drinking Is a Serious Problem.” Opposing Viewpoints: Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Cypress Falls High School. 24 Mar. 2011 .

Wagenaar, Alexander C, and Mark Wolfson. “Minimum Drinking-Age Laws Should Be Strongly Enforced.” Opposing Viewpoints: Alcohol. Ed. Scott Barbour. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1998. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Cypress Falls High School. 24 Mar. 2011 .

Categories
Free Essays

The Ways in Which Global Marketing Campaigns can Best Address Culturally Specific Ethical Differences Between Nations. A Qualitative Study Amongst Marketing Managers Involved in Promoting Alcohol and Cigarette Products.

Introduction

The following sets out the structure of a proposed dissertation. The dissertation focuses upon a multinational alcoholic beverage company which markets internationally to several culturally distinct nations. Different cultures hold vastly different views about a wide range of topics, and these different views need to be taken into account in any successful marketing campaign (Herbig 1998). Some products are particularly sensitive. The consumption of alcohol, for example, is frowned upon in many cultures (Cushman et al 2005), which poses challenges for global marketing campaigns. However, issues in global marketing are not confined to prohibitions against alcohol, but embrace other areas including different attitudes to business ethics, sense of community and cultural values (Gillespie et al 2010).

The increasing push towards globalisation means there is a continuing need to understand precisely how cultural differences affect the market place, consumer demand and attitudes towards alcohol. To aid this understanding, the dissertation will investigate whether there are culturally specific differences in marketing products in an European country such as the UK, compared with India, an Asian country, and how any differences can best be addressed within global marketing campaigns. A primary study gathering qualitative information from one major global alcohol brand will be included. This introduction section sets out the area of investigation, the objectives of the research, and the background to the organisation studied.

1.1 Background to Problem, Definitions, Why Chosen Area

Easier transport around the world, better communication technologies and changes to political climates all mean that there is an increasing need for organisations to compete on a worldwide stage (Doole and Lowe 2008). However, marketing products to an international group of buyers is not a matter of simply scaling up techniques which have been successful at home. While globalisation has meant that culture is increasingly homogenous (Martell 2010), there are still widespread differences in people’s attitudes, actions and ways of life around the globe. Hofstede, for example, carried out some highly influential research analysing different cultural types and offering a framework within which different nations can be understood. His notion of ‘cultural dimensions’ suggested several ways in which attitudes can differ from country to country, for example attitudes to power and degree of individualism (Luger 2009). Such differences can make the task of making a product attractive trans-globally very difficult.Some emerging markets including Brazil and China offer opportunities for increasing the sales of alcohol products (Babor 2010), however other countries pose more of a challenge. Pittman (1964) suggested four ways in which cultures relate to alcohol, outright prohibition, for example Muslim countries, ambivalent cultures where different attitudes to alcohol from the negative to the accepting are present, permissive cultures, which tolerates alcohol consumption, and overly permissive cultures, where consumption is encouraged. India seems to display a mix of attitudes to alcohol (Heath 1995), which makes the challenges of marketing to this culture particularly intense. In addition, the Indian market is unique. Hailed as one of the quickest growing markets for alcohol in the world by the late 90’s, growth potential is calculated at 10% with a large population and an expanding middle class. However, spirits are most popular, taking nearly ? of the market (predominantly whiskey), rather than beer or wine. Additionally, Indian brands are more attractive to the consumer than multi-national ones (Thottam and Hannon 2009). India is the second fastest growing market for alcohol after China, and the growth rate may be as high as 15% (Business Wire 2011 [online])Given that the market is growing so rapidly, and given the unusual cultural preferences and product choices, it seems appropriate to assess the best ways of approaching marketing here.

1.2 Investigation’s Objectives

The objectives of this dissertation are, in the light of the above, as follows:

To investigate the nature of the Indian market for alcohol
To understand how cultural differences impact upon this market
To compare marketing techniques used in the UK for alcohol products with those in India
To assess whether marketing approaches suitable for the UK market are transferable to the Indian situation
To find out the best approach a global marketing campaign can take to the specifics of the Indian situation.

1.3 Background to Organisation

The dissertation focuses upon Heineken. Heineken promote themselves on the web pages devoted to their organisation as “the world’s most international brewer” (Heineken.com 2012 [online]).They divide their territories into Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, Africa and the Middle East, The Americas, and Asia Pacific. As of 2010, Western Europe is the biggest beer consumer, with Asia Pacific the smallest. The largest part of the Asia Pacific operation is based in Singapore, and is run jointly with Fraser and Neave / Asia Parcific Breweries (APB). In India, Heineken own just over 1/3 of United Breweries Ltd and a 50% share in Millennium Alcobev with UBL, the Indian Market leader. They also import Heineken. In 2011, this brand was launched as a super-premium lager aimed at discerning drinkers, brewed and bottled locally, near Mumbai.The beer was not only brewed locally but packaged in a way designed to appeal to the local market. A full marketing plan, targeting the “affluent, sophisticated and discerning consumers in India” was launched (indianinfoonline.com 2011 [online]).

2. Literature Review

This section will first expand on relevant theoretical models, before turning to recent empirical research studies.

Hofstede’s work will provide a framework for understanding cultural differences between nations. His five factor analysis of ‘cultural dimensions’ has proved useful since he developed it in 1981. These dimensions include ‘power distance’: the extent to which people accept the unequal distribution of power, ‘uncertainty avoidance’: the extent to which people are happy with uncertainty, individualism / collectivism: whether the society celebrates individual successes or the group, ‘masculinity/femininity’, and orientation towards the long-term. India and the UK score very differently for Hofstede’s dimensions. India, for example, scores highly on power distance, and lower for individualism (geert-hofstede.com 2012 [online]).

There have been numerous empirical studies over the last 5-10 years looking at cultural differences in international marketing, and global alcohol marketing. From the wider perspective, there has been a reaction against the idea that globalization means one strategy fits all, and a growing acceptance of the role of local culture (Hollis 2010). Some commentators have carried out case studies to illustrate this, for example Parson’s (2009) examination of the accounting firm Deloitte’s ‘flexible marketing concept’ (Parsons 2009, p. 9). There have also been a number of empirical research studies looking at this area. Foscht et al (2008) explicitly used Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions to assess the ways in which these differences impact on perceptions of brands. They found that an identical brand was ‘read’ very differently from culture to culture, irrespective of brand positioning. They also recommend the need to take cultural differences into account when thinking about product marketing. Sinton (2009) looks explicitly at the Asian case (although restricts his study to the digital market), and also argues that there is a need to understand the specifics of the Asian culture for marketing.He interviewed 6000 consumers, and found evidence of a need to be aware of what makes the culture ‘Asian’. Others offer a wider perspective. Paliwoda and Slater (2009) look at theoretical issues surrounding global marketing, suggesting that globalisation overall should be seen as “A set of processes, rather than just one” (Paliwode and Slater 2009, p. 373), but also that sales have a regional, rather than a global focus.

There have also been a number of studies of the issues involved in marketing and doing business in India specifically. Some look at the effectiveness of different marketing methods, for example Bidya and Maity’s (2010) study of the effectiveness of integrated marketing communications. Kaur and Sharma (2009) take a theoretical perspective, looking at the ways in which marketing in India has involved from a “barter system to a customer centric one”, and has only recently come to embraced notions of quality and the sales process. This has meant that customer satisfaction is especially important in the Indian market. Banerjee (2008) carries out a detailed analysis of the implications of Indian culture and the most central values for marketing in the country. He suggests that there is a pressing need to take what is unique about Indian culture into account when making marketing decisions.

Others have looked at the issues involved with marketing alcohol and similar products. Walker et al (2005) look at the issues involved in advertising “controversial products” in 4 different countries including the UK and Malaysia. They found, analysing the results of participant exposure to advertising, that countries with a higher population of Muslims had significantly different responses to countries where the percentage of the population was lower. Again, the need to be aware of country-specific differences was stressed. Pettigrew and Charters (2010) look at Alcohol consumption in Hong Kong, which sheds some light on Asian attitudes to alcohol, offering some general insight about the differences with Western culture, particularly their idea that drinkers in Hong Kong have “internalised” messages about drinking, and these internal ideas influence subsequent decisions about drinking. In general, however, there is less available research looking at the problems of marketing alcohol globally, and a particular lack of investigations looking at the Indian case. This underlines the need for this study.

3. Methodology

3.1 Methodology of Project

The proposed project takes the form of a qualitative study examining different marketing styles and responses to cultural differences amongst marketing professionals within one global alcoholic beverage firm (Heineken). The aim is to uncover the problems faced by marketing departments when trying to work multinationally, look at the extent to which these problems are a function of cultural differences, and examine the attempts made to overcome these.

It is proposed to carry out qualitative research, rather than conduct a quantitative study. Quantitative studies collect numerical data, and typically large volumes of such data. The emphasis is upon scientific method and proving or disproving rigid hypotheses through statistically significant testing. By contrast, qualitative techniques concentrate upon textual responses, and the richness of experience of subjects included. Conclusions are developed as the study progresses and research is shaped by broad ideas rather than tightly defined hypotheses (Babbie 2010). It is felt in this case that although there is a lack of studies of both qualitative and quantitative types looking at global marketing of alcohol in India, a qualitative approach will provide a useful insight into the details of how industry professionals view culture and marketing within their work. The notion of culture and the impact it makes upon marketing decisions is a complex one, and it is also felt that a qualitative approach is better able to capture this complexity.

The agreement of Heineken has been confirmed in principle, following an initial contact to the UK Human Resources department. This contact took the form of a 15 minute phonecall to a senior HR manager. During this, it was agreed that two marketing managers, one based in the UK but with responsibilities for marketing in Asia (including India), and the other based with the Asian division of the company. Both will be interviewed over the telephone, or using Skype.

The interviews will be semi-structured in form. Semi-structured interviews offer both flexibility and guidance for interviewer and researcher. Unlike fully-structured interviews, they allow an exploration of the range of thoughts of the respondent, as there is only a general guidance on subject. However, they support a number of broad topics for discussion, unlike unstructured interviews, and are hence useful for the inexperienced researcher (Grinnell and Unrau, 2008). The questionnaires will therefore include a number (six to 10) of open-ended questions, for example “what cultural differences do you perceive between India and UK in terms of the market for your products”. They will cover the areas outlined in the research objectives above, and include experience of global marketing, responses to cultural differences in the two markets, problems generated by these differences for marketing, and solutions to the problems.The researcher will use techniques of probing and related strategies (Daymon and Holloway 2010) (asking, for example “anything else” when a respondent finishes speaking, or asking respondent to elaborate upon statements they have made) to make sure that as much information as possible is collected.The interviews will be tape recorded, and this transcribed. The resulting text will be analysed and coded for key, emerging themes, read and re-read to pick out frequently mentioned categories and within these, sub-categories (Sapsford and Jupp 2006).

3.2 Access

Initial access was gained by personal contact. The researcher has a friend who works in the marketing department of Heineken, who acted as an intermediary between researcher and HR. Subsequently, access to research subjects was carried out through the HR manager.

3.3 Sampling

Two respondents will be interviewed at length. One will be located in the UK, the other in Asia. Both will have considerable dealings with marketing in the Indian market. It will be necessary to ensure that the respondents selected have the correct experience of both UK and Asian market, and that this experience is sufficiently adequate in length, but also that they are, as far as possible, representative of the organisation and the industry in general.

3.4 Data Evaluation

The interviews will be tape recorded, and this transcribed. The resulting text will be analysed and coded for key, emerging themes, read and re-read to pick out frequently mentioned categories and within these, sub-categories (Sapsford and Jupp 2006). When the analysis of key themes is complete, the results will be assessed to see to what extent they support the general hypotheses of the study, and what light they throw on the research objectives.

3.5 Research Questions

As this study is primarily qualitative, it is thought appropriate to offer research questions to prompt investigation, rather than hypotheses to be proved or disproved by the data. The research questions are as follows:

What is the nature of the Indian market for alcohol, and how does it differ from the UK market
How do cultural dimensions specific to India impact upon this market
What marketing techniques are used in IndiaHow do these compare to those used in the UK
What problems arise due to cultural differences between India and elsewhere
To what extent are UK techniques for marketing transferable
What is the best approach for a global marketing campaign in order to adapt to the specifics of the Indian situation.

4. Conclusion

The proposal above has set out details of a research study looking at the extent to which cultural differences between India and the UK (as well as between India and elsewhere) impact upon global marketing for an alcohol brand (Heineken). The study will include a literature review, and incorporate a qualitative examination of the views of two marketing managers, one based in the UK, one in Asia. Above the aims and rationale of the study were set out, an overview of the area to be covered by the literature review explained, and the methodology discussed.

7. References

Babbie, E R (2010) The Practice of Social Research (12th edn.), Cengage Learning, Belmont CA

Babor, T (2010) Alcohol: no ordinary commodity : research and public policy (2nd edn), Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Baidya, M and Maity, B (2010) ‘Effectiveness of integrated marketing communications: Empirical analysis of two brands in India’, Journal of Indian Business Research, 2:1,23-31.

Banerjee, S (2008)‘Dimensions of Indian culture, core cultural values and marketing implications: An analysis’, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal Volume, 15:4, 367-378

Business Wire (2011) ‘Research and Markets: Alcohol Market in India 2011’, [online] (cited 2nd February 2012) available from http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20110829005102/en/Research-Markets-Alcohol-Market-India-2011–

Cushman, G, Veal, A J and Zuzanek, J (2005) Free time and leisure participation: international perspectives, CABI Publishing Series, UK

Daymon, C and Holloway, I (2010) Qualitative Research Methods in Public Relations and Marketing Communications (2nd edn), Taylor & Francis, Abingdon, Oxon.

Doole, I and Lowe, R (2008) International marketing strategy: analysis, development and implementation (5th edn), Cengage Learning EMEA, London.

Foscht, T, Maloles, C, Swoboda, B, Morschett, D and Sinha, I (2008) ‘The impact of culture on brand perceptions: a six-nation study’, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 17:3, 131 – 142

Geert-hofstede.com (2012) ‘India’ [online] (cited 31st January 2012) available from http://geert-hofstede.com/india.html

Gillespie, K, Jeannet, J-P and Hennessey, D (2010) Global Marketing (3rd edn), Cengage Learning, Belmont CA.

Grinnell, R M and Unrau, Y A (2008) Social work research and evaluation: foundations of evidence-based practice (8th edn), Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Heath, D B (1995) International handbook on alcohol and culture, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport CT

Herbig, P A (1998) Handbook of cross-cultural marketing, Routledge, London

Hofstede, G H (1981) Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations, Sage Publications (reprint 2001), Thousand Oaks, CA

Hollis, N (2010) ‘Globalization Does Not Imply Homogenization’, Marketing News, 44:11, 8

Indiainfoonline.com (2011) ‘United Breweries launches Heineken in India’, [online] (cited 1st February 2012) available from http://www.indiainfoline.com/Markets/News/United-Breweries-launches-Heineken-in-India/5249684979

Kaur, G and Sharma, R D (2009) ‘Voyage of marketing thought from a barter system to a customer centric one’, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 27:5,

Luger, E (2009) Hofsteede’s Cultural Dimensions, GRIN Verlag, Netherlands.

Martell, L (2010) The Sociology of Globalization, Polity,Bristol.

Paliwoda, S J and Slater, S (2009) ‘Globalisation through the kaleidoscope’, International Marketing Review, 26:4/5, 373 – 383

Parsons, R (2009) ‘Deloitte goes global with flexible marketing concept’, Marketing Week, 32:32, 9

Pettigrew, S and Charters, S (2010) ‘Alcohol consumption motivations and behaviours in Hong Kong’,Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 22:2

Sapsford, R and Jupp, V (2006) Data collection and analysis (2nd edn), SAGE, Thousand Oaks, CA

Sinton, J (2009) ‘Cultural knowledge is the key to unlocking diverse digital markets’, Strategic Direction, 25:8, 14-16.

Thottam, J and Hannon, E (2009) ‘Tapping into India’s Growing Alcohol Market’, Time, Wednes December 23rd.

Waller, D S, Fam, K-S and Erdogan, B Z (2005) ‘Advertising of controversial products:a cross-cultural study’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22:1, 6 – 13

Categories
Free Essays

The Ways in Which Global Marketing Campaigns can Best Address Culturally Specific Ethical Differences Between Nations. A Qualitative Study Amongst Marketing Managers Involved in Promoting Alcohol and Cigarette Products.

Executive Summary

The following sets out a proposal for a research study looking at the global marketing of alcohol. Although globalisation has led to some homogenisation of attitudes, there still exist widespread differences between nations. Cultural differences have been theorised by a number of researchers including Hofstede, and have been shown to have considerable impact upon consumer behaviour and attitudes towards products. Alcohol is a particularly sensitive product, with its consumption frowned upon in many cultures. However, developing countries are emerging as large markets for alcoholic products, with India experiencing demand in growth estimated as up to 15% per annum.It is therefore useful to look at the differences between markets such as India and more traditional markets for alcohol products, to assess the extent to which cultural differences impact upon marketing practice, and to see what approaches work best. In this context, this proposal suggests a primary study looking in depth at the attitudes of two marketing managers for a large multi-national alcoholic beverages corporation. One manager is based in the UK, the other in India. The proposal sets out the structure of the research, looking at conceptual models about cultural differences and recent (post 2008) studies in the area. It also lays out the methodology to be used to collect and analyse data. The data will be qualitative in nature, looking in detail at the experiences of both managers in regards to marketing across cultures.

1. Introduction

The following sets out the structure of a proposed dissertation. The dissertation focuses upon a multinational alcoholic beverage company which markets internationally to several culturally distinct nations. Different cultures hold vastly different views about a wide range of topics, and these different views need to be taken into account in any successful marketing campaign (Herbig 1998). Some products are particularly sensitive. The consumption of alcohol, for example, is frowned upon in many cultures (Cushman et al 2005), which poses challenges for global marketing campaigns. However, issues in global marketing are not confined to prohibitions against alcohol, but embrace other areas including different attitudes to business ethics, sense of community and cultural values (Gillespie et al 2010).

The increasing push towards globalisation means there is a continuing need to understand precisely how cultural differences affect the market place, consumer demand and attitudes towards alcohol. To aid this understanding, the dissertation will investigate whether there are culturally specific differences in marketing products in an European country such as the UK, compared with India, an Asian country, and how any differences can best be addressed within global marketing campaigns. A primary study gathering qualitative information from one major global alcohol brand will be included. This introduction section sets out the area of investigation, the objectives of the research, and the background to the organisation studied.

1.1 Background to Problem, Definitions, Why Chosen Area

Easier transport around the world, better communication technologies and changes to political climates all mean that there is an increasing need for organisations to compete on a worldwide stage (Doole and Lowe 2008). However, marketing products to an international group of buyers is not a matter of simply scaling up techniques which have been successful at home. While globalisation has meant that culture is increasingly homogenous (Martell 2010), there are still widespread differences in people’s attitudes, actions and ways of life around the globe. Hofstede, for example, carried out some highly influential research analysing different cultural types and offering a framework within which different nations can be understood. His notion of ‘cultural dimensions’ suggested several ways in which attitudes can differ from country to country, for example attitudes to power and degree of individualism (Luger 2009). Such differences can make the task of making a product attractive trans-globally very difficult.Some emerging markets including Brazil and China offer opportunities for increasing the sales of alcohol products (Babor 2010), however other countries pose more of a challenge. Pittman (1964) suggested four ways in which cultures relate to alcohol, outright prohibition, for example Muslim countries, ambivalent cultures where different attitudes to alcohol from the negative to the accepting are present, permissive cultures, which tolerates alcohol consumption, and overly permissive cultures, where consumption is encouraged. India seems to display a mix of attitudes to alcohol (Heath 1995), which makes the challenges of marketing to this culture particularly intense. In addition, the Indian market is unique. Hailed as one of the quickest growing markets for alcohol in the world by the late 90’s, growth potential is calculated at 10% with a large population and an expanding middle class. However, spirits are most popular, taking nearly ? of the market (predominantly whiskey), rather than beer or wine. Additionally, Indian brands are more attractive to the consumer than multi-national ones (Thottam and Hannon 2009). India is the second fastest growing market for alcohol after China, and the growth rate may be as high as 15% (Business Wire 2011 [online])Given that the market is growing so rapidly, and given the unusual cultural preferences and product choices, it seems appropriate to assess the best ways of approaching marketing here.

1.2 Investigation’s Objectives

The objectives of this dissertation are, in the light of the above, as follows:

To investigate the nature of the Indian market for alcohol
To understand how cultural differences impact upon this market
To compare marketing techniques used in the UK for alcohol products with those in India
To assess whether marketing approaches suitable for the UK market are transferable to the Indian situation
To find out the best approach a global marketing campaign can take to the specifics of the Indian situation.

1.3 Background to Organisation

The dissertation focuses upon Heineken. Heineken promote themselves on the web pages devoted to their organisation as “the world’s most international brewer” (Heineken.com 2012 [online]).They divide their territories into Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, Africa and the Middle East, The Americas, and Asia Pacific. As of 2010, Western Europe is the biggest beer consumer, with Asia Pacific the smallest. The largest part of the Asia Pacific operation is based in Singapore, and is run jointly with Fraser and Neave / Asia Parcific Breweries (APB). In India, Heineken own just over 1/3 of United Breweries Ltd and a 50% share in Millennium Alcobev with UBL, the Indian Market leader. They also import Heineken. In 2011, this brand was launched as a super-premium lager aimed at discerning drinkers, brewed and bottled locally, near Mumbai.The beer was not only brewed locally but packaged in a way designed to appeal to the local market. A full marketing plan, targeting the “affluent, sophisticated and discerning consumers in India” was launched (indianinfoonline.com 2011 [online]).

2. Literature Review

This section will first expand on relevant theoretical models, before turning to recent empirical research studies.

Hofstede’s work will provide a framework for understanding cultural differences between nations. His five factor analysis of ‘cultural dimensions’ has proved useful since he developed it in 1981. These dimensions include ‘power distance’: the extent to which people accept the unequal distribution of power, ‘uncertainty avoidance’: the extent to which people are happy with uncertainty, individualism / collectivism: whether the society celebrates individual successes or the group, ‘masculinity/femininity’, and orientation towards the long-term. India and the UK score very differently for Hofstede’s dimensions. India, for example, scores highly on power distance, and lower for individualism (geert-hofstede.com 2012 [online]).

There have been numerous empirical studies over the last 5-10 years looking at cultural differences in international marketing, and global alcohol marketing. From the wider perspective, there has been a reaction against the idea that globalization means one strategy fits all, and a growing acceptance of the role of local culture (Hollis 2010). Some commentators have carried out case studies to illustrate this, for example Parson’s (2009) examination of the accounting firm Deloitte’s ‘flexible marketing concept’ (Parsons 2009, p. 9). There have also been a number of empirical research studies looking at this area. Foscht et al (2008) explicitly used Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions to assess the ways in which these differences impact on perceptions of brands. They found that an identical brand was ‘read’ very differently from culture to culture, irrespective of brand positioning. They also recommend the need to take cultural differences into account when thinking about product marketing. Sinton (2009) looks explicitly at the Asian case (although restricts his study to the digital market), and also argues that there is a need to understand the specifics of the Asian culture for marketing.He interviewed 6000 consumers, and found evidence of a need to be aware of what makes the culture ‘Asian’. Others offer a wider perspective. Paliwoda and Slater (2009) look at theoretical issues surrounding global marketing, suggesting that globalisation overall should be seen as “A set of processes, rather than just one” (Paliwode and Slater 2009, p. 373), but also that sales have a regional, rather than a global focus.

There have also been a number of studies of the issues involved in marketing and doing business in India specifically. Some look at the effectiveness of different marketing methods, for example Bidya and Maity’s (2010) study of the effectiveness of integrated marketing communications. Kaur and Sharma (2009) take a theoretical perspective, looking at the ways in which marketing in India has involved from a “barter system to a customer centric one”, and has only recently come to embraced notions of quality and the sales process. This has meant that customer satisfaction is especially important in the Indian market. Banerjee (2008) carries out a detailed analysis of the implications of Indian culture and the most central values for marketing in the country. He suggests that there is a pressing need to take what is unique about Indian culture into account when making marketing decisions.

Others have looked at the issues involved with marketing alcohol and similar products. Walker et al (2005) look at the issues involved in advertising “controversial products” in 4 different countries including the UK and Malaysia. They found, analysing the results of participant exposure to advertising, that countries with a higher population of Muslims had significantly different responses to countries where the percentage of the population was lower. Again, the need to be aware of country-specific differences was stressed. Pettigrew and Charters (2010) look at Alcohol consumption in Hong Kong, which sheds some light on Asian attitudes to alcohol, offering some general insight about the differences with Western culture, particularly their idea that drinkers in Hong Kong have “internalised” messages about drinking, and these internal ideas influence subsequent decisions about drinking. In general, however, there is less available research looking at the problems of marketing alcohol globally, and a particular lack of investigations looking at the Indian case. This underlines the need for this study.

3. Methodology

3.1 Methodology of Project

The proposed project takes the form of a qualitative study examining different marketing styles and responses to cultural differences amongst marketing professionals within one global alcoholic beverage firm (Heineken). The aim is to uncover the problems faced by marketing departments when trying to work multinationally, look at the extent to which these problems are a function of cultural differences, and examine the attempts made to overcome these.

It is proposed to carry out qualitative research, rather than conduct a quantitative study. Quantitative studies collect numerical data, and typically large volumes of such data. The emphasis is upon scientific method and proving or disproving rigid hypotheses through statistically significant testing. By contrast, qualitative techniques concentrate upon textual responses, and the richness of experience of subjects included. Conclusions are developed as the study progresses and research is shaped by broad ideas rather than tightly defined hypotheses (Babbie 2010). It is felt in this case that although there is a lack of studies of both qualitative and quantitative types looking at global marketing of alcohol in India, a qualitative approach will provide a useful insight into the details of how industry professionals view culture and marketing within their work. The notion of culture and the impact it makes upon marketing decisions is a complex one, and it is also felt that a qualitative approach is better able to capture this complexity.

The agreement of Heineken has been confirmed in principle, following an initial contact to the UK Human Resources department.This contact took the form of a 15 minute phonecall to a senior HR manager. During this, it was agreed that two marketing managers, one based in the UK but with responsibilities for marketing in Asia (including India), and the other based with the Asian division of the company. Both will be interviewed over the telephone, or using Skype.

The interviews will be semi-structured in form. Semi-structured interviews offer both flexibility and guidance for interviewer and researcher. Unlike fully-structured interviews, they allow an exploration of the range of thoughts of the respondent, as there is only a general guidance on subject. However, they support a number of broad topics for discussion, unlike unstructured interviews, and are hence useful for the inexperienced researcher (Grinnell and Unrau, 2008). The questionnaires will therefore include a number (six to 10) of open-ended questions, for example “what cultural differences do you perceive between India and UK in terms of the market for your products”. They will cover the areas outlined in the research objectives above, and include experience of global marketing, responses to cultural differences in the two markets, problems generated by these differences for marketing, and solutions to the problems.The researcher will use techniques of probing and related strategies (Daymon and Holloway 2010) (asking, for example “anything else” when a respondent finishes speaking, or asking respondent to elaborate upon statements they have made) to make sure that as much information as possible is collected.The interviews will be tape recorded, and this transcribed. The resulting text will be analysed and coded for key, emerging themes, read and re-read to pick out frequently mentioned categories and within these, sub-categories (Sapsford and Jupp 2006).

3.2 Access

Initial access was gained by personal contact. The researcher has a friend who works in the marketing department of Heineken, who acted as an intermediary between researcher and HR. Subsequently, access to research subjects was carried out through the HR manager.

3.3 Sampling

Two respondents will be interviewed at length. One will be located in the UK, the other in Asia. Both will have considerable dealings with marketing in the Indian market. It will be necessary to ensure that the respondents selected have the correct experience of both UK and Asian market, and that this experience is sufficiently adequate in length, but also that they are, as far as possible, representative of the organisation and the industry in general.

3.4 Data Evaluation

The interviews will be tape recorded, and this transcribed. The resulting text will be analysed and coded for key, emerging themes, read and re-read to pick out frequently mentioned categories and within these, sub-categories (Sapsford and Jupp 2006). When the analysis of key themes is complete, the results will be assessed to see to what extent they support the general hypotheses of the study, and what light they throw on the research objectives.

3.5 Research Questions

As this study is primarily qualitative, it is thought appropriate to offer research questions to prompt investigation, rather than hypotheses to be proved or disproved by the data. The research questions are as follows:

What is the nature of the Indian market for alcohol, and how does it differ from the UK market
How do cultural dimensions specific to India impact upon this market
What marketing techniques are used in IndiaHow do these compare to those used in the UK
What problems arise due to cultural differences between India and elsewhere
To what extent are UK techniques for marketing transferable
What is the best approach for a global marketing campaign in order to adapt to the specifics of the Indian situation.
4. Conclusion

The proposal above has set out details of a research study looking at the extent to which cultural differences between India and the UK (as well as between India and elsewhere) impact upon global marketing for an alcohol brand (Heineken). The study will include a literature review, and incorporate a qualitative examination of the views of two marketing managers, one based in the UK, one in Asia. Above the aims and rationale of the study were set out, an overview of the area to be covered by the literature review explained, and the methodology discussed.

7. References

Babbie, E R (2010) The Practice of Social Research (12th edn.), Cengage Learning, Belmont CA.

Babor, T (2010) Alcohol: no ordinary commodity : research and public policy (2nd edn), Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Baidya, M and Maity, B (2010) ‘Effectiveness of integrated marketing communications: Empirical analysis of two brands in India’, Journal of Indian Business Research, 2:1,23-31.

Banerjee, S (2008)‘Dimensions of Indian culture, core cultural values and marketing implications: An analysis’, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal Volume, 15:4, 367-378

Business Wire (2011) ‘Research and Markets: Alcohol Market in India 2011’, [online] (cited 2nd February 2012) available from http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20110829005102/en/Research-Markets-Alcohol-Market-India-2011–

Cushman, G, Veal, A J and Zuzanek, J (2005) Free time and leisure participation: international perspectives, CABI Publishing Series, UK

Daymon, C and Holloway, I (2010) Qualitative Research Methods in Public Relations and Marketing Communications (2nd edn), Taylor & Francis, Abingdon, Oxon.

Doole, I and Lowe, R (2008) International marketing strategy: analysis, development and implementation (5th edn), Cengage Learning EMEA, London.

Foscht, T, Maloles, C, Swoboda, B, Morschett, D and Sinha, I (2008) ‘The impact of culture on brand perceptions: a six-nation study’, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 17:3, 131 – 142

Geert-hofstede.com (2012) ‘India’ [online] (cited 31st January 2012) available from http://geert-hofstede.com/india.html

Gillespie, K, Jeannet, J-P and Hennessey, D (2010) Global Marketing (3rd edn), Cengage Learning, Belmont CA.

Grinnell, R M and Unrau, Y A (2008) Social work research and evaluation: foundations of evidence-based practice (8th edn), Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Heath, D B (1995) International handbook on alcohol and culture, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport CT

Herbig, P A (1998) Handbook of cross-cultural marketing, Routledge, London

Hofstede, G H (1981) Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations, Sage Publications (reprint 2001), Thousand Oaks, CA

Hollis, N (2010) ‘Globalization Does Not Imply Homogenization’, Marketing News, 44:11, 8

Indiainfoonline.com (2011) ‘United Breweries launches Heineken in India’, [online] (cited 1st February 2012) available from http://www.indiainfoline.com/Markets/News/United-Breweries-launches-Heineken-in-India/5249684979

Kaur, G and Sharma, R D (2009) ‘Voyage of marketing thought from a barter system to a customer centric one’, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 27:5,

Luger, E (2009) Hofsteede’s Cultural Dimensions, GRIN Verlag, Netherlands.

Martell, L (2010) The Sociology of Globalization, Polity,Bristol.

Paliwoda, S J and Slater, S (2009) ‘Globalisation through the kaleidoscope’, International Marketing Review, 26:4/5, 373 – 383

Parsons, R (2009) ‘Deloitte goes global with flexible marketing concept’, Marketing Week, 32:32, 9

Pettigrew, S and Charters, S (2010) ‘Alcohol consumption motivations and behaviours in Hong Kong’,Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 22:2

Sapsford, R and Jupp, V (2006) Data collection and analysis (2nd edn), SAGE, Thousand Oaks, CA

Sinton, J (2009) ‘Cultural knowledge is the key to unlocking diverse digital markets’, Strategic Direction, 25:8, 14-16.

Thottam, J and Hannon, E (2009) ‘Tapping into India’s Growing Alcohol Market’, Time, Wednes December 23rd.

Waller, D S, Fam, K-S and Erdogan, B Z (2005) ‘Advertising of controversial products:a cross-cultural study’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22:1, 6 – 13

8. Timeline
Research ActivitySchedule
Define objectives, clarify questions1 month
Literature review6 weeks
Carry out research (design questionnaire and consent forms, prepare, carry out interviews)1 month
Data analysis1 month
Write conclusion, introduction1 month
Complete first draft2 weeks
Address tutors comments2 weeks
Final editing1 week
Submit dissertation

Categories
Free Essays

Critical Review of a Paper Investigating the Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy

Introduction

The paper to be reviewed is an investigation by Duncan, Forbes-McKay and Henderson (2012)
into the application of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB, Ajzen, 1988, 1991) and its effectiveness in predicting intention to carry out health related behaviours. The TPB is a social cognition model, meaning that it seeks to predict intention to carry out a behaviour and to understand why individuals may fail to adhere to a behaviour to which they were once committed. The theory claims that three variables can be used to predict an individual’s behaviour: the individual’s attitude toward the behaviour, the attitude of significant others toward the behaviour and the individual’s perceived control over a behaviour. Perceived control over behaviour is governed by both internal factors such as an individual’s skills or available resources, and external factors such as actual opportunities to carry out the behaviour. Unlike the individual’s attitude toward the behaviour and the attitude of others, perceived control over the behaviour is believed to influence both the intention to carry out the behaviour and the behaviour itself. In particular, the authors were investigating whether the TPB could be used to predict intention to consume alcohol during pregnancy. Previous research has found the TPB to be useful for predicting a range of other health related behaviours (Godin and Kok, 1996) and alcohol consumption behaviours in particular (Marcoux & Shope, 1997; McMillan & Conner, 2003). The authors focused on the role of TPB in being able to predict the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Drinking during pregnancy is a major health issue. It has been found to influence a number of outcomes for the child including maladaptive behaviours (Sood et al., 2001) and weight at birth (Mariscal et al., 2006). Despite its relation to negative outcomes for the child, up to 54% of women in the UK have claimed to have consumed alcohol during their pregnancy (Bolling et al., 2007).

Study Description

130 women based in the Aberdeenshire area returned a questionnaire that was distributed to them at their 20-week pregnancy scan. Of these, analysis was carried out on 116 women. The questionnaire included questions designed to gather information on demographic details, past and present alcohol consumption, and TPB variables. The TPB variables included measuring the participants’ intention to engage in the behaviour, their attitude toward the behaviour, their beliefs about the subjective norm and their perceived behavioural control. The study found that the majority of participants made changes to their drinking behaviour once they found out that they were pregnant, with these changes taking the form of a reduction in alcohol consumption. 64.7% abstained from alcohol altogether during their pregnancy, 34.5% continued to drink to some level and 0.9% did not answer. Of those women who continued to drink during their pregnancy, 13.4% were drinking above the recommended maximum levels whereas the rest were drinking one to two units between two and four times per month. It was also found that although most participants received information about drinking during their pregnancy, 12.9% received no information.
In relation to the TPB theory, it was found that women who abstained from drinking after finding out they were pregnant had significantly higher scores on the intention scale, suggesting that they had a significantly greater intention to quit alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Abstaining participants also had significantly higher scores on the subjective norm scale, indicating that they felt more pressure from what others thought about drinking during pregnancy. Abstainers were also found to have significantly lower scores on the attitude scale, suggesting a much less positive attitude toward the behaviour of drinking during pregnancy. In contrast,, the scale that measured perceived behaviour control did not show any significant differences between those women who abstained and those who continued to drink during their pregnancy.

Attitude toward the behaviour and the influence of what others thought of the behaviour were found to be strongly and significantly correlated with intention to carry out the behaviour of abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy. TPB was able to explain 59.3% of variance in intention to drink during pregnancy. Furthermore, the theory was able to correctly classify 91.8% of cases and as a result, was statistically able to distinguish between drinkers and abstainers. The authors concluded that as attitude was found to have the greatest statistically significant contribution to predicting intention and to contribute significantly to predicting actual behaviour, it would be an ideal candidate for intervention focus. As perceived behaviour control was the only TPB component found not to contribute, the authors suggest that the model without this component would be appropriate for predicting intention to consume alcohol during pregnancy.

Critical Review

The reviewed article addressed an important health issue, namely investigating how drinking alcohol during pregnancy could be reduced by understanding what drives or stops women from having the intention to carry out this behaviour. The finding that attitude toward drinking whilst pregnant has a significant impact on both intention to drink during pregnancy and actual drinking during pregnancy could have wider clinical and educational applications. Nevertheless, the authors are vague in how their findings could be applied in the real world and fail to make useful suggestions based on their data. The finding that some women were not provided with information pertaining to the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy is also an important one because it highlights that some health trusts are failing to help women make informed decisions about this subject. However, it is not touched upon in the discussion.

The study’s introduction is a little weak in that it does not make an overly convincing argument as to why their chosen topic is important and worth investigating. It makes only a brief reference to the negative impact that alcohol consumption can have on both mother and baby, and the literature to which it refers is quite outdated. This suggests that a thorough and recent literature review may not have been carried out. Furthermore, the study could present a much stronger argument as to why the TPB may be applicable to this health behaviour in particular. There is some justification in that the authors of the paper chose this particular theory on the premise that a socially-based theory such as TPB could highlight risk factors for the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy that could be more easily influenced than previous risk factors that have been identified such as drinking habits before pregnancy and socioeconomic status (Stewart & Streiner, 1994; Yamamoto et al., 2008). Risk factors such as these cannot be easily changed. In contrast, risk factors based on attitudes toward a behaviour can be more easily altered through education or government interventions. The discussion does not flow particularly well and the overall conclusions of the study are not entirely clear. An advantage of the TPB is its holistic approach. It attempts to understand the behaviour of an individual in the context of both an individual’s attitude toward a behaviour, their perceived control over that behaviour and how they perceive others to judge the behaviour. However, our intentions to carry out a behaviour or not are the result of an incredibly complex process during which many variables are taken into account. Although the limitations of the study’s methodology are touched upon in the discussion, the authors fail to explore the limitations of the TPB and how these may affect their findings. For example, McKeown (1979) argued that negative health behaviours are determined on the individual level by the choices we make to behave in a certain way. Therefore, the theory may place too much emphasis on the importance of what others think of a behaviour. Indeed, in the current study, individual attitudes toward a behaviour were found to be more influential than subjective norms.

One criticism of this study is its potential lack of representativeness, both culturally and geographically. Ethnic minorities made up only 6.9% of the sample, meaning that the results may not be generalisable to ethnic minorities. Furthermore, the sample was collected from only one geographic area, although the authors argue that their findings are in keeping with previous studies that used samples from a much wider geographical area (Anderson et al., 2007; Bolling et al., 2007). There may also have been a bias in the way in which participants were recruited. Women were approached by the researchers whilst awaiting their 20 week antenatal scans in hospital. The scans are designed to screen for any anomalies in the baby and to check that development is normal. These scans are not compulsory, potentially creating a bias in the sample. For example, Alderdice et al. (2007) found that women without qualifications or women from areas of high deprivation were significantly less likely to uptake an offer of a 20 week screen for Downs Syndrome than women from affluent areas or women with degree-level qualification. This suggests that the women who were approached by the researchers in the current study may have been under-representative of women from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Furthermore, the study does not provide detail on the demographic information of the women who responded to the questionnaire, which would have been useful in evaluating generalisability.

The measure used to ascertain TPB variables was developed using guidelines for the development of questionnaires designed to measure TPB behaviours (Francis et al., 2004). However, the measurement used was not a validated questionnaire. Furthermore, the authors do not provide examples of how they measured the three variables of intention, subjective norm and perceived behaviour control. This means that the measure cannot be opened up for scrutiny or re-used in later studies to assess its validity and reliability. Before the main study, a small pilot study was carried out with seven pregnant women to ensure that the questionnaire was easy to understand. Pilot studies are essential for establishing a sound study design (van Teijilngen & Hundley, 2001). Although, it should be noted that the authors did not report the results of any reliability or validity tests. As part of the test battery, the study did use the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, a reliable and valid measure for gathering information on alcohol consumption that was developed by the World Health Organisation (Saunders et al., 1993, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, 2004). This measurement has been reported to be superior to other measures designed to collect data on the same subject (Reinert & Allen, 2002).

Self-report measures in themselves have a number of limitations. Firstly, they are subject to social desirability bias. Social desirability bias acknowledges that participants may report carrying out behaviours that are socially desirable or may cover up being involved in behaviours that are frowned on. Based on the finding that subjective norms had a significant impact on both intention and behaviour, social desirability bias may have affected the results of this study. If participants were so influenced by what others thought of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, then they may have been likely to cover up occasions on which they did drink during their pregnancy. This means that the number of participants who did drink during pregnancy may have been higher than the study reported.

Recommendations for Improvement and Future Research

If this study is to be replicated, it could be improved in a number of ways. Firstly, ethnic minorities must be better represented. Great Britain is now a multi-cultural country and research must reflect this. The authors must provide more information or a copy of the questionnaire designed to measure TPB variables so that reliability and validity can be assessed. A useful future study would be to assess the impact of an intervention designed to change the attitude of women who do not perceive drinking alcohol during pregnancy to be an issue. As attitude was found to be the most important factor in intention to carry out this behaviour, the currently reviewed study would be strengthened if an intervention based around attitude was found to change behaviour.

References

Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.

Alderdice, F., McNeill, J., Rowe, R., Martin, D. & Dornan, J. (2008). Inequalities in the reported offer and uptake of antenatal screening. Public Health, 122(1), 42-52.

Anderson, S., Bradshaw, P., Cunningham-Burley, S., Hayes, F. Jamieson, L., MacGregor, A. et al. (2007). Growing up in Scotland: A study following the lives of Scotland’s children. Edinburgh, Scotland: Scottish Executive.

Bolling, K., Grant, C., Hamlyn, B. & Thornton, A. (2007). Infant Feeding Survey, 2005. Leeds, UK: The Information Centre.

Duncan, E.M., Forbes-McKay, K.E. & Henderson, S.E. (2012). Alcohol use during pregnancy: An application of the theory of planned behaviour. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(8), 1887-1903.

Francis, J.J., Eccles, M.P., Johnstone, M., Walker, A., Grimshaw, J., Foy, R. et al. (2004). Constructing questionnaires based on the theory of planned behaviour: A manual for health service researchers. Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK: Centre for Health Services Research.

Godin, G. & Kok, G. (1996). The theory of planned behaviour: A review of its applications to health-related behaviors. American Journal of Health Promotion, 11, 87-98.

Marcoux, B.C. & Shope, J.T. (1997). Application of the theory of planned behaviour to adolescent use and misuse of alcohol. Health Education Research, 12, 323-331.

Mariscal, M., Palma, S., Llorca, J., Perez-Iglesias, R., Pardo-Crespo, R. & Delgado-Rodriguez, M. (2006). Pattern of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and risk for low birth weight. Annals of Epidemiology, 16, 432-438.

McKeown, T. (1979). The role of medicine. Dream, mirage or nemesisOxford, UK: Blackwell Publisher Ltd.

McMillan, B. & Conner, M. (2003). Using the theory of planned behaviour to understand alcohol and tobacco use in students. Psychology, Health, and Medicine, 8, 317-328.

Reinert, D. & Allen, J.P. (2002). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): A review of recent research. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26(2), 272-279.

Saunders, J.B., Aasland, O.G., Babor, T.F., de la Fuente, J.R. & Grant, M. (1993). Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption. Addiction, 88, 791-804.

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. (2004). The management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence in primary care: A national clinical guideline. Edinburgh, Scotland: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network.

Sood, B., Delaney-Black, V., Covington, C., Nordstrom-Klee, B., Ager, J., Templin, T., et al. (2001). Prenatal alcohol exposure and childhood behaviour at age 6 to 7 years: I. Does- response effect. Pediatrics, 108(2), 34-43.

Steward, D.E. & Streiner, D. (1994). Alcohol drinking in pregnancy. General Hospital Psychiatry, 16, 406-412.

van Teijilngen, E. & Hundley, V. (2001). The importance of pilot studies. Social Research Update, 35, 1-4.

Yamamoto, Y., Kanieta, Y., Yokoyama, E., Sone, T., Takemura, S., Suzuki, K. et al. (2008). Alcohol consumption and abstention among pregnant Japanese women. Journal of Epidemiology, 18, 173-182.

Categories
Free Essays

Effects of Alcohol Consumption to the Cognitive Function of a Person

Excessive alcohol intake has a great impact on the cognitive function of a person. It leads to a person to have a poor cognitive function. Which can be affected the persons perception, attention, memory, motor skills, language, visual and spatial processing. To some extent, study indicates that high level of impulsivity in alcohol consumptions of a person has an effect on the frontal lobe related to their behavioral problem (Lyvers et. al. ). Furthermore, alcohol intoxication causes disruption of prefrontal cortical functioning and thereby impairs executive cognitive performance.

As executive cognitive ability is concerned this is the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for problem solving, cognitive flexibility, planning, organization, abstract reasoning and social conduct. A person who is in inebriated situation is more likely to do risky, impulsive behavior such as unprotected sex, violence and drunk driving. In some situation, severe alcoholics’ gets complication, serious organic cerebral impairment; it is the common complication occurring in about 10 percent of patient (Horvath 1975).

Lishman 1981; American Psychiatric Association 1987, the diverse signs of severe brain dysfunction that persist after cessation of alcohol consumption have been conceptualize in terms of two organic mental disorders: alcohol amnestic disorder (memory disorder) and dementia associated with alcoholism. Alcohol amnestic disorder, commonly called Korsakoff’s psychosis or Wernicke- Korsakoff syndrome, it is characterized by short term memory, impairments and behavioral changes that occur without clouding of consciousness or general loss of intellectual abilities.

Dementia associated with alcoholism consist of global loss of intellectual abilities with an impairment in memory function together disturbance(s) of abstract thinking, judgment, other higher cortical function or personality change without a clouding of consciousness. These two mental disorders are also cause by a severe deficiency of Thiamine (vitamin B1) and are often precipitated by a sudden influx of glucose. A number of things have been shown to lead to a severe enough thiamine deficiency to trigger wet brain.

Wet brain or Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome has a sudden onset–it is not something which happens gradually over time. The first stage of wet brain is called Wernicke’s encephalopathy. When there is a sudden influx of glucose in a brain which is deprived of thiamine the brain cells begin to die. This is because the chemical reactions which supply these brain cells with energy for life use thiamine to turn glucose into energy in a chemical process called the Krebs cycle.

When there is an influx of glucose and no thiamine to help metabolize it, these brain cells burn out like a car engine running on high octane gasoline at high speed with no oil. The brain cells which die first are the ones which require the most thiamine to function. These brain cells are located around the middle of the brain and are the brain cells which are associated with memory and muscular movement. The brain cells of the cerebellum, which controls balance, are also affected.

Korsakoff’s syndrome includes loss of past memories, inability to learn new things, confabulation (remembering things which never happened), lack of coordination and unsteady gait, and in severe cases dementia. These are the possible reaction to a person who takes excessive alcohol consumptions. More evident in explaining the effect of excessive intake of alcohol in a person’s cognitive function is that he/she will experienced less adept at certain learning tests and visual- spatial integration. Likewise it cause premature aging (Tarter and Edwards, 1986) and it is still under active investigation.

In addition, it has long been an established fact that actively drinking, alcohol dependent subjects have smaller brain volumes than normal control subjects who do not drink alcohol. Thus, early researchers assumed that this was because alcohol killed the brain cells of alcohol dependent subjects, but other research disapproves this hypothesis but it could be partially true unless there has been brain damage as a result of liver failure or thiamine deficiency, the majority of brain cells of heavy drinkers are intact even though the brain has shrunk.

Meanwhile, in some study stated that alcohol consumption in a moderate mode has an effect to help a person to decrease the incidence of having diabetes. Likewise, it can help to preserve brain vasculature prevents sub-clinical strokes and could result in better cognition function. But drinking too much of alcohol leads to have poor cognitive function that causes to a person to have brain damage. Some research shows that alcohol adversely affects the brain.

When health professionals encounter patients who are having cognitive difficulties, such as impaired memory or reasoning ability, alcohol use may be the cause of the problem. The human brain consists of white cells and gray cells. The gray cells are responsible for thinking and feeling and decisions–they correspond to the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of the computer. The white cells are like the cables of the computer which connect the keyboard and the monitor to the CPU.

Jensen and Pakkenberg (1993) did brain cell counts which compared the number of cells in the brains of heavy drinkers with those of non-drinkers. They found out that the number of gray cells was the same in both the heavy drinkers and the non-drinkers. However, there were fewer white brain cells in the brains of the drinkers which imply that alcohol kills a white brain cell that is responsible to the connection to pass the message or transaction of the brain to connect with the feeling and decision making of a person.

Hence, excessive alcohol intake disrupts the connection or breaks the normal function of the brain to react and to have a better cognitive function. Moreover, George Fein (2009) discovered that there was one part of the brain in the parietal lobe–which is associated with spatial processing–where alcohol kills gray cells. Fein claims that this explains why even after alcohol dependent subjects regain use of all their other cognitive functions they still seem to have difficulties with spatial processing.

Parker et al. (1983) stated that there is significant decrease in test performance have been found for people whose self-reported alcohol consumption was in the range of what was considered social drinking. They found it out when they conducted a certain neuropsychological tests, the results of one general population study (Bergman et al. 1983). Those people were not clinically impaired; they only exhibited certain performance deficits that correlated with alcohol consumption.

Parsons (1986) concluded that data on the relationship of cognitive impairment to amount of alcohol consumed by social drinkers are inconclusive but has the chance to have similar correlation. There is some evidence that both the amount of brain shrinkage and the amount of cognitive deficit are dependent on the quantity of alcohol consumed and the number of years of heavy drinking. Thus, it only proves that there is an adversely effect on the cognitive function of a person in drinking too much of it. Hence, there is no good effect on the brain or body function of a person. (copyright of ISLA BONITAS 2012) |

Categories
Free Essays

Alcohol Abuse in the Restaurant Industry

Alcohol Abuse in the Restaurant Industry Shelsie Ann Lawrence University of West Florida Alcohol Abuse in the Restaurant Industry The purpose of this paper is to look at the high incidence of alcohol abuse in the restaurant industry and the possible causes. I will use studies done, but also incidences from my own personal experience of 15 years in the restaurant industry. Background The American Psychological Association defines alcohol abuse as, “a drinking pattern that results in significant and recurrent adverse consequences. ” (http://www. apa. org/helpcenter/alcohol-disorders. spx). These consequences can be lost work days, vehicle accidents, the breakdown and loss of relationships, serious illnesses. Alcohol abuse is extremely high in the restaurant industry. It is readily available and consistently used as a reward for good behavior. The consequences of alcohol abuse are much more tolerated. I worked for a chef that would come in to work hung over and late. She would clock in, and then sit down to have a beer to help the hangover. After the beer was consumed, it was time to make something to eat, all of this eating up the first 30 minutes of her work day.

She would not be punished for this behavior, because chances are, she was out drinking with one of our owners the night before. This scene would play itself out at least once a week. I also had a co-worker that was allowed to go home, due to a hangover. We will call her Sue. Sue was not much of a drinker. I would say, she probably went out once a month. Sue gets off work, and almost all her co-workers are at the bar drinking. At this particular restaurant, the kitchen and servers would close down the restaurant between the hours of 10:00pm and 11:00 pm, this would put the time staff gets off work around 11:00pm or midnight.

The bar would then stay open until 2:00 am. To set the stage a bit more, it is also important to note a few other things about this particular restaurant. Staff was allowed to start drinking for free, any beer on tap and any wine sold by the glass, one hour prior to closing. Any other drinks, i. e. : cocktails, wine by the bottle, and bottled beers, were discounted half off. This restaurant did very well, and had minimal staff turnover, so they could afford to allow this. The staff dinner was served after the kitchen was cleaned and the wait staff done with all their tables.

Staff meal is also called “Family Meal”, in the restaurant world. Family is what your co-workers become, in a restaurant. You spend more of your time with your co-workers, then anyone else. Restaurants are open on the days other people are off spending time with their families. You work every weekend together. You work every holiday together. You work every night together. Together you build contempt for those with “normal jobs” This is all shared together. These are things that only your co-workers and other “industry” people can understand. Most bars, in Seattle, when I cooked there, even offered “industry” discounts.

Even if you aren’t drinking at the place you work, you still get a discount. You are still awarded with alcohol. So, on this night, Sue gets off work to find all her co-workers finishing up dinner and pouring more rounds of drinks. She had a particularly good night and made a hundred dollars in tips. She has been working at this restaurant for six months and hasn’t found herself fitting in yet. Fitting in, becoming friends with her co-workers, can afford many benefits. Servers are more likely to switch a shift with someone they like and know. They are more likely to help you out, by delivering food to your table, if you are someone they like.

She usually eats her dinner, than goes home, while the rest of the staff stays drinking and talking about their work night. They stay because the drinks are free; they stay because when they go home, if there is someone at home, they won’t be awake to hear the stories of their work day. Sue decides to stay and have a drink, maybe get her co-workers to warm up to her a bit more. As soon as everyone see’s that Sue is staying they cheer. Everyone has wanted to get to know her more, but feels that since she never stays after work, that she is probably stuck up.

Her manager buys her a shot, for a job well done that night at work. She pours a beer and immediately feels comfortable with everyone, partly because of the cheer, but also because she is now sitting down to her second drink of the evening. The evening progresses similarly to how it started. As more staff gets off work, more shots are bought. Other restaurant workers, friends of the staff are getting off work, and showing up. Pretty soon, the bar is filled with mainly employees and other restaurant workers. Before anyone notices, it is closing time. Now, if the owner of the restaurant was round, and chances are he was, he would allow the bartender to go home, or have a seat at the bar, and he would continue to serve the staff, with the front door locked, well after closing time. Tonight, the staff all drank until 4:00 am. Sue stayed right along with everyone. Sue comes to work the next day, green and doubled over. Everyone is setting up the dining room for dinner service later. Her co-workers look their normal tired selves, but keep in mind, they drink heavily and often, this is just another day for them. Everyone see Sue and immediately cheers.

One server comments on how great it was that Sue hung out with everyone the night before. Sue runs straight for the bathroom. After some discussion, they decide that it is going to be a slow night, and everyone could probably pull together to cover Sues section. They send someone in to the bathroom to tell Sue she can go home. No one chastises her. She is not written up. She will miss getting paid for the evening, but it was going to be a slow night anyway. She goes home, goes back to bed, and wakes up the next day to go back to work, back to everything being normal.

This is a perfect example of the lack of consequences, in the restaurant industry, for alcohol abuse. Sue is practically rewarded for her bad behavior. By staying and drinking, she formed a bond with her co-workers. All her drinks were either free or heavily discounted, so she didn’t feel any financial burden. When she showed up for work, unable to perform her duties, her co-workers pulled together to allow her to go home. According to them, they had been there before. One reason for such a high rate of alcohol abuse, in the restaurant industry is the high rate of young adults employed.

In a study done on young adult restaurant workers, 41% reported problem drinking. Young adults make up the majority of restaurant workers. Restaurant jobs offer the most pay, for the least amount of skill and time. Some restaurants require a degree to work in the kitchen, but no education is required to work as a server. If you are a student, and need a part time job, chances are you have worked, or do work as a server. College students consume large amounts of alcohol, with 31% meeting the criteria for alcohol abuse. (http://www. ollegedrinkingprevention. gov/statssummaries/snapshot. aspx) Serving positions allow for the flexibility needed for college students. You make the most pay, for the least amount of hours worked. The schedule is very flexible. If you need a night off to finish up homework, you can always call a co-worker to cover your shift. Chances are there is someone who needs money and can cover your shift. Even if you can’t get someone to cover your shift, you can be sure that if you do have to work, you can get off work early if the restaurant is slow that night.

Less servers equal more tips for the rest of the staff, and like most servers, they always need more money. Restaurant workers live paycheck to paycheck. Most have no benefits, no health insurance, and are just one missed paycheck away from being completely broke. Out of the 10 restaurants I have worked in, only two offered health insurance. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median hourly wage of a food sever in 2008, including tips, was $8. 01. The median yearly salary of a restaurant cook, in 2008 was $21,990. There are exceptions to the rule, but the majority live at the poverty line.

When no vacations can be afforded, one can take a mini vacation at the bar. With no health insurance, no one is getting annual checkups. You can stay in denial about any health problems that might arise from alcohol abuse, because chances are you haven’t been to a doctor in years. I had a co-worker that couldn’t afford to go to the dentist to get a much needed filling. We can call him Bob. Bob had been complaining of an aching tooth for weeks. He just kept taking aspirin and upping his nightly alcohol intake to allow him to sleep through the night.

He knew eventually he would have to see a dentist, but he just didn’t have the money to go see one at this point. In the end, he had to go to an emergency clinic to have his tooth pulled. He was put on pain killers and antibiotics. This all ended up costing him five hundred dollars. This was more than a week of pay for him. Bob was trying to save up to go on a vacation with his girlfriend. He hadn’t taken a single day off of work in over a year. Now his prospects seemed even dimmer. He gets off work, pours a drink, and sits down to complain to his other co-workers.

They all understand. Only a few of them have taken time off that year. At the very least, they can all sit around, and have a few drinks together to ease the pain. They are depressed and find solace in each other. This is the point when alcohol abuse can become cyclical. Alcohol is a depressant. When a depressed person self medicates with alcohol they are only making the problem worse. Method The method used for this paper was through personal experience in the restaurant industry backed by research in journals and studies on alcohol abuse and restaurant workers. Findings

There are many causes for alcohol abuse; some of those being depression, the availability of alcohol, peer pressure and social factors, impulsiveness and low self esteem. Restaurants workers have alcohol readily available. They have discounts, and free drinks. They are awarded for good behavior with alcohol. The social factors that are prevalent in restaurant workers also play a role in alcohol abuse. Drinking becomes social with restaurant workers. It becomes their outlet. It is their way of bonding. They can definitely feel the peer pressure from co-workers to drink.

In my story of Sue, she felt that drinking with her co-workers was the only way she would be able to fit in. She wanted to be friends with everyone; she wanted the benefits of that friendship. They wanted her to drink with them. She knew that the only way to penetrate the group was by drinking with them after work. After a few times of hanging out, after work with everyone, it can easily become a habit. I would see people actually get upset and offended when someone that usually stayed for drinks, just went home after their shift. Results There is definitely a high rate of alcohol abuse amongst restaurant workers or many reasons; ranging from the social aspects, the availability of alcohol, the high stress work environment, the prevalence of poverty amongst the workers, the late hours and just the acceptance of heavy drinking among the staff and management. I don’t see a change in the behaviors and attitudes of restaurant staff. I think this is a problem that will continue until stricter laws and rules are enforced. References ARTHUR H. FRIEDLANDER, D. , & STEPHEN. (2003). Alcohol abuse and dependence:Psychopathology, medical management and dental implications. J Am Dent Assoc. Peter E. Nathan, P. John Wallace, P. , Joan Zweben, P. , & and A. Thomas Horvath, P. (2010). Understanding Alcohol Use Disorders and Their Treatment. American Psychological Association . Rachel R. Doern, S. M. (2008). THE SOCIAL MEANINGS OF DRINKING: STRENGTHENING THE SOCIAL BONDS OF RESTAURANT EMPLOYEES. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 25 , 481-485. Roland S. Moore, P. C. (2009). Dimensions of Problem Drinking among Young Adult Restaurant Workers. AM J Drug Alcohol Abuse , 329-333. http://www. bls. gov/oco/ocos162. htm http://www. ohsrep. org. au/hazards/fatigue-impairment/alcohol-and-work/index. cfm

Categories
Free Essays

Alcohol and Sports

When college students and adults drink irresponsibly, they often create negative associations with alcohol and its hindering effects. Alcohol is a constituent of various recreational and other events in the United States. It is available at a wide range of public sporting events and often is the central focus of celebrations of success and achievement. Unfortunately, as well as contributing to relaxation and conviviality, alcohol is also associated with verbal and physical abuse, arrests for aggressive behavior and violence and admissions to hospitals as a consequence of alcohol related assaults.

These concluding aspects have recently been raised in sport broadcasting and news nationwide. This initiates problems such as violence, public urination, or people collapsing as a consequence of excessive drinking. Facility management programs have made proper precautions regarding such events. These problems are not a new phenomena in the world of sports. In an attempt to contain violence, more facilities and leagues have taken action to control and remove the availability of alcohol at such events.

After considerable research, there seems to be a repetition of facility management aspects used in everyday sporting events, such as the TEAM and FAM organizational programs, specific “pre” and “post” game provisions, and actions regarding “in-game” incidents. There are many alcohol management strategies that facilities and programs have developed over the past two decades. Almost every professional sport team and facility follows the grand design of the non-profit organization called Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management.

TEAM begin back in the 1980’s in reaction to the “high number of traffic fatalities resulting from heavy drinking at sporting events and to increasing public awareness of the problem of alcohol-related driving (Stadium Alcohol Management). ” This program has two major goals regarding alcohol management: reduce drunk-driving and publicize responsible drinking services and consumption at sporting arenas. There main focus is on major sporting venues. TEAM also branches into another program called Facility Alcohol Management (FAM).

FAM further assists to public arenas in developing alcohol management. Furthermore, TEAM puts a strong emphasis on their 300 trainers who in turn train more than 30,000 sport facility employees. Training is a very important component involved in enhancing the awareness of staff. This regards factors that contribute to aggression and strategies to defuse potentially dangerous situations and legal issues regarding the proper management of venues. Hence, giving the staff an understanding of strategies to manage alcohol aggression on licensed premises.

Planning is one of the most important features of alcohol management within a facility. An appropriate location of an event should always be selected with easy access to transport to and from the venue. Many sport facilities have restrictions or bans on alcohol brought into the venue, as well as restrictions on the type of containers brought into the venue. Alcohol is a great source of revenue for sport leagues and arenas. Facility organizers may also be unwilling to set up alcohol-free events because it is such a main attraction during game-play.

More than 60% of professional sporting event revenues come from alcohol purchases (Class Video). Another important example of alcohol management planning is making sure to provide information before and during the event. This should include risks, regulations, requirements and controls. Sometimes the lack of information about strict alcohol polices can result in fans arriving unprepared, either not bringing enough money to purchase alcohol inside the venue or spending it before entry.

There has been precaution involving the amount of alcohol served at sporting and large public events. Severity of alcohol problems can be related to length of a game, whether or not it is a playoff game or even if the game is an exciting one or not (Class Discussion). Facility managers and staff must take into consideration those key features of a game in order to prepare for alcohol related incidents. Facilities set restricted times for serving alcohol, including set period before the end of the event, where alcohol is no longer served..

There have been proper preparations for regulating the sale of alcohol on premises within the grounds, particularly the times at which alcohol could be served. This allows for sobering up of patrons and reduced likelihood of drunk driving and other issues. This can be in between an inning, or at halftime. For example, most baseball games stop serving alcohol at the end of the 7th inning in order to maintain the crowd. Having a limited amount of alcohol served to each fan is another way a facility can avoid issues. Concession stands should only be serving 1 drink per customer.

Most sporting facilities have kept this under control but staff members working the beverage stands have let this slide and provided more than 1 drink per customer. Server staff selection and training is very important, although evidence shows that enforcement needs to accompany this in order to ensure its effectiveness. Security staff and police officers have been a vital part of alcohol facility management over the past decade. During preparation for games and large sporting events, security takes measures to properly secure a facility for intended alcohol related use.

Many facilities have implemented a range of strategies to reduce risks such as segregation of opposing fans or higher levels of policing. If there were safety concerns, security is granted authority to search public vehicles and individuals trying to enter an event with alcoholic beverages. It is important for the police force to try and maintain a crowd during the tailgating portion of an event. This is where the sot excessive drinking takes place. An example of a facility security measure involves video surveillance at the Milwaukee Brewers’ stadium.

In the article Drinking Games, it states that “most parks now include video surveillance equipment that can home in on specific seat locations, but beer hawkers, concessions-stand workers and ushers equipped only with their own eyes are also relied upon to recognize the tell-tale signs of intoxication, or in some cases the mere probability of intoxication. ” The security staff and police presence should be visible and have a clear view of the area around them. Also, they should have the authority to ban or remove fans for public displays of drunken behavior.

Facility managers take into consideration the importance of harm reduction. Some arenas have been setting up “dry areas” or family areas to reduce risk and nuisance, especially for families and young people. Also, alcohol served in a tempered glass or plastic and foam cups help reduce the likelihood of containers being used as weapons, and to prevent accidental or deliberate injury to staff and fans on the licensed premises. In Europe, they have “sobering-up” areas which act as a very valuable strategy (Study Abroad experience 2011).

There was minimal effectiveness but it may enable management of those who are overly intoxicated. Traffic management should be something planned before, during and after a sport game. After games, there are security checkpoints where drivers are checked for intoxication or any alcoholic beverages in their possession. This is where many people are arrested for DUI’s and drunkenly misconduct. When looking at the alcohol management regarding Madison Square Garden, there seem to be procedures and provisions similar to the ones listen previously in this research paper.

At most of the events at MSG, alcoholic beverages are available for purchase. They train their staff within the terms of the TEAM organization. Alcohol sales are limited to up to two alcoholic beverages per customer per transaction and must provide an ID with purchase. MSG makes sure that guests do not bring in alcoholic beverages from outside vendors, and cannot leave with beverages purchased inside the arena. The last part of their alcohol management statement deals with management reserving the right to refuse the sale of alcohol to any guest (MSG. com).

While there have been significant sport broadcasting about alcohol related harm at various professional and collegiate sporting events, there is little direct evidence to guide quality practice of such events. Nevertheless, there are a range of strategies that can be generalized from the mainstream research on reducing alcohol related incidents and strategies that have unpretentious biases. This relationship is a complex one, it arises from our interactions among various factors relating to the American culture, our drinking venues and the individual.

Categories
Free Essays

Drinking Culture and Alcohol Consumption

Two-thirds of adolescent and adult Americans drink alcohol, and of those, eight to twelve percent will become problem drinkers. Earl Rochester expresses his point of view on alcohol by suggesting us to issue a drinking license. I agree with Rochester for three main reasons: safety, order, and lives.

The first reason why I agree with Rochester is for the safety of the people. There are many occurrences in the world where a drunken person becomes suddenly enraged and just happens to randomly lash out. Also from my personal experience, when my friend got drunk during a party, he threw a table and almost injured another person. Without safety, there would be no order in our community.

Accompanying material: Social Studies SBA on Alcohol

My second reason why I agree is because of order. Obviously, you cannot maintain proper order when everyone is intoxicated from drinking. Most people go crazy when they are drunk. Surveys taken by family members show that when somebody becomes drunk, their children are in danger of being hurt or also becoming an alcoholic. Order also ties in with the lives of other people.

My final reason I agree with Rochester is for the lives of others. Lives are endangered daily because of the use of alcohol. For example, when one does not have a designated driver, that intoxicated person decides to take the unsafe route and drive under the influence. This puts the life of others, passengers and other people on the streets in danger. The occurrences of death by alcohol is devastation and keeps on increasing every year because of how casually people drink even with their children present.

From safety, to order, to lives, I completely agree with Rochester’s idea, to issue drinking licenses for drinkers to commit to. Doing this will hopefully lessen the danger of drinking and educate the ignorant and foolish about this action.

Categories
Free Essays

Lang’s Alcohol Study: An Analysis

The study conducted by researcher Alan Lang on the effects of alcohol represented one of the first approaches to using the double-blind form of study. A double-blind study is a type of study in which neither the participants nor the experimenters themselves know who has received the treatment.

In Lang’s (1975) study, he and his colleagues pre-tested amounts of vodka and tonic water, and plain tonic water, to determine whether or not the two can be significantly differentiated from one another. After learning that the two were virtually the same in taste, they recruited college men who described themselves as social drinkers to become participants in the study.

Some of the participants drank vodka and tonic water while others drank tonic water alone. It was then revealed in the study that practically half of the men who drank vodka and tonic water thought they were drinking tonic water only, while those who did drink tonic water alone thought their drink was mixed with vodka. The last part of the experiment entailed provoking the participants, and the result was that those who believed that they had drunk vodka displayed more anger than those who thought they had drank tonic water only.

It can be said then that the primary purpose of Lang’s entire study was to discover the effects of alcohol on human behavior. However, his study deviated from the normal process of using alcohol as a means of studying behavior because of the incorporated element of a double-blind. Also, his study could be defined as a correlational one, as it basically sought to find a relationship between the alcohol and the provoked aggressiveness among the participants.

Only a primary source was used, and the subjects in this case were college students of the male gender. As for the selection of the participants for the study however, random selection was not utilized as only men who specifically described themselves as social drinkers were chosen to take part. The reason for this was probably because it was imperative for the results of the study that the participants be drinkers by nature, as only they could effectively have the best chance of differentiating vodka and tonic from tonic water alone. To do random selection would have been difficult as the researchers would have no guarantee as to the drinking preferences of the participants.

The sampling method used was also not stratified, as in stratification, the sample population is first divided into a number of parts or “strata,” in order to relate it to the major variables being studied. The independent variable (IV) in this case is the alcohol given to the participants, whether it was vodka and tonic or plain tonic water alone. The dependent variable (DV) was the response of the participants, specifically the level of aggression displayed in response to the provocation done by the researchers.

The theory for this study is that it was done in order to determine the effects alcohol could have on behavior, regardless of whether it (alcohol) was actually given or if it was merely perceived. A probable hypothesis would be that it the mere perception that alcohol was a part of one’s drink could effectively lead to a change in behavior on the part of the participants, without the need for the actual consumption of the alcohol. As evidenced by the documented results, this is exactly what happened.

While the research is for the most part valid, especially with the use of the double-blind approach, there are nevertheless certain flaws in the procedure and methodology that could be improved upon by those who would later conduct related studies. First of all, the length of time with which the experiment was done could have been lengthened so that there would be more time to test the reactions of the participants. The use of other forms of alcohol other than vodka and tonic water would have also been a welcome addition to the process of the research, as it would lend even more credibility to the results of the study.

The provocation itself could be placed under question; the researchers should have first taken steps to make sure that the provocation would not unknowingly trigger any previously stored extreme emotions. As an example, if one of the participants were black and the provocation was racially charged, this could serve to heighten the aggravated response of the participant as opposed to what would have been only a normal reaction. Perhaps the largest extraneous variable of all was the non-random selection of participants for the study.

While it is noted that the researchers needed participants to be social drinkers to validate the differentiation process, there could have been other ways to better improve selection and reduce bias and other threats to validity. What could have been done was to select a large population of college students randomly and then determine who among those selected were drinkers. From that sample, the researchers could have then applied another randomization process to come up with the final list of participants.

Nevertheless, in summary the Lang study has proven to contribute much to the body of knowledge in psychology, and for all its faults, still remains to be one of the classic psychological experiments worthy of emulation.

Works Cited

Rathus, Spencer. Psychology: Concepts and Connections, 9th Ed.. Thomson and Wadworth, 2007.

Jung, John. Psychology of Alcohol and Other Drugs: A Research Perspective. Sage Publications, Inc., 2000.

Haggert, Steve. Medical Psychology of Alcohol Drinking and Addiction: Index of New Information and References. Abbe Pub Assn. of Washington D.C., 1996

G

Categories
Free Essays

Alcohol Impact on the Fetal Development

Alcohol Impact on the Fetal Development Every year, in the United States of America, between 1000 to 6000 children are born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), that is considered a huge number. (“Drinking alcohol during pregnancy,” 2008). Pregnancy is a very crucial time for the fetus. Women need to take care of the fetus by resting, eating a balanced and diet nutritious and performing some physical exercise. In the world, there are many things that can impact the fetus that women are not aware of and mothers should be cautious.

Alcohol is one of them, expectant mothers should not drink alcohol during pregnancy. The purpose of this research is to explain and discuss the deleterious effects of alcohol on the fetal development during pregnancy. When, Where, How They Discover that Alcohol Has Effect on the Fetus In 1968, a man from France recognized that drinking alcohol during pregnancy may cause Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), name was Lemoin. In 1973 in the United States of America, James and Smith continued the research about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS.

They mentioned that (FAS) affect the fetus growth and cause bad result to the fetus before and after being born (Caleekal, 1989). The scientist discovered Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in some children whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy before 30 years. At that time, they created FAS about alcohol’s effects on the fetus. (NIAAA, 2000). Fortunately, these days with advances in medicine, scientists discover many things having an effect on the fetal development. Many women feel that drinking alcohol during pregnancy is not a big deal.

But, depending on some research, it is not only a big deal but a serious problem that will affect the fetus and will cause FAS to be in fetus. Diseases and Disorders of Drinking Alcohol During Pregnancy The Fetus’s food come from what the mother consumed either bad or good. Women should not drink any types of alcohol during pregnancy or when they are planning to become pregnant because the women might be pregnant and they do not recognize that for a few days. This situation is happening in the United States of America every year to many women. Approximately 50% of pregnancies are unplanned.

Drinking alcohol during pregnancy might cause FAS. Women can protect their children from Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) completely by stopping alcohol use during pregnancy (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010). FAS causes many serious problems and diseases in the fetus such as mental retardation, problems on the heart, weak growth of the fetus, difficulties of understanding and problems in the brain. The mothers should never drink alcohol during their pregnancies, at least the three months of first trimester because these are a dangerous and sensitive time for the fetus.

However, not all the children whose mothers consume alcohol will develop birth defects. Sometimes, it affects their behavior and their lives will be difficult for them. Other effects of FAS are Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBDs) and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ARNDs). ARBDs are the physical problems in the fetus such as heart disease, eyes diseases or organs problems. ARNDs are the learning problems and difficulties in the fetus such as difficulties of understanding or short memory. There is no medicine or treatment for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (“Drinking alcohol during pregnancy,” 2008).

Some researchers discovered that drinking alcohol during pregnancy might cause abortion or premature birth the fetus before the specific time and sometimes kill the fetus. The probability of causing diseases depends on the amount of drinking (“Drinking alcohol during pregnancy,” 2008). According to Henry and Lyn (1984), consuming alcohol during pregnancy may lead to prematurity. They observed drinking more than seven drinks a week during pregnancy may cause preterm delivery. Also, alcohol abuse during pregnancy is associated with decreased birth weight and neurological effects on newborns.

Categories
Free Essays

Edgar Allen Poe Alcohol’

Sam Doueiri Edgar Allan Poe and substance abuse The Bottled Curse Edgar Allan Poe was one of America’s most celebrated poet and story teller. His life started early with misfortune. Both of his parents were already dead, when Edgar was 3 years old. His father died of tuberculosis and his mother died of tuberculosis and pneumonia. He was adopted and attended school until he was 17 years old. He started the abuse of alcohol with 17 and he started gambling.

As his adopting father figured out, he stopped all financial supports of his adopted son. Edgar had to leave the University and he enlisted in the U. S. military, and later obtained a military school. Edgar Allan Poe was expelled from the military school after one year attending. During his time in this school he published his first poetry book. Over the years Poe established a reputation as a writer. Drinking remained a lifelong problem. Edgar adopted a lifestyle which included a constant abuse of alcohol.

Although writing brought him fame, he had to struggle through his whole life with financial issues. Because of the leaking copyright protection to his time, he never was financially rewarded for his excellent masterpieces of poetry and literature. Therefore he struggled through his whole life with money issues. Throughout most of his writings Edgar Allan Poe mentions the abuse of alcohol “I became insane, with long intervals of horrible sanity. During these fits of absolute unconsciousness I drank … God only knows how often or how much.

As a matter of course, my enemies referred the insanity to the drink rather than the drink to the insanity. ” Courtney JF: “Addiction and Edgar Ellen Poe” Med Times 1972; 100:162-163. He started in a young age with the excessive abuse of alcohol, as a classmate recalled: “He would always seize the tempting glass, generally unmixed with sugar or water- in fact, perfectly straight- and without the least apparent pleasure, swallow the contents, never pausing until the last drop had passed his lips. Bonaparte M: “The Life and Works of Edgar Allan Poe”, Imago Pub, London 1949:31-32 Alcohol appears frequently in Poe’s stories, usually connected to some following violent act or event: ” One night, returning home, much intoxicated, from one of my haunts about town, I fancied that the cat avoided my presence. I seized him; when, in his fright at my violence, he inflicted a slight wound upon my hand with his teeth. The fury of a demon instantly possessed me. I knew myself no longer. My original soul seemed, at once, to take its flight from my body; and a more than fiendish malevolence, gin-nurtured, thrilled every fiber of my frame.

I took from my waistcoat-pocket a penknife, opened it, grasped the poor beast by the throat, and deliberately cut one of its eyes from the socket…. When reason returned with the morning- when I had slept off the fumes of the night’s debauchery-I experienced a sentiment half of horror, half of remorse, for the crime of which I had been guilty; but it was, at best, a feeble and equivocal feeling, and the soul remained untouched. I again plunged into excess, and soon drowned in wine all memory of the deed. ” Poe’s “The Black Cat” www. heliterature network. com pages 2-5. In conclusion, Alcohol abuse became a part of Edgar Allan Poe’s life, it affected his writings his perception and his creativity. He went into almost a “Dark Side” in his life and gave little windows of his mind through his literature. It seems almost as if the Alcohol took overhand and had finally a body of mind, from which on the Alcohol himself and parts of Poe’s personality were writing in between two different worlds, the “Dark side” and the “pure and innocent side” of life.

His way of writing very “ Dark” finds an interesting base of making the reader being curious what will happen next. It is” miserable” itself what makes the reader keep reading. Courtney JF: “Addiction and Edgar Ellen Poe” Med Times 1972; 100:162-163. Bonaparte M: “The Life and Works of Edgar Allan Poe”, Imago Pub, London 1949:31-32 Poe’s “The Black Cat” www. theliterature network. com pages 2-5.

Categories
Free Essays

Drug and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults

Running head: REGULATION OF DEVIANCE: DRUG AND ALCOHOL USE Regulation of Deviance: Drug and Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Young Adults Nikkee L Payne University of Nebraska at Lincoln Abstract This paper explores the overall affects that peers, family members, and religious affiliations have among adolescents and young adults when it comes to the use of deviant substances such as drugs and alcohol. Here we will examine the specific affects that peers tend to have on individual adolescents and how subgroups can influence the future of the individual.

We will look at the errors in the limitations placed throughout the different studies done and speculate on what could have been done to better generalize the results. Drug and alcohol use among adolescents and young adults is common and tends to lead to later abuse of said substances. Here we will find better understanding of the overall outcomes of deviant adolescents and their choices that they make about drugs and alcohol in congruency to environmental factors.

Regulation of Deviance: Drug and Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Young Adults There have been numerous studies done on the use of drugs and alcohol within the different cultures and subcultures seen throughout society. Many of these studies tend to focus more so on the young adults and adolescents use of different substances more often than the use across all different age groups. There has been much speculation among many psychologists and sociologists around the different influences of these adolescents and young adults.

Different studies have focused on the influences of peers and parents as well as religion on the use of drugs and alcohol. It is seen that peers tend to have a more direct influence on the use of different substances than that of parents. Research by Bahr, Hoffmann and Yang (2005) shows that the attitudes of the parents tend to affect the overall outcome of adolescent drug use. It is easy to see the correlation between drug use, deviance, and future accomplishments of the adolescents who choose to partake in these deviant acts.

No matter what the choice of substance is there is a direct correlation between the use and committing different deviant acts. Literature Review There are many studies that emphasize the direct connection between adolescent drug use and the influences that family members and peers have on this. According to Walden et al (2004) there is a clear correlation linking parents, peers and substance use among youth. This study attempts to look at the genetic influences versus the environmental influences in question of which is more significant to adolescent sway.

In the study they attempt to illustrate two possible genetic influences that could possibly help explain the connection between peers, parents and what is seen as substance use phenotypes. “First, the associations could be the product of active genotype–environment correlations, wherein individuals gravitate to different environments (or perceive similar environments differently) on the basis of their unique, genetically influenced dispositions. To the extent that risk for early adolescent substance use is influenced by heritable factors (e. g. temperament), selection into deviant peer groups by adolescents with a propensity to use substances would represent an active genotype–environment correlation. Second, the associations could owe to evocative genotype–environment correlations, which occur when individuals elicit reactions from their environments on the basis of their own genetically influenced behavior. For example, an adolescent’s early use of substances (again, as influenced by heritable factors) could negatively impact the relationship between the adolescent and his or her parent(s) by resulting in increased parent–child conflict.

Given the possibility that these putatively environmentally mediated associations could, in fact, result from genotype–environment correlational processes” [ (Walden, McGue, Iacono, Burt, & Elkins, 2004, p. 441) ]. When looking at the results of the study Walden et al (2004) came to the conclusion that these genetic, heritable factors were far less significant than that of the environmental factors to influence youth early youth substance use. The findings here provided a much needed view on the different relationships between peer influence and substance use and parent haracteristics and substance use. The different parenting styles definitely had a great affect on the choices that the youth made when it came to the different uses of substances. It is speculated that the choice of peers can also influence the parent-child interactions and account for relationship problems amongst youth and their parents. There are many positive correlations that came out of this study; however there were limitations on the study that did not account for specific aspects of young adult use of specific substances.

There is an absence of the influence of that of teachers in the environment as well as a lack of an overall representative sample in that it consisted of mostly Caucasians. Also, there was a lack of recognizing the sibling influences possible. For the lack of coverage on the influence of the siblings of the deviant youth Stormshak et al makes up for in her article covering Sibling and Peer Deviance. Here the study looks at the different constructs set in place as predictors of substance use of adolescents; these constructs consist of sibling deviance, warmth, and conflict.

It is also speculated that the sibling relationships will outweigh that of peer relationships when it comes to influencing deviant behavior [ (Stormshak, Comeau, & Shepard, 2004, p. 637) ]. The results compare significantly with that of the hypotheses of the study. Sibling deviance was the more significant forecaster for adolescent substance use in comparison to that of peer influence. They bring up a good perspective on the fact that the antisocial youth, especially those with behavior problems, often are rejected from the main social groups around them; however they usually end up making their own subgroups.

Usually these subgroups are focused on the thing that they have in common; the deviant acts they partake in. This study tends to jump back and forth on the stance of peer groups versus sibling influence on the outcome of the adolescents. However Stormshak does state that sibling relationships comparatively to peer relationships are far more stable and therefore could possibly serve as a more high risk context for adolescents [ (Stormshak, Comeau, & Shepard, 2004, p. 645) ]. One thing that we need to keep in mind is the limitation of age in this study.

Age here can be applied in numerous cases; that is the age of the adolescent at risk as well as the age difference between the youth and their siblings. One thing that the majority of these articles can all agree on is the fact that early initiation of substance use is associated with more addictive behaviors later on in the youth’s lifespan. Often early substance use is associated with more delinquent behavior, academic problems, impairments in the individual’s ability to function as a contributing member of our society, and health problems.

Kumpulainen (2000) gives several examples of different studies done with the conclusion that psychiatric problems reported earlier in the adolescents life is correlated with that of drug use later on in life; also, “mental disorders generally precede the development of addictive disorders” [ (Kumpulainen, 2000, p. 1848) ]. Here she focuses more on the mental state of the individuals and its correlation with the drug use.

One can see that the mental health is significantly lower when it comes to the use of drugs and alcohol earlier in the adolescents life. Again, Kumpulainen (2000) refers to other sources to confirm that addictive behaviors and mental disorders tend to go hand in hand. Additionally, in a separate study by Andrews and Duncan (1997) they address the mental capacity and academic motivation of youth and its inverse relationship with substance use; rather than the mental state of the individual.

Andrews and Duncan’s study had three major constructs to it; focusing on the family relationships, the deviance of the adolescent, and the academic motivation. One of the limitations as well as benefits to the study was the fact that all of the information gathered came from the reports of the mother and the target adolescents [ (Andrews & Duncan, 1997, p. 527) ]. Also, the confine of the individuals mostly being Caucasian and living in single-parent households may slightly skew the overall generalization of the study.

The study comes to the conclusion that there is no significant relationship between alcohol use and that of academic motivation; also, for the other substances of marijuana and cigarettes it is inconclusive to the fact that the results cannot determine which act precedes the other. In that substance use precedes academic motivation or the inverse of this as well. However, they can conclude that the increased use in marijuana and cigarettes does lead to more of a lack of motivation when it comes to academics. [ (Andrews & Duncan, 1997, p. 541) ].

There are two separate longitudinal studies that focus more so on the transitions made from these earlier adolescent years into the later adolescent years and adulthood. Here we look at the friendships and peers to understand the direction in which the adult will end up going. Dishion and Owen (2002) have findings consistent with numerous other studies in that many of these individuals tend to be put into specific peer groups that more regularly use substances [ (Dishion & Owen, 2002, p. 488) ]. One needs to remember that the connection made between these peers with the use of these substances is substantial and tend to be long lasting.

Therefore we can assume that these connections will be significant throughout the individual’s life and not just the adolescent years. Similarly, the study done by Mason, Hitch and Spoth (2009) shows the transition from early to late adolescents in that with the interaction of the proper peer group at age sixteen along with what they see as the negative affect can be a predictor of the amount of substance use in later adolescence. This negative affect that they speak of is alluding to the use of substance to escape or cope with the current reality that each individual may be facing at that time.

This is one of the few studies that hint toward this hypothesis; “other studies have not supported the self-medication hypothesis among teens” [ (Mason, Hitch, & Spoth, 2009, p. 1153) ]. Here you see more of a lack from this study when it comes to the overall assessment of negative affective states. This is where you gain more insight through other articles concerning the actual mental states of individuals and the direct correlation that it has with the use of different substances.

The study done by Dishion and Owen (2002) has fewer limitations on it; their unexpected findings helped to further understand the hypothesis of deviant friendships and the relationship to dangerous drug use. They have seen to have fewer discrepancies when it came to the results and findings. “The Young adult years are a critical transition point for many individuals,” Dishion and Owen (2002) state; this is “when selection of partners, formation of families, and the foundation for the next generation are established” [ (Dishion & Owen, 2002, p. 89) ]. One cannot forget the influence of religion and its effects on the use of what is seen as deviant substances by our different sub-cultures and societies. Walker et al states that, “research has shown religiosity to the a protective factor with regard to substance use and other problem behaviors” [ (Walker, Ainette, Wills, & Mendoza, 2007, p. 84) ]. There are clear indications of differentiation of substance use dependent upon the entirety of the relationship that one has with religion.

When it comes to religion they tend to encourage certain behaviors that are more socially accepted and fewer deviants. Therefore, one can assume that adolescents involved in their religious organizations will be less likely to commit acts of deviance such as use of specific substances. This study is yet another indication of the inverse relationship between religiosity and substance use. Discussion It is clear that there are many factors that come into play when it comes to deviance in adolescents and young adults.

Many of the findings in the articles come to the same conclusions; that is that numerous environmental factors along with that of peer groups, religious groups and family members all come into play. The speculation that the sibling relationship is more significant than that of peer relationships by Stormshak et al. is simply just that, speculation. Looking at the results as a whole we can see that peer relationships are just as significant of that of sibling relationships as well as parent relationships. Peer groups are what help adolescents more or less decide who they would like to be and the activities that they would like to partake in.

Bahr, Hoffmann and Yang (2005) also concluded that “peer drug use had stronger affects than any of the other variables; However, the results [also] showed that the family variables had significant impacts on adolescent drug use as well” [ (Bahr, Hoffmann, & Yang, 2005, p. 545) ]. A major limitation of the majority of the studies would be the ability to generalize them across a number of populations. Many studies are done on Caucasians and also have other specific measures that are not easily able to be generalized across many cultures and subcultures.

In order to fully understand the compete influence on peer, family and religious groups one would need to look at numerous characteristics not just specific sub-groups. Conclusion and Future Study As a whole the amount of research done on peer, family and religious influence is significant enough that we can get a good idea on the overall affects. Substance use among more troubled adolescence is far more common than that of adolescence involved in religious organizations and those who are motivated academically as well.

Those youth who have been labeled as antisocial and having more mental health problems are forced into this more deviant peer group and are more likely to become substance users and abusers later in life. There are clear correlations between deviant peers and drug usage among adolescents. In future studies we should make sure to have a more wide population to study. Not focus as much on the Caucasians and troubled youth. When it comes to troubled youth you need a comparison of what is seen as society as the more angelic adolescents who tend to not get mixed up in substances that are deviant.

Here, however, it is clear that there are many factors that come into play when determining the adolescent’s use of drugs and alcohol. References Andrews, J. A. , & Duncan, S. C. (1997). Examining the Reciprocal Relation Bewteen Academic Motivation and Substance Use: Effects of Family Relationships, Self-Esteem, and General Deviance. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20(6), 523-549. Retrieved from http://0-web. ebscohost. com. library. unl. edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? sid=21d20bb2-d5ad-4a31-8aef-c9c56a727cbf%40sessionmgr10&vid=1&hid=16 Bahr, S. J. Hoffmann, J. P. , & Yang, X. (2005). Parental and Peer Influences on the Risk of Adolescent Drug Use. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 26(6), 529-551. Retrieved from http://www. inspirationsyouth. com/Teen-Substance-Abuse/Parental-and-Peer-Influences-Adolescent-Drug-Abuse. pdf Brook, J. S. , Lukoff, I. F. , & Whiteman, M. (1977). Peer, Family, and Personality Domains as Related to Adolescents’ Drug Behavior. Psychological Reports(41), 1095-1102. Retrieved from http://0-www. amsciepub. com. library. unl. edu/doi/pdf/10. 2466/pr0. 1977. 41. 3f. 109

Categories
Free Essays

Should Alcohol Drinking Age Be Decreased of Increased?

Should alcohol drinking age be decreased of increased? In my opinion it should be decreased because if we are classified as an adult and we are allowed to get married and etc. Why are we not allowed to drink. Lowering the drinking age would teach kids how to be more responsible at a younger age. If kids are just cut off from things, they are just going to find a way around it anyway. Kids just need to learn to do things in moderation. Because unfortunate, adults aren’t responsible with alcohol either.

Maybe if they were not taught that drinking was a “rebel” thing at a young age we wouldn’t have so many alcoholics or so many kids over doing it at parties. People use alcohol for numerous reasons; peer pressure, celebration, anxiety, sadness, boredom, rebellion and insomnia are just a few. Teens fall under the category of “people”. The legal drinking age is currently twenty-one, but illegally drinking age is as low as zero. Why? Is the main question asked? I can assure you the underage drinking age percentage would drop if the age is lowered.

Few reasons for teens drinking are: peer pressure, enjoyment, etc. But the main reason for doing so is “breaking the law”. 87 percent of high school seniors have used alcohol. That means that a large quantity of teens under the age of seventeen to eighteen have used alcohol before. We all know why teens drink, I mean is common since. Just the feel that they get of breaking the law is huge. Being rebel and not following the rules is an important role of a teen’s life.

Consequences are the one that change them, but we don’t want them to experience the consequences of being under the influence of alcohol because we know them and they are fatal. Dying in a car accident and killing others is a mess that we don’t want to clean. Despite the fact that is illegal for young teens to purchase it, they are able to get it through their parent’s own liquor cabinets, unscrupulous store clerks, or older friends who purchase it for them. As we all see, is not hard for teens to obtain alcohol. Why not lower the drinking age then?

I mean any way you put it, they are getting it. We have all heard of the famous saying “we want you to join the military and protect your country. ” Well, you are telling me that I can legally kill someone at the age of eighteen, while I sign up with the military and go to war but I can’t have a sip of alcohol. Due to this none senseless situation, age should be equaled. In other words, if voting and military sign up is eighteen, then drinking should also be eighteen. Besides at the age of eighteen you are legally an adult.

Why can’t we drink then? Drinking age in Australia is eighteen, and in UK is as low as sixteen in restaurants. Studies have showed that those teens/adults are perfectly fine. In fact, Dr. Ruth Engs; professor of Applied Health Sciences at Indiana University in Bloomington, uses this examples to propose the following: “……the drinking age be lowered to about 18 or 19 and permit those of legal age to consume in socially controlled environment such as restaurants and official school and university functions” (direct quote from Dr.

Engs). Drinking age should be lowered, and I know that by lowering it we can drop the percentage of reckless teen alcohol abusers. It is worth trying it , and if everything goes the opposite then change the law once more which is done lots of times, for dumb reasons and raise the drinking age back to twenty-one. Changes are always good most of the times, and I know this one in particular is an excellent one.

Categories
Free Essays

Alcohol Abuse Introduction

Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Signs, Symptoms, and Help for Drinking Problems It’s not always easy to see when your drinking has crossed the line from moderate or social use to problem drinking. But if you consume alcohol to cope with difficulties or to avoid feeling bad, you’re in potentially dangerous territory. Alcoholism and alcohol abuse can sneak up on you, so it’s important to be aware of the warning signs and take steps to cut back if you recognize them. Understanding the problem is the first step to overcoming it. In This Article: * Understanding drinking problems * Signs & symptoms of alcohol abuse Signs & symptoms of alcoholism * Drinking problems and denial * Effects of alcoholism * Getting help for alcohol abuse * When a loved one has a drinking problem Understanding alcoholism and alcohol abuse Alcoholism and alcohol abuse are due to many interconnected factors, including genetics, how you were raised, your social environment, and your emotional health. Some racial groups, such as American Indians and Native Alaskans, are more at risk than others of developing alcohol addiction. People who have a family history of alcoholism or who associate closely with heavy drinkers are more likely to develop drinking problems.

Finally, those who suffer from a mental health problem such as anxiety, depression, or bipolar disorder are also particularly at risk, because alcohol may be used to self-medicate. Since drinking is so common in many cultures and the effects vary so widely from person to person, it’s not always easy to figure out where the line is between social drinking and problem drinking. The bottom line is how alcohol affects you. If your drinking is causing problems in your life, you have a drinking problem. Do you have a drinking problem? You may have a drinking problem if you… Feel guilty or ashamed about your drinking. * Lie to others or hide your drinking habits. * Have friends or family members who are worried about your drinking. * Need to drink in order to relax or feel better. * “Black out” or forget what you did while you were drinking. * Regularly drink more than you intended to. Signs and symptoms of alcohol abuse Substance abuse experts make a distinction between alcohol abuse and alcoholism (also called alcohol dependence). Unlike alcoholics, alcohol abusers have some ability to set limits on their drinking.

However, their alcohol use is still self-destructive and dangerous to themselves or others. Common signs and symptoms of alcohol abuse include: * Repeatedly neglecting your responsibilities at home, work, or school because of your drinking. For example, performing poorly at work, flunking classes, neglecting your kids, or skipping out on commitments because you’re hung over. * Using alcohol in situations where it’s physically dangerous, such as drinking and driving, operating machinery while intoxicated, or mixing alcohol with prescription medication against doctor’s orders. Experiencing repeated legal problems on account of your drinking. For example, getting arrested for driving under the influence or for drunk and disorderly conduct. * Continuing to drink even though your alcohol use is causing problems in your relationships. Getting drunk with your buddies, for example, even though you know your wife will be very upset, or fighting with your family because they dislike how you act when you drink. * Drinking as a way to relax or de-stress. Many drinking problems start when people use alcohol to self-soothe and relieve stress.

Getting drunk after every stressful day, for example, or reaching for a bottle every time you have an argument with your spouse or boss. The path from alcohol abuse to alcoholism Not all alcohol abusers become full-blown alcoholics, but it is a big risk factor. Sometimes alcoholism develops suddenly in response to a stressful change, such as a breakup, retirement, or another loss. Other times, it gradually creeps up on you as your tolerance to alcohol increases. If you’re a binge drinker or you drink every day, the risks of developing alcoholism are greater. Signs and symptoms of alcoholism (alcohol dependence)

Alcoholism is the most severe form of problem drinking. Alcoholism involves all the symptoms of alcohol abuse, but it also involves another element: physical dependence on alcohol. If you rely on alcohol to function or feel physically compelled to drink, you’re an alcoholic. Tolerance: The 1st major warning sign of alcoholism Do you have to drink a lot more than you used to in order to get buzzed or to feel relaxed? Can you drink more than other people without getting drunk? These are signs of tolerance, which can be an early warning sign of alcoholism. Tolerance means that, over time, you need more and more alcohol to feel the same effects.

Withdrawal: The 2nd major warning sign of alcoholism Do you need a drink to steady the shakes in the morning? Drinking to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms is a sign of alcoholism and a huge red flag. When you drink heavily, your body gets used to the alcohol and experiences withdrawal symptoms if it’s taken away. These include: * Anxiety or jumpiness * Shakiness or trembling * Sweating * Nausea and vomiting * Insomnia | * Depression * Irritability * Fatigue * Loss of appetite * Headache | In severe cases, withdrawal from alcohol can also involve hallucinations, confusion, seizures, fever, and agitation.

These symptoms can be dangerous, so talk to your doctor if you are a heavy drinker and want to quit. Other signs and symptoms of alcoholism (alcohol dependence) * You’ve lost control over your drinking. You often drink more alcohol than you wanted to, for longer than you intended, or despite telling yourself you wouldn’t. * You want to quit drinking, but you can’t. You have a persistent desire to cut down or stop your alcohol use, but your efforts to quit have been unsuccessful. * You have given up other activities because of alcohol.

You’re spending less time on activities that used to be important to you (hanging out with family and friends, going to the gym, pursuing your hobbies) because of your alcohol use. * Alcohol takes up a great deal of your energy and focus. You spend a lot of time drinking, thinking about it, or recovering from its effects. You have few if any interests or social involvements that don’t revolve around drinking. * You drink even though you know it’s causing problems. For example, you recognize that your alcohol use is damaging your marriage, making your depression worse, or causing health problems, but you continue to drink anyway.

Drinking problems and denial Is my drinking a problem? by Harvard Health Publications Denial is one of the biggest obstacles to getting help for alcohol abuse and alcoholism. The desire to drink is so strong that the mind finds many ways to rationalize drinking, even when the consequences are obvious. By keeping you from looking honestly at your behavior and its negative effects, denial also exacerbates alcohol-related problems with work, finances, and relationships. If you have a drinking problem, you may deny it by: * Drastically underestimating how much you drink Downplaying the negative consequences of your drinking * Complaining that family and friends are exaggerating the problem * Blaming your drinking or drinking-related problems on others For example, you may blame an ‘unfair boss’ for trouble at work or a ‘nagging wife’ for your marital issues, rather than look at how your drinking is contributing to the problem. While work, relationship, and financial stresses happen to everyone, an overall pattern of deterioration and blaming others may be a sign of trouble.

If you find yourself rationalizing your drinking habits, lying about them, or refusing to discuss the subject, take a moment to consider why you’re so defensive. If you truly believe you don’t have a problem, there should be no reason for you to cover up your drinking or make excuses. Five myths about alcoholism and alcohol abuse Myth #1: I can stop drinking anytime I want to. Maybe you can; more likely, you can’t. Either way, it’s just an excuse to keep drinking. The truth is, you don’t want to stop.

Telling yourself you can quit makes you feel in control, despite all evidence to the contrary and no matter the damage it’s doing. Myth #2: My drinking is my problem. I’m the one it hurts, so no one has the right to tell me to stop. It’s true that the decision to quit drinking is up to you. But you are deceiving yourself if you think that your drinking hurts no one else but you. Alcoholism affects everyone around you—especially the people closest to you. Your problem is their problem. Myth #3: I don’t drink every day, so I can’t be an alcoholic OR I only drink wine or beer, so I can’t be an alcoholic.

Alcoholism is NOT defined by what you drink, when you drink it, or even how much you drink. It’s the EFFECTS of your drinking that define a problem. If your drinking is causing problems in your home or work life, you have a drinking problem—whether you drink daily or only on the weekends, down shots of tequila or stick to wine, drink three bottles of beers a day or three bottles of whiskey. Myth #4: I’m not an alcoholic because I have a job and I’m doing okay. You don’t have to be homeless and drinking out of a brown paper bag to be an alcoholic.

Many alcoholics are able to hold down jobs, get through school, and provide for their families. Some are even able to excel. But just because you’re a high-functioning alcoholic doesn’t mean you’re not putting yourself or others in danger. Over time, the effects will catch up with you. Myth #5: Drinking is not a “real” addiction like drug abuse. Alcohol is a drug, and alcoholism is every bit as damaging as drug addiction. Alcohol addiction causes changes in the body and brain, and long-term alcohol abuse can have devastating effects on your health, your career, and your relationships.

Alcoholics go through physical withdrawal when they stop drinking, just like drug users do when they quit. Effects of alcoholism and alcohol abuse Alcoholism and alcohol abuse can affect all aspects of your life. Long-term alcohol use can cause serious health complications, affecting virtually every organ in your body, including your brain. Problem drinking can also damage your emotional stability, finances, career, and your ability to build and sustain satisfying relationships. Alcoholism and alcohol abuse can also have an impact on your family, friends and the people you work with.

The effects of alcoholism and alcohol abuse on the people you love Despite the potentially lethal damage that heavy drinking does to the body—including cancer, heart problems, and liver disease—the social consequences can be just as devastating. Alcoholics and alcohol abusers are much more likely to get divorced, have problems with domestic violence, struggle with unemployment, and live in poverty. But even if you’re able to succeed at work or hold your marriage together, you can’t escape the effects that alcoholism and alcohol abuse has on your personal relationships.

Drinking problems put an enormous strain on the people closest to you. Often, family members and close friends feel obligated to cover for the person with the drinking problem. So they take on the burden of cleaning up your messes, lying for you, or working more to make ends meet. Pretending that nothing is wrong and hiding away all of their fears and resentments can take an enormous toll. Children are especially sensitive and can suffer long-lasting emotional trauma when a parent or caretaker is an alcoholic or heavy drinker. Getting help for alcoholism or alcohol abuse

If you’re ready to admit you have a drinking problem, you’ve already taken the first step. It takes tremendous strength and courage to face alcohol abuse and alcoholism head on. Reaching out for support is the second step. Whether you choose to go to rehab, rely on self-help programs, get therapy, or take a self-directed treatment approach, support is essential. Recovering from alcohol addiction is much easier when you have people you can lean on for encouragement, comfort, and guidance. Without support, it’s easy to fall back into old patterns when things get tough.

Getting sober is only the beginning Learn about roadblocks to staying sober Watch 3 min. video: Roadblocks to awareness Your continued recovery depends on continuing mental health treatment, learning healthier coping strategies, and making better decisions when dealing with life’s challenges. In order to stay alcohol-free for the long term, you’ll also have to face the underlying problems that led to your alcoholism or alcohol abuse in the first place. Those problems could be depression, an inability to manage stress, an unresolved trauma from your childhood, or any number of mental health issues.

Such problems may become more prominent when you’re no longer using alcohol to cover them up. But you will be in a healthier position to finally address them and seek the help you need. Helping a loved one with alcoholism or alcohol abuse If someone you love has a drinking problem, you may be struggling with a number of painful emotions, including shame, fear, anger, and self-blame. The problem may be so overwhelming that it seems easier to ignore it and pretend that nothing is wrong. But in the long run denying it will be more damaging to you, other family members, and the person with the drinking problem.

What Not To Do * Don’t attempt to punish, threaten, bribe, or preach. * Don’t try to be a martyr. Avoid emotional appeals that may only increase feelings of guilt and the compulsion to drink or use other drugs. * Don’t cover up or make excuses for the alcoholic or problem drinker or shield them from the realistic consequences of their behavior. * Don’t take over their responsibilities, leaving them with no sense of importance or dignity. * Don’t hide or dump bottles, throw out drugs, or shelter them from situations where alcohol is present. * Don’t argue with the person when they are impaired. Don’t try to drink along with the problem drinker. * Above all, don’t feel guilty or responsible for another’s behavior. Adapted from: National Clearinghouse for Alcohol ; Drug Information Dealing with a loved one’s alcohol problem can be an emotional rollercoaster. It’s vital that you take care of yourself and get the support you need. It’s also important to have people you can talk honestly and openly with about what you’re going through. A good place to start is by joining a group such as Al-Anon, a free peer support group for families coping with alcoholism.

Listening to others with the same challenges can be a tremendous source of comfort and support. You can also turn to trusted friends, a therapist, or people in your faith community. * You cannot force someone you love to stop abusing alcohol. As much as you may want to, and as hard as it is to watch, you cannot make someone stop drinking. The choice is up to them. * Don’t expect the person to stop drinking and stay sober without help. Your loved one will need treatment, support, and new coping skills to overcome a serious drinking problem. * Recovery is n ongoing process. Recovery is a bumpy road, requiring time and patience. An alcoholic will not magically become a different person once sober. And the problems that led to the alcohol abuse in the first place will have to be faced. Admitting that there’s a serious problem can be painful for the whole family, not just the alcohol abuser. But don’t be ashamed. You’re not alone. Alcoholism and alcohol abuse affects millions of families, from every social class, race, and culture. But there is help and support available for both you and your loved one.

What Not To Do * Don’t attempt to punish, threaten, bribe, or preach. * Don’t try to be a martyr. Avoid emotional appeals that may only increase feelings of guilt and the compulsion to drink or use other drugs. * Don’t cover up or make excuses for the alcoholic or problem drinker or shield them from the realistic consequences of their behavior. * Don’t take over their responsibilities, leaving them with no sense of importance or dignity. * Don’t hide or dump bottles, throw out drugs, or shelter them from situations where alcohol is present. Don’t argue with the person when they are impaired. * Don’t try to drink along with the problem drinker. * Above all, don’t feel guilty or responsible for another’s behavior. Adapted from: National Clearinghouse for Alcohol & Drug Information When your teen has a drinking problem Discovering your child is drinking can generate fear, confusion, and anger in parents. It’s important to remain calm when confronting your teen, and only do so when everyone is sober. Explain your concerns and make it clear that your concern comes from a place of love.

It’s important that your teen feels you are supportive. Five steps parents can take: 1. Lay down rules and consequences: Your teen should understand that drinking alcohol comes with specific consequences. But don’t make hollow threats or set rules that you cannot enforce. Make sure your spouse agrees with the rules and is prepared to enforce them. 2. Monitor your teen’s activity: Know where your teen goes and who he or she hangs out with. Remove or lock away alcohol from your home and routinely check potential hiding laces for alcohol—in backpacks, under the bed, between clothes in a drawer, for example. Explain to your teen that this lack of privacy is a consequence of him or her having been caught using alcohol. 3. Encourage other interests and social activities. Expose your teen to healthy hobbies and activities, such as team sports, Scouts, and afterschool clubs. 4. Talk to your child about underlying issues. Drinking can be the result of other problems. Is your child having trouble fitting in? Has there been a recent major change, like a move or divorce, which is causing stress? . Get outside help: You don’t have to go it alone. Teenagers often rebel against their parents but if they hear the same information from a different authority figure, they may be more inclined to listen. Try seeking help from a sports coach, family doctor, therapist, or counselor. Next step… Find the right treatment for you. Many effective alcohol treatment options are available, including rehab programs. However, professional help isn’t the only way to get better. There are also plenty of things you can do to help yourself stop drinking and achieve lasting recovery.

Categories
Free Essays

Alcohol Is the Worst Drug in the United States

Alcohol is the Most Dangerous Drug in the United States Alcohol is more harmful than any other drug. Despite this fact, alcohol is still legal in the United States. There are many types of illegal drugs that are well known for their harmful consequences to humans but it is, in fact, alcohol that causes more harm than all of the illegal substances. A 2010 study by the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs ranked alcohol as “most harmful” drug on a list of 20 drugs. Alcohol ranked higher than crack and heroin when the potential harm to individuals and others was examined. Alcohol causes physical, psychological and social problems.

Alcohol is a depressant that affects every part of the human body. Alcohol affects the part of the brain that controls coordination, memory, judgment and decision-making. Each year, more than 5,000 people under the age of 21 die from underage drinking. Another 1,900 die from car accidents. And still more people die from alcohol-related homicides, suicides and other alcohol-induced accidents. Alcohol costs the U. S. over 184. 6 billion dollars in 1998, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. This cost was more than the estimated cost of all other illegal substances put together-$143. billion-during 1998. Although alcohol has been dubbed the most harmful drug, it is not the drug that does the most harm to an individual. In fact, alcohol earned this dubious honor because of the effect that alcohol has on the people around the alcoholic. Herion, crack cocain and metamfetamine are much more harmful to a person’s body than alcohol is. In a later study in the British Medical Journal, alcohol was found to be the fourth most dangerous drug after heroin, crack and crystal meth. This same study deemed alcohol to be the second most dangerous drug to society.

Some people say that alcohol should be banned. Despite the overwhelming evidence that alchol is very bad for indivduals and their loved ones, alcohol remains legal in the U. S. During the 1920’s the US banned alcohol during a time called Prohibition. This policy is considered to have been a failure because it lead to more organized crime, increased alcoholics and negatively impacted the economy. Alcohol continues to be advertised on television and radio, apparently enticing people to continue to buy and drink alchol. Alcohol will always be legal. Alcohol is a big part of our American culture.

It is embraced and celebrated by people of all ages every day. Our country is not prepared to make the consumption of alcohol illegal. Doing so would clog the court systems, lead to corruption of officials and cripple the U. S. econmy due to the lost tax money generated by the sale of alcohol. People do need to be educated on the dangers of alcohol so each person can make the best decision for themselves and their family, which would be to avoid alcohol alcohol all together. References Alaraki, M. (2010). Alcohol is society’s most dangerous drug. Retrieved from http://www. dailyfinance. om/2010/11/01/alcohol-is-societys-most-dangerous-drug/ Nutt, D. J. , (2010). Drugs harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis. The Lancet 376(9752), 1558-1565. Doi: 10. 1016/50140-6736(10)61462-6 Grohol, J. M. (2010). Alcohol the Most Dangerous Drug? Probably not. Retrieved from http://psychcentral. com/blog/archives/2010/11/01/alcohol-the-most-dangerous-drug-probably-not/ Neurobonnkers. (2012). The largest ever study in to drug harms places alcohol in the top four. Retrieved from http://neurobonkers. com/2012/08/06/the-largest-ever-study-in-to-drug-harms-places-alcohol-in-the-top-four/

Categories
Free Essays

Tobacco Advertising Is Illegal but Alcohol Is Not

COMM 3P14 – Media Industries Tobacco Advertising is Illegal, but Advertising for Alcohol is not, Is This Hypocritical? Rebecca Stewart 4574927 Russell Johnston Seminar 3 November 11, 2012 Advertisements are a vital part of any company’s marketing strategy, and are used to inform or persuade an audience about a certain product or service. In fact, North American companies are among the world’s highest advertisers (Boone et al. , 2010, 502). Today, an average consumer is exposed to hundreds of advertisements every day.

It is when these companies attempt to promote a dangerous product that restrictions must be, and have been put in place. For several years, Canada’s regulations on tobacco advertisements have become stricter, while alcohol advertisements are still permitted across multiple mediums. This leads one to question the difference between the two substances, and if this notion is in fact hypocritical. The stakeholders identified in this paper are the viewers and listeners of the advertisements, specifically the youth audience.

The principles involved with alcohol promotion are examined with a lens that incorporates the views of Horkheimer and Adorno’s perspective on advertising. Along with a brief history of tobacco advertising regulations, this paper will discuss the ethical issues involved in alcohol advertising, and evidence to support that alcoholic products are no less of a danger than tobacco, and should have the same advertising restrictions. There is also evidence to suggest that the majority of Canadians are in favour of tighter restrictions on alcohol advertising.

The current hypocritical state of allowing alcohol to be advertised, but removing all tobacco related marketing is further discussed in detail. Literature Review Not only is advertising illegal for tobacco companies, retailers are now obligated to remove these products from sight. Cigarette companies are also no longer permitted to label their product as light or mild on the package (Pollay, 2004, 80). The first Canadian legislation successfully passed in favour of advertising regulations was the Tobacco Act of 1997 (Pollay, 2004, 80).

Health Canada created provisions in this act such as, tobacco products must not be promoted, and all manufacturers must share information about the product’s emissions and health hazards arising from use of the product on the packaging (Health Canada, 2011). The intent of this act was to protect young people and others from being encouraged to try tobacco related products without being informed of the dangers to their health (Polley, 2004, 81). The belief was that tobacco ads were aimed at new smokers, and that companies were trying to attract young people towards their brand.

This idea is plausible because in order to maintain a strong business over a long period of time, new users must be targeted. Further, there is evidence supporting the fact that current smokers are not likely to be converted to another brand, making youth targeted advertisements more likely (Polley, 2004, 83). There was pressure to strengthen the advertising restrictions after countless health risks and deaths were attributed to smoking. “Smoking has been estimated to result in roughly 45,000 deaths annually and is a major cause of respiratory disease, cancer and circulatory disease” (Sen, 2009, 189).

A study conducted by the American Journal of Public Health looked at 481 randomly selected tobacco retailers after the product display ban to understand the changes that resulted in tobacco promotion (Cohen et al. , 2011, 1879). Their study revealed that this ban successfully limited the exposure of tobacco products, and demonstrated the importance of a complete ban on retail tobacco displays (Cohen et al. , 2011, 1880). Clearly, limiting advertising exposure to hazardous products such as cigarettes truly limits consumer exposure, and thus promotes the idea of a healthy public.

Since these ad regulations have proved to be a success, it would likely have a very similar effect when applied to alcohol. Ethics is an essential consideration in the world of advertising. Marketers should make responsible decisions, and not just focus on generating profits, because it is legal. “Ads should address audiences not just as consumers who care about material interests but as citizens who care about social virtues and the public good” (Hove, 2009, 35). The idea of advertising alcoholic beverages is unethical.

While there are mild restrictions in Canada regarding alcohol promotions, there is a demand for more. Some provinces run ads that promote responsible drinking, or the dangers of drinking and driving in an attempt to shed light on alcohol abuse (Boone, 2010, 525). However, these attempts do not cancel out the multitude of beer and liquor advertisements in today’s media. Some alcohol advertisements include the ideology that drinking a certain brand of beer will influence their social class, or improve their quality of life in some way. This is extremely controversial.

An article from the South African Journal of Psychology notes, “there are no laws against [alcohol] advertisements; however, responsible corporate and professional action, would prevent the use of these advertisements from a social and moral standpoint” (Dubihela & Dubihela, 2011, 209). Clearly, an ethical dilemma is present. The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission is one organization that has viewed alcohol advertisements critically. Since 1968 they have required broadcasters to report the number of alcohol related messages broadcasted annually (CRTC, 2011).

The messages also must adhere to their Code for Broadcast of Alcoholic Beverages (CRTC, 2011). This code includes provisions to ensure promotions for alcoholic beverages do not encourage non-drinkers or young people to drink or purchase alcohol, imply a certain brand is superior because of a higher alcohol percentage, and that consumption of alcohol enhances enjoyment of an activity (CRTC 2011). These regulations are far more lenient compared to the restrictions on tobacco advertising.

Advertising Standards Canada has now gained responsibility to review advertisements concerning alcohol to ensure they are in accordance with the CRTC’s code (Darling, 1996). Moreover, alcohol is just as dangerous to society as tobacco. Statistics Canada shows that alcohol use by drivers was a factor in nearly 30% of motor vehicle related deaths from 2003-2005 (Statistics Canada, 2011). Also, deaths from other alcohol related disorders such as cirrhosis of the liver accounted for over 1400 deaths in 2003 (Statistics Canada, 2009).

The most relevant stakeholders in this issue, young people, are severely affected by alcohol use in Canada. In 2011, 13. 2% of Canadian youth ages 12 to 19 fell under the heavy drinker category, that is, consuming 5 or more drinks on one occasion at least once a month (Statistics Canada, 2011). Similarly, “the rate of persons accused of impaired driving offences was highest among young adults between the ages of 19 and 24” (Statistics Canada, 2011). Additionally, 28. 8% of Canadian students admitted to being driven by someone who was legally impaired (Statistics Canada, 2011).

Many Canadians support the public opinion that seeks to enforce stricter regulations when it comes to alcohol products. A study from the Drug and Alcohol Review Journal reports that 50. 1% of Canadians agree with prohibiting alcohol advertising (Macdonald et al. , 2011, 653). Similarly, 47. 4% thought the current legal drinking age of nineteen should be increased, and 40. 1% believed taxes on alcoholic beverages should be raised (Macdonald et al. , 2011, 653). These kinds of changes would make alcohol less available or attractive to young adults.

The CRTC’s report that outlines the framework for their advertising regulations states, “parties argued that excessive alcohol consumption is as dangerous as smoking and, therefore, should be treated in the same way: the consumer should be warned of the dangers associated with abusive consumption” (Darling, 1996). Clearly, encouraging the sale of any product that can cause this kind of harm is morally irresponsible. Evidently, many Canadians believe alcohol is a dangerous substance that should not be easily accessible to young people. Establish an Interpretive Context

This research is used to establish whether or not a bias exists. The death and disease rate caused by both alcohol and tobacco is examined to prove that hypocrisy is present. Harmful effects caused by the use of alcohol and tobacco is compared to uncover why this imbalance of advertising restriction is unjust. This is not to say that tobacco products should be reintroduced, but that both substances should be eliminated from media advertising altogether. Furthermore, the views of actual Canadians are considered because this fosters a public sphere and forms a widespread opinion on the issue.

Also taken into account is the amount of time spent with media by Canadians and specifically young people. Statistics that outline hours spent watching television and surfing the web will be considered. The best outcome for this situation is to restrict alcohol advertisements based on the same grounds outlined in the Tobacco Act. Discussion After reviewing the available data, it is clear an unjust bias exists. The position of this discussion remains that alcohol should be eliminated from advertising for the same reasons tobacco is.

Tobacco has been restricted from advertising based on major health concerns, and in an attempt to deter youth from smoking. These same properties are present, and even heightened, with alcohol. “Some parties, including government representatives, stated that anyone involved with the sale of alcoholic beverages should have the opportunity to advertise their products” (Darling, 1996). Since evidence categorizes both alcohol and tobacco as dangerous substances, both should be treated the same way with regards to advertising.

Alcohol has proven to be even more dangerous than tobacco in some cases. The immediate effects are particularly alarming. Consumption of alcohol can alter one’s state of mind, causing negative health effects, accidents and addiction in some cases. The Canadian Public Health Association reports, “drinking too much alcohol in a short period of time can lead to poor judgment, impulsive behaviour and alcohol poisoning” (CPHA, 2008). Alcohol poisoning can contribute to long-term health problems and even death. Also of concern are the permanent consequences of long term drinking.

Serious conditions such as, brain damage, certain cancers, cirrhosis of the liver, and sexual problems are attributed to alcohol abuse (CPHA, 2008). In addition to life threatening illnesses, withdrawal symptoms can also occur when heavy drinkers suddenly stop consuming alcohol. These symptoms include but are not limited to insomnia, sweating, tremors, and convulsions (CPHA, 2008). Clearly the additive properties of alcohol are similar to tobacco, and should therefore be handled the same way in advertisement laws. Problems with mental health can also be found with alcohol abuse.

According to the Canadian Community Health Survey, “fifteen percent of people who were alcohol-dependent have experienced major depressive episodes” (Tjekpema, 2004). Also, women who consume alcohol while pregnant are of grave concern. Regular alcohol intake during pregnancy can lead to miscarriages, low birth weight, and genital malformations in boys (Damgaard et al. , 2007, 272). “Children born to women who consume alcohol during pregnancy may exhibit a range of abnormalities and developmental deficits that together are termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders” (Kobor & Weinberg, 2011, 29).

These preventable defects are another reason why alcohol should be considered as dangerous as tobacco. Overall, the negative statistics for alcohol are no less alarming than they are for tobacco. In 2011, 10. 1% of 15 to 17 year olds considered themselves smokers (Statistics Canada 2011). This is substantially lower than the 13. 2% of Canadian youth who fall under the category of heavy drinkers, not to mention the 30% of motor vehicle accidents that are alcohol related. These contrasting statistics speak for themselves, and prove the hypocritical nature of only banning tobacco advertising.

Alcohol brands use effective marketing strategies that specifically reach a youth audience, the main stakeholder in this issue. Since the ‘young market’ is attractive to advertisers, their ads frequently catch the eye of people aged 15 to 34 (Novak, 2004). Celebrity endorsements are one way marketers attempt to sell their product to young people. Dan Aykroyd, Zak Galifianakis, and Will Ferrell are just a few celebrities who have endorsed popular alcohol brands (Novak, 2004).

These people are relevant to Canadian youth, and they may be inclined to purchase the same brand of alcohol as one of their favourite celebrities. Moreover, 20. 1% of males and females ages 18 to 22 claimed to watch 15 or more hours of television per week (Statistics Canada, 2007). This is a large portion of young people who are subject to the dozens of alcohol advertisements broadcast each day. Alcohol advertisements are not limited to radio and television broadcasting. Many brands are turning to the Internet and social media to promote their products. This is problematic.

According to a 2009 survey by Statistics Canada, 82. 9% of Canadians ages 34 and younger claimed to use the Internet at lease once a day, and 86% of these users went online for social media purposes (Statistics Canada, 2009). The government should implement restrictions on encouraging the sale of alcohol to a youth audience. They act as a legitimate spokesperson because they look out for citizen’s best interests. The reasoning behind banning tobacco advertising stemmed from the health hazards and dangers associated with smoking, and the same should be true for alcohol.

Some parties argue that there is no scientific evidence linking advertising to overconsumption or underage drinking. If this is true, then the same can be said for tobacco products. However, polls taken in 2011 show that tobacco use fell rapidly amongst teenagers 15 to 19 years of age, shortly after the ban was placed (Goldfarb, 2011, 209). If these restrictions were applied to alcohol products, similar results could be expected. This issue fits into the realm of communication theory. As Horkheimer and Adorno proclaim, the direction of society, “is incarnate in the subjective purposes of company directors.

Production is geared primarily towards profit, not towards the satisfaction of human need or use value” (Johnston, lecture, 2012). Advertising executives constantly make decisions based purely on profit instead of taking culture into consideration. Their ads are intended to increase sales and attract new customers of any age. This is problematic on a youth audience. These theorists proclaim that the audience has no choice in the matter (Johnston, lecture, 2012). “If all culture is enmeshed in the capitalist marketplace then all cultural products espouse the ruling ideology” (Johnston, lecture, 2012).

This ideology is business. The government needs to intervene in this cycle so that ethics and moral responsibility are taken into consideration, just as they were with the tobacco advertisement ban. Conclusion If tobacco advertising was banned because it was considered wrong to encourage a habit that causes such detrimental effects, should not the same be true for alcohol? This bias is hypocritical because the government deemed it necessary to intervene when it came to tobacco advertising, and alcohol should not be overlooked.

Smoking and alcohol consumption take away people’s lives at the height of their productivity (Jiloha, 2012, 65). By keeping these activities out of the media, youth can be deterred from engaging in them. In fact, advertising has profound consequences. Its persuasiveness and lack of information give audiences a false sense of what the product at hand really is (Hove, 2009, 36). Advertising experts should focus their attention on directing youth audiences against dangerous habits such as smoking and drinking, instead of encouraging them through advertising.

While there is no scientific link connecting advertising to over consumption of alcohol, the decrease in young smokers as previously mentioned after the tobacco retail display ban gives reason to assume the same could be true for alcohol. If tighter restrictions are put in place to limit promotion of these products, it could help discourage Canadians from underage drinking, or over consumption. The current state of applying restrictions only to the tobacco industry is hypocritical when compared to the equally dangerous properties of alcohol. Works Cited Boone, Kurtz, Mackenzie & Snow (2010).

Advertising and Public Relations. Contemporary Marketing, Second Canadian Edition. Toronto: Nelson Education. 500-532. Canada’s Public Health Association. How does alcohol affect health? Canada’s Public Health Leader. November 1, 2012 URL: http://www. cpha. ca/en/portals/substance/health/faq01. aspx Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunication Commission. (August 1, 1996). Code for Broadcast Advertising of Alcoholic Beverages. November 2, 2012, URL: http://www. crtc. gc. ca/eng/general/codes/alcohol. htm Damgaard, I. N. , Jensen, T. K. , Petersen, J. H. , Skakkeb? k, N. E. , Toppari, J. Main, K. M. , & The Nordic Cryptorchidism Study, G. (2007). Cryptorchidism and Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(2), 272-277. Dubihlela, J. , & Dubihlela, D. (2011). Youth attitudes towards advertisements depicting nudity and alcohol: ethical dilemmas in advertising. South African Journal Of Psychology, 41(2), 207-217. Goldfarb, A. , & Tucker, C. (2011). Advertising bans and the substitutability of online and offline advertising. Journal Of Marketing Research, 48(2), 207-227. doi:10. 1509/jmkr. 48. 2. 207 Health Canada. (2011).

Tobacco Act. Health Canada. November 1, 2012, URL: http://www. hc-sc. gc. ca/hc-ps/tobac-tabac/legislation/federal/tobac-tabac-eng. php Hove, T. (2009). ADVERTISING, ETHICS, AND THE CITIZEN-CONSUMER. American Academy Of Advertising Conference Proceedings, 35-36. Jiloha, R. C. (2012). Tobacco smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem?. Indian Journal Of Psychiatry, 54(1), 64-68. doi:10. 4103/0019-5545. 94651 Johnston, R. (2012 September). The Public Sphere. Lecture conducted from Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario. Kobor, M. S. , & Weinberg, J. (2011).

FOCUS ON: EPIGENETICS AND FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS. Alcohol Research & Health, 34(1), 29-37. MacDonald, S. , Stockwell, T. , & Luo, J. (2011). The relationship between alcohol problems, perceived risks and attitudes toward alcohol policy in Canada. Drug And Alcohol Review, 30(6), 652-658. doi:10. 1111/j. 1465-3362. 2010. 00259. x Novak, J (2004) Alcohol Promotion and The Marketing Industy. York Univeristy: The Association to Reduce Alcohol Promotion in Ontario. Pollay, R. W. (2004). Considering the Evidence, No Wonder the Court Endorses Canada’s Restrictions on Cigarette Advertising.

Journal Of Public Policy ; Marketing, 23(1), 80-88. Sen, A. (2009). Estimating the impacts of household behavior on youth smoking: evidence from Ontario, Canada. Review Of Economics Of The Household, 7(2), 189-218. doi:10. 1007/s11150-008-9046-11 Statistics Canada. (2007). Prevalence of and adjusted odds ratios for viewing television 15 or more hours per week, by selected characteristics, household population aged 20 years or older. November 1, 2012. URL: http://www. statcan. gc. ca/pub/82-003-x/2008002/article/10600/t/5202428-eng. htm Statistics Canada (2009).

Internet use by individuals, by selected frequency of use and age. November 1, 2012. URL: http://www. statcan. gc. ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/comm32a-eng. htm Statistics Canada (2009). Deaths by cause. October 31, 2012. URL: http://www5. statcan. gc. ca/cansim/pick-choisir? lang=eng;p2=33;id=1020525 Statistics Canada. (2011). Heavy Drinking by age group and sex. November 1, 2012. URL: http://www. statcan. gc. ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/health79a-eng. htm Tjepkema, M. (2004). In Alcohol and Illicit Drug Dependence. Statistics Canada, Catalogue 15.

Categories
Free Essays

Alcohol and Tobacco

Alcohol and tobacco use is becoming more common every day in our society. The media is continuously advertising tobacco companies and different brands of alcohol, while the government is continuously sending warning messages about the harm that alcohol and tobacco can cause. Tobacco can forever damage you’re your internal organs, while alcohol can cause major damage to your body as well as the people surrounding you. Although the public knows about the negative effects of these products, people still continue to use the substances without thinking twice.

These products are legal if you are of age, so people will continue to experiment with alcohol and tobacco. On the other hand, drugs are not legal and are not advertised all over the media because they are prohibited in our society. If drugs were legal, experimentation and usage of these dangerous and deadly drugs would skyrocket. The usage of alcohol and tobacco is legal, but the usage of drugs should be prohibited in the United States. A theory is that if a person tries one drug such as marijuana, there is a high likelihood that that person will eventually try a harder drug such as cocaine.

This is a very scary thought. If drugs were legal, many more individuals would be trying them. The media would be advertising cocaine like it was voldka. There is a large difference between these two products. People would feel like it was okay to experiment with the drug because its usage was legal. This could be harmful, because everyone can have a different effect to each drug. Drugs such as cocaine and heroin are highly addictive and dangerous. They not only cause damage to the person using but also to surrounding people.

I am not trying to undersize alcohol and the damage it can cause, but at least there are laws against driving while intoxicated so that you can prevent yourself from harming another individual. Tobacco use affects your body in the long run, but other than second hand smoke, it does not directly put others in danger. Certain drugs can make a person spiral out of control and make them do certain things that they would never do if they were clean. A counter viewpoint is that drugs should be legalized because it is a person choice to use or consume whatever they wish.

Advocates of legalizing drugs say that people will use drugs if they have the desire to whether it is legal or illegal. They mention that what is the difference between tobacco and alcohol versus drugs. Alcohol can be just as damaging to other people as drugs can be sometimes. The United States is a free country where we can speak how we feel and do how we feel and no one can tell us how to live our life. They say that if people want to use alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs, they should have the freedom to do so. Both sides make valid points, but I definitely feel that drug usage would contaminate our society even more.

Categories
Free Essays

Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Tavish Hower Mr. Peterson [email protected] com English 101 11 December 2012 Teenage Alcohol and Drug Abuse Every hour, over 3,500 teenagers try drugs for the first time. (Drug facts) This outrageous statistic sadly applies to many of my classmates and peers. Through first hand experiences and other people’s mistakes, I have learned the dangers of teen alcohol and drug abuse. In Desert Mountain High School alone, over 50 percent of the 20 students I asked smoke marijuana on a fairly regular basis. Marijuana is known to decrease productivity and motivation which is extremely dangerous to the minds of potential young scholars.

Whether or not the cause seems to be justified, most teens do not realize the harm they are causing themselves and the people who love them when they abuse drugs and alcohol. The source of teen drug use is different in almost every case. However, drug use generally starts among young people due to stress and issues with self- confidence and fitting in. At a school like Desert Mountain High School, where popularity seems to be more important than academics, one can easily see how drugs can be a gateway to make friends and gain social status. “When I got to high school things changed.

I felt distant from people, and had to fight harder to have friends — and I was shy all the time. Then I began hanging out with older kids, going to parties and skipping school. My parents didn’t like my new friends and enforced strict rules. I quit school and my relationship with my family fell apart. I started smoking pot and drinking heavily. I was taking mushrooms and acid daily. Finally I wasn’t shy around people anymore. I had more “friends” than ever before and for the first time I felt like I was a part of something. People wanted to hang out with me.

I felt cool. ” (Check yourself) In some cases, students are quoted as saying “I only smoke because my parents are too protective of me. ” This logic cannot be reasonable because although young people seem to believe their parents are controlling, they are usually just looking out for their child’s best interests. Parents are smart enough to know the dangerous impacts that drugs and alcohol can have on their kids for the rest of their lives. But all teens need is a reason to do it. Some of the ways you can tell a friend or classmate has started to abuse drugs are obvious.

Others are not quite so visible. Teens have different ways of exhibiting drug use. Some of these include fatigue, health complaints, red eyes, coughing, personality changes, irritability, poor judgment, depression, and lack of interest. (Just think twice) Fatigue is a major problem among young drug users because it prevents them from accomplishing their goals, whether those goals are athletic, academic, or otherwise. Drugs have the ability to take over a person’s identity by causing users to become both dependent and obsessed with reaching new “highs. “One night I couldn’t find anything — no pills, no pot, I even looked for coke. Eventually I stumbled across heroin and snorted it. Some people told me that the high was a million times better if you shot it. So I did. Two seconds after pushing the heroin into my veins I felt like G-d. Nothing in the whole world compared to this experience. I fell in love. ” (Check yourself) Teens often overlook the many health problems associated with drug and alcohol dependency. Over time, drugs can cause separation from reality and eventually loved ones.

Persistent usage of the now popular drug ecstasy causes drainage of spinal fluids and apparent hallucinations, eventually crippling its users. (Just think twice) Other drugs like heroin and methamphetamine have instant negative effects on their users. Meth users lose their teeth and start to look older then they are while heroin users turn pale and completely lose interest with the world around them. Teens are attempting to escape their realities at the unfortunate costs of their own health. I lost a lot of weight and stayed up all night, tweaked out in my room. I started stealing cash from my parents, tried mushrooms, LSD, and cocaine. I dropped everything: school, soccer. I was out having fun and I really didn’t care. ” (Check yourself) Works Cited 1. ) “DRUG FACTS. ” Drug Facts. N. p. , n. d. Web. 19 Dec. 2012. 2. ) “Drug Stories | CheckYourself. ” Drug Stories | CheckYourself. N. p. , n. d. Web. 19 Dec. 2012. 3. ) “Just Think Twice. You’ve Heard the Fiction, Now Learn the Facts. ” Just Think Twice. N. p. , n. d. Web. 19 Dec. 2012.

Categories
Free Essays

Social Studies Sba on Alcohol Abuse

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The successful completion of this study is as a result of the helping hands of numerous individuals. I thank the people of Community X for their massive cooperation in answering the questionnaires given. Also , to my friends, who helped with the distribution of the questionnaires and my family for the giving me the hope and strength to persevere. Lastly, much gratitude is extended to my teacher for guiding me in every step of the way throughout my investigations.

Social studies SCHOOL BASED ASSESSEMENT (S. B. A. ) [pic] Statement of the Problem What are the causes, effects and solutions of the usage of alcohol amongst individuals of Community X? Method of Investigation I have chosen the questionnaire as a means of collecting data to carry out the survey.

The questionnaire has numerous advantages which include the following: • It is done at the convenience of the person completing it. • Requires very little time to be completed. • Guarantees confidentiality , since no names are required. Instrument used to collect Data Copy Of Questionnaire Survey of alcohol usage among individuals in Community X. Dear Villager,

This is a survey being carried out in Community X to determine the level of alcohol usage among individuals in the community. This study I am currently pursuing, is conducted as an assignment for a Social Studies course. I advise you to answer the questions given, truthfully and honestly since you are not required to write names.

There are no wrong or right answers as this is not a test. Most answers require a tick in the small boxes provided ; read the questions carefully. Villager’s Questionnaire 1. Sex Male Female 2. What is your occupation? ____________ 3. To what Ethnic group do you belong?

African Descent Chinese Descent Indian Descent Mixed Descent 4. How long have you been a member of Community X? __________________ 5. To what age group do you belong? Under 12 12-14 15-16 17-19 6.

As a youth, which of the following influences you to consume alcohol? Peer pressure For the fun of it Out of curiosity Depression 7. When do you often consume alcohol? Special Occasions Partying To gain popularity I do not drink alcohol . Do problems in the home contribute to students drinking alcohol? Yes No 9. What normally happens when you consume alcoholic beverages? I feel tipsy I feel normal I have headaches I do not drink alcohol 10. How do you think the students of Community X get alcoholic beverages?

It is made available at community shops An older sibling/friend is asked to purchase it for them They steal it away They are given the consent 11. What is the most common effect caused by drinking? STD’s Being an alcoholic Having Heart disease Death 2. What effect does known cases of alcohol drinking in Community X, have on the rest of its population? _________________________________________________ . 13. How does alcohol consumption affect a student’s academic performance? They work less Nothing is done They work harder They give up on school 14. Do students who drink alcohol show signs of aggressive behaviour? Yes No 15.

What do you suggest to your fellow community members who have already started to drink? Tone down their intake Drink responsibly Stop drinking Seek professional help 16. Should the age of consent for drinking be increased? Yes No 17. Do you think Rehabilitation Centers should be considered for alcoholics?

Yes, but it will not be fully effective No, It will not help Let them suffer the consequences Have counsel sessions instead Presentation and Interpretation of Data [pic]Fig 1. The causes of alcohol consumption is simply represented in Fig 1; this figure briefly explains that 45% of the people in Community X consume alcoholic beverages for minor influences as the simple fun and njoyment that comes with the pleasures of drinking. One the other hand, 20% indicate that the partake of the activity as a result of Peer Pressure where individuals, mostly teenagers, drink because they either think it is “cool” or o prove a point. However, 30% population specified that they “drink” for the little curiosity of finding out what other individuals get, feel or benefit from it, this being. Mainly just experimenting the activity. A smaller 5% say they drink alcohol because of Depression because alcohol is known to somewhat relieve the stress that causes Depression. pic]Fig2 Whereby the effects of consuming Alcohol are concerned, almost half of the population indicate that no harm is done, as 55% of them feel normal after their intake of the substance. And so, this could be one of the reasons, the level of consumption in the community should be monitored. 5 % of them say they feel tipsy, an eerie felling, that may cause them to intake alcohol regularly. However, a few of them seem to be affected as 10% of the population state that they have headaches which may discourage them to do so. Another 10% indicate that they simply do not drink alcohol, mainly because of religion and other personal reasons. pic]Fig3 In order to manage the level of alcohol usage in Community X. Fig 3 shows that 70% of Its members indicate that the individuals who already drinking, should drink responsibly Suggesting that they should look at the consequences of whether it be becoming an alcoholic or getting drunk. Another 15% say they these individuals should simply tone down their intake of by drinking less of the substance.

On the other hand, the remainder of the population , 15%, indicated more drastic measures to the solution. Fig 3 shows that 10% of them say people should just stop drinking while the other 5% believe they should seek professional help. These responses therefore can be interpreted as the respondents knowing someone who drink too much.

Procedures Used to Collect Data Community X has an estimated number of 130 individuals; due to calculations, it was discovered that 15% of the population was needed in order to gather possible causes, effects, and solutions to the level of alcohol usage in the community. That is, ( 15% of 130 =20 ) Therefore, a total of 35 questionnaires were distributed with the expectation that at least 20 would be returned. Later, it was decided that the questionnaires be given to random personnel.

This resulted in the recording of information on each individual on small pieces of paper, placed in a box, shaken and a total of 35 slips were selected. Therefore, 35 individuals received a copy of the questionnaire, were successfully completed and left in my mailbox 4 Hart Rd. Cheleston Gardens. Findings The survey carried out resulted in numerous interesting discoveries due to the level of alcohol usage in Community X. These state: Alcohol is consumed mainly through social activities where 70% of the individuals indicate that they partake of alcoholic beverages when “partying”. • The most common effect known caused by drinking is neutral between 1. Becoming an alcoholic 2. Being sexually active at an early age. Which was I therefore observed that the questionnaires have revealed a 50-50% ratio. • The individuals of Community X believe that in order for the level of alcohol be decreased, Rehabilitation Centers should be established.

However, all 100% of the people who agree, stated that it will not be fully effective for the common reason that the alcoholics will not endure the necessary procedures that will be required. Recommendations The level of alcohol usage should not be taken lightly, as many young people in Community X are partaking of the activity when are far too young to be drinking.

That said, I would recommend to this community that the decreasing level of alcohol us be accomplished through two simple objectives. These objectives include: ? Allowing adults of the community to take on leadership qualities whereby they look out for children who they see with alcoholic beverages and hinder them from consuming it. More specifically to shopkeepers, since in recent survey it is proven that most individuals especially children receive alcohol by the availability of such beverages in the community shops. Talk to individuals about drinking as little talks can do great things. There are people who are willing to listen. Parents will see to it that their children go to these sessions and ensure that they understand the dangers of drinking. ———————– Pie Chart Showing Causes Of Alcohol Consumption 20% 30% 5% 45% Peer Pressure Out of Curiosity Depression For the fun of it Chart Showing Effects of Alcohol Consumption In Community X. I feel tipsy 25% I have headaches 10% I feel normal 55% I do not drink alcohol 10% I feel tipsy I have headaches I feel normal I do not drink alcohol