Free Essays

Amiri Baraka and the Black Arts Movement

The Postwar 1920s was decade of the “New Negro” and the Jazz Age “Harlem Renaissance,” or first Black Renaissance of literary, visual and performing arts. In the 1960s and 70s Vietnam War and Civil Right era, a new breed of black artists and intellectuals led what they called the Black Arts Movement. The Black Arts Movement came into being even as the rift between the black and white society in America widened in the 1960’s, in the wake of Civil Rights movement, shaking the country’s political and social stability.

In fact, the history of African American poetry in the twentieth century can be divided not into two but three generations: the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and early 1930s, the post-Renaissance poetry of the 1940s and 1950s, and the Black Arts movement of the 1960s and 1970s. The Harlem Renaissance was the first major flowering of creative activity by African American writers, artists, and musicians in the twentieth century. In the 1940s and 1950s, there was  a revival of African American verse, led by Melvin Tolson, Gwendolyn Brooks, and Robert Heyden.

Finally, a third wave of African American poetry emerged in the late 1960s with the Black Arts movement or Black Aesthetic. It was motivated by the newly emerging racial and political consciousness (Neal 236). Poets such as Amiri Baraka, June Jordan, Nikki Giovanni, Sonia Sanchez, Audre Lorde, Ishmael Reed , and Michael S. Harper produced poetry that was rawer in its language form and also often carried sharp, militant messages. While the Harlem Renaissance was the literary avant-garde movement, the Black Arts Movement was the poetic avant-garde of the 1960’s.

The Black Arts movement — also known as the New Black Consciousness, and the New Black Renaissance — began in the mid-1960s and lasted until the mid-1970s, though it lingered on for a while thereafter, even spreading into the 80s. The poetry, prose fiction, drama, and criticism written by African Americans during this period expressed a boldly militant attitude toward white American culture and its racist practices and ideologies. Slogans such as “Black Power,” “Black Pride” and “Black is Beautiful” represented a sense of political, social, and cultural freedom for African Americans, who had gained not only a heightened sense of their own oppression but also a greater feeling of solidarity with other parts of the black world: African and the Caribbean. The young artists of the Black Artists Movement were fighting for a cultural revolution (Woodard “Amiri Baraka” 60).

The new spirit of militancy and cultural separatism that characterized the racial politics of the late 1960s had profound effects on the way African American poetry was written. There was pressure on African American poets, more than ever before, to produce work that was explicitly political in nature and that addressed issues of race and racial oppression. The Black Arts movement was strongly associated with the Black Power movement and its brand of radical and revolutionary politics.

The emergence of Black Power as a mass slogan signaled a fundamental turning point in the modern Afro-American liberation struggle, carrying it to the threshold of a new phase.

– Harry Haywood, Black Bolshevik (Quoted in Woodard “A Nation Within” 69)

The Black Arts and the Black Power movement was further galvanized into action by the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King , Jr. and by the angry riots and the burning of inner cities that ensued. (Wynter 109). The writers and artists of the Black Arts Movement had gone much further than Harlem Renaissance in asserting the larger political and spiritual identity of the Black people. Above all, Blacks tended to refuse to be judged by the dominant white standards of beauty, value and intelligence anymore (Leon 28).

In the poems and critical statements of Amiri Baraka, Larry Neal and others, there was a new level of racial consciousness, and clearer process of self-definition. Their voice did not limit itself to  negative protest, but positively sought to provide a new vision of freedom. The young black poets of the Movement turned away from the formal or modernist styles of earlier black poets and promoted a poetic form that reflected the rawness of the streets. Most prominent among these poets were Amiri Baraka, Audre Lorde, Nikki Giovaani, Don L. Lee (Haki Madhubuti), Etheridge Knight, David Henderson, June Jordan, Ishmael Reed, Michael S. Harper, Clarence Major, Sonia Sanchez, Kayne Cortex, and Lucille Clifton.

The dominant theme in African American poetry, has always been that of liberation, whether from slavery, from segregation, or even from a wish for integration into the mainstream white middle-class society. Another important theme in African American poetry has been the concern with a spiritual or mystical dimension, whether in religion, African mythology, or musical forms like hymns, blues, and jazz. Because the ‘mystical’ presented a greater sense of freedom, in contrast to the oppression of the ‘political’ and the ‘social’. The black avant-garde of the 60’s was rooted in the contemporary popular African American spiritual practices. James Stewart, in his essay “The Development of the Black Revolutionary Artist” in the anthology of Afro-American writing Black Fire, stresses on the nature and significance of the spirit:

That spirit is black

That spirit is non-white.

That spirit is patois.

That spirit is Samba.


The black Baptist church in the South.

(quoted in Smethurst 65)

Moving from spirit, when it comes to the word the twentieth century black poetry involved references to both colloquial black speech, in terms of style and structure,. The young black poets of the 1960s focused much more heavily on the colloquial aspects of speech than their predecessors. They stressed  on the contemporary idiom of urban blacks, on references to specifically black culture and cultural practices, and on a realistic depiction of life in inner cities. These poems embodied a form of language and a depth of experience that was unfamiliar to most white readers. It is also clear that often the intent of the poem involved, at least in part, shocking the readers.

During the epoch of slavery, white Americans regarded speech differences as an indication of black inferiority. Black people were stereotypically presented as speaking gibberish, and when they did make attempts at standard English, the results was scoffed at. Many nineteenth-century African American writers concentrated on demonstrating their command of standard English as a political defense against equating black speech with intellectual inferiority.  But others such as Paul Laurence Dunbar and Charles Chesnutt used dialect to express the authenticity of expressive black vernacular. During the 1920s Harlem Renaissance, and subsequently in a more intensified manner in the 1960s Black Arts Movement, African American writers became more intent on celebrating and capturing the nuances of black speech.

Arguably, the most influential of the new black poets was Amiri Baraka. Born Leroi Jones in Newark, New Jersey, in 1934, Baraka published under that name until 1968. After graduating from Howard University, Baraka served in the Air Force until the age of twenty-four, when he moved to Greenwich Village in New York City and became part of the avant-garde literary scene, making friends with poets such as Allen Ginsberg, Charles Olson, and Frank O’Hara.

During this period, Baraka was more drawn to the poetry and ideas of the Beats and other white avant-garde movements than to the politics of black separatism; he married a white woman; he wrote poems, essay, plays, and a novel within the context of the Beat counterculture; and he edited two magazines. However, Baraka’s interest in racial issues was clear even in the early 1960s, as evidenced in his historical study Blues People: Negro Music in White America (1963) and in plays such Dutchman (1964) and The Slave (1964).

In the mid-1960’s, Baraka was deeply affected by the death of Malcom X, and subsequently changed the focus of his life. He divorced and moved to Harlem, he converted to the Muslim faith and took a new name (Charters 469). He then founded the Black Arts Repertory Theater/School in New York City and Spirit House in Newark. He became the leading spokesman for the Black Arts movement. He was nearly beaten to death in the Newark race riots of 1967. In 1968, Baraka co-edited Black Fire: An Anthology of Afro-American Writing, which included social essays, drama, and fiction as well as poetry. In 1969, he published his poetry collection Black Magic Poetry: 1961 – 1967.

Baraka’s poetry changed radically during the 1960s, as he turned from a vague sense of social alienation to a revolutionary vision which reflected deep affinity to black culture. Baraka’s most famous poem is “Black Art” (1966) and has been called the signature poem of the Black Arts Movement, though critics tend to be strongly divided on it.

Fuck poems

and they are useful, wd they shoot

come at you, love what you are,

breathe like wrestlers, or shudder

strangely after pissing. We want live

words of the hip world live flesh &

coursing blood. Hearts Brains

Souls splintering fire.

We want poems

like fists beating niggers out of Jocks

or dagger poems in the slimy bellies

of the owner-jews. Black poems to

smear on girdlemamma mulatto bitches

whose brains are red jelly stuck

between ‘lizabeth taylor’s toes. Stinking

Whores! We want “poems that kill.”

Assassin poems, Poems that shoot

guns. Poems that wrestle cops into alleys

and take their weapons leaving them dead

with tongues pulled out and sent to

Ireland. Knockoff

poems for dope selling wops or slick


politicians Airplane poems, rrrrrrrrrrrrrrr

rrrrrrrrrrrrrrr … tuhtuhtuhtuhtuhtuhtuhtuhtuh

… rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr … Setting fire and

death to

whities ass. Look at the Liberal

Spokesman for the jews clutch his throat

& puke himself into eternity … rrrrrrrr

– “The Black Art” (in part)

(Quoted in Brennan 2)

Normal boundaries of poetic language no longer are able to convey Baraka’s rage, and therefore he resorts to the use of obscenities and raw sounds – rrrr…. tuhtuhtuh” — thereby turning language into the verbal guns of “poems that kill.” For Baraka, poetry is a weapon; it is not simply meant to create an aesthetic effect, it is meant to push some social and political cause. Poetry is not just meant to touch hearts and move people emotionally, but stir their souls and move them into action. Poetry is meant to raise consciousness of the masses and bring change into the world. Poetry is not a means of entertainment, it is a way to enlightenment, and beyond that, a path to empowerment. Baraka’s poems are raw, and often they mean war.

Along with Baraka, perhaps the most significant poet to emerge from the Black Arts Movement was Audre Lorde. In addition to several volumes of poetry, beginning with The First Cities (1968), Lorde wrote essay (collected in her book Sister Outsider), an autobiographical account of her battle with cancer (The Cancer Journals), and a fictionalized “biomythography” (Zami: A New Spelling of My Name) (Wilson 95). Lorde’s poems deal with her personal experience as an African American woman (she called herself, “a black feminist lesbian mother poet”), as well as with the contemporary experience of blacks both in the United States and throughout the world.

Lorde is known for her evocative and very powerful use of imagery. In the poem “Coal” (1968), she says, “I am Black because I came from the earth’s inside/ now take my word for jewel in the open light.” Lorde’s poems are her “jewels” that allow her to reflect words outward into the world.

Baraka’s poem “SOS” (1966), begins with the words “Calling black people/ calling all black people, man woman child/ wherever you are” (Quoted in Collins, Crawford 29). The Black Arts Movement was above all a call to the black people to arouse themselves to action. It was an ideological platform.  It concentrated on the black experience, the oppression and injustice suffered by African Americans. In a critical essay on Baraka’s “Black Art,” Brennan (4) says that art operates, that is to say, can operate, as a revolution. It has the power to destroy the status quo so that  a new reality is created. It was to this end — to create a new reality — that the poets of the Black Art movement struggled, albeit with very limited success. The movement did not last for long, but had a considerable impact on changing the perceptions of Americans toward the function and meaning of literature.

Works Cited:

Brennan, Sherry. “On the sound of water: Amiri Baraka’s “Black Art” – Critical Essay”

African American Review,  Summer-Fall, 2003. May 22, 2007, from


Charters, Ann. The Portable Sixties Reader. New York : Penguin Books, 2003

Collins, Lisa Gail and Margo Natalie Crawford. New Thoughts on the Black Arts Movement. New York : Rutgers State University, 2005

Leon, David De. Leaders from the 1960s: A Biographical Sourcebook of American Activism. Westport, CT : Greenwood Press, 1994

Neal, Larry. “The Black Arts Movement.” A Turbulent Voyage: Readings in African-American Studies. Ed. Floyd Windom Hayes. Lanham, Maryland : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000. 236-267.

Smethurst, James Edward. The Black Arts Movement: Literary Nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s (The John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and Culture). University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Woodard, Komozi. A Nation Within a Nation: Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) and Black Power Politics. The University of North Carolina Press, 1999

——–.  “Amiri Baraka, the Congress of African People.” Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights-Black Power Era. Ed. Peniel E.Joseph. Routledge, New York, 2006. 55-78.

Wilson, Anna. Persuasive Fictions: Feminist Narrative and Critical Myth.  Cranbury, NJ :

Associated University Presses, 2001

Wynter Sylvia. “On How We Mistook The Map for the Territory.” A Companion to African-American Studies. Ed. Jane Anna. Oxford : Blackwell Publishing, 2006. 107 – 118

Free Essays

Arts, Man on Wire, and Bomb the Suburbs

Lilian Sun Maczynska The Literary Imagination 20 August 2012 Arts, Man on Wire, and Bomb the Suburbs Pan to Houston, Texas at night. On an episode of Stephen Fry in America, produced by Andre Singer, standing on a stage in a dimly lit room, surrounded by Houston’s elite, actor and comedian Stephen Fry speaks of the importance of the arts. “Oscar Wilde quite rightly said, ‘All art is useless’. And that may sound as if that means it’s something not worth supporting. But if you actually think about it, the things that matter in life are useless. Love is useless. Wine is useless. Art is the love and wine of life.

It is the extra, without which life is not worth living. ” In contrast to Fry, there are people who wish the government would cut funding for the arts. And then there are the artists. People who fight for the right to practice their art, whether they consciously know they’re fighting or not. People who will go to amazing lengths to showcase their art, and their dedication and determination is what gets them mentioned year after year after year. People like Philippe Petit, the quirky French high-wire artist who flew from France just to walk on a wire across the Twin Towers, whose life is forever immortalized in the documentary Man on Wire.

People like William “Upski” Wimsatt, one of the most prolific Chicago-born graffiti artists, who inspired a generation of graffiti artists to view graffiti as an art form in his book Bomb the Suburbs!. Using whatever methods they can, illegal or not, they both worked to achieve their dreams and send their message to the world. They managed to pull people out of the blase outlook mentioned in Georg Simmel’s scholarly essay The Metropolis and Mental Life.

One of the most prominent situations where an artist’s dream pulled people out of the unconcerned manner in which they carried themselves was the 1974 high-wire walk between the Twin Towers by Philippe Petit. High-wire walking is a form of tightrope walking, much like tight-wire walking, which is the simple art of maintaining balance while walking on a tensioned wire. The difference between the two is that high-wire is at a much greater height. The amount of concentration and balance and individual must have to accomplish this is extremely important in the art of tightrope walking. This s a testament to the level of professionalism and dedication that Petit had. Although he gained his notoriety in the US for walking between the twin towers, he was already gaining observations from various other places in the world, such as France, where he walked between the two spires of the Notre Dame Cathedral, and Australia, where he walked between the two sides of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Petit realized his dream of walking between the Twin Towers when he was sixteen, soon after he had taken up high-wire walking, while in the dentist’s office and seeing an artist’s rendering of the towers as they would look when built.

His passion for the art of high wire is best explained by Petit himself in the documentary Man on Wire directed by James Marsh. “Life should be lived on the edge of life. You have to exercise rebellion: to refuse to tape yourself to rules, to refuse your own success, to refuse to repeat yourself, to see every day, every year, every idea as a true challenge – and then you are going to live your life on a tightrope. ” Because of his strong desire to be anything but boring, Petit put everything he had into his art.

He practiced with family and friends, letting them help him improve so that one day he would achieve that dream of walking between the Twin Towers. After many years of planning and many hours the previous night setting up, Petit began taking his first steps on the wire. They were all indifferent and did not notice, except the people who were in on ‘the coup’ (his nickname for the act). In 1903, German sociologist, Georg Simmel speaks of the blase attitude the sights and sounds of the city brought to its inhabitants in his essay The Metropolis and Mental Life. There is perhaps no psychic phenomenon which has been so unconditionally reserved to the metropolis as the blase attitude. The blase attitude results first from the rapidly changing and closely compressed contrasting stimulations of the nerves. ” (Simmel par. 5) This is very much the attitude New Yorkers had when Petit started walking across the wire, on the Morning of August 7, 1974. Only after his then girlfriend, Annie Allix, began screaming and pointing to the people around them “Look! Look! Look, a wire-walker! He’s walking! did people look up and see him, this magnificent artist, walking on the wire, and they were astounded. Said the police officer, Sgt. Charles Daniels, who was sent to apprehend him, ” … I observed the tight rope dancer… because you couldn’t call him a walker… approximately half-way between the two towers. I personally figured I was watching something that somebody else would never see again in the world. Thought it was once in a lifetime. ” By following his dream, no matter the risk (falling to his death, getting arrest d for trespassing), Philippe Petit brought to the world, his own little piece of art, forever immortalized in history, and will always be known as the man who laid in the clouds. Fast forward twenty years, and you’ve wandered into the time period of William “Upski” Wimsatt. A poor white boy, growing up in the ghetto of Chicago, he was gifted with the art of graffiti. Graffiti is a form of public art, usually spray painted on walls, lamppost, mail boxes, or any other public surfaces, originally used as a form of marking territories between gangs. As time progressed, it became less of a mark of territory, and more of an art form.

When graffiti emerged as an art form in the late 1960s in New York City, it was immediately a contentious topic. (Bowen 22) The connotation with gangs and vandalism have fueled the media to paint it in a negative light, and many graffiti artists, or “writers” as many of them consider themselves, feel that if they spoke up about it, they would be patronized for their art and passion, especially since so many artists came from the ghetto, so instead, they just continued to quietly graffiti on their own, only signing their pieces with their signature, or what is known in the graffiti world as a “tag”.

Above: William “Upski” Womsott’s tag (left), A piece by Upski entitled “Upski” (right) A 20-year-old Wimsatt saw the injustice behind this and set out to “…be a pioneering graffiti writer, to be a hip-hop organizer in Chicago, and the be a hip hop journalist. ” (Wimsatt 164) in order to revel in the art of graffiti. He writes “… let’s celebrate the city. Let’s celebrate the ghetto and the few people who aren’t running away from it. Let’s stop fucking up the city.

Let’s stop fucking up the ghetto. Let’s start defending it and making it work for us. ” (Wimsatt 11) On the surface of it all, it seems as if Wimsatt only has a strong personal vendetta against suburbs, but he also supports the art of graffiti in a strong way, being an artist himself. With the publication of his book, he inspired a generation of graffiti artists in the 80s and 90s to not hide their art, but to display it proudly and have pride in it and they city in which they live.

Although the act of vandalism is illegal (Wimsatt tells of stories where he had to hide and run from the police, or what he perceived to be the police in his paranoia), Wimsatt encourages the act of graffiti in spaces where it can be seen, writing to a fan and fledgling graffiti artist, “Choose spots that maximize the good impact of the work, while minimizing its bad side-effects. Maximize public exposure, surprisingness and daring of a piece, while minimizing its insult, and cost to people of the city.

The best targets for piecing are usually abandoned buildings, rooftops, and neighborhood permission walls, especially in unexpected places. Questionable targets include all public or private property that gets buffed and raises the cost of living. ” (Wimsatt 57) With this, he deliberately proves that he wants to bring recognition and fame to the beauty of the art of graffiti for the art, and not for any destructive reason. Petit and Wimsatt have both brought fame to themselves, and their arts.

They both risked getting arrested by the police to be able to showcase this, to inspire a nation, and to motivate a generation. Through diligence, commitment, and persistence, artists every day, not just Philippe Petit and William “Upski” Wimsatt, contribute to the life force of the arts, as more and more people become aware of the importance of the arts, and rally to support it. Petit and Though, yes, the arts are not necessary to live, and not every person needs it to be able to sustain a job or anything of the like, however, if one would just imagine the works without art, it is a bleak world.

No paintings, no music, no tv, no fashion, no anything that makes this world one worth living in. Like Stephen Fry said, “Art is the love and wine of life. It is the extra, without which life is not worth living. ” 10 Philippe Petit and William “Upski” Wimsatt unquestionably believe that. Works Cited * Bowen, Tracey E. “Graffiti Art: A Contemporary Study of Toronto Artists. ” Studies in Art Education 41. 1 (1999): 22-23. Print. *  Fry, Stephen. “Mountains and Plains. ” Stephen Fry in America. Dir. John-Paul Davidson and Michael Waldman.

BBC. 02 Nov. 2008. Television. * Man on Wire. Dir. James Marsh. Prod. Simon Chinn. By Igor Martinovic, Michael Nyman, J. Ralph, and Jinx Godfrey. Magnolia Pictures, 2008. DVD. * Simmel, Georg. “Altruists International – 404 Error Page. ” Altruists International – 404 Error Page. N. p. , n. d. Web. 23 Aug. 2012. ;http://www. altruists. org/static/files/The%20Metropolis%20and%20Mental%20Life%20(Georg%20Simmel). htm;. * Wimsatt, William Upski. Bomb the Suburbs. New York, NY: Soft Skull, 2000. Print.

Free Essays

New Directions – Exploration, Expansion, Society, and the Arts

Unit 3: New Directions – Exploration, Expansion, Society, and the Arts Chapters 15 & Palmer Study Guide Part I Identifying Key Terms Notable People * Prince Henry the Navigator: Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal developed a school of merchant and sailor to prepare them for exploration. He supported the exploration of the West African coastline and later controlled the flow of gold to Europe. * Christopher Columbus: After Vasco da Gama reached India by rounding the Cape of Good Hope, Columbus decided to just sail West without knowing the presence of the “New World. His landing in the Caribbean in 1492 ushered in the era of European exploration and domination of the New World. * Bartholomew Diaz: In 1488, Bartholomew Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope and returned back to Portugal without reaching India. His journey gave motivation for Vasco da Gama to round the Cape of Good Hope and reach India. * Hernando Cortez: In 1521 Hernando Courts conquers the Mexica (Aztec) Empire by convincing the natives that he was the God. He used the encomienda system which was a disguised form of slavery. Bartolome de las Casas: de las Casas, a former conquistador, publicly criticized the ruthlessness with which Columbus and his successors treated the Amerindians. * Michel de Montaigne * Giovanni Bernini * Francisco Pizarro: Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire in 1533. He used the encomienda system which was a disguised form of slavery. * Ferdinand Magellan: In 1519 Magellan proves the world round and the world is a lot bigger than expected by circumnavigating the globe. He convinces the Spanish to give up gaining power in the spice trade. Vasco da Gama: Vasco da Gama reaches Calicut, India in 1498 and launches the Portuguese military expansion. His motives for his journey to India were “Christians and spices. ” * Fuggers: Fuggers were on of the banking families like the Medicis who used usury, change in high interests, to gain money and power. Later, the Fuggers were replaced by state banks in Holland. Terms and Events * Columbian Exchange: Both Europe and the New world were transformed as a result of the Age of Exploration and the exchanges that occurred between tow regions.

For Europeans, the Columbian exchange resulted in improved diet, increased wealth, and the rise of global empires. * Conquistadors * Encomienda: Encomienda system was a system in which the Amerindians worked for an owner for certain number of days per week. Spain’s ability to forcibly utilize Amerindian labor was a major reason why the Spanish Empire imported few slaves form Africa. * Joint-stock company: Joint stock companies allowed investors to pool resources for a common purpose. One successful example is the Dutch E. India Company. Price Revolution: The price revolution occurred due to population growth, increase in volume of money, and the influx of gold and silver from New World. The middle class (merchant, bankers, etc) benefited from the price revolution and prospered. * Treaty of Tordesillas: The treaty divided the New World between Spain and Portugal. It gave Spain the exclusive right to the African slave trade (asiento). * Mercantilism: Nations sought a self-sufficient economy by creating a favorable balance of trade where one’s country exported far more than it imported. Triangular trade: The rianglular trade developed form the Columbian Exchange that links Africa, the New World, and Europe by trade. Both Europe and the New world were transformed as a result of the Age of Exploration and the exchanges that occurred. * Middle Passage * Malleus Maleficarum * Dutch East India Company: The Company, founded in 1602, founded settlement in South Africa, took over many Portuguese trading posts, and seized Malaca in 1641. It was one of the first joint stock companies and was the beginning of capitalism. Bank of Amsterdam: * London Stock Exchange: * “Old Imperialism”: The old imperialism is characterized by establishing posts and forts on coastal regions but not penetrating inland to conquer entire regions or subjugate their populations. It benefited the mother countries in Europe because the colonies provided raw materials which could be manufacture and sold for profit. * Entrepreneur * Commercial Revolution: The commercial revolution is a five century economic transition from feudalism to industrial capitalism.

Major aspects were commercialization of industry, new capitalistic ventures, and mercantilism. * Putting Out System * Usury: Usury is where a banking family puts extremely high interest on loans to gain money. However, usury was abolished when individual banks were replaced by state banks. Part II Review Quesitons 1. Why did Europeans begin to embark on voyages of discovery and expansion at the end of the fifteenth century? Europeans began to embark on voyages of discovery and expansion for political, economic, and religious reasons.

One of the primary motives was the Turkish dominance of Mediterranean because Turks controlled the trade material price. Another reason was Portugal’s curiosity about the unknown and the eagerness to find the Ethiopian kingdom of Prester John. As the phrase “God, glory, and gold” states, the main reasons were to conquest Muslims, find gold and silver, and glorify oneself. 2. How did Portugal and Spain acquire their overseas empires, and how did their empires differ? 3. How did European expansion affect both the conquerors and the conquered? . What was mercantilism, and what was its relationship to colonial empires? In mercantilism, nations sought a self-sufficient economy by creating a favorable balance of trade where one’s country exported far more than it imported. The mother nations used the colonies to acquire raw materials and used the raw materials and produced manufactured goods. The mother nations benefited from the colonies hrough raw materials, gold, and much more. The colonies also served as markets for finished goods where the mother nations gained profit. 5.

What was the relationship between European overseas expansion and political, economic, and social developments in Europe? 6. What was the social status of women between 1560-1648, and what do the witch hunts tell us about social attitudes toward women? 7. What is skepticism? Why did faith and religious certainty begin to come to an end in the first part of the seventeenth century? 8. Explain how advances in learning and technology influenced fifteenth and sixteenth century European exploration and trade. Advances in learning and technology allowed European exploration and trade to happen without many troubles.

Caravels that had triangular lateen sails and the sternpost rudder and used wind speed to move allowed the Europeans to travel through the Atlantic Ocean. With less human labor, more cargo space opened up for trade goods to be shipped. Astrolabe, the use of stars or the sun to travel, explorers were able to know the approximate location of their ship in the middle of ocean. Cartography and learning Atlantic wind patterns enhanced the easiness and accuracy of the journey. 9. Explain the reasons for the rise of the Netherlands as a leading commercial power in the period 1550-1650.

Two political reasons for the rise of the Netherlands as a leading commercial power are the support from merchant oligarchies of autonomous provinces and the Iberian neglect of domestic economy. Because Spain didn’t expand its manufacturing industries, Spain had to give all its gold and silver to pay for their imports. On the other hand, Netherlands developed its service industries such as manufacturing and banking which enhanced the economy. Netherlands had the largest merchant marine in Europe that could protect the ships with goods from attacks by pirates and other nations.

Because Netherlands was the haven for religious exiles, the Calvinist Protestant work Ethic spread. 10. Describe the causes of the “price revolution” and the effect of this period of inflation upon European society. Price revolution was the period of gradual inflation due to population growth, increase in volume of money, and influx of gold and silver from the New World. As the population increased, the demand for goods also increased, which led to increasing prices. Nobles who had fixed income were negatively affected by the price revolution.

However, the middle class (bourgeoisie) who acquired much of their wealth from trading and manufacturing increased their social and political status. The peasants or the poor who didn’t have enough income suffered the most from the inflation and increasing prices of goods. 11. Describe the differences between Spanish and Portuguese exploration in the sixteenth century and English and Dutch exploration in the seventeenth century. 12. Describe the reasons behind King Charles I’s decision to begin the African slave trade. Las Casas who criticized the encomienda system urged Spanish crown to find a new source of labor other than the natives.

The sugarcane plantations in the Caribbean and South Africa required a backbreaking labor supply. In 1518, Charles I authorized first shipment of Africans to the New World in order to increase labor for sugarcane plantations. For King Charles, slaves were the only source of labor that could work and bring profit to his country. 13. Using at least two specific pieces of art, describe Baroque art. Who supported its development, and how was it both similar to and different from previous styles of art? 14. What are the defining characteristics of the Commercial Revolution?

Three major aspects of the Commercial Revolution are commercialization of industry, new capitalistic ventures, and mercantilism. The commercialization of the cottage industry supported by national monarchs began to usurp the economic power held by guild and propel transition of the economy to industrial capitalism. The development of state/national banks, stock markets, and joint stock companies describe how people were interested in investment for profit. During the commercial revolution, new industries such as mining, shipbuilding, artillery, and printing developed. 5. What are the three factors that caused the further development of the Commercial Revolution during the early modern age? Three factors that furthered the growth of the Commercial revolution are opening of the Atlantic, population growth, and price revolution. The opening of the Atlantic allowed for greater trade and a global trade for the first time. Population growth during the 16th century meant increased production and increased profit. The price revolution which led to inflation decreased the power of nobilities and increased the power and status of bourgeoisies.

Part III Chronological Awareness 1. Sack of Antwerp by Alexander Farnese 2. Vasco da Gama lands at Calicut in India 3. Dutch found New Amsterdam 4. Dutch seize Malacca from Portuguese 5. Portuguese capture Malacca from Muslims 6. English settlement at Jamestown 7. African slave trade begins 8. Treaty of Tordesillas 9. Pizarro defeats Incas in Peru 10. Opening of the Potosi mines Part IV Multiple Choice Practice 1. Which of the following is true about the commercial revolution in Europe? a. Most of the money used for overseas commercial venture came from European governments. b.

Joint-stock companies provided the means for individual investor to profit from overseas commercial ventures. c. European nations willingly cooperated to prevent commercial rivalries in the New World. d. Private banking houses continued to be the standard financial institutions of the age of exploration. e. Most nations saw a reduction in tariffs and trade restrictions during the commercial revolution. 2. Which of the following is the underlying premise of mercantilism? a. Agriculture should be the backbone of the economy. b. Government intervention in the economy is detrimental to its prosperity. c.

There is a limited amount of bullion in the world, and the nation that controls the most will dominate politically and economically. d. Colonies are a waste of resources, and the money could be better spent on public transportation projects. e. Governments should work hard to prevent monopolies. 3. The Treaty of Tordesillas a. Set boundaries that divided New World colonization between the English and the French. b. Set boundaries that divided New World colonization between the Portuguese and the Spanish. c. Set boundaries that divided West Indian trade routes between the Dutch and the Portuguese. d.

Banned the Catholic Church from missionary activity in China. e. Banned the Catholic Church from missionary activity in Japan. 4. All of the following were goals of Prince Henry the Navigator EXCEPT f. Seeking a Christian kingdom as an ally against the Muslims. g. Finding new trade opportunities for Portugal. h. Extending Christianity to the newly discovered regions. i. Buying slaves to ship to the New World. j. Wanting to explore the coast of Africa for Portugal. 5. Overseas trade and settlement in the seventeenth century was most clearly dominated by k. The Dutch. l. Portugal. m. Spain. n. England. o. France. 6.

Which of the following is a TRUE statement about the means of overseas expansion during the age of exploration? p. The nations most heavily involved in overseas trade were those that had dominated trade during the medieval and Renaissance periods. q. Ptolemy’s world map quickly led explorers astray, and it wasn’t until Mercator made his famous map that sailors were able to venture to the New World. r. The invention of the quadrant allowed sailors to safely sail below the equator. s. In the late fifteenth century, most educated Europeans still thought the earth was flat and feared sailing until Columbus returned from his first voyage. . The growth of centralized monarchies during the Renaissance created governments that had the means to support overseas expansion. 7. Why did the English, Dutch, and French governments fail to begin colonization of the Americas and direct trade with the Orient until more than 100 years after Columbus “discovered” America? u. Their geographical positions put them at a disadvantage for trans-oceanic movement. v. The northern countries lacked suitable ships and the advanced technology to make long voyages. w. Domestic troubles and religious controversies delayed organized action. x.

Western European bankers refused to loan monarchs money for such ventures. y. The northerners were slow to abandon their traditional Mediterranean trade routes. 8. All of the following statements regarding the “Price Revolution” begun in Europe during the sixteenth century are true EXCEPT z. Workers’ wages increased to equal the rising standard of living. {. A steady rise in population added to consumer demand. |. Imports of gold and silver increased the money supply. }. The policies of the new monarchies included steady hikes in taxes. ~. The availability of bank credit increased business expansion and production. . Couples in early modern Europe generally put off marriage until they were, on average, in their mid- to late twenties because a. sexual maturation was delayed until the mid-twenties because of poor nutrition. b. they were concerned about scarcity of housing. c. they needed to acquire land or learn a trade before they could support a family. d. the customs and mores of a society dominated by religion promoted sexual restraint. e. laws prohibited marriage without parental permission before the age of majority. 10. Why did African slavery grow quickly in the Caribbean and South America in the sixteenth century? . As Europeans came to love tobacco, tobacco plantations demanded more slave labor. b. European realized that African slaved worked well with European slaves and, therefore, produced more cotton. c. The Spanish conquered the Dutch colonies in the New World and began to use African slaves to cultivate coffee. d. Because rice was a staple in diets around the world, Europeans realized that they needed more slaves to produce larger quantities of it. e. Because of the European appetite for sugar, natures shipped African slaves in large numbers to the New World to work on sugar cane plantations.

Free Essays

Arts or Protection of Enviroment

Obviously, both of these two choices have their own reasons that our society could get benefits from each of them. In the past several decades, remarkable achievements have been made in the arts, while our natural environments are increasingly getting worse and even more difficult to handle. Under these current circumstances, I believe that it is not so hard to make decision about this question. The company should choose to protect the environment.

The first and the most important thing is that we must survive on this planet that allows us almost every possibility, including supporting the arts or something like. These days, our natural environments are under the threats of contamination, global warming, extinction of species, etc. For example, the oil leaking on the Gulf of Mexico, has contaminated a large amount of sea area. And this not only has a negative effect on ocean-life, also it has influence on our life strongly. Therefore, it is very worthy to costing some money to protect the environment.

Furthermore, spending some money on protecting the environment is a good investment to a company. It is from fact that our every activity is based on our environment. As far as I am concerned, if the company spends some money on environmental friendly issue, it will gain more public attention and earn more supports by which the company could grasp the best opportunity to develop more successfully. In return, the company would also do more and more things that good to the environment.

Finally, giving some money to protect the environment is one thing, and doing the precedent to protect environment is quiet another. If a company take a good example for protecting environment, it is easy to imagine that this successful precedent will provoke the public and also other companies to protect our brittle environment. By means of this, I believe that more environmental protection programs which are running for our wellbeing will come into being. In view of the above concerns, the company should choose to protect the environment rather than to support the arts.

Free Essays

The Museum of Fine Arts

The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston is an expansive collection of art and artifacts that span multiple cultures and historical periods, as well as art movements, from classical to modern. Since the focus of this class is Ancient Egypt through to the European Middle Ages these were the exhibits in which I was mostly interested during my visit. The museum itself has a much more broad focus, but there is a great deal of pieces that fit into the time periods of our course and it was fascinating to really see the cultural remnants of the people and historical periods which we are studying.

My visit was really interesting because of how incredible the collections of the museum were. There was interesting artwork from different cultures, like their Asian collection, and of course the more modern pieces that really brought to light the changes in movements in art throughout time. There was not a guided tour that I was able to participate in during my visit, but I was able to do a self-guided tour throughout most of the museum and found the entire building to be easy to navigate and beautiful to the eye.

The ancient art was the first stop on my tour of the museum because it is the first time period that we have studied. There was a lot of beautiful pieces found here, including pottery and other cultural items, but some of the artifacts were much more beautiful and elaborate. There was a beautiful coffin of Osiris, that really had a lot of elaborate detail that made it come alive as an artifact. For me, the other artifacts that emphasized the gods, including a of sculpture of the god Thoth as a baboon and other Greek and Roman artifacts that all deal with deities, were an important lesson in how important it was to these groups of people.

For them, the stories of their gods and goddesses were as connected with them and their world as they were. They saw their deities in nature around them and in their own homes. That is why the gods are felt everywhere in their artwork and why their stories are so well depicted. This, like this course, has given me a greater understanding of how the beliefs of ancient peoples is connected to their culture in a way that cannot be ignored, it was such a great force in their lives.

The European exhibit was in two parts. There was the exhibit that dealt with Early Christian artwork, which transitioned from early to Renaissance and Baroque artwork. There is also another permanent exhibit called the Sarah Campbell Blaffer Collection. In these collections I was able to get another strong vision of what was important to the people who lived in the Middle Ages of Europe.

The Early Christian artwork was very interesting as it, like the ancient work before it, shows the importance of faith to artists during the time in which it was created. One of the prize works of these collections is an ivory statue of God the Father that was awe-inspiring in its simplicity and it’s beauty. There was also a gothic Virgin and Child sculpture that was created by Niclaus Weckman the Elder. Both of these items were beautiful and showed me how important the things we’re learning in this course are to our understanding of the past. It was fascinating to see what we have learned come to life in the sculpture, artifacts, and paintings found at this museum.

Free Essays

Computer Role in Entertainment & the Arts

Computer Role in Entertainment & the Arts How will my leisure activities be affected by information technology? Information technology is being used for all kinds of entertainment, ranging from video games to telegambling. It is also being used in the arts, from painting to photography. Let’s consider just two examples, music and film. Computers, the internet, and the World Wide Web are standing the system of music recording and distribution on its head and in the process are changing the financial underpinnings of the music industry.

Because of their high overhead, major record labels typically need a band to sell half a million CDs in order to be profitable, but independent bands, using online marketing, can be reasonably successful selling 20,000 or 30,000 albums. Team Love, a small music label established in 2003, found it could promote its first two bands, Tilly and the Wall and Willy Mason, by offering songs online free for (Dowloading—transferring data from a remote computer to one’s own computer—so that people could listen to them before paying $12 for a CD.

It also puts videos online for sharing and uses quirky websites to reach fans. “There’s something exponential going on,” says one of Team Love’s founders. “The more music that’s downloaded, the more it sells. “‘” Many independent musicians are also using the internet to get their music heard, hoping that giving away songs will help them build audiences/*4 The web also offers sources for instantly downloadable sheet music. One research engineer has devised a computerized scoring system for judging musical competitions that overcomes the traditional human-jury approach, which can he swayed by personalities and. olyphonicHMI and a Spanish company, PolyphonicHMI, has created Hit Song Science software, which they say can analyze the hit potential of new songs by, according to one description, “reference to a finely parsed universe of attributes derived from millions of past songs. ” As for movies, now that blockbuster movies routinely meld live action, and animation, computer artists are in big demand. The 1999 film Star Wars: Episode /, for instance, had fully 1,965 digital shots out of about 2,200 shots.

Even when film was used, it was scanned into computers to be tweaked with animated effects, lighting, and the like. Entire beings were created on computers by artists working on designs developed by producer George Lucas and his chief artist. computers as a source of entertainment as well as amusement Answer The sources of entertainment has evolved down the ages. But human beings search for entertainment and things that could amuse him or her has been existing since time immemorial. One of the latest form of entertainment for the present civilization is computers.

With inbuilt and loaded computer games, availability of softwares which allow you to paint, listen to music, watch videos, movies and also allow you to create music or videos or movies; computer has really become a major source of entertainment for the people who are computer savvy or at least computer literate. Other than this, the obvious source of entertainment on computers is the internet which not just connects you to the rest of the world but also allows you to find your amusement right at home.

Chat rooms allow us to connect with like minded people and discuss with them about our favourite topics. Messengers also allow us to connect to your friends across the world and talk to them. Websites which carry news and other matters related to entertainment become a major source. Online games allow us to play with other people who have access to that game in a virtual world, while we are all seated in our own room in front of our PCs. Innumerable examples of internet as an entertainment source can be quoted.

Now with Microsoft and Google promising to built the complete virtual structures of any city in the world on the internet, people would not have to travel to those people on holidays in order to explore and enjoy the city. They just have to log on to the Google World or the Microsoft site and explore the city online where they can walk down the streets enter buildings and even make purchase while they are gossiping about the prices with the other customers in the shops. Now can there be any doubt that computers are a main source of entertainment and amusement in this generation?

Computer Games & Entertainment The computer games and entertainment business is a fast growing multi-billion dollar worldwide business, with games platforms ranging from Playstation 3, Xbox 360, Nintendo Wii, mobile and handhelds including iPhone, iPad and Android phones, PC-based, and massively multiplayer online games (MMOG) involving tens of thousands of people. With ongoing strong demand for graduate computer games programmers from the UK and abroad, this MSc will produce graduates who are well positioned to get a job in this exciting worldwide industry.

Potential employers include EA, Ubisoft, Sony, Activision, Microsoft, Cinesite, Framestore, and many more. In a wider sense, the influence of computer games programming is spreading to other digital media industries outside games, as seen in products such as Second Life, Habbo Hotel and Bebo, or as seen in other entertainment industries such as special effects for television, videos and movies. Computer games are starting to fundamentally change the way people interact with computerised systems.

Computers isn’t limited to the areas where we most expect to find it such as business and industry. It’s also being widely used in entertainment and arts world. These are almost as Sports: If there is a perfect way to pitch a ball, execute a spin on the ice, or take off from a ski jump, computers can find it. By analyzing the motions of the best athletes, sports trainers and kinetic specialists establish profiles. Other athletes can compare themselves to those profiles and try to improve their own styles and moves. Thus computer can be taken as a crucial element now in entertainment ndustry, with more and more multimedia content being planned, and built many applications as there are entertainers and artists. People look forward to the entertainment for recreation, so that they can reduce their stress and strains of their complex machine like schedules. All our traditional entertainment utilities like music, movies, sports, games, etc. are now affected by IT, one can have all these services, sitting at home and enjoying themselves. Computers are used in entertainment to create or enhance a production or performance.

The tools have become so sophisticated that it’s becoming almost impossible to distinguish between the real and the artificial in the film and the photography. Movies: If you have seen Titanic, matrix, Jurassic Park or cartoons on any TV channel, can you question the importance of Computers in the film industry? With the aid of sophisticated graphics and animation packages the special effect technicians can create any illusion. Computers help in improving productivity by automating time consuming, repetitive and monotonous processes.

They give the movie makers a lot by giving them the power to create the kind of special effects they want. Computers are widely used to create special effects in Big Budget movies. They are also extensively used behind the scenes to edit film during the production process. Scanners are generally used to help create complex twisting motions. New movies are developed using computer graphics, animations etc. which resemble real life events, thus reducing cost as well as time involved in the making of such movies. Music: The use of technology in the world of music is an unavoidable fact.

Any musical composition that we hear today goes through a technological process at some point. Music allows you to edit recorded music or even create your own. With the computer connected to a stereo or synthesizer, you can be your own composer and audience. Both artist and sound engineers are finding novel applications for computer in their work. There are lot of Music Composition languages that provide ways to create music on a computer  some are Music, Symbolic, Composer, Fugue and so on which run on different platforms.

Animations: In earlier days, Bugs and Bunny, the road Runner, were laboriously hand drawn in the hundred of the thousands of frame needed for each cartoon but now computers are doing much of the repetitions work. The computer can create outer space, alien characters, and extinct-animals and so on without the need of creating their physical models. The filmmaker then integrates these backgrounds and characters with  the real characters seamlessly. Example is Jurassic Park. .

Free Essays

Amiri Baraka- Black Arts Movement

The Black Arts Movement Experience The spirit of the 1960s’ Black Arts Movement is captured in Amiri Baraka’s “AM/Trak,” which addresses the theory of the underlying relationship between art and culture. This simple theory of how culture works and how art reflects and influences the culture that produces it was the whole purpose of the literary movement led by Baraka. In order for one to understand their own experiences, they must acknowledge what factors have influenced how they have shaped their lives.

By doing so, they will self-consciously discover and create themselves. The basis of Baraka’s poem, “AM/Trak” illustrates the defining concept of the Black Arts Movement; the notion of creating identity influenced by experiencing racial and social alienation. The development of a modernized black culture is continually drawn to question because there are many outliers that can influence the basic fundamentals of experience. “What makes experience such an important concept for Baraka is how it frames the relation between the individual and the collective”(Punday 782).

The Black Arts Movement was a period of an assembled reaction against several things including the Korean War, capitalism, and the assassination of Malcom X. Although Baraka incorporates these historical events into “AM/Trak”, the history of the Beats is approached more by expressing an individual’s reaction, rather than a single technical change or influence of history on society. The appreciation of the degree of exposure from an artist or individual models how the Beats linked the identity of black culture to specific trials and tribulations.

A desirable relationship between culture and society is a focalized theme in African American literature, but has been obliterated by the constant severance between historical transitions and the lack of ethical alertness (Quayson 1). Isolation of the African American population from white America has been influenced by harsh racism and inequality for several centuries. Although the discrimination thrived for thousands of years, the collective attitude towards the relations of the past began to deviate into a different outlook in the 1960s.

The black community began to celebrate an emphasized change when exercising their self-proclaimed freedom of personal expression to improve social and economic conditions of the African American community (Yost 2). In order to establish a distinct black identity against the social reality of separation, they incorporated music, literature, and other forms of art as a way of advocating their presence not only in the United States, but the world.

Baraka captures the true meaning of the new scholarly awakening with the influence of the Beat-generation by describing John Coltrane in “AM/Trak”, in which he uses a distinct style of writing to portray not only the life of the artist, but specific annotations of his music. The musical embodiment of his work prevails that he was undoubtedly a major contributor to the spirit of the 1960s’. By analyzing Coltrane’s passion and transformation during this decade with extreme expression and struggle against racism, “AM/Trak” is brought to life: Trane was the spirit of the 60’s

He was Malcom X in New Super Bop Fire Bahhhhhh Wheeeeeee . . . Black Art!!! (152-155). The poem is a clear representation of not only the musical development of John Coltrane’s career and repressed life, but also the importance of how African-American musical expression extrapolates the expectations and contributions of individuals under the pressure of alienation (Quayson 3). According to literary critic, Henry Lacey, Baraka uses imagery to encompass the variety of ways the poem portrays the inspiring musician to be the “interpreter of the Black experience” through his music (Lacey 14).

The different stages of achievements, hardships, and responses during Coltrane’s life are a direct narrative of the same ones produced throughout the history of the Black American life. There is an undeniable similarity of technical elements displayed in Amiri Baraka’s writing that support the same individualist revolution. One painful aspect of the African American experience begins with the lack of consciousness influenced by authority and pressure. Baraka begins the second section of the poem by describing the early experiences of Coltrane’s career in a very degrading fashion.

The mood of the poem immediately digresses when Baraka mentions the names of alto saxophonist, Johnny Hodges, John Burks Gillespie, and Eddie Vinson and Blues vocalist, Big Maybelle (Lacey 15). Amiri even incorporates an allusion from Langston Hughes poem “Jazzonia,” in which he writes ”Trees in the shining night forest” (Lacey 16). The tree is used as a direct reference to the lack of originality Coltrane embodies while he works with the Joe Webb Blues Band, followed by Miles Davis.

As the poem continues, the depression of the main character develops into a substance addiction and even an abusive relationship with a fellow musician, Davis. In fact, Amiri uses the word “honk” to symbolize the repetition of his continued unimportance at performances and as cry for help in the only way he knew how to; musical expressionism. It was not until Coltrane could accept his past and everything he had learned, that he could regain full consciousness of his true identity and potential future as a great musician.

Similarly, the Black Arts Movement began in spite of depression and the constant repetition of haunting racism. More specifically, the death of civil rights activist, Malcom X, hindered Amiri Baraka’s determination to reform the presence of the African American culture in the United States. Consequently, the African American culture endured a period of recovery, as did Coltrane. Coltrane quest to continue searching for his identity as a musician began again by joining Thelonious Sphere Monk, co-founder of bebop, in part four of “AM/Trak” (Lacey 18).

Baraka’s disjunctive mood swings represent how Coltrane conveys his emotions with Monk’s unique style of expressionism and unexpected musical transitions to understand music on a deeper level. Which then leads to the entire Be-bop movement. Coltrane uses this time as a period of regaining consciousness of the experiences that have shaped him. There was nothing left to do but be where Monk cd find him that crazy mother fucker duh duh-duh duh-duh duh duh duh duh duh-duh duh-duh duh duh duh duh duh-duh duh-duh duh duh duh uh Duuuuuuuuuuuuhhhhhh (71-80). At first glance, the lines representing Monk’s compositions differ from any syntax or vocabulary used in the previous allusions. Baraka uses the distinct sounds of Monk’s work in a disjunctive manner that can only be approached if read aloud. When read aloud, the simple word transforms into a series of playful melodies. “Trane stood and dug / Crazy monk’s shit,” provides substantial evidence that the short time spent with Monk, Shadow Wilson, and Wilbur Ware had a lasting impact on John Coltrane’s career.

In fact, it also suggests the sources essential to his success in music were also responsible for shaping his identity despite past alienation and struggle. Similarly to many African Americans during the Blacks Art Movement, Coltrane was allowed to completely expose himself. “This was Coltrane’s College. A Ph motherfuckin d / Of Master T Sphere” (100,104). As Amiri Baraka wrote the poem, he also established symbolism that the reader may relate to exemplify Coltrane’s efforts to battle several obstacles.

Accordingly, in American society graduating college and especially receiving your PhD is one of the highest accomplishments recognized in our country. Utilizing this metaphor near the end of section four not only summarizes his success, but also leads the reader to question, ‘What’s Next? ’ because of the lengthy section that follows. “AM/Trak” undergoes another mood change as section five introduces the destructive forces of class struggle and maintaining true identity after being exploited by the public.

Although the poem portrays the hardship of life of a musician and inspiration leader, Lacey refers to Coltrane as the “prophetic voice of his age” (Lacey 18) or as described in the poetry “A man/ black blower of the now” (121-122). However, Baraka does not immediately persuade the reader to believe that Coltrane has collectively reshaped the Be-bop movement and the black cultural identity; he forces them to establish an answer themselves based on their individual experience after reading the poem.

Based on the dynamics of writing style portrayed in the poetry, Coltrane influences future musical generations to come with the creative features within that clearly influenced the Black Arts Movement within the text, the validity of the following quote by literary critic, Joyce A. Joyce, “An understanding of Negro expression cannot be arrived at without a constant reference to the environment which cradles it,” can be useful in making a final decision as the reader. Amiri Baraka continues the poem by concentrating the rest of the text on his own impression of Coltrane’s influence on the Blacks Art Movement, musicians, and society.

He precisely acknowledges the relationship between the collective and individual response to the end of the revolution of identity and creation of the reputable quartet: “Jimmy Garrison, bass, McCoy Tyner, piano, Captain Marvel Elvin / on drums, the number itself-the precise saying / all if it in it afire aflame talking saying being doing meaning (169-171). The quartet inspired the African American community to become believers and to preserve their true identities despite social alienation and harsh racism.

If the band expressed their opinions and identity freely, then the entire black culture should have possessed the same rights without limitation as well. Fortunately, at the end of the poem, the Black Arts Movement was reflected as the turning point in accepting cultural identity; a representation of their contributions that shaped the historical experience. But did the Black Arts Movement really change “black” and “white” cultures and criticism? Literary critic, Joyce A. Joyce disagrees with the idea that white America has changed its attitude toward the African American population.

Although there has been a significant transformation in the merger of black literature and white literature in our society through out the past century, African Americans are usually forced to adopt the mainstream values and lifestyles of those of in the modern American society. Joyce disassociates Black literary criticism with mainstream analyses because African Americans have a unique duty to express their own ideas without a predetermined and uniformed consciousness based on culture or even color (Joyce 339-341).

The poet’s opinions remained somewhat vague until the narration of the poem alters from Trane to Amiri Baraka, the poet himself. His vulnerability exposes his current condition and state of mind when recollecting his wearisome life compared to Trane’s portrayed personal anecdote expressed in his music: ( I lay in solitary confinement, July ‘67 Tanks rolling thru Newark and whistled all I knew of Trane my knowledge heartbeat and he was dead They said

When Baraka was confined in prison for the Newark riots of 1967, Lacey notes that “the poet attributes his survival to the memory of Coltrane’s music” (Lacey 19). As the poem concludes, Baraka decides to choose life over death because he is influenced by character of his own work of art and the actual inspirational of the power of his music. Most scholars would agree with Gayle, Jr. claim that, “The question for the black critic today is not how beautiful is a melody, a play, a poem, or a novel, but how much more beautiful has the poem, melody, play, or novel made the life of a single black man?

How far has the work gone in transforming an American Negro into an African-American or black man? ” (Joyce 340). This is perhaps an attempt to illustrate the fact that both the artist lives are surrounded by changes revolved around freedom of expression through art and alienated culture. Without enduring these experiences, good or bad, the identity of an individual cannot be defined, nor the basis of an individualistic black culture. Work Cited Lacey, Henry C. “Baraka’s “AM/Trak” Everybody’s Coltrane Poem. Obsidian II: Black Literature in Review. 1. 1-2 (1986): 12-21. Print. Joyce, Joyce A. “The Black Canon: Reconstructing Black American Literary Criticism. ” New Literary History. 18. 2 (1987): 339-341. Print. Punday, Daniel. “The Black Arts Movement and the Geneaology of Multimedia. ” New Literary History. 37. 4 (2006): 777-794. Web. 7 Dec. 2011. Quayson, Ato. “Self-Writing and Existential Alienation in African Literature. ” Research in African Literatures. 42. 2 (2011): 30-45. Web. 1 Dec. 2011.

Free Essays

Liberal Arts Study

William Cronon states in his article entitled “only connect…” the goals of liberal education that liberal education is founded on the virtues of aspiration towards the development and growth of human potential for the services of human freedom. This simply means to say that liberal education is a way by which a human being is released and brought to a place where he or she can fulfill their utmost potential.

Liberal education and the study of liberal arts, for that matter, is a way of life and not simply a form of education adapted by institutions. It involves passion and girth of knowledge. It accounts for a broad understanding of various kinds of knowledge that is needed for the holistic development of an individual. In today’s society, however, is the study of liberal arts truly needed? What is the importance of studying liberal arts?

One of the most important aspects of liberal arts is in the fact that it encompasses the humanities. The study of liberal arts then encourages the study of the humanities. Why is this important? What makes the humanities essential in the progress of humanity, in the continuation of an individual’s daily life?

There are many skeptics, especially in this age of unending quests for money and luxury, who believe that the study of the liberal arts, in general, and of the humanities, in particular, is only for those who have time on their hands; only for those who have no plans in contributing to the fast-paced development occurring all over the world today. However, this thinking is wrong and misled in many ways. Before one can understand this, however, one must first be able to understand what the humanities are.

According to A.S.P. Woodhouse in his article The Nature of Humanities, humanities is a field of study that reverts the attention or the quest for knowledge on man. It puts the focus of attention on the life of man. Other definitions of humanities state that “The essence of the humanities is a spirit or an attitude toward humanity.” (The Humanities in American Life, 3) The humanities, then, is exactly what its name implies, the study of humans, of human life, of human way of life.

However, this is very broad. If the scope of the humanities is humanity, this would indicate a near impossibility in studying it in its totality. This is why the development of the study of humanities has involved the sorting of the discipline into different interrelated fields. These include, but are not limited to, literature, art history, music history, cultural history, philosophy, dance, theater, arts, and film. All the disciplines related to humanities and through which it is studied are all centered on human values, beliefs, emotions and also the way these aspects are portrayed through the creativity of humans. (Witt, Brown, Dunbar, Tirro, and Witt, xxvi)

It is clear from this description that the humanities are different on many levels from fields of knowledge such as the natural sciences. The sciences include the observation of the world we exist in. It entails creating assumptions, collecting data, and trying to create theories and laws to explain the behavior of the data collected. The humanities, the arts, on the other hand, begin with the very things that are considered irrelevant in science. It starts with the intangible things that are formulated by the creativity and imagination of a human being. The humanities begins with the world man created for himself and only then progresses to the world that is seen with the physical eye.(Frye, 23)

Even from this basic explanation of the difference between humanities and science, one can see that there is no point of comparison. Both fields of knowledge are concerned with different aspects of reality. Even with this basic truth, the importance of studying the liberal arts, of studying humanities is seen. As much as there is a need to study science and to explore the world in the way that scientists wish to approach it, there is also a need to study the liberal arts and humanities and the opposite way by which humanists approach the world. It is, quite possibly, through the intersection of the approaches of both bodies of knowledge that true reality can be understood.

However, there is another reason for studying the liberal arts and the humanities. It has been studied by scientists that the human brain is cleft into two. These two hemispheres are in charge of two different aspects of human behavior. The left hemisphere is said to be important for sequences, literalness, and analysis. The right hemisphere, on the other hand, deals with context, emotional expression and synthesis. The left brain has been commonly related to the sciences while the right brain has been related to the humanities.

Daniel Pink in his article Revenge of the Right Brain stresses the importance of developing the right brain. He indicates that the world is in overdrive to stick to the sciences, to emphasize the development of the left brain. Computer savvy individuals are held at high esteem. Mathematicians are considered to be of top caliber in the human race. However, he points out that the future is not geared towards a simple understanding of numbers and figures. He emphasizes the need to go right, to develop the capabilities of the right brain. Individuals with the ability to create, to synthesize technology with the development of humanity, and to innovate new ways of thinking are needed.

There is, therefore, a need to stretch out further than we have dared to go. The success and the development of mankind is not just in understanding the world he or she lives in but also in being able to interact with it creatively. Being a liberally educated person, says William Cronon in Only Connect, means being able to connect with the world and to interact with it in new and creative ways.

This brings one to understand that, indeed, the humanities and the sciences are not separate or battling fields. In fact, the two are interrelated and should be used together for the betterment of society. In fact, without the general knowledge of all, both are indeed already converging in areas such as biomedical research, application of microprocessing and computer technologies, conduct of government, arms control, and utilization of natural resources.

These are only a few of the many fields where both humanities and science are needed because of their very nature as fields with social and ethical aspects. (The Humanities in American Life, 6) It is thus clear that as much as society today emphasizes the need to develop the study of the natural sciences, it should also encourage the continuation and the development of the study of the different liberal arts and humanities.

Although it is clear that there is a need to interrelate the two bodies of knowledge, the need to study the liberal arts and humanities is not simply based on the fact that it contributes to the developments of science. Science is said to be a study engaged in the constant gathering of information. It involves the steady accumulation of data about the world in which man moves and grows.

The liberal arts and humanities on the other hand are unorthodox with regards to the view of education as an addition of knowledge one on top of the other. This is because the liberal arts and humanities are concerned with creation. They involve processes of visualizing the future, of imagining the ideal, of creating in the mind the concept of a society and world to be hoped for. The humanities involve the study and the understanding of the culture and the cultural contexts of mankind. (Witt, Brown, Dunbar, Tirro, and Witt, xxvi) It puts things in perspective because, as the initial definition stated, it focuses on the human life.

The humanities, then, involves the aspects of life and reality that are not covered by science. These are just as important, and perhaps at times more important, than the fields science handles. This is evidenced by the fact that both fields of knowledge are interrelated. This is evidence by the fact that both approach the study of life from opposite sides. This is what renders the study of humanities and liberal arts important.

A.S.P. Woodhouse in his The Nature of Humanities stated,

If the humanities are indeed normative, if they mold the mind and sensibility of the student and bring an accession of wisdom, it is by virtue of their subject matter, of the ideas which they present or evoke and the experiences to which they give him entry; and these ideas and experiences achieve their full effect only as they are examined critically, evaluate, and by the student made his own.

This shows that the study of the liberal arts and the humanities is essential not only in the fact that its main subject of study is important. An education in the liberal arts teaches an individual to think outside the box. It teaches him or her to become a critical thinker. The world is no longer simply a place of dates, names, theories, and laws. It becomes a place of endless questions and unlimited answers; answers that can be wrong, right, or somewhere in between. The human being becomes someone with the capacity to reject or accept the validity of everything occurring around him. More importantly, man becomes someone with the capacity to create, change, and redefine the world in which he or she lives. The liberal arts and humanities empowers man and makes him the center of his world. It also humbles man, placing him in a world that continues to provoke thought, emotion, and exploration.

Works Cited

Commission on the Humanities. The Humanities in American Life: Report of the Commission on Humanities. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1980.

Cronon, William. Only connect…the goals of liberal education. The American Scholar, 67(1998)

Frye, Northrop. The Educated Imaginaion. Bloomington & London: Indiana University Press. 1974

Pink, Daniel H. Revenge of the right brain. Wired Magazine, 13(2005) Retrieved 29 March 2008 from <>

Witt, Brown, Dunbar, Tirro, and Witt. The Humanities. 7th ed. Jean Woy. Berkeley, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 2005.

Woodhouse, A.S.P. The nature of humanities. In Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1989.

Free Essays

Critics on the ” Discourse on the Arts and Sciences”

It can not be denied that with the development of science and technology, people live in a more comfortable way which they can never image one hundred years before. Sciences and arts change people’s thoughts and improve human culture. Some changes may be good, others may be not that delightful, but no matter how, we still go forward in the wave of science revolution. What scientists do is all about human needs, not like Rousseau argued, which is only a result of pride and vanity.

For example, do we need cars, trains, planes? No, surly we can walk to anywhere by our own feet, no matter how long it takes or how dangerous it can be. Do we need phones? Of course not, I can yell from one mountain to the other trying to tell my mother I will get home later. Excuse for my sarcasm and please no offense, but I have to quote the criticism from Jules Lemaitre who thought the instant deification of Rousseau as ‘one of the strangest proofs of human’s stupidity’.

Material abundance also brings some problems and the critical one is inequality which is the most important argument arised by Hippies. The conclusion they give is no more material, and we should all go back to primitive or so called as ‘noble savage’. Obviously it is an unadvisable and unrealistic idea. Inequality can not be absolutely avoided whether we use forks or not. Once wolves work together for hunting, there is an Alfa as a leader who is the strongest one of the term and will get more food for its protection from enemies.

Is that fair for other members gain less because they are born weaker? Should they just abandon eating for avoiding unwanted impurity? Above all, I can’t say agree to Rousseau for his attitude to sciences and ars. If there are any unfairness caused by sciences, what we should do is to creat more material wealth for everyone can afford luxury. There will be no inequality which is the same as primitive society, and the difference is ample material.

Free Essays

Guidelines for Writing the Three Major Parts

Guidelines for Writing the three major parts of the Literature Review (Introduction, Literature, and Discussion) follow. Directions Do not begin typing until you see the level heading – An Overview and Purpose in your template. The Guidelines are organized by LECTURES and INSTRUCTIONS. Lectures and related reading material are included to assist in developing each part of the Review. Where there is to be writing, there are specific Instructions as what is to be included under each heading. Instructions appear in a box. Each instruction is numbered. Respond to ALL NUMBERED INSTRUCTIONS.

Introduction to the Literature Insert Your Brief Topic before the Colon: An Overview and Purpose Lecture Note: This section is revised with each new submission of a draft. The introductory section should describe the topic (problem area, guiding concept, theme or research question or problem) that is being reviewed. Aim for an “eye catching opening sentence”. Sometimes this is a dramatic expression of a number to catch the reader’s attention such as the prevalence of a disease, crime rate, school drop out rate, or sales volume. Be sure the topic is focused on the literature that will be reported.

Briefly define the key concepts. Introduce these immediately. The topic should be sufficiently focused to permit an in-depth, substantial investigation, relevant to an area of advanced study/global leadership that guides a range of inquiry, results in an extensive search of scholarly literature, and generation of questions for further inquiry. The purpose of a literature review is presented in the introduction. Bourner (1996) reports the following Purposes – of a literature review – (reasons for a review of the literature) before embarking on a research project.

These reasons include: • to identify gaps in the literature • to avoid reinventing the wheel (at the very least this will save time and it can stop you from making the same mistakes as others) • to carry on from where others have already reached (reviewing the field allows you to build on the platform of existing knowledge and ideas) • to identify other people working in the same fields (a researcher network is a valuable resource) • to increase your breadth of knowledge of your subject area • to identify seminal works in your area to provide the intellectual context for your own work, enabling you to position your project relative to other work • to identify opposing views • to put your work into perspective • to demonstrate that you can access previous work in an area • to identify information and ideas that may be relevant to your project • to identify methods that could be relevant to your project Bourner, T. (1996). The research process: Four steps to success in T. Greenfield (Ed. ), Research methods: Guidance for postgraduates (pp. 7-11). London: Arnold. Retrieved 8-13-02 from Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology RMIT University http://www. ib. rmit. edu. au/tutorials/literature/litrev. html As you attempt to define concepts (variables) and their relationships to other variables, if applicable, identify causal (independent) variables and effects (dependent variables). You may also identify other variables that can be contextual, intervening, or mediating (see Creswell, pp. 94-95 or other texts). After you introduce the topic area properly (instructions follow), you will develop a succinct one-sentence purpose of the review. Three examples of a concluding purpose statement in the overview are:

Example 1: The purpose of this review is to critically analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on web-based instruction as an instructional method in distance education, with an emphasis on effectiveness studies that focus on instructional effectiveness, student learning outcomes, retention, student perceptions of this method of course delivery, and to identify areas of future scholarly inquiry. In this example, the causal variable (independent) is “instructional method of web-based instruction” and the effects (dependent variable) are instructional effectiveness, student learning outcomes, retention, and student perceptions.

Example 2: The purpose of this critical analysis of theoretical and empirical literature is to (a) examine historical and current literature to evaluate whether gender workplace bias exists; (b) explore the impact such a bias would have on women in the workplace, specifically women moving up the corporate ladder; and, (c) identify any theoretical or empirical gaps in the literature for the purpose of suggesting future areas of scholarly inquiry. In this example, the causal variable (independent) is “gender bias against women in the workplace” and the effect (dependent variable) is mobility up the corporate ladder.

Example 3 (Review carefully): The purpose of this critical analysis of theoretical and empirical literature is explore the influence of organizational leadership and other factors on organizational performance, in for-profit and not-for profit service organizations, and to identify areas of future scholarly inquiry. In this example, the causal variables (independent) are “organizational leadership” and “other factors”, contextual (intervening or mediating) variables are the type of organization (product versus service) and profit/non-profit, and the effect (dependent variable) is organizational performance.

Please note in developing your purpose statement, that the purpose statement begins with The purpose of …. and concludes with a statement related to identifying future areas of scholarly inquiry. 9 Instructions: Writing An Overview and Purpose (Follow precisely) *Review Blackboard Forum 5. Use your information and faculty comments for strengthening, as a guide to develop your Overview and Purpose (see items #1-9 below). *Draft 1 is due Week 3. Review Forum 6. You will get a great start if you develop this well. 1. Using the template: a. Develop a preliminary title for the Review and include on the title page.

The title should include the main concepts and themes (and/or key theories) for this review. Remember this is a critical analysis of the literature NOT a research study!!!! In no area of this paper, should you refer to this Review of Literature as a research study!!!!!! b. For the Introduction to the Literature, insert a brief subtitle preceding the colon for the level heading: ___: Overview and Purpose. 2. Under the Overview and Purpose, introduce the paper with an “eye catching” opening sentence for the first paragraph. 3. After the “eye catching” opening sentence, briefly – describe the topic (problem area, guiding concept, theme).

Get to the point – don’t let the reader guess what the review is about –a few sentences. 4. Next include brief definitions of each of the major concepts and cite references for these definitions in appropriate APA format. BE BRIEF – this is not the literature but an introduction to it! Anything you present in the introduction is developed in depth in the Review of the Literature. 5. Next, very briefly, attempt to identify how the literature explains these variables and their relationships to other variables. Include as many as possible variables because this will help in constructing a literature map.

The map will show relationships between the variables as you describe here. – Begin with the following: The causal variables (independent are) … The effects (dependent/outcome variables are… Contextual (intervening or mediating) variables that further impact the dependent or outcome variables are …. 6. Discuss how the topic area was identified and your reasons (point of view) for selecting the topic area to conduct your critical analysis of the literature. Review the Guidelines: How to Start – Select a Topic and Overview and Purpose, including purposes identified by Bourner (1996).

Begin with the following: The topic area of ____ was selected because___. 7. Explain what you want to know about the topic. Review Hart, 1999, p. 14 (Questions the Review Can Answer). Begin with the following: Some questions to be answered through this critical analysis of the literature are:…… 8. Answer the following: Is the topic about the problems in a discipline or field of study, the processes in a discipline or field of study, or the practices in a discipline or field of study? Processes can refer to various epistemologic processes to develop knowledge (also See Hart, 1999, p. 4). Introduce this clearly so the reader knows what you are speaking about. Begin with the following: The problem area of … is about…… 9. Conclude the Overview and Purpose with a clearly formulated statement of purpose of the literature review. Use the examples in the guidelines, as a guide to develop this. Make this clear (see examples in the previous lecture note). Begin with the following and include the ending The purpose of this ……………………….. , and to identify areas of future scholarly inquiry. Organization of the Review, Scope, and Library Research Plan

Organization of the Review Lecture Collect appropriate articles, read critically, identify concepts, theories, and themes, and think about the best way to present your topic. Write these concepts, theories, and themes down (see your Blackboard forum 5 submission and instructor response. Develop a Literature Map. This is a Content Map (Concept Map or Mind Map): All students will have a literature map that will guide the organization of the review and literature search. Build (draw) a visual picture of the concepts and their relationships, which results in a literature map.

These evolve from your topic, key concepts, ideas, theme, and/or purpose. Don’t introduce new information or concepts. It should first be introduced in the overview. The literature map is presented in-depth here. There are many methods to organize the review, which often change as you learn more about the topic. Concept Mapping – Representing information in diagram form where key words are linked by lines. These lines are then labeled to express the relationship between the terms. The resulting ‘map’ shows links between key ideas and can then be read through to clarify relationships between key terms. . Definition and Purpose of a Literature Map. This map is a visual/graphic representation of concepts, ideas, and themes that serve to guide thinking. In this case, the purpose is to guide the search and organizational presentation of your review. This map serves to: i. Develop ideas for your review ii. Show relationships and interrelationships between the concepts, theories, and themes – and if so, what type of relationships iii. Assist in organizing old knowledge and integrating it with new knowledge iv. Guide your literature search plan/strategy v.

Identify subtitles (subheadings) to organize your literature review so that you can communicate your ideas systematically. vi. A literature/content map is a creative, intuitive, and artistic endeavor to see how things fit – to generate alternatives. It is also analytical and critical, based on what you are finding in the literature. REVIEW THESE LINKS A simplified explanation of understanding of a Content map is described in the following URL – web link – http://users. edte. utwente. nl/lanzing/cm_home. htm b. Various types of Graphic or Visual Organizers (review this online.

Click each box) (you need to have the syllabus downloaded and Internet connection on) |Chain of Events |Clustering |Compare/Contrast | |Continuum |Cycle |Family Tree | |Fishbone |Interaction Outline |Problem/Solution | |Spider |Storyboard |Venn Diagram | Source: http://www. sdcoe. k12. ca. us/score/actbank/sorganiz. htm Other Web sites: Graphic or Visual Organizers Graphic or Visual Organizers: A good site review this online by clicking link. ttp://edservices. aea7. k12. ia. us/edtech/classroom/workshops/organizers. html http://www. cast. org/ncac/index. cfm? i=3015 http://www. veale. com. au/phd/files/Lit_Map. pdf Some diagrams of content maps are depicted in the following URL web link http://trochim. human. cornell. edu/research/epp2/epp2. htm#Table1 Free Mind Mapping Software (Smart Draw) http://www. smartdraw. com/specials/mindmapping. asp? id=13054 Readings on Mapping Ideas: See Hart, 1999, pp. 142-162 Blackboard’s Assignments Toolbar: See example of literature maps in Assignments – Weeks 1-8 Literature Review (Critical Analysis) 50%.

Within this folder is information on PowerPoint Presentation and Student Examples. Most of the student examples include literature maps for RES 702 (RES600) students. Organizing the review of the literature by themes, theories, or major concepts and related concepts provides a “frame for the central topic” to organize. In this case, you may proceed inductively or deductively. http://trochim. human. cornell. edu/kb/dedind. htm Exercise in Deductive/Inductive thinking: http://www2. sjsu. edu/depts/itl/graphics/induc/ind-ded. html#3b

For example, a deductive approach might start with the broader view or concept(s) then move to the specific topic area. Example FOLLOWS: A literature map (Figure 1) is used to guide the library search for theoretical and empirical literature about distance learning. The map shows a deductive pattern of the major themes, using an “interaction line style” type of graphic organizer. Beginning with the broadest concept of distance education, web-based instruction interacts with student characteristics, which leads to evaluation of effectiveness of web-based instruction in distance education. . . Other concepts and their relationships to guide the review are . . ……. Other Organizational Methodologies for Reviews: While RES 702 students are asked to develop literature maps that serve to organize the review, with more scholarly experience and depending upon the topic, you could also present the Review using an “opposing view” or “methodological approach”. This is not expected now. c. The literature map generates an outline for the Review of the Literature Review “Why do an Outline, and Basic Outlining skills: http://www. und. du/instruct/wstevens/PROPOSALCLASS/PATRAS. html http://www. mnstate. edu/wasson/ed603/ed603lesson5. htm An outline provides a blueprint, skeleton, or a roadmap for the final written review. An outline is an organizational process that is a logical description of the important components of the literature review. It provides a visual and conceptual design for writing. 1. Identify the main points in the order they should be presented. 2. Differentiate each main heading into logical subheadings. 3. Use further subdivisions if necessary.

IT IS STRONGLY SUGGESTED THAT YOU INCLUDE A SECTION ON MEASUREMENT OF YOUR MAJOR VARIABLES. REPORT SOME OF THE MAJOR METHODS, TOOLS, OR INSTRUMENTS THAT HAVE BEEN USED IN PRIOR STUDIES TO MEASURE THE KEY CONCEPTS IN YOUR OUTLINE. Notice in the outline that follows, a sub-level heading is measurement of leadership and organizational performance. In the Review of the Literature section, you would then describe the tools whether qualitative or quantitative, and reliability, validity (quantitative tools), and trustworthiness of qualitative tools. Run a Proquest or Google search such as: “measurement leadership”.

This saves you time in the QP and literature in the ”dissertation” where you need to know how your variables have been studied and measured. It is best to have MORE detail in these themes. You can always change later. Example of an Outline: (Let us say that the following concepts are present in the literature map which could be Chain of Events, Clustering, or Interaction Outline. This is an example of an outline (quite detailed). It includes the major concepts that can be used for the literature search, and the outline is placed in the 2nd part of this Review (Review of the Literature) to organize how to present the literature.

Leadership Classical, Progressive, Risk Leadership Theories Traits and Characteristics of Leaders; Leadership, Power and Influence; Gender and Equity Issues in Leadership Practice Cultural Issues and Leadership Developing Teams Leading Organizational Change Organizational Leadership Development; Strategic Leadership Leadership Measurement Organizational Performance Dimensions of Organizational Performance Organizational Climate Individual Performance Team Performance Supplier/Vendor Perspectives Customer Satisfaction Financial Performance Effectiveness Indicators Performance Driven Organizations Competency Modeling

Managing Performance 360 Degree Feedback Collaborative Change Organizational Performance Measurement: Output (Activities) and Outcome (Results) Measures Factors Influencing Organizational Performance Leadership and Performance of Organizations Leadership Style and Team Performance Leadership Style and Organizational Outcomes Leadership Style and Vendor/Supplier and Customer Satisfaction Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture, and Organizational Effectiveness 7 Instructions for Writing the Organization of the Review Do not present literature that you reviewed here. Just respond to questions 1-7. . After you design the literature map, begin with the statement: A literature map (Figure 1) is used to guide the library search for theoretical and empirical literature in this review about ___. 1. Next, describe the specific type of organizer that you used to design your map (for example, cluster, chain of events, cycle, etc). To do this, you need to review this syllabus on line, and click the different URL links of examples of visual or graphic organizers (review preceding lecture which provides several types). 2. Identify the specific the concepts, theories, and themes that are in your literature map. 3.

Next, briefly, describe the relationships between these concepts, theories and themes (such as what leads to what? Which are the causal, outcome and/or intervening variables? Are the concepts organized inductively or deductively? This all refers to the concepts, theories, and themes in your literature map. 4. Next explain that in addition to guiding the literature search, the literature map serves to identify themes, theories, and concepts that will organize the Literature Review. Present these theories, concepts, and themes in outline form, differentiating each main heading into logical subheadings. (Keep it simple). . Due for draft 1, go to the next major section (Review of the Literature) – insert these themes/concepts as level headings/sublevel headings in outline form. They serve to organize the Review of the Literature. Use appropriate APA (see p. 113 of APA) level headings. An example using APA level headings, is shown in the next major section of these guidelines. The concepts and themes for the example, uses the outline of themes previously discussed (leadership and organizational performance). 6. Insert the Figure 1, Literature Map at the end of this discussion of the Organization of the Review (before Scope and Context). . Make sure that you develop your literature map in a software application that can be copied and pasted into your Microsoft word document containing your paper. b. Make sure the map is an appropriate size and fits within the required paper margins. c. The Figure and #, and Title (Literature Map) belong at the bottom, centered: Figure 1 Literature Map Your goal is to have the map well-developed in draft 1 and finalized in (draft 2). It is expected that this map will change as you “tighten” and “organize your literature review in the next section” as well as well as in your qualifying paper.

Refine this part with each new draft (and particularly as your literature map evolves). Scope and Context Lecture This section lets the reader know what is and is not included in your literature review (scope). The topic is described in such a way that an appropriate context for the review of the literature is established, in a meaningful, logical way. The key terms here are included/excluded. You can restate the theories, concepts and constructs that you will include and obvious theories, concepts and constructs you won’t include (Look at your problem and topic area).

Identify what might be included in the search in terms of types of organizations (public/private; for-profit, not for profit; service/product; types of businesses, types of educational institutions); populations such as young versus old; gender; cultural groups; countries; or type of occupation. The major types of scholarly literature to review are: empirical studies, review articles (critical analysis), theoretical articles/books, methodological articles, and case studies.

These types of literature may be in the form of a book, hard copy journal articles, and electronic journal articles. The following are different types and forms of literature: Periodical Abstract in a primary source, Abstract in a secondary source, Periodical (hard copy), Periodical (electronic), Non-periodical (Book), Non-periodical (chapter in a book), Proceeding of meetings or symposia, Doctoral Dissertations (including abstracts), Unpublished work, Audio-Visuals, Newspaper, Government documents, and Electronic Media. Instructions for Writing the Scope and Context 1. As you write this, discuss what is and is not included. Regarding the topic or problem area, discuss what is and is not included in terms of concepts/theories, applications to different populations and settings. 1. Identify the forms (not types) of publications that are included. You don’t need to name specific articles, but identify the forms of literature to be included. 2. Identify the discipline(s) you are focusing in (e. g. , education, health, business, criminal justice, accounting, sociology)?

Included specialized areas within these disciplines, such as: gender theories in sociology, accounting ethics, special education for specified populations, urban violence, etc. 3. Identify the scope in terms of the years (period of time) that your literature review covers and exclusions. 5. Discuss whether you are limiting your review to U. S. literature, and/or Global literature. For global literature, identify the “countries”. If seminal books are emphasized, include the titles. Refine this part with each new draft (and particularly as your literature expands).

Library Research Plan and Strategy Lecture THIS IS THE PLAN, NOT THE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE!! The review is presented in the second major section (Review of the Literature) Searching the Literature: A good review of the literature is dependent upon knowledge of the use of indexes and abstracts, the ability to conduct exhaustive bibliographic searches, and ability to organize the collected data meaningfully. Information literacy skills assist with information seeking and retrieval methods and scholarly communication. Recognize scholarly and peer reviewed journals (See Week 1 Lecture)

The e-Learning tutorials about Lynn Library can assist research students with the development of literature reviews using electronic databases, abstracts, bibliographic software, Internet searching, Library catalogue searching, subject resources, off-campus searching, and research and writing skills. You need to complete the tutorials. Library Research Plan/Strategy: In reporting your library plan/strategy, identify concepts, themes (key words) or descriptors and search the relevant databases for research on your topic. Be consistent with the Literature map concepts and themes.

Focus your search on primary scholarly works including: empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological inquiry. Recognize the differences between these types of scholarly inquiry. Review dissertation abstracts. Did you do a Lynn Library catalog search on the topic (at Lynn)? Did you search selected journals? Did you limit the search to peer-review journals? Did you limit the search to certain years? If you are having difficulty in your library search, you may make an appointment with the Reference Librarian who may assist in building effective search strategies.

When visiting the Library, you should come prepared with your search words. Requesting Materials: It is suggested that you read the abstracts before requesting the materials from the Librarian, because certain abstracts may provide enough information to help you make a decision on the material’s relevance. Expect that you will obtain more literature than you will need to include in your literature review. Quantity, however, is not as important as selecting appropriate literature, that is of value and relevant.

While many published review articles may have more than 100 cited references, due to time constraints in the course, the expectation is a minimum of 20 “relevant”, scholarly citations in the text of your paper. Do not go overboard. Quality and relevance is what counts. Don’t use references from “consulting firms” or firms that are “promoting” their products or services. Look for scholarly publications. Types and Forms of Literature: Minimum Requirements i. The preference is that you review a variety of types and forms of literature so that you many learn to: ii.

Search for and evaluate different types and forms information iii. Integrate a variety of types information in the text of your paper iv. Recognize classic (seminal) works as well as current literature Give yourself time to read the material; do not make a library request for everything at once. Readings: Search Strategy worksheet: http://library. humboldt. edu/infoservices/sstrawrksht. htm http://www. noodletools. com/debbie/literacies/information/5locate/adviceengine. html http://www. lynn. du/clientuploads/Library/Graduatestudentsmanual. doc 11 Instructions for Writing the Library Research Plan and Strategy In a Review, a discussion of the plan or strategy you used to develop your literature search is presented. Don’t discuss what you “will” do, but rather “what you did”. 1. Identify the descriptors (concepts, themes, theories, phrases/key words) used to search the relevant databases for research on your topic. Include “themes” or groups of words used in the search plan. Add the terms “theory” or “research” to your themes when you are searching.

You should uses many “themes” to limit the search. Example of a theme for a library search: “leadership organizational performance research”. Try to include several themes. 2. Report databases used in your library search. 3. Indicate which of the following types of primary scholarly works were reviewed: empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological inquiry (aim to obtain all of these)? 4. Were secondary citations of references used in your paper? Explain Why? Review APA p. 247 to understand a secondary citation of a source. Remember that these need to be limited.

In your dissertation, you need to mostly use primary sources of literature. Remember that if you report literature from secondary sources in your paper use (as cited in __). 5. Explain if you reviewed dissertation abstracts (yes/no). If so, on what topics, which abstracts? You should use these. 6. Explain if you did a Library catalog search on the topic (at Lynn or where? ) Yes/ or no 7. Provide the titles of the key journals reviewed. (Put these titles in Italics). 8. Indicated whether or not you limited the search to peer-reviewed journals? . Indicate if you limited the search to certain years? If so, which years? 10. Refer the reader to the example of a library Search Print-out that you will place in Appendix A. 11. Report any problems encountered in your library search and how these problems were managed. Refine this part with each new draft. Interest, Significance, and Rationale for the Critical Analysis Lecture In this last part of the introduction to the literature review, you explain the importance and significance of the Review that will follow.

As you read more, you will find more rationale as to why this review is important. Provide a transition sentence from this Introduction to the Review of the Literature. Then end with a statement that explains how the Review will conclude in the Discussion section. Example of concluding statement: As an emerging method of instructional delivery in higher education, and one that continually evolves with the growth in technology, it is important to understand its impact on learning, retention, instruction, and students.

This critical analysis of the literature concludes with a summary and interpretation of theoretical, empirical, and methodological literature, conclusions, and recommendations for future scholarly inquiry into web-based instruction in distance education. 4 Instructions for Writing the Interest, Significance, and Rationale for the Critical Analysis 1. Discuss if the topic is of limited interest, regional, national, or perhaps of global interest? Explain why? You can include personal interest based on experience and potential applications. 2.

Describe why it is worth studying (or examining)? 3. Indicate that the presentation of the Review of the Literature follows 4. Develop a concluding statement (see example above, in lecture) to the effect that a synopsis and interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are presented at the end of the review in the discussion section. Refine this part with each new draft. Review of the Literature About ___ (add your topic) Lecture This is the second major part of this critical analysis. This has a long lecture. Now is the time to write “your in-depth Literature Review”.

You laid the foundations for this section in the Introduction to the Review, to organize your review according to those themes. Present the theoretical literature (theories, model, constructs, concepts) about those themes, and empirical literature (studies) regarding those themes, in a proper manner. Follow the instructions (see presenting theoretical literature, and presenting empirical literature) in this Review of the Literature section. If you present the literature appropriately in this body of the review, then you will have information to present in the Discussion of the Literature. If you don’t, this Review falls apart.

Only literature presented in this Review of the Literature can be analyzed in the next section, Discussion of the Literature. You will save a stitch in time, if you follow instructions and learn how to present theories, and how to present studies, including the authors stated limitations and recommendations for future inquiry, in addition to your critique of those studies. • General comments: The theoretical and empirical literature is summarized, analyzed, evaluated, and synthesized in a more in-depth “coherent” manner within organized headings and sublevel headings. Specifically, information ertaining to theoretical, empirical, methodological, critical review, and case studies about the topic is reported. As reported previously, expect that you will obtain more literature than you will need to include in your literature review. Quantity, however, is not as important as selecting appropriate literature to present, that is of value and relevant. While many published Review articles may have more than 100 cited references, due to time constraints in the course, the expectation is a minimum of 20 “relevant”, scholarly citations in the text of your paper. This will increase to 50 references in the qualifying paper.

It certainly isn’t unusual to have over 100 references in a dissertation. Do not go overboard. Quality and relevance is what counts. Don’t use references from “consulting firms” or firms that are “promoting” their products or services. Look for scholarly publications. As you present literature in your “word” document, it is okay to talk to yourself. Make notes in the document to your self. You can use different font colors or highlights for these messages to yourself. o Perhaps you want to leave a message to yourself to review a particular article that you didn’t yet have the chance to review, or o you want to search another theme. Or you read an article, but didn’t have a chance yet to write about it – jot down notes o Use the word file as a tool where you keep all information in one place. You will find this technique very helpful in developing the qualifying paper, and in developing the your dissertation. The instructor does not mind (and in fact encourages you do to this, even in final copies0. Just make the messages “neat” – and not to distracting) Of utmost importance, is that you present your review appropriately. Practice doing it correctly immediately or you will be WASTING time (having to redo it later). Your review must be organized within the headings/sublevel headings. Insert the outline developed in the Introduction to the Review. Make sure that the outline is consistent with the organization of themes, concepts add theories in your literature map. • It is ok if you reorganize or rename the themes, but make the changes if the Organization of the R (and literature map, in the prior section). You want the Introduction to the Review, Review of the Literature, and the Discussion section all to be “internally consistent” with one another. • Instructions follow on how to present CRITICALLY present, theoretical and empirical literature.

FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS. Quotations and Paraphrasing and Critical Analysis • This is a literature review, and not your opinion. Almost all of what you say is referenced, except when you are introducing themes and concepts, and critiquing the theoretical or empirical literature (using appropriate criteria – which is explained later • Reminder: Make sure that you adhere to ethical responsibilities of providing accurate information and communicate effectively. Include “quote marks” for information that is word for word from another literature source follow APA for (Author, year, p. x). For information that is paraphrased, reference the source as (Author, year). • Whether you are referencing a quote or paraphrased information, NOTE THE LOCATION OF THE “PERIOD”. IT IS NOT BEFORE THE PARENTHESES BUT AFTER. • Do not copy any material that is word for word or paraphrase without citing sources. • Limit your quotations. We do not want a “summary” or “copy” of the literature. • You cannot present a “string of quotes”. (Quote after quote after quote). IMPORTANT: If you paraphrase as you write (it must truly be paraphrasing), cite the (author(s), year. A good way to make sure that you paraphrase is to: • Read material Move the material away from your eyesight • Write out what you recall. • Note: Paraphrasing is not changing the order of words. • Review the Required Information Literacy Tutorial which discusses plagiarism. Review the following URLs about Plagiarism, Student Writing, Citing Sources, and Paraphrasing (IMPORTANT to Review) Plagiarism and Student Writing Paraphrasing, citing sources, use of quotations, plagiarism: http://www. ipl. org/div/aplus/linkciting. htm http://depts. washington. edu/psywc/handouts/pdf/plag1. pdf http://www. hamilton. du/academics/resource/wc/usingsources. html • REFERENCE list and BIBLIOGRAPHY list o Add the complete bibliographic citation of the article you reviewed to your REFERENCE list in appropriate APA format. Don’t wait until the end when the report is due. This is often one of the worst problems, “trying to find references”. o REFERENCE list – This contains all literature “referenced in your paper. o BIBLIOGRAPHY list – This contains all literature reviewed, but NOT referenced in your paper. o If you review literature, but don’t reference it “immediately” in your paper, place it on your BIBLIOGRAPHY.

If you eventually reference in your paper, all you need to do is to cut and paste from the BIBLIOGRAPHY list, to the REFERENCE list. o Literature reviewed is placed on either the REFERENCE or the BIBLIOGRAPHY list, NOT BOTH! Organization of the Review of the Literature • There are no sublevel headings given to you in the template. • The concepts and themes in your literature map AND THE OUTLINE serve as the basis to organize this section. BE CONSISTENT. Insert for draft 1. o Use your literature map and evolving outline to organize these sublevel headings (subtitles) of the literature review.

Remember that the concepts and themes in your literature map are theoretical in nature. Thus, in developing the Review, present the concepts and themes conceptually first followed by empirical studies that support or do not support the theoretical formulations. (see guidelines that follow for presenting theoretical and empirical literature) o Follow the organization that you described. If you alter the organization, concepts and themes in this part of the review, go back to the introduction and make the corresponding changes (in the introduction – organization, map, and outline). APA: Organize in a logical, meaningful and orderly manner. Use frequent APA level subheadings to connect main ideas and topics covered in a logical sequence (see APA publication manual for examples, pp. 111-113). The main ideas are concepts and sub-concepts in your literature map. The template for this paper uses five levels of headings (depicted on APA p. 113). The rationale for five level headings is that you may continue with this Review as your qualifying paper and but more importantly, it may become part of the Second Chapter of a Dissertation (REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE). See p. 13 of APA First Idea, Theme, or Topic (Second Level APA heading, centered italics) First Subconcept or Theme Related to First Idea and Topic (Third Level APA, Left Italics) Related Subconcept or theme (Fourth Level APA, indent ? inch, italics, lower case, end with period). Related Subconcept or theme. Second Subconcept or Theme Related to First Idea and Topic (Third Level APA) Second Idea and Topic First Subconcept or Theme Related to Second Idea and Topic (Third Level APA) Second Subconcept or Theme Related to Second Idea and Topic (Third Level APA) An example follows (next page)

Example to organize the review: for the topic the influence of organizational leadership on organizational performance (organized with appropriate APA level headings), and which follow the topical outline presented in the organization of the review (see Introduction to the Literature). Note there are 4 major themes (centered, italics) to organize this review. • In the presentation of the literature review, the first two themes (Leadership and Organizational Performance) would contain “rich” theory. Who developed the theories, when? how are the concepts in the theories defined?

What are the propositions in the theories (statements of relationships), and have propositions in the theories been tested in empirical studies. (See presentation of theoretical literature – and internal and external criticism) • The second two themes Factors Influencing Organizational Performance and Leadership and Performance of Organizations would primarily focus on empirical studies that test the propositions in theories. (See presentation of empirical literature Leadership Classical, Progressive, Risk Leadership Theories Traits and Characteristics of Leaders Leadership, Power and Influence Gender and Equity Issues in Leadership Practice

Cultural Issues and Leadership Developing Teams Leading Organizational Change Organizational Leadership Development; Strategic Leadership Leadership Measurement Organizational Performance Dimensions of Organizational Performance Organizational climate. Individual performance. Team performance. Supplier/vendor perspectives. Customer satisfaction. Financial performance. Effectiveness indicators. Performance Driven Organizations Competency modeling. Managing performance. 360 degree feedback. Collaborative change. Organizational Performance Measurement Output (activities) measures in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations.

Output (activities) measures in service and product organizations. Outcome (results) measures in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. Outcome (results) measures in service and product organizations. Factors Influencing Organizational Performance Leadership and Performance of Organizations Leadership Style and Team Performance Leadership Style and Organizational Outcomes Leadership Style and Vendor/Supplier and Customer Satisfaction Transformational Leadership, Organizational culture, and Organizational effectiveness IMPORTANT: Presenting theoretical literature and empirical literature following these guidelines.

THIS IS AN ABSOLUTE MUST to understand and apply General Comments Literature reported in the Introduction of this critical analysis (should be very little), but ANY LITERATURE DISCUSSED IN THE INTRODUCTION must also be discussed here in the Review of the Literature – in depth, and linked with the appropriate concept (subtitle). • Present clearly to let the reader know if you are presenting a theory about something (theoretical literature) or a study about something (empirical literature, empirical study, research study). When you don’t use the term “study about”, it is generally assumed that you are speaking of someone’s theory. The critical analysis review distinguishes between an author’s theorizing or suggesting (author’s interpretations) versus author’s research findings (testing theories). • Always introduce the type of literature you are reporting such as: theoretical literature, empirical literature. For empirical literature, specify the type of study. This information is usually found in the abstract of the article. For empirical literature introduce as: i. Empirical – Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed ii. Empirical – Methodological iii. Empirical – Experimental, non-experimental; case study, historical, etc. v. Empirical – Descriptive, exploratory, predictive, explanatory, Reporting Theoretical Literature (IMPORTANT) Kerlinger (1973) presented a helpful definition of a theory that has “withstood” time. A theory is a set of interrelated constructs (concepts, definitions and propositions) that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among the variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting phenomena. Immanuel Kant provided this famous quote: “Experience without theory is blind but theory without experience is mere intellectual play” http://www. oop. uvic. ca/ArwrCoop/stuprepoverheads/1_Orientation/tsld003. htm Criteria that can be used to evaluate theories including theoretical frameworks, conceptual models or conceptual frameworks may be organized into internal and external criticism. a. Internal Criticism (of theories) 1. Semantics (Meaning – or definition – given to the elements such as concepts, constructs, variables): Semantics evaluates Clarity, Consistency, Correspondence between theoretical and operational definitions, and intersubjectivity (which is whether similar meanings are used by other scholars). . Syntax: (Logical Structure and Relationships Between the Elements) 1. What are the types of statements (propositions)? laws, postulates, theorems, principles, hypotheses, assumptions, empirical generalizations 2. What are the types of relationships: Time ordered, probabilities, conditional, causal, or concurrent? 3. What are the signs of the relationships? : position; inverse (negative) 4. Note: It is the propositions that are tested in theories, reformulated as hypotheses. 3.

Method of Theory Development (What is the method used in theory building – 1. Induction (Grounded theory, codification, definitional reduction or prepositional reduction); Deduction; Synthesis; Logical empirical approach) 2. Patterns: Is there a schematic model depicting the relationships between the concepts? If not, can you diagram the pattern of relationships between the key concepts? 3. Level of theory development: What kinds of outcomes are produced from the theory – (knowledge, principles, solutions, problems)? a.

Conceptual framework (definitions only), model (shows relationships between the concepts), and/or a theory (well developed propositions, well linked together, with evidence of empirical support? ) b. Is it Descriptive, exploratory, explanatory, predictive, prescriptive b. External Criticism of a Theory 1. Social Significance: 1. Value to society; theory addresses essential issues in the discipline; 2. Lends itself to further research 3. Efficacy of the theory over another in achieving desired outcomes 2. Social Utility: 1.

Pragmatic Adequacy: Is it useful? Does it contribute to understanding? Does it generate new knowledge, provide direction to in professional practice, research, education (pertinent to your topic)? 2. Scope: Is it narrow or broad? What is the degree of generality or abstractness and how does this affect is usefulness (pertinent to your topic)? 3. Complexity/Parsimony: 1. Does it explanation and interrelated many variables? 2. Could a simpler theory achieve the same purpose (parsimonious)? 4. Discrimination: 1. Can the theory be applied to more than one discipline, or is it unique to one discipline? . If it is borrowed from another discipline, are boundary lines demarcated? (example –a variety of disciplines use systems theory) 5. Empirical Validity 1. Does empirical evidence support the theory? Cite some studies. (Is there congruence between theoretical claims and empirical evidence? ) 2. Do results indicate confirmation, verification, support corroboration, or disconfirmation, failure to support the theory? 6. Social Congruence: 1. Does the theory fit with reality? 2. Is it accepted by society? a.

When you are reporting theoretical literature, select criteria from the internal and external critical approaches to adequately address your description. Present theories systematically: YOU MUST DO THIS FOR ALL THEORETICAL LITERATURE. 1. First provide a good description of what the author stated about the theory, model, framework, construct or concept. –Example: 1. Introduce the title of the book(s) or theoretical article(s) in your own words which describes the theory (not studies). Next: 2. Begin with the internal critical analysis: a.

Report the major concepts and constructs and how these are defined by the author (Semantics) b. Present how the author relates the concepts to one another (Syntax). These are propositions. c. Does the author explain how was the theory developed: Induction (Grounded theory, codification, definitional reduction or prepositional reduction); Deduction; Synthesis; Logical empirical approach) d. Explain how patterns of relationships between the concepts are explained: Is there a schematic/visual model depicting the relationships between the concepts? . Secondly, report what the theorist (or other authors) stated about the External critical review: Social Significance (important), Complexity/Parsimony-simple, Discrimination, Empirical Validity (important) and Social Congruence. It is extremely important that you indicate what the author said about empirical validity: Do they report empirical studies to support the theoretical explanations? When presenting classic or recent theories pertinent to your topic, you may certainly describe the theory, but also describe the work done to test those theories. 2.

Finally, you may provide your critique comments to the above – ie what needs to be strengthened in the theory? Determine if you can succinctly identify key strengths and limitations, and perhaps areas that can be improved? Can you see the linkages between the theory, practice, and research? Does this help to understand a fairly common student question: “How do we use these models and theories in practice? ” Provide a balanced appraisal and sufficient detail (particularly with major theories) so that readers have enough information to draw their own conclusions.

Reporting Empirical Studies (Critical! ) – Review the Instructions (you should be familiar with the information based on your critique – consult the worksheets for questions) Reporting methodological studies, you may follow the empirical approach. But focus on: the method being proposed – what method is being targeted? Is it a design? A different sampling approach? Is it a method to measure concepts? Introduce the study title (in your own words), the purpose, and present as above. Reporting Case studies may include use of prior data, or secondary analysis of data for a new study.

It may also include a single subject or single organization if a case study. You may follow the above empirical approach is presenting– but be quite clear in presenting whether the authors are using someone else’s data or their own or a single subject or organizational design. Reporting Review Articles (Critical Analysis of the Literature, or Meta-analysis). First Describe what the author said: Introduce the title (in your own words). Describe the purpose of the review and its scope, including the library research plan used to obtain the literature.

What sources of information were used (literature, observations)? Present the results, conclusions and future areas of inquiry needed (example: future studies) as reported by the author. Secondly, discuss your critique of the article. Note: Meta-Analyses conduct statistical analysis of other studies (analysis of analyses) General Pointers • Important Note: It is so critical for you to get in the habit, very early on in this process, of presenting theoretical and empirical literature appropriately and systematically.

If you do, you will find it easy to develop a nice state of the art of the literature, formulate interpretations, identify important gaps, develop conclusions, and generate recommendations for future study (which is presented in the Discussion section of this report). That is your path toward successfully completing this course, moving on toward a successful qualifying paper (whether or not you stay with the topic), and understanding the dissertation. If you don’t present the literature systematically and appropriately, the review falls apart and can’t be completed. So, plan ahead, follow directions, and you will find your path to success!! Generally, related articles and research findings should be presented together (under the appropriate sublevel heading). o Report areas of agreement and disagreement. o Only a little space should be used to report minor studies. As possible, group together minor studies that have similar results, methodologies, strengths and/or weaknesses. • Major empirical studies or seminal writings (theories). It is appropriate to present major studies or seminal writings individually in more detail. • As you write, you will need to integrate and synthesize the results in some logical manner. You don’t need to report everything that you read! When reading and evaluating the research studies for possible inclusion in your review, determine the relevance, worth and significance of studies to your topic. • While you initially identified some topic, theme, or point that you wanted to develop, you may find that a new or different theme is evolving not initially considered. This may be a reformulation of your topic. If you have questions if this arises, contact the instructor. • The review should contain fairly recent work (post 1995, and preferably 2000+). While older information can be relevant, the review should aim to provide current knowledge (a “state of the art review”). Remember you need to have the “most recent literature” if it is to be “state of the art”. o You will find that there are classic studies or theoretical papers repetitively cited in the literature. These are the classic (or seminal) examples of literature in the field. While you would certainly want to refer to these in your review, it would be redundant–and probably irrelevant–for you to review them. It is generally permissible to use secondary sources for some Seminal Literature.

Remember that if you do not read the original (primary source) article/theory, but rather you are reporting what someone else says, it is found in a secondary source (use appropriate APA referencing format, as cited in). There should be a limited number of secondary sources in your report. • As you write the Review, you will see that you are generating ideas for the Discussion section- next part – (Interpretations, Conclusions and Recommendations). You can “jump” to the Discussion as you have further understanding the literature. Do it concurrently while writing this part. You will see that you are summarizing, analyzing, critiquing and relating each literature sources logically to a concept or theme related to the area of inquiry. You are finding a meaningful way to organize the review. You are organizing, integrating and synthesizing the literature and preparing to generate your discussion of conclusions and recommendations! • A good review of the literature is more than simply a summary of the research. It is both a critical evaluation of the existing research and a synthesis of that work. You will need to synthesize the literature in some logical manner. This is a skill that develops with practice.

As you write things down, review it to see if you are integrating, evaluating, and synthesizing. Are you identifying opposing views, contradictory findings, and gaps in the literature (what questions are being suggested)? Are you bringing clarity to the issues? These will be clearly presented in the Discussion of the analysis, so lay the foundation in this part of the review. • You will see that you are summarizing, but also analyzing, critiquing and relating each literature sources logically to a concept or theme related to the area of inquiry. You are finding a meaningful way to organize the review.

You are organizing, integrating and synthesizing the literature! 5 “big” Instructions on Writing the Review of the Literature About… 1. Organization (APA and Level Headings for the Outline) a. Add the topic to the title of this section, Review of the Literature…About… b. Organize the Review of the Literature according to your literature map and topical outline. Use APA level headings to organize the review in a logical, meaningful and orderly manner. c. Present related theoretical literature and research findings together. d. Organizing, integrating and synthesizing the literature needs to be highly evident! . The first draft (week 3), at the minimum should contain 1a and b above, and some literature presented as possible. Draft 2 should have this part of the paper nearly complete. 1. Content and Quality of Theoretical Literature: IMPORTANT: Present the theoretical literature systematically and appropriately. Follow these steps responding to a-d a. Introduce the name or title of the theory, model, framework, construct. Do this for each major theory, construct, or concept in your topical outline (sublevel headings). b. Internal critical analysis (what the author(s) say): 1.

For each theory, name the major concepts and constructs that organize the theory, and provide the definitions by the author (Semantics) 2. Present how the author relates the concepts to one another (Syntax). These are propositions. 3. Report if the author of the theory provides a schematic/visual model depicting the relationships between the concepts. 4. Optional: How does the author explain the way the theory developed: Induction (Grounded theory, codification, definitional reduction or prepositional reduction); Deduction; Synthesis; Logical empirical approach c.

External critical analysis report what the theorist (or other authors) state about theory – Review Lecture notes on these items 1. Social Significance (importance) 2. Social Utility 3. Complexity/Parsimony 4. Discrimination 5. Empirical Validity (Do the author(s) report empirical studies to support the theoretical explanations) 6. Social Congruence d. Provide Your critique comments to the above: What needs to be strengthened in the theory? Determine if you can succinctly identify key strengths and limitations, and perhaps areas that can be improved?

How are linkages between the theory, practice, and research described in the literature? Does this help to understand a fairly common student question: “How do we use these models and theories in practice? ” Provide a balanced appraisal and sufficient detail (particularly with major theories) so that readers have enough information to draw their own conclusions about the quality of the theory. INSTRUCTIONS ALSO CONTINUED – NEXT PAGE Example Combining 2a, b, c and d (presenting theoretical literature):

In 1984, Jones introduced his seminal theory of ______________ (based on his qualitative, phenomenological studies about___ (as cited in Smith, 2004). This theory identifies 3 major constructs ____________ defined as ___. The major propositions in this theory are ________ (as cited in Smith, 2004). In the last 20 years, the theory has been revised and adapted to ___ by ____. Several empirical studies by ___, led to refinement in the theory. Brown (2000) developed a schematic model depicting these direct and indirect relationships among concepts, which continues to be examined today (Smith, 2004).

This theory is socially significant addressing essential issues about ___ in the discipline of ___, and is useful in explaining, predicting, and discriminating among those with ___ and those without ___. Thus it is a well-developed guide to ___. The theory has a good balance between simplicity and complexity, contributing to its usefulness. Studies by __ verify the propositions of __. The major proposition with conflicting results in empirical studies is ___. The theory has been adapted to ___ situations and __ populations. This is the predominant theory used to examine ____ with well-developed propositions and strong empirical support.

Competing theories are ___ (cite reference). You would then present these competing theories next.. 3. Content and Quality of Empirical Literature: IMPORTANT: Presents the empirical literature (including scientific investigations, case studies, methodological studies, secondary analyses, meta-analyses) systematically and appropriately, following these guidelines!! :)) a. Introduce the study title (paraphrased – in your own words –and the “general” design (in one sentence) b. Explain the purpose of the study is ….

And link with paraphrased research questions and hypotheses (these can be abbreviated or paraphrased – not word for word – be brief) c. Discuss the quality of the literature review presented by the author and the theories and concepts (or propositions) tested (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed; and experimental, or not experimental design) d. Be explicit in reporting the specific research design for the qualitative, quantitative, or mixed study) and o Non-Experimental – descriptive, exploratory (cross-sectional, longitudinal, predictive, etc) o Type of Experimental including type of design. . Describe the sampling method (whether or not it was probability or non-probability sampling), the specific type of sampling, the sample size and characteristics of the sample. f. Present the methods of data collection (how were each of the variables are measured-instrumentation), and provide reports of reliability and validity of quantitative the tools/measures and trustworthiness of qualitative tools. This is very important, as you will begin to see how the concepts of interest, are measured. Be fairly explicit in describing these tools. Include the names of these data collection tools. g.

Other procedures (data collection procedures and ethical considerations) h. Present the results – study findings (including hypotheses supported/not-supported), research questions answered? – Don’t restate these word for word – present in an abbreviated or paraphrased manner. i. Very important is to present the “author’s” (not your) Discussion. The discussion must include the author’s important: o Interpretations o Implications (applications for practice) o Conclusions o Limitations o Recommendations (of utmost importance, are the author’s recommendations for future areas of inquiry, example: future studies).

Include this j. Discuss your critique of the article (Introduction, Literature/Theory, Methods, Results, Discussion). Select IMPORTANT POINTS. Based on your summarizing the article, you can now identify strengths and weakness, and areas needing improvement. You can do this as you describe the study or at the end of your description of the study. Provide a balanced appraisal and sufficient detail (particularly with major studies) so that readers have enough information to weigh the results and draw their own Remember that the “critical analysis of the literature” is not a mere summary (descriptive). onclusions. It is interpretative and evaluative of an area of inquiry of scholarly work. INSTRUCTIONS CONTINUED Example follows: USE YOUR CRITIQUE WORKSHEETS AS AN AID IN DEVELOPING THE PRESENTATION FOR EACH OF THE STUDIES. Example Presenting Empirical Literature – Combining 3a -j above: – Smith (2004) conducted a study about ….. He used a non-experimental, causal comparative, quantitative design, of __ (sample-population). Smith’s literature review was thorough, current and ___ in comparing and contrasting theories about ____.

Empirical studies of ___ were examined, leading to the major gap and conflict in the literature about_________. This resulted in Smith’s study testing the proposition of ….. developed in 1998 by Jones (as cited in Smith, 2004). A non-prob

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Annotated Bibliography: Arts Education

Arts Education in America: An Annotated Bibliography Statement of Scope: The purpose of this bibliography is to attain information from credible sources on arts programs in schools. The goal is to provide enough information so that the reader is then able to form their own opinions on the benefits, problems, and policies on arts programs at varying levels of education. Those looking to find detailed information will find this bibliography to be a good starting point. Parsad, B. , and Spiegelman, M. 2012.

Arts Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools: 1999–2000 and 2009–10 (NCES 2012–014). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U. S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Web. 24 Jan. 2013 This source is a presentation of unbiased information about both the overall arts education programs and specific sections including: visual arts, music, dance, and theater/drama. The report utilizes a plethora of charts, graphs, and other visual aids to help organize and present the information.

Parsad and Spiegelman first present their findings on overall arts education programs including the percentages of schools offering visual arts, music, dance and theater classes. They then dedicate ten to fifteen pages discussing the particulars of each section of the arts listed above. There is so much information in this article that it would be great for someone looking for a broad spectrum understanding of arts education programs. The visual aids complement the information presented and would be easy to incorporate into a variety of works.

For someone who is looking to get very specific information about a specific program then this would be a good source to start with, the way the report is divided makes it very easy to find information on a specific sections of an arts program, i. e. music or drama. It would provide the reader with enough information that they could ask their own questions and be able to look further into a specific topic. Catterall, Dumais, and Hampden-Thompson. March 2012. The arts and achievement in at-risk youth : findings from four longitudinal studies. National Endowment for the Arts. Research Report #55). Web. 24 Jan. 2013. This research report is a presentation of years of studies conducted by the National Endowment for the Arts and similar organizations, most being government funded. The authors arrange the report in such a way that the bulk of the report is given through the use of visual graphs and charts, which are accompanied by conclusive statements like “Teenagers and young adults of low socioeconomic status (SES) who have a history of in-depth arts involvement show better academic outcomes than do low-SES youth who have less arts involvement.

They earn better grades and demonstrate higher rates of college enrollment and attainment. ” (12) Most of the graphs simply relate percentages of students with low and high levels of art engagement to achieve certain things like high school graduation, entering a bachelors program, and attaining a steady professional level career. For every study and graph presented or reviewed there is clearly cited sources, if any confusion remains the appendix and cited pages are very clear about how to find more information. Being that this is a report of findings from a national organization it is not biased to or for support of arts programs.

For anyone looking for specific statistics to use in a presentation or report of their own, this research report could be very helpful. As previously stated the bulk of the information is presented through graphs and charts that utilize percentages, and is therefore very easy to take and use in a presentation without having to do much work yourself. For someone looking for a more scholarly breakdown of the benefits of arts education on high-risk students this report will not be as helpful, as it would be time consuming to trace the information presented back to the original sources. Dwyer, M.

Christine. 2011. Reinvesting in Arts Education: Winning America’s Future through Creative Schools. President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities. Web. 24 Jan. 2013. The reports emphasizes the essential role that arts education programs play in improving student engagement and building creativity. Dwyer discusses, in a lengthy and wordy overview, the current Arts Education programs and policies shortcomings. “It is widely agreed that the U. S. public education system is not adequately serving a significant portion of our nation’s children and that public K-12 schools must change dramatically o achieve the Administration’s goal that the United States become a global leader in postsecondary attainment by 2020… School leaders and teachers will need to step up to the challenge of finding new ways to engage many more students in meaningful learning… ” (27) More importantly, this report discusses possible solutions such as reinvesting in arts education, and argues for creating arts-rich schools that can engage students in ways that complement the study of the arts and other traditional subjects such as literature, history, science, and mathematics.

Another key takeaway from this report is it shows readers the link between arts education and achievement in other subjects. Being that this source is a report by the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities, it attempts to present evidence to support the positions of the president and his corresponding political party. As political and wordy as this report is it would most likely benefit someone looking into the politics side of arts education, it would not be as helpful for someone looking for developmental and long term benefits of art involvement in schools.

Rabkin, Hedberg. 2011. Arts Education in America: What the Declines Mean for Arts Participation. Based on the 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts. National Endowment for the Arts. (Research Report #52). Web. 24 Jan. 2013. This report presents its findings after researching important question related to arts education in America. Questions like: Has participation in arts programs declined? What does it mean for teachers and students? How has this affected participation in other extracurricular activities?

How does this affect support for programs? The article presents the questions to the reader and then follows up with information that supports both positive and negative claims about the answer. Charts are used when needed to simplify information into an easily digestible visual aid. There are numerous sources used as evidence for the information presented, as well as suggestions for further investigation into the questions presented. This report has a very neutral stance towards the information presented.

There is good information presented for varying arguments and the ultimate decision is left to the reader. This source would be a fair report to use in a work, especially if in an argumentative essay you need information for the view that opposes yours. However for someone looking for highly specific information this report will only be useful for an introduction into the questions being asked about the national education programs. Oxtoby, David W. 2012. The Place of Arts in Liberal Education. Liberal Education, v98 n2 p36-41 Spr 2012.

Oxtoby uses a great deal of logic to explain his opinion on the place of arts in liberal education and he uses statistics to support his views. In his article, he states that diversity in the curriculum is a keystone to success in any liberal education program. He also claims that part of that diversity needs to include a program where students can express their creativity. Being able to express their creativity and the stimulation provided by arts programs lead to more successful students, both in academics, community involvement, and professional work environments.

This article is a good source of simple and sound logic in support of arts programs being included in all liberal education. Oxtoby’s statements and presentation of the information is biased towards supports arts programs, but he always includes evidence to support his ideas. Also, while he does not approve of excluding arts in liberal education there is never any negativity in his statements, only more supporting evidence for his ideas. Some readers will find this article to be dry and uninteresting unless they already have some knowledge and opinions on the place of arts in education programs.

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Theological Foundations and the Liberal Artss

Theological Foundations and the Liberal Arts Existence precedes essence. “Holmes, 3. ” The exsistence of humans is valuable. We are here to fulfill what God has promised us. . A person is reflective thinking being. “youtube. com,3”We must look inside one’s self to know the truth of what God has planned for you, and looking outside yourself to make things whole. Christianity should be a part of life. Creation, the human person, truth and the cultural mandate are foundations of a Christian education.

All creations are good because God has created everything and everything is perfect. The Christian college focuses on God’s creation of everything because all things are made by God. The human person is meant to serve God in every capacity in life and in education. That God mad us in His own image reminds us that in a vast universe that reflects God’s glory, humans are uniquely “crowned with glory and honor. ” “Holmes, 15. ” Everything we do as humans should be a reflection of God. All truths are all God’s truth, wherever it is found. Holmes, 17” If it is true in any subject then it is God’s truth. Learning and reasoning is meant to merge with Gods truth. Our role is to be ambassadors of Christ “. Gnosticism doesn’t exist. Everyone had the power to know all. Lines between secular and sacred are nonexistence in a Christian. Secular colleges focus of education only. Secular colleges are only institutes for education. The rarely focus religion and are not faith based. Liberal educations at Christian colleges intermingle faith and education in every aspect of our lives.

One’s entire self should be bettered in learning. Is the idea of a Christian college, then, simply to offer a good education plus biblical studies in an atmosphere of piety? “Holmes, 5” Caricatures of Christian college are often assumed to be a good education with prayer and bible study. Church or minister training is not a sole function. A distinctive Christian college integrates faith and learning. Every academic, sport, and extracurricular activity is based faith.

Christian colleges take the act of learning and characteristics of faith and put them together. Christian colleges seek not compartmentalize aspects of Christian faith, but incorporate Christianity as a whole in student circle, training students to see all aspects of life as a Christian. There is no separation of faith and education. Liberal educations reinforce value of things and correctly places value upon things. To be reflective is to be analytic. “Holmes, 30. All that we are and do is to serve and reflect God. This is the purpose of our reflective value.

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History of Arts Notes


Hybrid figure, mammoth ivory, ca. 40,000-28,000 BCE – To make: split dry mammoth tusk, scarpe into shape (using sharp blad) – half human, half animal= human dressed as animal for hunting purpose Bear, Chauvet Cave, ca. 30,000-28,000 BCE – hand paintings, hand silhouettes depict animals – took advantage of walls – eg. bump creates bear’s shoulder – discovered in 1994 So-called “Venus of Willendorf,” limestone, ca. 28,000-25,000 BCE – no naturalism- stress fertility emphasizing reproductive features= fertility object Spotted horses and human hands, Pech-Merle Cave, ca. 16,000-15,000 BCE – shamanism- belief in spirit world accessed through alternative states of consciousness – hand dots- can find how many artists painted in one cave – saliva, water, blood- MIXED- applied with brush, finger, moss, chewed stick, feather Rhinoceros, wounded man, and bison, Lascaux Cave, ca. 15,000-13,000 BCE – sense of power – pathetic, no power – powerful Hall of the bulls, Lascaux Cave, ca. 5,000-10,000 BCE – human never lived in Lascaux cave (no objects, remains ; instead; bear bones, torches) – not optical images; instead;

COMPOSITE- many details of animal Stonehenge, ca. 2,100 BCE, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England – marked passing of time/seasons – megalith(stone forming prehistoric monument) in circles= CROMLECHS – simple structure= post and lintel Babylonian deed of sale, clay with cuneiform writing, ca. 1,750 BCE – refined pictogram pressed in series of wedge-shaped signs= CUNEIFORM – used for dministrative accounts ; poetry – invention of writing WEEK 2 SUMERIA;EGYPT Remains of the “White Temple” on its ziggurat, ca. 3500-3000 BCE Uruk, Iraq – Tripartite layout – from 3sides- can see ceremonial ascent of priest ; leaders – stairs- counter clockwise around mound= indirect approach= Mesopotamian temple archietecture Cylinder seal of priest-king feeding sacred sheep, ca. 3300 – cylindrical made of stone with hole running through centre – design carved into surface of seal- when pressed in soft clay= reverse image unfold

Statues from Abu Temple, Tell Asmar, ca. 2700-2500BCE – maybe worshipers – exaggerated eyes- responding to God’s awe, warding off evil Relief Panel of Hesy-ra, ca. 2660 BC – wooden stele nonnaturalistic – 3000 years of same system of showing body – same composite artificial way of showin g body – SHOWS that it was much more important to follow tradition – instead of realism, point is not that they cannot make naturalistic art – this convention was chosen on purpose Imhotep, Step Pyramid and Necropolis of King Djoser, ca. 681-2662 BCE – made for King Djoser-ruled 2630-2611- king [email protected] was NECROPOLIS-cemetery -encircling entire complex is rectangular stone wall stretchign over mile in length and 33ft high -DOMINANT FEATURE= STEPPED PYRAMID-oriented to cardinal points of compass – zygarat- elevate temple in mesopotamia- this is not a temple but a grave – this is only image of palace meant for eternity – there was a statue of king in center – believed that soul could live in a staute of king – statue enclosed in a room in center with windows and look out rest of complex so king could live eternily – monumental archeitecture

Royal Standard of Ur, ca. 2600 BCE – bottom= charioteers pulled bu oagers. Riding over enemies – middle= prisoners stripped of clothing ; armor are escorted – top= prisoners brought to central figure- head is off canvas – banquet= top= seated for banquet, cups raised to music played by harp – PANELS represent Kingship Prince Rahotep and Nofret, 2580 BCE – carved from limeston- softer than diorite- painted skin tones, hair, garments, jewelry – rahotep is government official and wife is dependent of king- ritualized gesture in full frontality – rigid frontality norm for royal and elite sculptures

Pyramids of Menkaure, 2533-2515 BCE, Kafra, 2570-2544 BCE, and Khufu, 2601-2528 BCE, Giza pyramid only a part of necropolis- city of dead – King djoser had a mudbrick palace made of wood, mud brick, reeds – has archeitect which suggest how important buildling is – stones cut precicly so that they can interlock together and create smooth surface – pyramid 440ft tall- 45 stories Menkaure and Queen Khamerernebty II, 2515 BCE – carved in one piece with an upright back slab, rigid frontality – almost identical height, left foot forward King is more muscular and half nude and queen draped in thin dress hemmed at ankles= smooth surfaces and high polishestablish appearance of unity – man both arms down and woman arms around man- dependent Seated Scribe, ca 2400 BCE, limestone -frontal, stiff in traditional poses – in earlier society- fat and marks of age could be signs of honour- experience – sallow cheeks, sagging jaw, loose stomach= social status: succeed in career, eats well, relies on subordinates to do physical work on his behalf Head of an Akkadian ruler, ca.

2250-2200 BCE naram-sin (sargan’s grandson) – stretched Akkadian empires – explited art to reflect and establish power= abstract hair and beard= strong symmetry= contrl and order – damage done maybe by Medes- who invaded Nineveh= gaughe eyes, ears and nose hacked= as if really attacking person Great Ziggurat of King Urnammu, Ur, ca. 2100 BCE – Mud bricks: clay mixed with vegetable and straw to prevent clay cracking when dry – mud mixture put into wodden frames- knocked out and backed under sun – joined wall with wet clay – not durable so sealed with BITUMEN buttresses= articulate walls= impression of strength, lines= add dynamic energy, 100 steps Stele with the Law Code of Hammurabi, ca. 1760 BCE – TOP- hammurabi appears in relief- standing with arm raised in greeting before the enthroned sun-god Shamash- god’s shoulders emanate sun rays- god extends hand, holding rope ring and the measuring rod of kingship= THIS GESTURE unifies scene’s composition and purpose of the two leading characters – smaller scale of Hammurabi compared to seated god= “shepherd” rather than god himself

Female figurine, 12th-13th dynasties (ca. 1650 BCE), faience – object placed in tombs along with dead – from tomb in Thebes, represents a schematized woman- legs stop at knees, restrict her mobility/ or legs maybe not essential to her function – painted cowrie-shell girdle to emphasize belly and hips, delineate breats and pubic area= function may have been as fertility objects, enhance family continuity – blue-green color of faience associated with fertility, regeneration and goddess hathor Temple of Hatshepsut, ca. 478-1458 BCE – New Kingdom funerary temple= Hatshepsut- female king – crowning pyramid- mastaba and terraces extending into cliff face – ascending white limestone courts, linked by wide ramps on a central axis – trees lined entrance way and paired sphinxes faced each other Queen Hatshepsut kneeling, ca. 1473-1458 BCE – Hatshepsut kneeling as she makes offering – because kingship is male office, she wears regalia of a male king(kilt, false beard and nemes headdress(striped cloth worn by kings))

Akhenaten and his family, 1355 BCE – akhenaten with family- consort Nefertiti and 3 oldest daughters – sun life-giving beams radiate downward with hands at their terminals- reed columns suggest scene is within garden pavilion stocked with wine jars – king and wife sit facing each othe on stools- hold daughters, on laps, in arms, uniting composition with animated gestures- contrast to STATIC quality of scenes of other times – emphasis on daughters’ childishness marks change

Akhenaten, 1353-1335 BCE – break dramatically long-established conventions for depicting royal subjects- different proportions- narrow shoulders, lacking musculature, marked potbelly, wide hips, generous thighs, large lips, distinctive nose, chin, narrow eyes make face recognizable. Queen Tiy, 1352 BCE Akhenaten’s mother- used dark wood of yes tree with precious metls and semiprecious stones for details – downturned mouth and modeled lines running from sides of nose to mouth= advancing years – initially queen wore gold jewlry and silver headdress decorated with golden cobras= identify her with funerary goddesses Isis and Nepthys – wig embellished with glass beads topped with plumed crown Queen Nefertiti, 1348-1335 BCE – Nefertiti’s bust- plastered over limestone core and painted – left eye not inished- bust remained unfinished but elegance still derives from sculptor’s command of geometry The weighing of the heart and judgment of Osiris The Book of the Dead of Hunefer, 1285 BCE books of dead – instructions on how to escape the great beast and make it through afte rlife – needed to go ceremony and weight their heart with ostrich feather- if free from sin- heart should be lighter than ostrich feather Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, ca. 1279-1213 BCE Ramesses commissioned most architectural projects- including monumental temple – king marked his claim to the land of Kush in Lower Nubia(origin of old, viroy and enimal pelts) – between statues’ legs- small figures represent member of royal family.

INTERIOR- colossal figures of Ramesses- 32ft Fugitives crossing a river, ca. 883-859 BCE – walls covered with large scale stone reliefs – narrative images- painted in places for emphasis- glorified king with detailed depictions – archer and two women look on with hands raised NO RELATIVE SCALE, primary purpose of scenes to recount specific enemy conquests Gate of Citadel of Sargon II, with lamassu, 742-706 BCE (photo taken during excavation) – lamassu- great guaridian figures – powerful and terrifying deities to anyone who might enter – embody king’s fearful authority- tall horned headdresses, deep-set eyes, powerful muscularity of legs and bodies Reconstruction of Citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin, ca. 21-705 BCE – Sargon II had plan for city of Dur Sharrukin where he had royal residence – unexcavated but estimate to cover a square mile – enclosed within an imposing mud-brick wall – 30 court yards- 200 rooms Lion hunt, ca. 645 BCE – king slay lion – way of demonstrating power over beast – EGYPT- royal lion hunts were events that took place in palace grounds – roal attendants released animals from cages into a square formed by troops with shields – ritual symbolic showcasing king’s strength and serving as metaphor for military skills

Palette of King Narner, ca. 310-3125 BCE – TOP CENTER: hieroglyphs spell out narmer’s name – BESIDE hieroglyphs= cow heads represent sky goddess – LEFT= King Narmer holds enemy by hair and raises mace- sign of kingship – KING- wears white crown of Upper Egypt and belt of kilt hangs tail of bull- symbole of power kings wear as part of ceremonial dress-larger scale establish authority – BOTTOM-enemy stripped of clothing- humiliateion – BEHIND king attendant carries king’s sandals RIGHT of Narmer appears falcon holding rope – OTHER SIDE- king wears red crown of LOWER egypt- by sandal carrier and long-hared figure= FOLOWS FOUR people holding something to inspect bodies of prisoners with their heads between their legs – CENTRAL register= 2 animals roped by male figure- twist long necks to frame a circle in composition – symmetrical, balanced= ma’at – LOWER- bull rep. king attack city and tramples down enemy – COMMUNICATE BY!!!! ombine several diff types of signs on one object – some literal representations and symbolic representations- bull=strength – MESSAGE: king embodied unified UPPER and LOWER EGYPT- though human, he occupied divine office shown by placement of name in sky WEEK 3 GREEK Amphora with meander pattern and funeral, ca. 750 BCE – vase from cemetery- known as Dipylon Vase- one of a group of large vessels Athenians used as funerary markers over burials- holes in its base allowed mourners to pour liquid offerings during funerary rituals- ashes of dead inside vases placed

Black-figured amphora Exekias, Achilles and Ajax Playing Dice, ca. 540-530 BCE – black-figured technique- painted design in black silhouette against reddish clay- incised details into design with needls, painted white and purple over black to make chosen areas stand out – Athenian amphora- signed by Exekias- both potter and painter- painting shows Homeric heroes Achilles and Ajax playing dice- episode not exist in surviving literary sources- two figures lean on their spears; shields stacked behind them – black silhouettes create rhythmical composition, symmetrical around table in center

Kouros, ca. 540-525 BCE (means youth) – male- slim, broad-shouldered, left leg forward, arms by side, clenched fists, shoulders, hips and knees are level Kore, ca. 530 BCE (wearing a peplos) (means maiden) – female- -BOTH HAVE stylized wig-like hair, show techniques and proportional systems used by Egyptian sculptors- rigid, frontal, four distinct sides, no backslab, (GREEK: space between forms, public nudity acceptable for males/not females. EGYPT: figures embedded in stone. forced nudity on slaves) Red-figured amphora: Euthymides, Dancing revelers, ca. 510-500 BCE – black-fig. imit artist to incision for detail- develop red-figured tech- scence not dependent on profiles- freedom with brush translates into freedom of movement in dancing- range of poses, twisting bodies, age of intensive and self-conscious experimentation Red-figured kylix (wine cup) Douris painter, Eos and Memnon, ca.

490-480 BCE – Eos, goddess of dawn lifts limp body of her dead son, Memnon whom Achilles killed- Douris(maker)- traces contours of limbs beneath drapery and balances vigorous outlines with more delicate strokes- dead weight of memnon’s body contrats with lift of Eos’ wings Kritios Boy’, ca. 480 BCE (marble) – contrapposto – weight shifted creating asymmetry in two sides of his body. Knee of forward leg is lower than the other, right hip is thrust down and in, left hip up and out, axis of body not straight vertical line, reversed S-curve – stands at ease- CHIASTIC POSE (balanced asymmetry of relaxed natural stance) – muscles suggest motion Temple of Hera II at Paestum, ca. 460 BCE building made of DORIC order simple capital, no base, columns sit directl on step platform – columns look massive, little space between them – archeitects worried about rooms falling down Zeus or Poseidon, ca. 460-450 BCE, bronze – nude bronze from sea near Greek coast- 7ft tall- depicts spread-eagled male figure in act of throwing- Zeus casting thunderbolt or Poseidon throwing his trident. -sculptor catures and contrasts vigorous action and firm stability- express god’s awe-inspiring power.

Shows artist’s understand of bodies in motion and also knowledge of strength of bronze= allow god’s arms to stretch out without support. Warrior, ca. 450 BCE, found in the sea off of Riace, Italy – over-life-size figure found in sea near Riace- used lost-wax technique- not just cutting away stone- artist build clay model- where marble absorb light, bronze surface reflect= explore surface texture for hair and skin Roman copy after a bronze original by Myron, Diskobolos, ca. 50 BCE – bronze, Myron condensed a sequence of movements into single pose, achieved through violent twist of torso that brings the arms into same place as legs -Pose conveys essence of action by presenting coiled figure in perfect balance Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, 447-432 BCE – building made when athens was at war- created by money in military- dominant temple on Akropolis- Perikles conceived it to play focal role in cult of Athena- chief center of cult practice remained on Erechtheion(north f Parthenon)- built of gleaming white marble- Architects Iktinor and Kallikrates – OCTASTYLE(eight-column arrangement)- continuous sculpted frieze runs around all sides in variation of Ionic style- depicts procession moving from west-east- horsemen jostle with musicians,water carriers, sacrificial beasts- figures overlap to create illusion of crowd- encircling colonnade gave impression that visitor can approach temple from all sides.

– appears less massive than TEMPLE OF HERA II at PAESTUM= columns more slender, capitals smaller and less flaring-cornice projects less. East freize of the Parthenon, ca. 440 BCE part of festival held to honor Athena- exalts mortal Greeks by deicting them in space reserved for divine and mythological scenes. – cloth is a new robe for Athena(woven by Athenian girls and depicting Athen’as triumph against giants in gigantomachy) Model of Pheidias, Athena Parthenos, ca. 438 BCE – enormous statue of Athena by sculptor PHEIDIAS- stood with one hand supporting a personification of Victory, and shield resting against her side. Figure out of ivory and gold(combo known as CHRYSTELEPHANTINE)- supported by wooden armature- valuable Three goddesses, from the east pediment of the Parthenon, ca. 38-432 BCE – Hestia, Dione and Aphrodite (recent, Leto, Artemis, Aphrodite)- pediment figures embedded in building- forms are strong and solid- masterpiece of swirling drapery, garments cling to bodies beneath as if wet- drapery not follow lines of body- there is twisting around legs(struggle with them) Temple of Athena Nike, 427-424 BCE, Akropolis, Athens (ionic order) – has a bas- thinner columns- taller- fluting on columns is like womens robe or skirt- base is like shoes- more feminin and elegant- tiny temple of athena nike- godess of wisdom and war- nike= Victoria

Akropolis, Athens, 421-405 BCE – dedicated to goddess Athena Erechtheion, 421-405 BCE, Akropolis, Athens – Mnesikles’ project-architext had to deal with difficult terrain- built to serve several religious functions- included four rooms and basement on western side- two porches attached to its flanks- one dedicated to Poseidon face north and is main entrance- smaller one juts out toward Parthenon

Erechtheion, Porch of the Maidens 421-405 BCE, Akropolis, Athens – 6 caryatids of columns support roof- represent women of Caryae (city-state in Peloponnese that formed alliance with Persians in Persian wars)- when war over, Greeks took women as slaves- architects THUS designed images of these women to bear the burden of their state’s dishonor in perpetuity Nike, from the balustrade of the Temple of Athena Nike, ca. 10-407 BCE – Nike taking off sandles-about to step on holy ground-wings keep her stable so she performs awkward act with elegance and ease- Pheidian style evident in deeply cut folds of her “wet look” garments clinging to her body and fall in deep swags between her legs. Grave stele of Hegeso, ca. 410-400 BCE – Pheidian style recognizable in drapery and also in smooth planes of faces- delicacy of carving clear in forms fathest away from viewer- servant’s left arm, veil behind Hegeso’s right hsoulder= relief merges with background strengthening illusion that background is empty space rather than solid surface.

Roman copy after an original by Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos original from ca. 340-330 BCE – first nude monumental statue of godess in Greek world- about to bathe, or rising from bath- right hand, she covers nudity in gesture of modesty, grasping for robe with her left- head slightly turned so does not engage viewer’s gaze directly Roman copy after an original by Praxiteles, Hermes and the infant Dionysius original from ca. 320-310 BCE – Hermes holding infant Dionysos- sandals=roman in style- chiastic pose is exaggerated and creates fuly relaxed curve of torso- youthful more than athletic

WEEK 4 ROMAN & ITALY Ara Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BCE – Republican practice of commissioning narrative reliefs to record specific events- reliefs mounted on public buildings and monuments(ara pacias augustae) Imperial procession, Ara Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BCE below: Parthenon frieze, ca. 440 BCE – inclusion of women and small children= denote importance of dynasty as well as referring to moral legislation Augustus enacted to promote child-birth among the elite. Roman copies of a Greek original by Lysippos, Portrait of Alexander the Great, original late 4th C.

BCE – to have idealized quality- planes are smooth especially around brow and individuality emerge in unruly hair, raised at fron (cowlick) and twist of head- does not engage with a viewer- has distant gaze The Abduction of Persephone, wall painting in Tomb 1, Vergina, ca. 340-330 BCE – from small tomb at Vergina- subject=abduction of Persephone- appropriate to funeral setting-Pluto-carries away Persephone to be queen-pluto seizes Persephone into speeding chariot-her handmaiden rearing back in fright The Battle of Alexander and the Persians mosaic copy of ca. 00 BCE of a Hellenistic painting of ca. 315 BCE – roman copies of Greek wall painting- may be copy of Philoxenos’ painting- depicts Darius and the fleeing Persians on right and damaged left-hand portiong depict figure of Alexander- mosaic- follows four—color scheme(yellow,red,black,white)- widely used in late 4th century Portrait, called “Brutus,” ca. 300 BCE rome- develop upon greek style-form art that became popular in this period= REALISTIC PORTRAIT lips thin, lips one over the other, overbite= similar notion of greek emphasis on individual = maybe a republican ideal, showing elf as god, flaws, suggest philosophical stance Epigonos of Pergamon (? ), Dying Gaul trumpeter, perhaps a Roman copy of a bronze original of ca.

230-220 BCE – found in Sanctuary of Athena on Akropolis of Pergamon- sculptor identifies enemy as Gaul through his bushy hair and moustache and by torque around his neck(braided gold band)- dies sinking quietly to ground/struggling to prop imself up as blood pours from wound in chest. Drunken old woman and market woman, Roman copies of originals of ca. 00 BCE – depict unidealized and realistic everyday life- genre=Hellenistic realism- Roman- crouches on ground, clasping wine bottle, head flung far back-wrinkles cover face, skin on her exposed shoulder and chest sags with age- wears buckled tunic= identify as member of wealthy social class- (other sculptures of this kind focus on rustic life on poor) Nike of Samothrace, ca. 190 BCE – celebrates naval victories-nike-means victory- of Eudamos- Rhodian marble of sculpture’s base suggest sculpture comes from Rhodes.

Victory goddess seems to be landing on prow of ship as if to bestow crown of victory upon Eudamos- maybe about to take flight, massive wings soar out behind her, wings make statue appear weightless despite mass of stone- neither leg holds the body’s full weight. Great Altar of Zeus at Pergamon, ca. 166-156 BCE – Eumenes II or Attalos II built it to commemorate territorial victories over Pontos and Bithynia and establishment of a grand victory festival(Nikephoria). Altar stood high on a podium with large rectangular encloser defined by Ionic colonnade. wide staircase at fron provided access. Stood on Pergamene Akropolis- reconstructed in Berlin-frieze encircle base-extends 400ft in length and 7ft in height-subject is battle of Gods and Giants Athena and the giants, from the frieze of the Great Altar of Zeus at Pergamon, ca. 166-156 BCE – muscular bodies rush at each other, overlapping, entwining, wings beat and barments blow in wind or twist around those they robe, texture contrasts with smoothness of giants’ flesh. -giants’ emotion – agonize in torment of defeat- brows creased in pain

Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Praeneste, early 1st C. BCE -in italy- made to celebrate military victory of sola- oracular center where priests interpreted divine will- architec used concrete to mold structures over entire surface of hillside and to craft spaces- sanctuary ascend in 7 levels- BOTTOM=basilica&senate house- UPPOER TERRACE=rose in grand crescendo-4TH=colonnaded exedrae framed altars Wall paintings from the villa of Publius Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale, mid 1st.

Century BCE – second style- employed architectural vistas to open wall into a fantasy realm suggest another world beyond room Portrait of a man, early 1st century BCE – wrinkles cover face, etching deep crags into cheeks and brows- depicted distinguishing marks=warts,hooked nose, receding hairline Temple of Portunus, Rome, ca. 80-70 BCE – borrow Greek forms- in Italic style- stands on podium and engaged lateral columns emphasize frontal approach- Ionic coluns have slender proportions of Classical Greek temples Scenes of Dionysiac mystery cult, Villa of the Mysteries, Pompei, ca. 0-50 BCE – 1st of MAU’S FOUR STYLES OF PAINTING-(4 styles of roman wall painting=: used paint and stucco to imitate expensive colored marble paneling- lower part of walla(the dado) and upper section above the cornice level are painted in rich mottled colors to resemble exotic stone

Wall painting of a garden, Villa of Livia at Primaporta, ca. 20 BCE fresco -dining room- painted on all of the walls and ceiling so it looks like you are in a garden- frescos on all sides- light hitting different kinds of leaves- birds- leaves move in the wind- moving sensation Augustus of Primaporta, possibly a later copy of an original of ca. 0 CE – depicted as ageless youth- appears in battledress with arm raised in gesture of address- – romans clothe sculptures, relaxed gesture- armor- pictures of his family, battles- represent life in armor- showing status- romans show specificperson- more political purpose, leading war with hand, armor, heigh preist, leader-CUPID=rides dolphin- acts as strut to strengthen marble- dolphin eoked sea Wall paintings, Ixion room, House of the Vettii, Pompei, 63-79 CE – fourth style- united aspects of all three preceding styles tocreate extravagant effect- combine imitationmarble paneling, framed mythological scenes resembling panel pictures set into wall Atrium of the House of the Vettii, Pompei, 2nd century BCE-79 CE – eilte Roman house-distinct feature=atrium-square of oblong central hall lit by opening in roof with shallow pool(impluvium) in ground to collect rainwater-airy quality=grandeur upon house, romans kept portraits of ancestors

WEEK 5ROMAN & BYZANTINE Icon of the Madonna Enthroned, late 13th c. CE, tempera Interior, Cathedral of Monreale, Italy, 1180-1190 CE Interior, St. Mark’s, Venice, begun 1063 CE Dome with mosaic of the Pantocrator, 11th c. CE Church of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece Crucifixion, mosaic, 11th c. CE Church of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece Emperor Justinian and his attendants, 547 CE mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna Empress Theodora and her attendants, 547 CE mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (previously Constantinople), 532-7 CE San Vitale, Ravenna, 526-47 CE Interior, San Vitale, Ravenna, 526-47 CE

Icon of Christ, 6th c. CE, encaustic Iconoclasm Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, 425-50 CE Good Shepherd, mosaic, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, 425-50 CE The Good Shepherd and Stories of Jonah, 4th c. CE Catacomb of Ss. Pietro e Marcellino, Rome Constantine the Great, early 4th century CE – large and deeply carved eyes- see something beyond this world-soft modeling to cheeks and mouth-more natural than tetrach-full cap of hair and absense of beard it reference to Trajan and Augustus Santa Costanza, Rome, ca. 350 CE Interior of Old St. Peter’s, Rome, built 324-400 CE (drawing by Jacopo Grimaldi, 1619) – Arch of Constantine, Rome, 312-315 CE people of rome dedicated triple-bayed arch to Constantine near colosseum to celebrate 10 year anniversary- largest imperial arches- little of sculptural relief on its surface was specifically designed for this monument- – free-standing Dacian capties on attic originated in Trajan’s Forum as did Trajanic Frieze on ends of attic and inside central bay- Arch of Constantine, 312-315 CE detail of Hadrianic rondels and Constantinian relief Constantine addressing a crowd, Arch of Constantine, 312-15 CE – figures crowd the scene- heads are disproportionatel large- bodies stocky- poses unnaturally rigid- lines cared on flat surface render anatomical details- second row of heards arranged above first indicates recession- The Tetrarchs, 305 CE, porphyry during tetrachy-portraiture took radically abstract quality- two porphyry sculptural groups mounted on columns- each group shows two tetrachs in elaborate military dress with bird-headed sword hilts and flat pannonian caps=represent powerful Illyrian officer class-proportions are squat and nonnaturalistic, facial features abstract rather than individualized.

=portrait suggest authority resides in office of emperor not in who holds office. =sameness of portraits underlines the tetrachs equality-porphyry-hard Egyptian stone reserved for imperial use Hadrian’s Villa, Tivoli, 130-138 CE – emperor built magnificient residence for self- built on site of Republican villa- villa’s form follo natural line of landscape but massive earthworks rearranged terrain to accommodate architecture – water is a common feature- in pools, running channels=adding sound,motion,reflecting light, offering coolness in summer heat-canal has been known as CANOPUS Pantheon, Rome, 117-125 CE Augustus’ right-han dman=Agrippa built first Pantheon-name intended it as temple to gods- fire destroyed this temple and Domitian built reconstruction- Pantheon now work of Trajan’s architect=APOLLODORUS- completed in Hadrian’s reign-

In roman times pantheon stood raised on a podium at south end of large rectangular court-octastyle facade- dome pierced with 27ft hole(OCULUS open to sky)- 143ft(total interior height is also dome’s diameter=sphere=eternity and perfection Trajan’s Column, Rome, 106-113 CE (height 38 m) – support gilded statue of emperor- winding through interior of shaft is a spiral staircase leading to a viewing platform- credited as work of Apollodorus-role as velvedere(viewing station) Titus riding in triumph, Arch of Titus, 81 CE rides triumphal chariot, high above a teeming crowd- horses appear in profile but chariot is frontal=illusion that procession is approaching viwer before turning sharply- behind emperor-personification of victory crowns him for his success Procession of spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem, Arch of Titus, 81 CE – soldiers carry booty through the streets including seven-branched menorah and other sacred furniture looted from Temple- panel marks important move toward spatial illusionism Colosseum, Rome, 72-80 CE – held over 50 000 spectators-concrete-faced with travertine- 80 arched entrances led into building framed with tuscan columns- second story, Ionic columns framed second set of arches, third engaged Corinthian columns. WEEK 6

Sinan, Mosque of Selim II, 1569-74, Edirne, Turkey Sultan-Muhammed, Allegory of Heavenly and Earthly Drunkenness, from a manuscript of the Divan of Hafiz, 1529 Detail of a carpet from Iran, ca. 1575-1600 Behzad, Poor man refused admittance to a mosque, from a manuscript of the Bostan of Sa’di, 1486 CE Court of the Lions, Alhambra, 14th c. CE, Granada, Spain Dome, Hall of the Abencerrajes, Alhambra, 14th c. CE, Granada, Spain Cloak of Roger II of Sicily, 12th c. CE The Temptation and Fall, Doors of Bishop Bernward, Hildesheim Cathedral, ca. 1015 CE Detail of qibla wall, Great Mosque, Cordoba, 10th c. CE Interior of Prayer Hall, Great Mosque, Cordoba, 8th-10th c.

CE St. Matthew, from the Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims, 816-835 CE St. Matthew, from the Gospel Book of Charlemagne, ca. 800-810 CE Equestrian Statue of a Carolingian Ruler, 9th C Kufic script from a Qu’ran, 9th c. Chi Rho Iota Page, Book of Kells, ca. 800 CE St. Matthew, Lindisfarne Gospels, tempera on vellum, ca. 700 CE Cross Page, Lindisfarne Gospels, tempera on vellum, ca. 700 CE Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, ca. 690 and later Interior, Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, ca. 690 CE and later Belt buckle, Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, ca. 600-650 CE Purse cover, Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, ca. 600-650 CE Clasp, Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, ca. 600-650 CE

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Performing and Visual Arts

Performing and Visual Arts Mia Debrowski ARTS 100 August 27, 2012 Jordan Handler Performing and Visual Arts If there is one thing in this life that cannot be escaped, it is art. Art takes over our visual, audio senses as well as sensation of touch at times. Not only does art take over our senses but it does something very wonderful to our mental status. It raises awareness and stimulates our brains. Some art can touch us on a very deep emotional level. The very definition of art may vary from one person’s opinion to another.

It has been said that for centuries the many have debated without resolution of defining the word “art” (Sporre, 2011). The definition of performing and visual art can be described as a creative form of communication through several different outlets. These may include plays, music, paintings, sculptures, dance and so much more. My personal experience with art has been such a positive influence in my life. Art has always been my escape. When I was a teenager I was going through some hard family times.

On my lunch break at school Iwould go into the music room and teach myself how to play the piano. Typically I get frustrated very easily when I do not know how to do something and I do not pick up on it right away. My fingers were not limber enough for piano, I knew how to read music but had no idea where these notes were located on the piano, I was clueless. For some reason sitting at that piano calmed me, I never once got frustrated. To this day music is still an outlet for me. More often then that it includes dancing to go with it.

I love to dance for fun, dance away my stress. I adore watching true dancers perform more than anything. I often watch the Television show So You Think You Can Dance on Fox. There has been so many times that the performance has made me cry. There are several things that go into this amazing performance making me cry. The choreographer turn their story into a vision of dance in their head and pair it with the perfect song. A choreographer can have a great dance but without the perfect dancers then it will never come across right.

The dancer has to have the raw emotion come through their performance as well. The wardrobe also helps create this character the dancer is trying to portrait. When all of these elements are paired together just right it creates a truly magical experience for me. I think humans cannot help ourselves in creating art. We are a very creative, intelligent and emotional species. I think that art is our way of expressing ourselves, telling our stories and reaching out to others. Art creates a common ground for people that they may not otherwise have.

One of the first things infants do is coo at themselves almost in song. When an infant gets to a point where they can stand or walk first instinct is to bounce when they hear music. To be without art would to be without emotion and passion. It seems that it is almost encoded into our DNA to have creativity and artistic abilities, even if it is in just the mildest form. References D. J. Spoore, Perceiving the Arts: An Introduction to the Humanities. (pp. 1-235). Upper Saddle River : Prentice Hall.

Free Essays

Theatre and Other Arts- Theatre Challenges

Theatre and Other Arts – Theatre Challenges Theatre is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place. Theatre has existed since the dawn of man, as a result of human tendency for storytelling. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music or dance. The most important element of theatre is the audience, which can make the performance or break it down.

Theatrical art is done by people and for people. Theatre plays a very important role in the whole society, it is rather influential, and in fact, it has a great impact upon people, both positive and negative. The theatre has been shown to be didactic – it is one of the greatest aesthetic and educational strength. The main aims of theatre are: to appeal to the hearts of the audience; to involve them into the atmosphere of art; to engage them emotionally and let them rest and be entertained in the way they want.

The first theatres were purposefully made for entertainment and everybody was allowed to attend it. In some time the art in theatre was done only for an elite, but today theatre focuses on the different audiences trying to make everybody involved in the art. Russian famous poet Vladimir Mayakovski once said that “Theatre is not a reflecting mirror but a magnifying glass”. The role of Theater in Society is became a mean of communicating culture, helped us come to understand more about humanity, our hopes and fears and helped to find ourselves and the larger world around. Theatre is changing.

The traditional canon is constantly revisited with a fresh eye and new writing continues to thrive, with new plays enjoying full houses. It seems essential to dwell upon theatre and other arts, theatre and high tech scenery as all challenges have important impact upon it. Experiments have begun in digital broadcasting. Doubtless, that one of the greatest threats facing theatre is television. In the first place, television is not only a convenient source of entertainment, but also a comparatively cheap one. Many people do not understand that the theatre is the parent of new dramatic forms.

Without a living theatre where writers, directors, designers and actors could learn their jobs, movies and television plays would be very crude indeed. Unfortunately the wealthy organizations responsible for films, radio and television, have helped themselves liberally to the talent the theatre has trained but have given it little in return. In fact their competition has made the position of the theatre which has no state support far more precarious than it used to be, and has made commercial theatre managers more reluctant than ever to experiment Another threat is generally seen from the sides of radio, cinema and the Internet.

While the situation with cinema and radio are nearly the same as with the television, the state of affairs with the Internet demands to have a closer look at the problem. The appearance of wide access to the Internet and digital technology is bound to have an effect on live theatre or, at least, on our reaction to it. When we can see the best online all the charm of going out loses its loveliness. Digital inventions made us lazier although being said to save our time. Radio is the theatre of the mind; television is the theatre of the mindless” (Steve Allen) In conclusion I’d like to say that theatre is the magical place where man meets his image and has the lifelike communication with the art and performers. All in all, it is difficult to overestimate the role of art and theater in our lives. The future is full of possibilities, but it also demands more from theatre leaders and their programs than ever before. The pressure on theatre organizations continue to increase, that’s why they continue to find new ways to attract and engage people more widely.

Free Essays

Visual Arts

“Artist often refer or reference that which was gone before” Discuss the statement using the Renaissance artists and their interest in Classical and Hellenistic Greek concepts. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century. “Renaissance” means “re-birth” and refers to the re-birth of classical styles of learning. Also the Renaissance period considered education particularly in the arts, like philosophy, architecture and the visual arts – in general ways of viewing the world as it truly was rather than as “The Church” dictated.

The Renaissance in Europe, the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art continued to inspire many generations of European artists. Looking further into the 19th century, the Classical traditions derived from the Classical and Hellenistic Greek periods have continued to dominate the art of the western world. The Classical period saw changes in the style and functions of sculpture. The poses become more naturalistic and the technical skill of these Greek sculptors increased. They were able to depict the human form in a variety of poses which were life like and real.

From about 500 BC, the statues began to depict real people. E. g. the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton  displayed in Athens to mark the overthrow of the tyranny were said to be the first public monuments to actual people. The difficultly in creating an aesthetically real person and technical challenge stimulated much in the way of sculptural innovation during the Classical and Hellenistic Greek periods of history. Unfortunately, for us today, these works survive only in fragments, The Most famous examples surviving today are The Parthenon Marbles”, half of which are in the British Museum in England.

In the Classical period there were many different sculptors who produced many lives like realistic works. Some of these artists or artisans include: Phidias which oversaw the design and building of the Parthenon. Praxiteles, another great Classical sculptor made the female nude respectable for the first time. This was in the later part of the Classical period in the mid-4th century BC. But the greatest works of the Classical period are considered to be the statue of Zeus at Olympia and the statue of Athena at the Parthenos. The whole point of the Renaissance is that Europeans particularly the Italians to begin with, were looking to the

Classical and Hellenistic Greek teachings and giving re-birth to their explorations. Renaissance artisans were looking back to a time of great knowledge, innovation and development. They reinvestigated the human form and true human proportion. Michelangelo produced a 5m tall “David” from a solid block of white marble. His work based on the biblical David from the Goliath story is truly amazing because of its considerable consideration of the audience perspective, its accurate proportion from this vantage point and the life like stance. David” was actually based on the Classical sculptures that depicted the Greek Adonis or beautiful male athlete of the original Olympic Games. The transition from the Classical to the Hellenistic periods occurred during the 4th century BC. Following the conquests of Alexander the Great, Here Greek art became more diverse and influenced by other cultures of people who were drawn into the Greek orbit. And in the view of some art historians, it also declined in quality and originality. Many of the sculptures previously considered as Classical masterpieces turned out to be of the later Hellenistic age.

The technical ability of the Hellenistic sculptor was clearly in evidence in such major works as the “Winged victory of Samothrace” and the “Pergamon Altar”. During this period, sculpture became more and more naturalistic. Common people, women, children, animals and domestic scenes became acceptable subjects for sculpture, which was commissioned by wealthy families for the adornment of their homes and gardens. These sculptors no longer felt obliged to depict people as ideals of beauty or physical perfection.

Hellenistic sculpture was also marked by an increase in scale, which culminated in the “Colossus of Rhodes” which was made during the late 3rd Century BC. People of the Renaissance were exploratory and innovative. To explore and invent the Renaissance people looked back to the knowledge, ideas and skills of the Classical Greeks and Hellenistic periods. Of course, the Renaissance developed into its own style because it was an interpretation of classical learning more than anything. Renaissance artists, writers and learners looked back to the Greeks for information and inspiration.

Many artworks of the time feature Greek deities and so on, even though people stopped believing in the long before. An example of this could be Botticelli’s Venus. Here although to us the scene is mythical Venus is again perfectly proportioned like Michelongelo’s “David”. Venus also has the same contrapposto stance which was originally developed during the Classical Greek period. This method of posing the subject gave the subject life because it illustrated a three dimensional idea which meant the subject looked like they were alive and moving through real space.

As has been illustrated Renaissance artists were definitely influenced by “that which had gone before”. They used “the Golden Mean” rules for human proportion, they used imagery from Greek legends and they revisited the contrapposto stance to give their subjects life. It is impossible for any artist of any period not to be influenced by that which has gone before because society is always looking back to improve the future. An artist’s practice cannot avoid being influenced by “that which has gone before”.

Rather than a period with definitive beginnings and endings and consistent content in between, the Renaissance can be seen as a movement of practices and ideas to which specific groups and identifiable persons variously responded in different times and places. They are influenced genuinely by the classical and Hellenistic part of Greek art. Shown through the artist of the renaissance, example Michelangelo which produced a 5m David. This would be in this network of diverse, sometimes converging, sometimes conflicting cultures that the Renaissance changed our imagination and our view of how we see our world for all time.