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Roger Sperry

Born August 20, 1913, Roger W. Sperry, won the 1981 Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine. He shared it with two other scientists, Wiesel and Hubel, for research on the nervous system and brain. They were praised for demonstrating the difference between the two hemispheres of the brain and special functions of the right brain. (Roger W. Sperry Biography (n.d.) A moderately controversial psycho biologist, Sperry changed the history of psychology. In 1935, Sperry attended an Introduction to Psychology class. His first page of notes reported two questions. One being, “Where does behavior come from?” and two, “What is the purpose of consciousness?” (Puente, A. 1995) His questions lead this intellectual giant into decades of research that would make a permanent impact on neuroscience, neuropsychology, psychology, philosophy, and society worldwide. (Puente, A. 1995)

Born in Hartford, Connecticut, Sperry was a son of a banker and son of an Assistant to the Principle at a local High School. He had one brother named Russell, a year younger, who went into chemistry. At 10 years old, Sperry read a William James (1842-1910) publication that influenced his thoughts. At 11 years old, his father passed away, which left him mentally and emotional unfit for some time. As he attended high school, he played sports and was able to letter n the varsity athletics. Between high school and college he lettered three times in varsity athletics. He went on to graduate as an English Major in 1935, obtained a Masters in Psychology in 1937, then earned his Doctorate in Zoology 1941. In his professional career, Sperry held six different professional positions throughout his studies as a researcher and professor. He achieved near thirty-five different awards, honors, and scholarships in his lifetime. He also traveled all over the world to join in research studies. (Odelberg, W. 1982)

Sperry was a shy and reserved man. He married Norma, a fellow biologist in December 1949. Together they had a son and a daughter ten years apart. In his home life, he appeared as a family man as well as he loved collecting fossils, fishing, snorkeling, painting, sports, sculptures, ceramics, and dancing. In the first year of the Sperry’s marriage, Roger, during a routine chest x-ray showed evidence of tuberculosis. The couple were sent to New York for treatment. During treatment he began writing monumental concepts of “Mind and Brain”, (1952) where he began to describe, “Present day science is quite at a loss even to begin to describe the neural events involved in the simplest forms of mental activity”. (Sperry, R. W. 1952 p.311) His thoughts became a published article in 1952 titled “Neurology of mind and brain problems.” This was one of two hundred-ninety publications by Sperry. Experimental Studies

Sperry is most famous for experimental studies of how brain circuits are formed and for research on mental activities after the connecting tracts between cerebral hemispheres have been cut. While working toward his doctorate, Sperry was in close association with biophysicist Paul Weiss. Weiss developed a surgery to analyze how connections between nerves and muscles are patterned in amphibian. This experiment showed regeneration of links from eye to brain, and brain to muscles after having one eye removed and one rotated 180 degrees. (Trevarthen, C. 2004)

In 1950, Sperry took one eye and transferred the other eye to the opposite side of the head in a fish or newt, resulting in them going in circles or appearing to be chasing their tail. Sperry concluded there is an internal brain signal, helping both perception of self movement and the focus of perception while the world is in motion. (Trevarthen, C. 2004)

In 1953, Sperry and graduate student, Ronald Myers, invented an operation in cats to cut the crossover of visual nerves, and lead the nerves to only one cerebral hemisphere. While leaving one hemisphere intact for the animal to function . They tried several versions of crossovers. Specific connections could transmit learning. This operation is the route of the term “split brain”. These experiments extended to monkeys. (Trevarthen, C. 2004)

In 1960, Neurosurgeon Joseph Bogen and Sperry observed behavior of split brain monkeys outside test situations. Their observations indicated that the left hemisphere which is normally the dominant and learning side, was virtually unimpaired and offered promise of relief from debilitating epileptic fits. (Trevarthen, C. 2004) Epilepsy disturbs brain function and can cause injury, brain damage or death.

In 1962, Bogen performed a total neocortical commissurotomy, also known as brain surgery on a man who suffered frequent epileptic attacks. Sperry was able to apply systematic psychological tests after the surgery. In 1965, researchers explored a small population of brain surgery patients. Once understanding the connections achieved, this step in human brain surgery reached into all areas of human mental life and excited immense public and scholarly interest. (Trevarthen, C. 2004)

In 1964, Roger Sperry, in a conference to the Division of Biology at Caltech, presented his ideas on consciousness. For the first time in psychology’s history, Sperry was able to give his professional thesis on behavior and consciousness. Stating behavior is not only the culmination of complex interworking of neuronal patterning, but such patterning would give rise to consciousness. This consciousness would have causal effect on specific neuronal activity. (Puente, A. 1995) In laymen’s terms, our behavior affects our consciousness, and our consciousness affects our behavior. Giving an answer to questions he had asked himself nearly 30 years before. Summary

Sperry continued his research until the end of his life. He received an APA Lifetime Achievement Award at the 101st convention of the American Psychological Association in August of 1993. Several extraordinary breakthroughs have been achieved from the dedication, research, and logic Sperry was able to share with his colleagues. He was able to give humans with neurological problems life rather than having to suffer. Roger W. Sperry died on April 17, 1994, in Pasadena, CA from neuromuscular degenerative disorder.

References

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1981/sperry-autobio.html#

http://www.faqs.org/health/bios/41/Roger-W-Sperry.html

http://people.uncw.edu/puente/sperry/sperrypapers/50s/46-1952.pdf

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Truman Capote Research

Truman Capote was best known for his vivacious and eccentric way of life, as well as his works in the 20th Century. While reading his first novel ever printed by him, Other Voices, Other Rooms, the characters and story line that Capote created was one that would clearly strike a touching insolence to many readers. Not only does Capote fascinate readers with his life, but also with the heart of life and nostalgia that is created when reading any of his work. Capote’s writing career began very prematurely and increased throughout the years of his life.

Once Capote finished school, he began writing for The New Yorker and eventually started writing short stories. At the age of seventeen, magazines published many of his stories, which eventually ended up leading to him writing his first novel. Capote ended up writing his first novel, Other Voices, Other Rooms, in 1948 and it brought almost instantaneous awareness and disgrace. Although it was not one of his most accepted novels, it without doubt got him on the right path. Truman Capote was born on September 30, 1924, where his life began in New Orleans, Louisiana, where he spent very little of his life (Jacob197).

At the age of only four years old, Capote’s parents were divorced. Capote’s mother, Lillie Faulk, then left him to be raised by her family while she went to go become a star (Pimpton 7). Her family lived in Monroeville, Alabama, where Capote spent most of his life living amongst his aunts, uncles, cousins and his friends. People actually consider that when Truman’s mother neglected him, it was the establishment of their relationship in the future (Biography). Throughout his life, Capote grew up being influenced by many of his family members and other peers that bounded him in the small town of Monroeville.

It wasn’t until 1933, that Capote’s mother intended to bring her son to come live with her and her new husband Joe Capote in Manhattan, New York. Capote abandoned the countryside life in Monroe and traded it in for a life in Manhattan with his mother. Joe Capote later on adopted Truman, and by 1935, he changed his name from Truman Streckfus Persons, to Truman Garcia Capote (Biography). In Capote’s later years, he went on to be a success. He lived a glamorous life. He enjoyed to party and never gave a care in the world.

He entertained many of the elite people in the world and on August 25, 1984, Truman Capote died of liver disease at his old friend’s house in Los Angeles, California. Other Voices, Other Rooms is the piece work that he relates to most. In his own words, Capote says, “this symbolized my hunt for my own father, whom I hardly ever saw, and the fact that the man old man is crippled and mute was my way of conveying my own incapability to correspond with my father; I was not only the boy in the story but also the old man”(Pimpton80).

It was recorded as public knowledge that Capote engulfed his stories with his own life experiences, but it was made incredibly apparent in this particular novel, with his expression and approach. One particular example would be the un-canny similarity of the main character Joel to Capote himself, “…too pretty, too delicate and fair-skinned…and a girlish tenderness softened his eyes…”(Capote4). Another method that Capote used a lot was his talent to describe a scene with incredible accuracy and portrayal, “A face shudder like a white stunning moth, smiled.

She beckoned to him, shining and silver, and he knew he must go: unafraid, not hesitating, he paused only at the garden’s edge where, as though he’d forgotten something, he stopped and looked back at the bloomless, descending blue, at the boy he had left behind. ” (Capote231). Throughout his novels, Capote uses these strong metaphors and descriptive language to show that his character, Joel, came to the house as one person and leaving as another. One with new experiences with life. Many people knew Truman Capote as a literary genius (Biography).

His work was different yet satisfying. Many of his characters are memorable, along with the places they lived and explored. Capote put us in his world and a large amount of readers enjoyed how he was able to grab your attention when you were reading. At times Capote may have been socially awkward, everyone remembers him as a very noteworthy author in American history. The beginning of Capote’s writing career began in his early years where he fell under the supervision of his instructor (Plimpton 470).

Although he was very unsuccessful in school, and never attended college, many exams confirmed that he had incredible intellect. Many of his novels showed his intelligence by the way he would describe and lure readers into his stories. His personality was different and it got readers attention. Even as a child, Capote was regarded as “…Prim and proper Lord Faunteroy…Incredibly protective of his clothes [and look]” which made many believe is what had caused him to ultimately be publicly gay (Pimpton2).

Although nobody knew Capote better then his friend Harper Lee; who actually based the character of Dill in her novel To Kill a Mockingbird on the young Capote (Pimpton 2). Despite the way he may have acted or done things, Truman Capote was nothing less then a mastermind. Many of his novels are remembered and loved by the various techniques used by Capote. He was truly unlike any other person in this world. Intelligent, different, and even socially awkward at times, Truman Capote is one of the most known and remembered authors of the 20th century.

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Essay on Edwin Chadwick

Edwin Chadwick was a man that made a huge different in our world a long time ago. Mr. Edwin Chadwick was born January 24th, 1800 and passed away July 16th, 1890. He lived a very long life and it was all due to the changes in the world that he made that prolonged his life as well as our lives today. I know everyone is asking the same question, “What did a man that died about 120 years ago do that helps prolong my life today? ” I will tell you and explain how we still live by Mr. Edwin Chadwick’s changes and use his invents to this day.

Mr. Chadwick was born in Manchester, England; but was raised by both his parents in London. Mr. Chadwick was an attorney. Edwin Chadwick received his earliest education in Longsight and Stockport. In 1810, his parent decided to more to London where then begun to receive education by private tutors. Mr. Edwin Chadwick was an attorney that was all about making changes in the reforming of the poor laws and making sanitary conditions better so it could improve the public health. Mr. Edwin Chadwick believed that his inventions would not only improve the health of people, but it would also save money.

In 1834, Edwin Chadwick was given a job as the secretary of the Poor Law Commissioners. Mr. Chadwick’s sanitary ideas made the government fierce and sustain criticism. Mr. Chadwick paid out of his own expense for researches and publishing papers about the unsafe sanitary conditions. Mr. Edwin Chadwick had a lot of problems with his superiors and there was a lot of disagreement that lead to the dissolution in 1847 of The Poor Law Commission. At the same time that Edwin Chadwick was working for The Poor Law Commission, he was answering questions about sanitary and trying to find away to improve it.

Mr. Chadwick was all about making changes in reforming of the poor laws and sanitary conditions. Mr. Chadwick strongly believed that the unsafe sanitary conditions were causing illnesses and lots of unnecessary deaths. Mr. Edwin Chadwick was putting together ideas that later was known as the “sanitary idea”. In 1842, Edwin Chadwick invented what we know today as the sewer tank. He found a healthier and proper way for removal of trash and sewage. Mr. Edwin Chadwick knew that the odor from the sewage and trash was harming the public.

Mr. Edwin Chadwick also knew that by putting the sewage underground and running it through a special pipeline into a special designed tank would be healthier for the public and by doing so the unpleasant odor (miasmas) from the above ground sewage and trash would disappear. After Mr. Chadwick introduced the sewage tank and proper trash removal the life expectancy increased. Edwin Chadwick invented the self flushing toilet; it was lined in glazed bricks. We use these several times today and never really thought about where they came from or what life would be like without them.

Mr. Chadwick invented and changed our sanitary conditions; by doing so there are few illnesses and deaths. We can flush our toilet and do not have to smell that nasty odor from the gas that would one day kill us. Edwin Chadwick had the idea of separating the sewage lines and water line a distances away from each other. By doing so it proved clean fresh drinking water that we enjoy today. In 1847, Edwin Chadwick changed the amount of smoke and soot that comes from chimneys. He created a law that protects the public from the harm of hazard materials.

By doing so Edwin Chadwick helped control the pollution in our environment. This made it a lot easier and safer for people to breath fresh air and enjoy being outside. Edwin Chadwick forced the government to get health inspectors to see that our community stays safe, so that we could have healthier lives. He also pushed the government for better-ventilated and less crowded housing for families, wider streets for traveling to and from, workplace health and safety legislation for employees, increased use of indoor plumbing, and stops the children employment in factories.

In 1854, Edwin Chadwick pushed the government to registration of all births, all deaths, and all marriage. It is amazing that if it was not for Edwin Chadwick we would not have birth certificates of our children, death certificates of our loved ones, or marriage licenses to our spouses. A driver’s license is needed to get a job and/or any government help that anyone might need. In 1854, Edwin Chadwick pushed the government to registration of all births, all deaths, and all marriage.

It is amazing that if it was not for Edwin Chadwick we would not have birth certificates of our children, death certificates of our loved ones, or marriage licenses to our spouses. By inventing these certificates we can keep count of the population of people today. Because of Edwin Chadwick, We have birth certificate for our husbands, sons, daughters, and ourselves. We have marriage licenses to show our husbands when they acts crazy; okay and the men can show them to the wives too. We need death certificates to claim life insurance policies of loved ones.

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Abigail Adams by Janet Whitney

Throughout our lives we have heard how women throughout history strived to become the best. We have heard stories about women going against society to gain equal rights and we have read about woman with extraordinary character that pursued the history of this world. One of these women is Abigail Adams, the only woman so far to be both wife and mother of a president. Sadly, however, “Abigail Adams” by Janet Whitney is far from being a biography of her life. Janet Whitney arranges her material in chronological presentation. She starts from how Abigail Adams and John Adams fell in love and got married.

She continues on with the biography describing how John Adams came to presidency as Abigail Adams gave birth to his kids one by one. The author chose wisely to arrange her material in chronological order; it helped better understand that time period. Janet Whitney didn’t make any assumptions about the knowledge of the reader, therefore carefully describing each and every event during the life of Abigail and John Adams. The events were detailed and included many direct quotes from the diary of John Adams. Therefore, it was easier to visualize the majority of the important events during the American Revolution.

In society (the modern world especially) more and more females are looking to research on historical female figures that had an impact on the world. Janet Whitney intended to write this book for the female population but failed to interest them in the midst of the biography. The title of the biography is enough to attract and spark an interest in the reader, but as the reader continues reading, he/she will be filled with nothing but questions and disappointment. Up until the middle of the biography, Abigail Adams is mentioned only when she becomes pregnant with John Adam’s babies.

The rest of the first half of the biography is an in-depth illustration of John Adam’s accomplishments. Abigail Adams is mentioned as merely a sidekick to John Adam’s success and a great companion. She is described as the most intellectual woman John Adam’s has ever met. Throughout the book the author describes in great depth and detail about the history that took place during the time of John and Abigail Adams. She seems to have great knowledge on the American Revolution and describes many detailed descriptions about John Adams life.

Although the author does describe the events leading up to the American Revolution, the author fails to depict the role of Abigail Adams in the lives of her husband and others. I believe that the author thinks of Abigail Adams as an unflattering topic, which is ironic because the author decided to write a biography about her. The author wrote the biography in a way that seems like John Adams is the highlight of the life of Abigail Adams and that Abigail Adams was a small influence in the road to presidency for John Adams.

The opinions of the author are not directly states in the biography. But there are certain parts of the book that shows an indirect opinion of Abigail Adams. As quoted in the biography, the author writes, “She freely expresses her longing to see him…she freely expresses her reliability on him…and the extent to how much she needs him in her life. ” (Whitney page 113). The author believes that Abigail Adams felt like she needed John Adams in her life because she relied on him so much. Nowhere in biography does the author cite specific evidence as to why and where Abigail would say this.

This also highlights the statement I said previously, the author believes Abigail to be an unflattering topic. The quote above describes Abigail as a needy, un-intellectual woman. The majority of the information the author used were from letters and diaries and biographies of other important historical figures such as John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and Thomas Hutchinson. Most of the biography was filled with quotes from first hand sources as the diary of Thomas Jefferson and letters written by John Adams.

The quotes mostly described the setting of the time period rather than the important details. For example, it described the physical appearances of Abigail and John Adams and described the major and minor details of the houses and towns they lived in. The author did an excellent job at giving the reader a window into the time in which Abigail Adams lived. The historical documents used as a reference for the writing of this biography were constantly quotes to give us a visual as to what events were taking place. The author wrote pages describing a single certain event.

Janet Whitney would not only quote from her first- hand sources, but she would describe and explain the quote as well to prevent any confusion. For example, Janet Whitney quotes in the biography, “The flame is kindled and like lightning it catches from soul to soul. Although the mind is shocked at the thought of shedding human blood, more especially the blood of our countrymen and a civil war is of all wars the most dreadful…” This creates a visual picture inside the reader’s head of how gory and gruesome the battles and fights were.

Overall, I did not enjoy reading this biography. I was looking forward to learning about Abigail Adams and her influence on American history but as I read I was constantly disappointed. I didn’t realize that the whole book would be based on John Adam’s and how much of an effect he had on Abigail Adam’s life rather than how much of an effect Abigail Adam’s had in America. The biography was also written in an un-interesting way. It felt as if the author was just throwing information inside the text without putting effort into making it sound interesting.

While reading the biography I would read over numerous mentioning of dates, times, cities, towns and names of random village men who are irrelevant to the life of Abigail Adam’s. This biography was a complete disappoint to its feminist audience. Throughout our lives we have always heard about how much of an extraordinary person Abigail Adam’s was but none of that is depicted in this biography. I look forward to reading an actual biography of Abigail Adam’s: a biography that doesn’t portray Abigail Adam’s as someone who’s constantly reliant on her husband.

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Todd Gitlin Summary on Media

Todd Gitlin is a notable author born in New York City. He attended the University of California at Berkeley, where he received a PhD in sociology and was heavily involved in the Students for a Democratic Society group. Gitlin is now a professor at New York University where he teaches culture, journalism, and sociology. Gitlin’s selection, Supersaturation, or, The Media Torrent and Disposable Feeling, comes from his book Media Unlimited: How the Torrent of Images and Sounds Overwhelms Our Lives (2001).

In this selection, Gitlin describes how private lives and domestic spaces have evolved from the seventeenth-century until now. He feels as though our once private households are now dominated by other worldly things in the form of media. There are many ideas in Todd Gitlin’s writings that support his view of our media influenced world, two of which, are the ideas of “supersaturation” and “disposable feeling. ” According to dictionary. com the definition of supersaturation is “to increase the concentration of (a solution) beyond saturation.

Gitlin uses the word “supersaturation” to describe the way today’s world has completely absorbed the media and its relations. Society has become immersed in the gossip and images displayed by the media. The lines between living space and working space are no longer as distinct as they used to be. Gitlin states that, “the outside world has entered the home with vengeance – in the profusion of media” (Gitlin 558). Relating to this same concept, Gitlin uses the idea of “disposable feeling” to explain the way people of today are able to move from one worldly image to the next, one piece of gossip to another, with no concern.

We are able to shrug them off and come back to them later if we choose to do so. In some of Gitlin’s research, he refers to the writings of analyst Raymond Williams who states, “What we have now is drama as habitual experience, more in a week, in many cases, than most human beings would previously have seen in a lifetime” (Gitlin 559). We have become immune to true feelings for individual images and stories, and thrive on the idea of the next gossip that will follow. In this selection of the book, Gitlin discusses a seventeenth-century Dutch painter by the name of Vermeer.

Vermeer was known for being able to”fr[ee]ze instants, but instants that spoke of the relative constancy of the world in which his subjects lived” (Gitlin 558). People collected Vermeer’s paintings for display throughout their homes. Gitlin sees Vermeer as the seventeenth-century version of the media. In that time, the images painted were relative to the people’s era and private world. In today’s world Vermeer would be the equivalent to a celebrity photographer or movie director.

If Vermeer, or any other artist of his time, were to see today’s households, they would find that the once private space inside the home is now much more dominated by images of the outside world than what would have been possible in the 1600’s. As mentioned in Gitlin’s research, statistics show that, “ ‘watching TV is the dominant leisure activity of Americans, consuming 40 percent of the average person’s free time as a primary activity [when people give television there undivided attention]’ ” (Gitlin 560). Even the wealthier parts of poor worlds have access to some sort of media.

It would take someone from a third world country to be stunned by the fact that our lives are constantly portrayed through television, radio, internet and other forms of media. People of today come in contact with more “information” in a single day than any one person of Vermeer’s time could have ever imagined. The media surrounds our world in every aspect of society. Gitlin notes in his writings that the statistics referenced “don’t take into account the billboards, the TV’s at bars and on planes, the Muzak in restaurants and shops . . . nd logos whizzing by on the sides of buses and taxis, climbing the walls of buildings, making announcements from caps, bags, T-shirts, and sneakers” (Gitlin 563). Thanks to all of the latest technology and communication systems people are able to connect to the outside world whenever we like. In Gitlin’s conclusion he goes on to explain that our personal opinion is no longer important to the world. People of our time are followers rather than leaders, and are consistently being sucked in to how the media says we should live our lives.

Gitlin feels that the way we live our lives, “or spend it,” (563) determines who we are. Our lives have become completely consumed with technology and the latest electronics. Gitlin argues that even in our most private times we cannot bring ourselves to stay clear of the media. “[Our] life experience has become an experience in the presence of media” (Gitlin 563). In seventeenth-century time this degree of media dependence would be unthinkable. Earls View

In my reading of Todd Gitlin’s Supersaturation, or, the Media Torrent and Disposable Feeling, I have come to the conclusion that I agree with Gitlin on the matter of an overwhelming media presence in today’s world. The media has become such a large influence on everything on society. From TV, internet, and cell phones to billboards, magazines, and newspapers, it has become nearly impossible to be media free. Going along with Gitlin’s opinion on the subject, I agree that even in our seemingly private home lives, we continue to depend on media and other electronic entertainment.

In this day and age people are constantly fixated with staying connected with the outside world through the media using smart phones, emails, news, social networks and sports. As technology continues to advance we become consumed with the idea of having the latest and the best gadgets to keep us linked to media at all times. These gadgets have become part of our daily routine to check on society. People feel lost when they can’t check there emails or their status on Facebook.

Dinner in a home used to be eating at the dining room table and having conversations about your day but has now become sitting in the living room and watching TV. Even children have been affected by this media trend. They watch more TV than reading books. There are TV shows to help them learn rather than reading books for math, science and English. It is clear that the world is being dominated by media. The world has evolved in to a smart, fast pace place where we have to know everything that goes on, not just where we live and what’s going on in our lives but the entire world as well. We spend all our money on top of the line, expensive electronics to keep up to date with media and worldly news * Technology continues to advance (walkman mp3 players, tapes blue ray) * Constantly fixated on staying “connected” to the outside world (using smart phones to check email, news, sports) * Has become part of daily routine to check for updates in society * Even watch tv while eating family meals, tv’s in restaurants, portable computers, ect * Faster growing demand for careers in technology fields

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Louis XVI

Louis XVI was born on August 23rd, 1754 in the Palace of Versailles. He was born Louis Auguste, duc de Berry to Louis, the Dauphin of France, and Marie-Joseph of Saxony. Louis was neglected as a child in favor of his older brother, Louis, duc de Bourgogne, until he died at age seven. He was a shy and overweight. After the death of his father in 1765, Louis became the new Dauphin of France. He received strict education from the Duc de La Vauguyon, which did not sufficiently prepare him to be king.

On May 16th,1770, at the age of fifteen, Louis married 14 year old Archduchess Marie Antoinette, the youngest daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa. This marriage signified an alliance between France and Austria. The royal couple failed to produce an heir, later discovered to be due to Louis’s sexual dysfunction. In 1774, Louis inherited the throne at 20 years old and became King Louis XVI. Despite his title, he had no qualities of a ruler and was extremely unqualified for the job. Nonetheless, he was faced with a government in deep debt and a clamor for resentment against monarchy.

Louis XVI began by reinstating the parlements to gain the trust of his people. He was determined to be a good monarch. France however was an in an economic crisis. To deal with this, Louis appointed Jacques Necker as his financial advisor. Louis convoked the Estates General, but eventually removed them, causing great anger in the public. This caused the creation of the Third Estate, the National Assembly, and the Tennis Court Oath on June 20th that sparked the French Revolution. The Storming of the Bastille on July 14th confirmed the radical change in the mind of the masses towards the monarchy.

French involvement in the Seven Years War left France in a disastrous economic state. Louis XVI sought to seek revenge on Britain by aiding the Americans in the American Revolution. He was eventually convinced by American Ambassador Benjamin Franklin to secretly send supplies, ammunition, and weapons to the Americans. He personally sent Rochambeau and Admiral de Grasse to aid the cause, along with a large land and naval force. Louis XVI also wished to expel the British from India. In 1782, he sealed an alliance with the Peshwa Mandhu Rao Narayan.

This begun the French struggle to eliminate British control in India. On October 5th, 1789, an angry mob of Parisian working women marched on the Palace of Versailles and attempted to kill the queen. Her wasteful and extravagant lifestyle represented all that was despised about the Ancien Regime. The King and his family was then moved from Versailles to the Tuileries Palace in Paris. In June of 1791, Louis attempted to secretly flee with his family from Paris to the royalist fortress town of Montemedy on the northeastern border of France.

However, they were discovered in a small town in the country and immediately taken back to Paris and placed under house arrest in the Tuileries Palace. In August of 1792, Louis was officially arrested and sent to the Temple prison. On January 15th, 1793, the Convention, composed of 721 deputies, voted King Louis XVI guilty for colluding with the Austrian invaders whom France was at war with. On Monday, January 21st, 1793, Louis XVI was stripped of all titles and honorifics by the Republic Government. On the Place de la Revolution, Citoyen Louis Capet was executed by the “national razor,” the guillotine.

On May 16th,1770, at the age of fifteen, Louis married 14 year old Archduchess Marie Antoinette, the youngest daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa. This marriage signified an alliance between France and Austria. The royal couple failed to produce an heir, later discovered to be due to Louis’s sexual dysfunction. In 1774, Louis inherited the throne at 20 years old and became King Louis XVI. Despite his title, he had no qualities of a ruler and was extremely unqualified for the job. Nonetheless, he was faced with a government in deep debt and a clamor for resentment against monarchy.

Louis XVI began by reinstating the parlements to gain the trust of his people. He was determined to be a good monarch. France however was an in an economic crisis. To deal with this, Louis appointed Jacques Necker as his financial advisor. Louis convoked the Estates General, but eventually removed them, causing great anger in the public. This caused the creation of the Third Estate, the National Assembly, and the Tennis Court Oath on June 20th that sparked the French Revolution. The Storming of the Bastille on July 14th confirmed the radical change in the mind of the masses towards the monarchy.

French involvement in the Seven Years War left France in a disastrous economic state. Louis XVI sought to seek revenge on Britain by aiding the Americans in the American Revolution. He was eventually convinced by American Ambassador Benjamin Franklin to secretly send supplies, ammunition, and weapons to the Americans. He personally sent Rochambeau and Admiral de Grasse to aid the cause, along with a large land and naval force. Louis XVI also wished to expel the British from India. In 1782, he sealed an alliance with the Peshwa Mandhu Rao Narayan.

This begun the French struggle to eliminate British control in India. On October 5th, 1789, an angry mob of Parisian working women marched on the Palace of Versailles and attempted to kill the queen. Her wasteful and extravagant lifestyle represented all that was despised about the Ancien Regime. The King and his family was then moved from Versailles to the Tuileries Palace in Paris. In June of 1791, Louis attempted to secretly flee with his family from Paris to the royalist fortress town of Montemedy on the northeastern border of France.

However, they were discovered in a small town in the country and immediately taken back to Paris and placed under house arrest in the Tuileries Palace. In August of 1792, Louis was officially arrested and sent to the Temple prison. On January 15th, 1793, the Convention, composed of 721 deputies, voted King Louis XVI guilty for colluding with the Austrian invaders whom France was at war with. On Monday, January 21st, 1793, Louis XVI was stripped of all titles and honorifics by the Republic Government. On the Place de la Revolution, Citoyen Louis Capet was executed by the “national razor,” the guillotine.

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Duke Ellington

Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974) was an American composer, pianist, and bandleader. Duke Ellington was thought to be one of the most influential figures in jazz, if not in all American music. After his death in 1974, he became even more popular. He even received a special award citation from the Pulitzer Prize Board. Ellington called his music “American Music” rather than jazz.

He liked to describe those who impressed him as “beyond category”. Those belonging to this group included many of the musicians who served with his orchestra. Some of his band members were among the giants of jazz and performed with Ellington’s orchestra for decades. It was Duke Ellington, however, who melded them into one of the most well-known orchestral units in the history of jazz. He often composed specifically for the style and skills of these individuals.

Some of these songs included “Jeep’s Blues” for Johnny Hodges, “Concerto for Cootie” (“Do Nothing Till You Hear from Me”) for Cootie Williams and “The Mooche” for Tricky Sam Nanton. He also recorded songs written by his bandsmen, such as Juan Tizol’s “Caravan” and “Perdido” which brought the “Spanish Tinge” to big-band jazz. After 1941, he began to collaborate with composer-arranger Billy Strayhorn. Ellington often referred to Billy Strayhorn as his “alter-ego”. Duke Ellington is considered one of the 20th century’s best-known artists.

He also recorded for many American record companies, and appeared in several films. Ellington and his orchestra toured the United States and Europe regularly before and after World War II. He led his band from 1923 until his death in 1974. His son, Mercer Ellington, continued touring with the band until his death from cancer in 1996. Paul Ellington, Mercer’s youngest son, took over the orchestra in 1996. After his mother’s passing, Paul Ellington took over the estate of Duke and Mercer Ellington.

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Saint Patrick

Saint Patrick was born in Kilpatrick, Scotland, in the year 387. His parents are Calphurnius and Conchessa. When Patrick was sixteen, he was carried off into captivity by Irish marauders and was sold as a slave to a chieftan named Milchu in Dalriada. In Dalriada, he tended his master’s flocks in the valley of the Braid and on the slopes of Slemish. When he was working the fields, he acquired a perfect knowledge of the Celtic tongue.

His master was a druidical high priest, in which gave Patrick an opportunity to become familiar with all the details of Druidism from whose bondage he was destined to liberate the Irish race. Warned by an angel after six years, he fled from his cruel master and bent his steps toward the west. He traveled about 200 miles to Westport. He found a ship ready to sail and after some rebuffs was allowed on board. In a few days he arrived in Britain, but now his heart was set on devoting himself to the service of God in the sacred ministry.

After wandering in dense forest for twenty-eight days they were found by others and eventually Patrick made it home to his family. He remained with them for a few years, and then decided to pursue the priesthood in answer to dreams he had about returning to Ireland. After a number of years, while he was on a short visit to the continent, probably Gaul, his name was proposed to lead a missionary expedition to Ireland. He set out around the year 432 as a bishop, and went to the headquarters of the Ulaid in Emain Macha, and there established his first church at what is now Armagh.

From there he traveled predominantly in the north and west and made many converts, and trained many priests. After some time, his integrity was questioned, resulting in an inquiry at the hands of the British bishops, but he was subsequently vindicated. As the Ulaid were pushed out of more and more territory, Patrick moved with them to spend his last days in Down, from which he wrote his Confession. He died March 17, 461, in Downpatrick, Ireland. Kilpatrick still retains many memorials of Saint Patrick. His feast day, St. Patrick’s Day, is March 17, or the day he died.

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Life and Work of John Bowlby

Bowlby was born in London to an upper-middle-class family. He was the fourth of six children and was brought up by a nanny in the British fashion of his class at that time. His father, Sir Anthony Bowlby, first Baronet, was surgeon to the King’s Household, with a tragic history: at age five, Sir Anthony’s own father (John’s grandfather) was killed while serving as a war correspondent in the Opium Wars. Normally, Bowlby saw his mother only one hour a day after teatime, though during the summer she was more available.

Like many other mothers of her social class, she considered that parental attention and affection would lead to dangerous spoiling of the children. Bowlby was lucky in that the nanny in his family was present throughout his childhood. [1] When Bowlby was almost four years old, his beloved nanny, who was actually his primary caretaker in his early years, left the family. Later, he was to describe this as tragic as the loss of a mother. At the age of seven, he was sent off to boarding school, as was common for boys of his social status. In his work Separation: Anxiety and Anger, he revealed that he regarded it as a terrible time for him.

He later said, “I wouldn’t send a dog away to boarding school at age seven”. [2] Because of such experiences as a child, he displayed a sensitivity to children’s suffering throughout his life. However, with his characteristic attentiveness to the effects of age differences, Bowlby did consider boarding schools appropriate for children aged eight and older, and wrote, “If the child is maladjusted, it may be useful for him to be away for part of the year from the tensions which produced his difficulties, and if the home is bad in other ways the same is true.

The boarding school has the advantage of preserving the child’s all-important home ties, even if in slightly attenuated form, and, since it forms part of the ordinary social pattern of most Western communities today [1951], the child who goes to boarding-school will not feel different from other children. Moreover, by relieving the parents of the children for part of the year, it will be possible for some of them to develop more favorable attitudes toward their children during the remainder. [3]

He married Ursula Longstaff, herself the daughter of a surgeon, on April 16, 1938, and they had four children, including (Sir) Richard Bowlby, who succeeded his uncle as third Baronet. Bowlby died at his summer home on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Career Bowlby studied psychology and pre-clinical sciences at Trinity College, Cambridge, winning prizes for outstanding intellectual performance. After Cambridge, he worked with maladjusted and delinquent children, then at the age of twenty-two enrolled at University College Hospital in London. At the age of twenty-six, he qualified in medicine.

While still in medical school he enrolled himself in the Institute for Psychoanalysis. Following medical school, he trained in adult psychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital. In 1937, aged 30, he qualified as a psychoanalyst. During World War II, he was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Royal Army Medical Corps. After the war, he was Deputy Director of the Tavistock Clinic, and from 1950, Mental Health Consultant to the World Health Organization. Because of his previous work with maladapted and delinquent children, he became interested in the development of children and began work at the Child Guidance Clinic in London.

This interest was probably increased by a variety of wartime events involving separation of young children from familiar people; these included the rescue of Jewish children by the Kindertransport arrangements, the evacuation of children from London to keep them safe from air raids, and the use of group nurseries to allow mothers of young children to contribute to the war effort. [4] Bowlby was interested from the beginning of his career in the problem of separation and the wartime work of Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham on evacuees and Rene Spitz on orphans.

By the late 1950s he had accumulated a body of observational and theoretical work to indicate the fundamental importance for human development of attachment from birth. [2] Bowlby was interested in finding out the actual patterns of family interaction involved in both healthy and pathological development. He focused on how attachment difficulties were transmitted from one generation to the next. In his development of attachment theory he propounded the idea that attachment behaviour was essentially an evolutionary survival strategy for protecting the infant from predators.

Mary Ainsworth, a student of Bowlby’s, further extended and tested his ideas, and in fact played the primary role in suggesting that several attachment styles existed. The three most important experiences for Bowlby’s future work and the development of attachment theory were his work with: Maladapted and delinquent children. James Robertson (in 1952) in making the documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the Hospital, which was one of the films about ”young children in brief separation“.

The documentary illustrated the impact of loss and suffering experienced by young children separated from their primary caretakers. This film was instrumental in a campaign to alter hospital restrictions on visiting by parents. In 1952 when he and Robertson presented their film A Two Year Old Goes to Hospital to the British Psychoanalytical Society, psychoanalysts did not accept that a child would mourn or experience grief on separation but instead saw the child’s distress as caused by elements of unconscious fantasies (in the film because the mother was pregnant).

Melanie Klein during his psychoanalytic training. She was his supervisor; however they had different views about the role of the mother in the treatment of a three-year-old boy. Specifically and importantly, Klein stressed the role of the child’s fantasies about his mother, but Bowlby emphasized the actual history of the relationship. Bowlby’s views—that children were responding to real life events and not unconscious fantasies—were rejected by psychoanalysts, and Bowlby was effectively ostracized by the psychoanalytic community.

He later expressed the view that his interest in real-life experiences and situations was “alien to the Kleinian outlook”. [2] Maternal deprivation Main article: Maternal deprivation In 1949, Bowlby’s earlier work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospitalised and institutionalised care lead to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organization’s report on the mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe. [5] The result was Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951. [6] Bowlby drew together such limited empirical evidence as existed at the time from across Europe and the USA.

His main conclusions, that “the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment” and that not to do so may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences, were both controversial and influential. The 1951 WHO publication was highly influential in causing widespread changes in the practices and prevalence of institutional care for infants and children, and in changing practices relating to the visiting of infants and small children n hospitals by parents.

The theoretical basis was controversial in many ways. He broke with psychoanalytic theories which saw infants’ internal life as being determined by fantasy rather than real life events. Some critics profoundly disagreed with the necessity for maternal (or equivalent) love in order to function normally,[7] or that the formation of an ongoing relationship with a child was an important part of parenting. [8] Others questioned the extent to which his hypothesis was supported by the evidence.

There was criticism of the confusion of the effects of privation (no primary attachment figure) and deprivation (loss of the primary attachment figure) and in particular, a failure to distinguish between the effects of the lack of a primary attachment figure and the other forms of deprivation and understimulation that may affect children in institutions. [9] The monograph was also used for political purposes to claim any separation from the mother was deleterious in order to discourage women from working and leaving their children in daycare by governments concerned about maximising employment for returned and returning servicemen. 9] In 1962 WHO published Deprivation of maternal care: A Reassessment of its Effects to which Mary Ainsworth, Bowlby’s close colleague, contributed with his approval, to present the recent research and developments and to address misapprehensions. [10]

This publication also attempted to address the previous lack of evidence on the effects of paternal deprivation. According to Rutter the importance of Bowlby’s initial writings on ‘maternal deprivation’ lay in his emphasis that children’s experiences of interpersonal relationships were crucial to their psychological development. 8] Development of attachment theory Bowlby himself explained in his 1988 work “A Secure Base” that the data were not, at the time of the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health, “accommodated by any theory then current and in the brief time of my employment by the World Health Organization there was no possibility of developing a new one”. He then went on to describe the subsequent development of attachment theory. 11]

Because he was dissatisfied with traditional theories, Bowlby sought new understanding from such fields as evolutionary biology, ethology, developmental psychology, cognitive science and control systems theory and drew upon them to formulate the innovative proposition that the mechanisms underlying an infants tie emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure. [12] “Bowlby realised that he had to develop a new theory of motivation and behaviour control, built on up-to-date science rather than the outdated psychic energy model espoused by Freud. [5]

Bowlby expressed himself as having made good the “deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect” in Maternal Care and Mental Health in his later work Attachment and Loss published in 1969. [13] Ethology and evolutionary concepts “From the 1950s Bowlby was in personal and scientific contact with leading European scientists in the field of ethology, namely Niko Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz, and especially the rising star of ethology Robert Hinde.

Using the viewpoints of this emerging science and reading extensively in the ethology literature, Bowlby developed new explanatory hypotheses for what is now known as human attachment behaviour. In particular, on the basis of ethological evidence he was able to reject the dominant Cupboard Love theory of attachment prevailing in psychoanalysis and learning theory of the 1940s and 1950s.

He also introduced the concepts of environmentally stable or labile human behaviour allowing for the revolutionary combination of the idea of a species-specific genetic bias to become attached and the concept of individual differences in attachment security as environmentally labile strategies for adaptation to a specific childrearing niche. Alternately, Bowlby’s thinking about the nature and function of the caregiver-child relationship influenced ethological research, and inspired students of animal behaviour such as Tinbergen, Hinde, and Harry Harlow.

Bowlby spurred Hinde to start his ground breaking work on attachment and separation in primates (monkeys and humans), and in general emphasized the importance of evolutionary thinking about human development that foreshadowed the new interdisciplinary approach of evolutionary psychology. Obviously, the encounter of ethology and attachment theory led to a genuine cross-fertilization” (Van der Horst, Van der Veer & Van IJzendoorn, 2007, p. 321). [14][15] The “Attachment and Loss” trilogy Main articles: Attachment theory and Attachment in children

Before the publication of the trilogy in 1969, 1972 and 1980, the main tenets of attachment theory, building on concepts from ethology and developmental psychology, were presented to the British Psychoanalytical Society in London in three now classic papers: The Nature of the Child’s Tie to His Mother (1958), Separation Anxiety (1959), and Grief and Mourning in Infancy and Early Childhood (1960). Bowlby rejected psychoanalyst explanations for attachment, and in return, psychoanalysts rejected his theory.

At about the same time, Bowlby’s former colleague, Mary Ainsworth was completing extensive observational studies on the nature of infant attachments in Uganda with Bowlby’s ethological theories in mind. Her results in this and other studies contributed greatly to the subsequent evidence base of attachment theory as presented in 1969 in Attachment the first volume of the Attachment and Loss trilogy. [16] The second and third volumes, Separation: Anxiety and Anger and Loss: Sadness and Depression followed in 1972 and 1980 respectively.

Attachment was revised in 1982 to incorporate recent research. According to attachment theory, attachment in infants is primarily a process of proximity seeking to an identified attachment figure in situations of perceived distress or alarm for the purpose of survival. Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant, and who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about 6 months to two years of age.

Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment which in turn lead to ‘internal working models’ which will guide the individual’s feelings, thoughts, and expectations in later relationships. [5] In Bowlby’s approach, the human infant is considered to have a need for a secure relationship with adult caregivers, without which normal social and emotional development will not occur. As the toddler grows, it uses its attachment figure or figures as a “secure base” from which to explore.

Mary Ainsworth used this feature plus “stranger wariness” and reunion behaviours, other features of attachment behaviour, to develop a research tool called the “Strange Situation Procedure” for developing and classifying different attachment styles. The attachment process is not gender specific as infants will form attachments to any consistent caregiver who is sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant. The quality of the social engagement appears to be more influential than amount of time spent. 16] Darwin biography Bowlby’s last work, published posthumously, is a biography of Charles Darwin, which discusses Darwin’s “mysterious illness” and whether it was psychosomatic. [17]

Bowlby’s legacy Main article: Attachment theory Although not without its critics, attachment theory has been described as the dominant approach to understanding early social development and to have given rise to a great surge of empirical research into the formation of children’s close relationships. 18] As it is presently formulated and used for research purposes, Bowlby’s attachment theory stresses the following important tenets:[19] 1) Children between 6 and about 30 months are very likely to form emotional attachments to familiar caregivers, especially if the adults are sensitive and responsive to child communications. 2) The emotional attachments of young children are shown behaviourally in their preferences for particular familiar people, their tendency to seek proximity to those people, especially in times of distress, and their ability to use the familiar adults as a secure base from which to explore the environment. )

The formation of emotional attachments contributes to the foundation of later emotional and personality development, and the type of behaviour toward familiar adults shown by toddlers has some continuity with the social behaviours they will show later in life. 4) Events that interfere with attachment, such as abrupt separation of the toddler from familiar people or the significant inability of carers to be sensitive, responsive or consistent in their interactions, have short-term and possible long-term negative impacts on the child’s emotional and cognitive life.

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A Singer I Admire

As we grow older, we find someone to looks up to. Some of us admire celebrities, family, and friends. I admire Andy Lau. A star of over 100 films and one of Asia’s most popular singers, Andy Lau was born on September 27, 1961 in Hong Kong. He grew up in a very poor area where there was not even running water. The young Andy had to make up to eight trips a day to collect water for his family. Despite financial problems, Andy’s parents encouraged him to do well in school, and upon graduating, he entered the TVB academy, where he studied acting and martial arts.

After appearing on television for a couple of years, Lau moved onto films with 1982’s Boat People. As was the norm for many young stars at this time, there was an attempt to diversify Lau by having him record an album. While these types of albums usually provide some extra publicity and money for the actor, for Lau they became a second career. His first album I Only Know I Love You came out in 1985 to a minor buzz. It was not until 1990, when Lau had established himself as one of Hong Kong’s top actors.

Lau’s musical career intertwined with his acting, as he began to record songs for the movies he appeared in. Despite his success, Lau’s career almost suffered a fatal flaw early on when he refused to sign a contract with TVB. Lau was blacklisted from Hong Kong television, and it was only through the intervention of Chow Yun-Fat (who was a friend of the director of Boat People, Ann Hui) that Lau began to find more work in movies. Despite having a reputation of being hard to work with, Lau continues to be one of Hong Kong’s most prolific and bankable actors.

In fact, there were times when Lau was so popular that he was working on multiple films as well as recording songs all at once, sleeping in his car as time allowed. This dedication to work seems to have finally paid off in one respect; in 2000 Lau won the Hong Kong Film Award for his work in Running Out of Time. In 2004, he won the prestigious Golden Horse Award for his performance in Infernal Affairs III, the sequel to the popular Infernal Affairs. Western audiences may also be familiar with his performance in the House of Flying Daggers.

His singing career reached stellar status in 1990 with the release of the album entitled Would It Be Possible, and his subsequent releases only solidified his status as a marketable singer. [5] For that song, he would win his first 1990 RTHK Top 10 Gold Songs Awards. He would then win at least one RTHK award category every year consecutively until the year 2007. From Jade Solid Gold Top 10 Awards, he has won the “Most Popular Hong Kong Male Artist” award 7 times and the “Asia Pacific Most Popular Hong Kong Male Artist” award 15 times.

He also entered into Guinness World Records for “Most Awards Won By A Cantopop Male Artist”. By April 2000, he had already won a total unprecedented 292 awards. Andy’s success did not come easily. He is known most by insiders for his hard work and drive. Catching some sleep in his car between the midst of recording an album and making a movie is not uncommon for the singer-actor. Yet, Andy managed to excel in both games. As an actor, Andy never settled for two-bit roles or stereotypical characters who only excelled in kung fu.

As a singer, Andy never seemed to be satisfied with status quo. Through the two-plus decades that Andy gave to the entertainment world, he persevered, he advanced, and he conquered. In a race to be the best of everything, Andy is the only one crossing the finish line. Andy Lau is an exemplary person. He is multi-talented actor, comedian, and even singer who has come a long way. His past amazes me and his diligence touched me. In my mind, Andy Lau is the role model which is why I admire him.

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Kaoru Ishikawa

Kaoru Ishikawa was born in Tokyo Japan in 1939. He earned his Engineering degree in applied chemistry from the University of Tokyo. After Graduating from college he was a navel technical officer until 1941. He worked at the Nissian Liquid Fuel Company until 1947 and then began his educational vocation at the University of Tokyo. In 1978 he became Musashi Institute of Technology President (Kaoru Ishikawa, 2008). Ishikawa came to be known as the “father of the Quality revolution” to the people of Japan.

When he was a professor at Tokyo University he realized the importance of the quality control methods that were introduced to his country by W. E Deming and J. R Juarn. He applied those methods to work with his country’s industries. Ishikawa developed the “quality circles”, the cause and effect diagram, and the importance of the seven quality tools. In addition, he wrote several books that explained statistics to the nonspecialist which one was the Guide to Quality Control. Another book he wrote was how to Operate QC Circle Activities which is based on quality circles.

Quality circles are a method used to improve quality. Quality circles were developed in Japan in 1962 by Kaoru Ishikawa. A quality circle is a volunteer group of employees from the same work area who meet together to discuss work place improvement (Quality Circles, 2008). Quality circles were first used at the Nippon Telegraph and Cable Company in 1962 (“Death of Professor,” 1989). Ishikawa had only intended his methods of quality circles to be used for Japan but it has now spread to more than 50 countries.

With the development of Ishikawa’s cause and effect diagram management leaders made large advancements in quality improvement ( Kaoru Ishikawa: One Step, 2011). With this new diagram users can see all of the possible causes of a result and find the process of imperfections ( Kaoru Ishikawa: One Step, 2011). The cause and effect diagram can easily be used by non- specialist to analyze and solve problems. Dr. E. W Deming used this diagram to teach Total Quality Control in Japan. Another name for Ishikawa’s cause and effect diagram is the Ishikawa or fishbone diagram.

Ishikawa showed the importance of the seven Quality tools which are control chart, run chart, histogram scatter diagram, Pareto chart and flow chart. Ishikawa also expanded on Deming’s four steps into six steps which are determine goals and targets, determine methods of reaching goals, engage in education and training, implement work, check the effects of implementation, and take appropriate action ( Kaoru Ishikawa: One Step, 2011). Ishikawa also wrote and was the editor of many books.

He wrote Guide to Quality control in 1968, as well as What Is Total Quality Control in 1981. He was the editor of QC circle Koryo in 1970, and How to operate QC Circle activates in 1971. Ishikawa has been credited with Japan’s quality achievements and has received many awards such as the Deming prize, and the blue ribbon medal which was given to him by the Japanese government. His work has changed how people perceive quality management and many of his methods and books are still used to this day by large and small businesses.

Bibliography

http://www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/ishikawa.asp

http://www.vectorstudy.com/management_theories/quality_circles.htm

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Peter Abelard

Peter Abelard was born in Pallet, France on April 21st 1079. His father was in a military career but Peter followed the academic path studying dialectic. Later in his teens he went to school in Paris called Notre-Dame de Paris, William of Champeaux taught him. After being taught for a while Peter began to question William and argue against him. It was William’s school where Abelard’s application of logic all began. At the young age of only twenty-two he set up his first school in Melun, he later moved his school to Corbeil, which was near Paris, for more direct competition.

Soon after he moved his school his health suffered from over working. After his return he found William lecturing at a monastic retreat outside the city, and there they once again became rivals. Abelard was again victorious, and now stood supreme to William. Abelard later set up a school on the heights of Montagne Sainte-Genevieve which over looked Notre-Dame. From his successes in dialect he next turned to theology and attended some lectures of Anselm at Laon. His triumph was complete; the pupil was able to give lectures, without previous training or special study, which were acknowledged superior to those of the master.

Abelard was now at the height of his fame. He stepped into the chair at Notre-Dame, being also nominated canon, about the year 1115. After this crowds of thousands of students surrounded Abelard. During all this fame he encountered romance. Living with the precincts of Notre-Dame under the care of her uncle, Fulbert, he met a girl named Heloise. Abelard soon fell in love with her. He became a tutor to this girl and he used his power for the purpose of seduction. Soon everyone seemed to know about this romance except for Fulbert and as soon as he found out they were separated.

They now could only meet in secret. She soon became pregnant and at this time Abelard took her home to Brittney where she gave birth to a baby boy. Abelard proposed a secret marriage so that he did not mar his prospects of advancement in the church. Heloise opposed this idea but eventually gave in to pressure. Fulbert did not keep the secret of marriage and spread the word despite his promise to Abelard to not say anything. Fulbert then became physically and verbally abusive towards.

Abelard removed her secretly from him house and took her to seek refuge in the convent of Argenteuil. Immediately Fulbert, believing that Abelard had taken her away to be rid of her plotted revenge. That night he and some others broke into Abelard’s chamber and castrated him! The priesthood and ecclesiastical office were canonically closed to him. Heloise consummated her work of self-sacrifice and became a nun. This how ever only affected his work temporarily and. After he gradually turned again to studying he reopened his school in the priory of Maisonceile.

His work was effected, but only for the good, Abelard stated in the Historia, that “the hand of the lord had touched me for the express purpose of freeing me from the temptations of the flesh and the distractions of the world so that I could devote myself to learning and there by prove myself a true photosphere not of the world but of god. ” He soon published all of his theological lectures and that was when his advisories discovered his rationalistic interpretation of the Trinitarian dogma.

This upset many people and he was forced to burn the book and he was also held captive in the convent of St. Medard at Soissons. He thought that this would be the worst experience that he would ever have to go through. One of the things that he did enjoy doing at convent was irritating the monks. He soon decided that life in the monastery was unbearable so he was able to go and live in a desert place until it was time for his persecution. He built himself a small cabin and he turned into a hermit. Soon after he moved to the desert students from Paris began to flock to him and he began teaching again.

Fearing prosecution yet another persecution for teaching when he was not to be he found another refuge far off shore of lower Brittney. There among other thing he wrote his famous Historia Calamitatum. The pope lifted his sentence and he spent the remaining eighteen months of his life at Cluny, a sister-house of St. Marcel at Chalon, where he rested during his last sickness. The most important thing to always remember Abelard is his scholastic manner of philosphisizing. Even though he got into trouble with the church and society, still had a great impact on the medieval times and changed many lives.

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Journals of Major Robert Rogers

Robert Rogers was born in Londonderry, New Hampshire, (or Methuen Massachusetts), in 1727. His parents, James and Mary McFatridge Rogers were Scotch-Irish, also had three other sons James, Richard, and John. 1 They lived in a small town in Massachusetts, which was a frontier town with log houses along the Merrimack valley. Robert was fourteen or fifteen years of age when his father founded a settlement in the wilderness on 2,190 acres of land, which he named Munterloney. From his youth, he was inured to the hardships of the frontier, acquiring character traits of decisiveness, self-reliance and boldness, which distinguished him later in life. Rogers, acquired his scanty stock of “book –learning,” as he termed from a log school house that was sixteen feet long and twelve feet wide. 3

Most of his knowledge came from his father’s farm, where he learned to hunt, trap, and fish which he earned a small living from. While he was on hunting excursions he mingled with the Indians and learned some of their language, hunting methods and their habits. 4 He was six feet in statute, well proportioned, and one of the most athletic men of his time, well known in all the trials of strength and activity among the young men of his vicinity, and for several miles around. About six years after they moved, Robert’s father James was walking through the woods on his way to visit a friend, when he was shot by the far away neighbor, thinking that he was a bear. He died later that night from his wound. Robert told some locals at a town tavern, that his mother was also killed by some hunters that thought her tracks were a bear. Everyone in the tavern thought he was telling a huge lie and tallest tale so they bought him a drink for the greatest lie. Robert was not lying; he did lose both of his parents. Robert joined the military service when he was twenty-eight.

In 1746, when King George’s War broke out, Robert joined the New Hampshire militia as a private in Captain Ladd’s Scouting Company and then again later (1747) in Eastman’s Company, to guard the New Hampshire frontier. 7 there were ample details given of his adventures; most of them were given by himself in his journals. He wrote a book ‘A Concise Account of North America”, which was a success and attracted royal attention. 8

In 1754 Robert became involved with a gang of ounterfeiters; he was indicted, but never brought to trial because the war broke out. 9 In 1755, France and Britain had declared war on each other, and conflict was spreading to the colonies of Europe. They were fighting over the right of discovery and occupation, each one wanting more of America. Since Rogers was an experienced frontiersman, the colonial government dropped the counterfeit charges against him, meanwhile he was appointed as an official recruiter for Colonel John Winslow. 10 In 1756, Rogers started recruiting soldiers for his militia.

Rogers had an unusual talent for training his men in the most dire circumstances. He trained them in live fire, they learned to handle the extreme cold, how to live off of very little food. 11 By the end of 1756, Rogers had raised four regimens of rangers. He himself commanded one of them, and they were known as Rogers Rangers. He wrote a guide for the Rangers to follow that had twenty eight rules for ranging. This guide later became famous, and was called Robert Rogers’ 28 “Rules of Ranging”. 12 Robert’s brothers all served in a regimen of the Rangers.

His brother Richard died in 1757 of small- pox at Fort Henry, his body was dug up and found mutilated and scalped by hostile natives. 13 His brother James stayed on with the King’s Rangers and assumed Robert’s post after the American Revolutionary War ended. Not much is known about brother John after the war was over. Rogers was personally responsible for paying his soldiers, He went deeply in debt, and had to take out loans when their payroll was raided while in transport. Rogers was never reimbursed for his expenses by the government or the British Army. 4 Over the next three years the Rangers served under a series of unsuccessful British commanders. The Rangers slowly grew to twelve companies as well as several additional contingents of natives who had pledged their allegiance to the British cause.

The Rangers were kept separate from the British regulars. 15 In 1758 Rogers went to Lake George with about one hundred and eighty men, and had a battle with the French and Indians, he lost one hundred and fourteen of his men. After that battle, General Abercrombie presented him with a commission of Major of the Rangers. 6 In 1759 Major General Amherst sent Rogers with 200 men to attack St. Francis, they had been terrorizing the New England frontiers for centuries. They had been killing their cattle, burning their buildings, and killing the men and children and kidnapping the women. Rogers was to destroy the village but not harm any women and children. After it was over 200 Indians had been killed and they set the village on fire, because when morning came Rogers had seen over 600 scalps strung upon poles and doorways, which were mostly English. 7

In 1760, Rogers and 600 Rangers and seventy Indians, in whale boats left for Montreal. He met up with Pontiac, the next morning they talked and smoked the peace-pipe. Pontiac gave him and his men provisions for his journey, and a few Indian braves for escort. 18 In 1764, he married Elizabeth Brown, daughter of Reverend Arthur Brown. 19 Between 1762 and 1765, he bought and sold land, some of it was very expensive. Some of them he purchased and some of them he received in consideration of military services. 0

Major Rogers wasn’t a good husband, after seventeen years Elizabeth divorced him on the grounds of desertion and infidelity. 21 In 1764, after many failed business ventures, trying to recoup money that he had spent trying to equip the Rangers, he could not pay his debtors. He suffered financial ruin. His creditors had him put in a New York prison for his debts, but he escaped. 22 In 1765, his journals and A Concise Account of North America were published; this work was a description of several British Colonies on that Continent, their population, their religion, boundaries, and their situations.

It also included several accounts of Nations and Tribes of Indians residing in those parts; it took into account their customs, manners, government, and the population. 23 Immediately after that publication, Rogers wrote a stage play that memorialized Pontiac and his rebellion. 24 He gained some success for his publications, and simultaneously attracted royal attention. His name and fame became familiar through the country and among both armies. 25 Rogers went to King George III to propose an expedition to find the Northwest Passage.

In 1766, Rogers was bestowed an appointment as Commandant at Michilimickinac. After the conquest of Canada, this had become the most important military and trading post in the interior. 26 Rogers and his wife Elizabeth moved to Fort Michilimickinac where he began his duties as royal governor. This appointment was an office of great responsibility, a rare opportunity for Rogers, who took advantage of it. While the Governor, he was not supposed to incur expenses without authority; Rogers did so, was arrested and taken to Montreal, but he managed to get himself acquitted of the charges. 7

In 1769 Rogers returned to England where he reported to the King. Rogers remained there until 1775, while there, he served as a soldier for awhile for Algerine, which was a job he performed very well, even though Rogers was approaching age fifty. 28 One day while Rogers was a passenger in a mail coach, a highway robber stopped the coach, and stuck a gun through the window and demanded that everyone give him their valuables; Rogers drew the thief through the window by his collar, and told the coachman to drive on.

The robber had a reward offered for him of L50 sterling, which Rogers collected. 28 While Rogers was away, his friend Amherst was replaced as commander of the British forces in America by Sir Thomas Gage. Gage hated Rogers because of his friendship with Amherst, and the fact that he was a colonial. Gage set out to destroy Rogers, he wanted him removed as royal governor, however had to be careful because Rogers was appointed by the King. 29 In 1776 Rogers fought his last war in America.

He seemed to have slowed down; he did not display his usual leadership, which he had always showed in the previous years. 30 In 1777 he returned to England where he was not heard much about, I know he started frequenting the local taverns, I am sure telling his tales of adventures. He will always be known for the manual that he had written for surviving while ranging. To this day his writings “Rogers 28 rules of Ranging” 31are given to every Ranger that joins the service as a Ranger. Robert Rogers died in 1799. He will be sadly missed and his stories will go on forever.

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Luca Pacioli

Fra Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli (sometimes Paciolo) (1445–1514 or 1517) was an Italian mathematician and Franciscan friar, collaborator with Leonardo da Vinci, and seminal contributor to the field now known as accounting. He was also called Luca di Borgo after his birthplace, Borgo Santo Sepolcro, Tuscany. Luca Pacioli studied in Venice and Rome and became a Franciscan friar in the 1470s. He was a travelling mathematics tutor until 1497, when he accepted an invitation from Lodovico Sforza (“Il Moro”) to work in Milan.

There he collaborated with, lived with, and taught mathematics to Leonardo da Vinci. In 1499, Pacioli and Leonardo were forced to flee Milan when Louis XII of France seized the city and drove their patron out. After that, Pacioli and Leonardo frequently traveled together. Upon return to his hometown, Pacioli died of old age in 1517. Pacioli published several works on mathematics, including: Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita (Venice 1494), a synthesis of the mathematical knowledge of his time, is also notable for including the first published description of the method of keeping accounts that Venetian merchants used during the Italian Renaissance, known as the double-entry accounting system. Although Pacioli codified rather than invented this system, he is widely regarded as the “Father of Accounting”. The system he published included most of the accounting cycle as we know it today.

He described the use of journals and ledgers, and warned that a person should not go to sleep at night until the debits equalled the credits. His ledger had accounts for assets (including receivables and inventories), liabilities, capital, income, and expenses—the account categories that are reported on an organization’s balance sheet and income statement, respectively. He demonstrated year-end closing entries and proposed that a trial balance be used to prove a balanced ledger. Also, his treatise touches on a wide range of related topics from accounting ethics to cost accounting.

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William Ellsworth Dummy Hoy

William Ellsworth Hoy was the first and only accomplished deaf person to play Major League Baseball. Mr. Hoy was born on the 23rd of May in 1862 in Houck town, Ohio, this is where he got the nickname “Dummy”. In today’s society calling him that name would not be acceptable, but back then dummy meant somebody who could not speak. When people called him William, Billy or Bill he corrected them because he preferred Dummy. At the age of 2 he was diagnosed with Spinal Meningitis, this caused him to lose his hearing and since he was so young he could not learn how to speak.

But this did not stop him, he proved everybody wrong, he graduated valedictorian from Columbus’s Ohio School for the Deaf and began his professional baseball career in 1886 for the Oshkosh Club in Wisconsin and was paid $85 a month. Dummy was a great baseball player, he played center field for several teams from 1888-1902, the most notably team was the Cincinnati Reds. Some sources claim that he is the reason why baseball today uses signals and signs, because he could not hear the umpire so he taught his coaches to use signals to let him know if it was a ball or strike or even the umpires to let him know if he was out or safe.

Dummy died at the age of 99 on December 15, 1961 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Today there is a group of people who are trying to get him elected into the Baseball Hall Of Fame in Cooperstown, NY. His contribution to society and baseball was huge, he let people know whether your deaf or have a any disability you can still make your dreams come true as long as you try and never give up. I think somebody like this should definitely be in the Baseball Hall Of Fame, he brings honor back to game that is full or greed and selfishness.

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Hildegard of Bingen

Hildegard of Bingen date of birth is uncertain; it was concluded that she may have been was born in 1098 at Bermersheim bei Alzey (Bockelheim, Germany) in the diocese of Mainz. She was raised in a family of free noble; her parents were Hildebert and Mechtilide who came from a Germany education. Hildegard was born the tenth child (a tithe) to a noble family. As was customary with the tenth child, whom the family could not count on feeding, she was dedicated at birth to the church to serve the church, to be a medieval prophet, a healer, an artist and a composer.

Hildegard explains that from a very young age she had experienced visions. At the age of eight Hildegard was sent to a convent and was raised and educated at Disibodenberg. Some scholars speculate that because of her visions, she was placed in the care of Jutta, the daughter of Count Stephan II of Sponheim. Hildegard says that she first saw “The Shade of the Living Light” at the age of three and by the age five she began to understand that she was experiencing visions.

In Hildegard’s youth, she referred to her visionary gift as her viso. She explained that she saw all things in the light of God through the five senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. Hildegard was hesitant to share her visions, confiding only to Jutta, who in turn told Volmar Hildegard’s tutor and, later, secretary. During the twenty four years when Jutta and Hildegard were in the convent together, there is no written record of what happened during these times. It is possible that Hildegard could have been a chantress and a worker in the herbarium.

Hildegard also tells us that Jutta taught her to read and write, but that she was unlearned and therefore incapable of teaching Hildegard Biblical interpretation. Hildegard and Jutta most likely prayed, meditated, read scriptures such as the Psalter, and did some sort of handwork during the hours of the Divine Office. This also might have been a time when Hildegard learned how to play the ten-stringed psaltery. Volmar, a frequent visitor, may have taught Hildegard simple psalm notation.

The time she studied music could also have been the beginnings of the compositions she would later create. Illuminations of Hildegard of Bingen – Sante Fe: Bear and Company, 1985) Upon Jutta’s death in 1136, Hildegard was unanimously elected as “magistra” of her sister community by her fellow nuns. Abbot Kuno, the Abbot of Disibodenberg, also asked Hildegard to be Prioress. Hildegard, however, wanted more independence for herself and her nuns and asked Abbot Kuno to allow them to move to Rupertsberg. When the abbot declined Hildegard’s proposition, Hildegard went over his head and received the approval of Archbishop Henry I of Mainz.

Abbot Kuno did not relent, however, until Hildegard was stricken by an illness that kept her paralyzed and unable to move from her bed, an event that she attributed to God’s unhappiness at her not following his orders to move her nuns to Rupertsberg. It was only when the Abbot himself could not move Hildegard that he decided to grant the nuns their own monastery. Hildegard and about twenty nuns thus moved to the St. Rupertsberg monastery in 1150, where Volmar served as provost, as well as Hildegard’s confessor and scribe.

In 1165 Hildegard founded a second convent for her nuns at Eibingen. (Illuminations of Hildegard of Bingen – Sante Fe: Bear and Company, 1985) Hildegard did not manifest the visions until when she was in her early forties. The church did not allow women to sing; however, women were permitted to compose music for convents. Hildegard of Bingen was one such woman who wrote sacred music for choirs in convents. Not only did Hildegard compose music for church choirs, but she also wrote pieces of music that could be performed outside of the church, otherwise known as secular music.

She began to have the symbolic and didactic visions for which she became famous. At first she did not write any of her visions down but then when she fell gravely ill she blamed it on the fact that she was not revealing her visions. After consulting with the Pope and St Bernard of Clairvaux she began to write her visions down, in the Scivas. Archbishop Heinrich convinced Hildegard to share her visions and believed them to be a gift from God. Pope Eugenis III sent a commission to investigate Hildegard’s vision and obtain a copy of her writings.

Pope Eugenis III read Hildegard’s visions in front of the synod that all believed them to be true. The Pope sent Hildegard a letter of approval, authorizing her to continue transcribing her visions. The result of this was to ratify Hildegard’s visionary gift. Hildegard was not just restricted to religious life but she was also an abbess, mystic, poet, musician and scientist. (German Mysticism-Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993) She had a very hard and productive life.

She become very well known and wrote many songs and books, many of which are still read today. She made a large contribution to society at her time overcoming whatever problems faced her. Hildegard used a large variety of parables, metaphors, symbols, visionary imagery and non-verbal means to make her work reach out to many who are totally deaf to more standard approaches. She felt that everyone deserved the right to learn about her work, especially the visions she was receiving from God, even though they may have physical or mental disadvantages.

Throughout her life, she continued to have many visions, and in 1141, at the age of 42, Hildegard received a vision she believed to be an instruction from God, to “write down that which you see and hear. ” Still hesitant to record her visions, Hildegard became physically ill. The illustrations recorded in the book of Scivias were visions that Hildegard experienced, causing her great suffering and tribulations. In her first theological text, “Know the Ways”. (The letters of Hildegard of Bingen – Oxford University Press, 1994)

Hildegard describes her struggle within. But I, though I saw and heard these things, refused to write for a long time through doubt and bad opinion and the diversity of human words, not with stubbornness but in the exercise of humility, until, laid low by the scourge of God, I fell upon a bed of sickness; then, compelled at last by many illnesses, and by the witness of a certain noble maiden of good conduct the nun Richardis von Stade and of that man whom I had secretly sought and found, as mentioned above, I set my hand to the writing.

While I was doing it, I sensed, as I mentioned before, the deep profundity of scriptural exposition; and, raising myself from illness by the strength I received, I brought this work to a close though just barely in ten years. (Hildegard von Bingen, Mystical Visions) And I spoke and wrote these things not by the invention of my heart or that of any other person, but as by the secret mysteries of God I heard and received them in the heavenly places.

And again I heard a voice from Heaven saying to me, ‘Cry out therefore, and write thus Hildegard’s vivid description of the physical sensations which accompanied her visions has led neurologist (and popular author) Oliver Sacks to speculate that they were symptoms of migraine, in particular because of her description of light. Sacks argue that the illuminations that appear in Hildegard’s manuscripts confirm that Hildegard suffered from negative scotoma. (Hildegard von Bingen- Mystical Visions)

After taking up her role as Superior of the community of nuns, Hildegard became convinced she should no longer remain silent about what she experienced in the Living Light. She heard a voice that addressed her: “0 frail human formed from the dust of the earth, ashes from ashes, cry out and proclaim the beginning of undefiled salvation! Let those who see the inner meaning of Scripture, yet do not wish to proclaim or preach it, take instruction, for they are lukewarm and sluggish….

Therefore pour out a fountain of abundance, over-flow with mysterious learning, so that those who want you to be despicable on account of Eve’s transgression may be overwhelmed by the flood of your profusion. ” (Hildegard von Bingen-Mystical Visions) Matthew Fox, the founder of creation spirituality, while he examined her writings and explored some of her teachings through a series of meditations. He described her as being a strong, feminine figure, revered by the New Age, who are attracted by her theology, with its emphasis on the harmony of the created world and its relation to God.

At about the same time musicologists and historians of science and religion began to study her and the past ten years have seen a proliferation of books and academic studies on her life and work. There are films and videos about her, societies, colloquia and conferences in her name. She is also taken seriously as a musician, and the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians gives her nearly six pages.

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Akbar The Great

Akbar “The Great” was one of the greatest rulers in Indian history. He was born when Humayun and his first wife, Hamida Bano, were fugitives escaping towards Iran. It was during these wanderings that Akbar was born in Umerkot, Sindh, on November 23, 1542. Legend has it that Humayun prophesied a bright future for his son, and thus accordingly, named him Akbar. Akbar was raised in the rugged country of Afghanistan rather than amongst the splendor of the Delhi court.

He spent his youth learning to hunt, run, and fight and never found time to read or write. He was the only great Mughal ruler who was illiterate. Despite this, he had a great desire for knowledge. This led him not only to maintain an extensive library but also to learn. Akbar had his books read out to him by his courtiers. Therefore, even though unable to read, Akbar was as knowledgeable as the most learned of scholars. Akbar came to throne in 1556, after the death of his father, Humayun.

At that time, Akbar was only 13 years old. Akbar was the only Mughal king to ascend to the throne without the customary war of succession; as his brother Muhammad Hakim was too feeble to offer any resistance. During the first five years of his rule, Akbar was assisted and advised by Bahram Khan in running the affairs of the country. Bahram Khan was, however, removed and for a few years Akbar ruled under the influence of his nurse Maham Anga. After 1562, Akbar freed himself from external influences and ruled supreme.

During his reign, Akbar managed to subdue almost all of India, with the remaining areas becoming tributary states. Along with his military conquests, he introduced a series of reforms to consolidate his power. Akbar practiced tolerance aimed at Hindu-Muslim unification through the introduction of a new religion known as Din-i-Ilahi. He appointed nobles and mansabdars without any religious prejudice. Akbar’s religious innovations and policies, and deviation from Islamic dogma, have been a source of debate and controversy.

Akbar was a great patron of literary works and scholars. His court had numerous scholars of the day who are well known as “Nauratan”. Akbar had three sons Prince Salim, Murad and Daniyal. Prince Murad and Daniyal died in their prime during their father’s lifetime. However, Akbar faced problems with Prince Salim and the last four years of Akbar’s life were consumed in crushing Salim’s rebellion. Akbar fell ill and died of slow poisoning on October 27, 1605.

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Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn lived a strategic lifestyle in the English court of Henry VIII. As a pawn of her family, she went from a small girl in the French court to the queen. Henry had an obsession with Anne and would stop at nothing until they were together causing many long term affects on England. Many people had different contrasting views of Anne Boleyn; on one hand she was viewed as a jezebel or concubine by the Catholics but at the same time she was viewed as a saintly queen by protestant writers. Both these conflicting portraits of Anne Boleyn have a degree of truth but at the same time are inaccurate.

Through both of these characters Anne Boleyn’s relationship with Henry VIII caused many effects upon England during his reign such as changing how the church had been set up for thousands of years and the way women were viewed in this time. Anne spent part of her childhood in the court of the Archduchess Margaret, the daughter of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Mary, Duchess of Burgundy. Anne was around the age of 12-13, as that was the minimum age for a ‘fille d’honneur’, also know as a bridesmaid or maid of honor .

It was from there that she was transferred to the household of Mary, Henry VIII’s sister, who was married to Louis XII of France. Anne’s sister Mary was already in ‘the French Queen’s’ attendance. However, when Louis died, Mary Boleyn returned to England with Mary Tudor, while Anne remained in France to attend Claude, the new French queen. Anne remained in France for the next 6 or 7 years. During her stay in France she learned to speak French fluently and developed a taste for French clothes, poetry and music.

While there in France Anne gained a very unique style and grace that made her very noticeable in the English court. Anne brought to England a new mold for a renaissance woman. She was literate and had received a formal education. Along with this Anne brought her French style that spread through the English court. In 1521 or early 1522, with war between England and France imminent, Anne returned home. When she first caught Henry VIII’s eye is unknown. He was originally attracted to her sister, Mary who came to court before Anne .

She was the king’s mistress in the early 1520s and, as a mark of favor; her ather was elevated to the peerage as viscount Rochford in 1525. Mary herself would leave court with only a dull marriage, and possibly the king’s illegitimate son, as her reward. Anne learned much from her sister’s example. Anne’s first years at court were spent in service to Henry VIII’s first wife, Katharine of Aragon. She became quite popular among the younger men. She was not considered a great beauty; her sister occupied that position in the family, but even Mary was merely deemed ‘pretty’. Anne’s focuses were her style, her wit and charm; she was quick-tempered and spirited.

Her most remarkable physical attributes were her large dark eyes and long black hair. It is likely that Henry sought to make Anne his mistress, as he had her sister Mary years before. Maybe drawing on the example of Elizabeth Woodville, Queen to Edward IV (and maternal grandmother to Henry VIII) who was said to have told King Edward that she would only be his wife, not his mistress, Anne denied Henry VIII sexual favors. We don’t know who first had the idea of marriage, but eventually it evolved into “Queen or nothing” for Anne.

How Anne was able to capture and maintain the king’s attention for such a long while, despite great obstacles and the constant presence of malicious gossip cannot be explained. Henry was headstrong and querulous. But for several years, he remained faithful to his feelings for Anne and his desire for a legitimate male heir. He sent many love letters to Anne; his campaign to win her became a dangerous obsession lasting for seven years. My mistress and friend: I and my heart put ourselves in your hands, begging you to have them suitors for your good favor, and that your affection for them should not grow less through absence.

For it would be a great pity to increase their sorrow since absence does it sufficiently, and more than ever I could have thought possible reminding us of a point in astronomy, which is, that the longer the days are the farther off is the sun, and yet the more fierce. So it is with our love, for by absence we are parted, yet nevertheless it keeps its fervour, at least on my side, and I hope on yours also: assuring you that on my side the ennui of absence is already too much for me: and when I think of the increase of what I must needs suffer it would be well nigh unbearable for me were it not for the firm hope I have nd as I cannot be with you in person, I am sending you the nearest possible thing to that, namely, my picture set in a bracelet, with the whole device which you already know. Wishing myself in their place when it shall please you.

This by the hand of Your loyal servant and friend H. Rex His desire for Anne increased his efforts to secure an annulment from his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. During their eighteen-year marriage, Catherine had failed to give Henry a male heir to the throne of England, only producing a daughter, Mary. In 1527 Henry asked the Pope for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine so that he could marry Anne.

Because the Pope did not grant Henry his wish, he and his Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy in 1534, which proclaimed the King as head of the Church of England. Although Henry VIII himself was a religious conservative, England slowly began to create the branch of Christianity known as Anglicanism, which often considers itself to have taken a middle road between Luther’s and Calvin’s Protestantism and Roman Catholicism. It also closely involved Parliament in the key decisions, including the Act of Succession, allowing representatives of the people a vital role in choosing the next dynastic monarch.

During Anne’s marriage to Henry VIII, she had a large amount of control over the monarchy. She changed the face of politics in England. Anne Boleyn was intelligent and was not afraid of saying what she thought . It is known that she influenced Henry, and that is a reason why Thomas Cromwell, an English statesman who served as King Henry VIII’s chief minister from 1532 to 1540 , conspired to get rid of her. Her influence over the monarch led to Wolsey’s fall from grace, and Cromwell blamed her for affecting foreign policy and preventing an English-Imperial alliance.

Yet Anne was a woman, and women of the time were not meant to have opinions and meddle in politics. After being married, Anne entered confinement for the birth of her first child on 26 August 1533. The child was born on 7 September 1533 and had the largest effect on England that Anne Boleyn caused. The healthy baby girl called Elizabeth was not the disappointment most assumed, nor did she immediately cause her mother’s downfall. The birth had been very easy and quick. The queen recovered quickly. Henry had every reason to believe that strong princes would follow.

It was only when Anne miscarried two sons that he began to question the validity of his second marriage. It was a tedious and frightening dance for Anne. During the two and a half years after Elizabeth’s birth, she was rarely secure or certain of her position and the king’s affections. The continued lack of an heir and Anne’s miscarriages reminded him of Katharine. Like most of his contemporaries, the king blamed his wife when she did not conceive or carry to term. Anne had one last chance, and in June 1535, became pregnant again. She lost that child as well, in January 1536.

She was reported to have said, “I have miscarried of my savior. ” Katharine of Aragon died in January as well, just a few days before Anne’s miscarriage. These events, taken together, pushed Henry into action. While Katharine lived, most of Europe, and many Englishmen, had regarded her as his rightful wife, not Anne. Now he was rid of Katharine; if he were to rid himself of Anne, he could marry again – and this third marriage would never be tainted by the specter of bigamy. He had her arrested, charged with adultery, witchcraft, and incest; the charges were ludicrous even to her enemies.

As queen of England, Anne was tried by her peers; the main charge was adultery, and this was an act of treason for a queen. No member of the nobility would help her; her craven uncle Norfolk pronounced the death sentence. A skilled swordsman was brought over from France. She was assured that there would be little pain. She replied, with typical spirit, ‘I have heard that the executioner is very good and I have a little neck. ‘ Anne had prayed for exile and to end her days in a nunnery, but now faced a more tragic fate. She met it with bravery and wit. She was brought to the scaffold at 8 o’clock in the morning on 19 May 1536.

It was a spectacle that had never happened before, the first public execution of an English queen. Anne, who had defended herself so ably at her trial, chose her last words carefully: ‘Good Christian people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to me he was ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord.

And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul. ‘ She was bent at the scaffold and killed by beheading . Today, this woman who lived 500 years ago is still having books, programs and movies written and made based upon her life. Also there are many websites, blogs, and forums discussing her strategic life and notoriety. Anne Boleyn did not just affect England with her wit, grace, and strong determination, she affected the entire world.

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Pierre de Fermat

Pierre De Fermat was born in France in August of 1601. His father was a leather merchant and his mother’s family was in the legal profession. children, and practiced law. Math was simply just a hobby for Pierre. Pierre De Fermat was a busy lawyer, and didn’t leave much time for his love of math. Since math was just his hobby, he never wanted any of his work to be published. When he did publish his work, it was always anonymously. Fermat would state theorems, but always neglected the proofs. For example, his most famous work, ‘Fermat’s Last Theorem,’ didn’t include a proof until when Andrew J.

Wiles provided the first in 1993. He made many contributions in the field of mathematics. For example, he is considered as one of the ‘fathers’ of analytic geometry, along with Rene’ Descartes. He developed a method for determining maxima, minima, and tangents to various curves that was equivalent to differentiation. He obtained a technique for finding the centers of gravity for various plane and solid figures. Also, he is considered to be one of the founders of the probability theory along with Blaise Pascal. Fermat was the first person known to have evaluated the integral of general power functions.

He made contributions in the field of optics and provided a law on light and travel. He wrote a few papers about calculus, before Issac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz were even born. Fermat’s most important work was done in the development of the modern number theory, which was one of his favorite areas of math. Pierre de Fermat died in the year 1665. . These annotations are unsupported by proof. During his lifetime, Pierre De Fermat received very little recognition as a mathematician, and if others didn’t save his papers and letters he may not be the legend he is today.

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Sor Juana Ines de La Cruz

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was an exceptional seventeenth-century nun who set precedents for feminism long before the term or concept existed. Her “Respuesta” is a maverick work outlining the logical sense of women’s education more than 200 years before Woolf’s “A Room of One’s Own.” Her poetry, meanwhile, states in bold language the potency of the feminine in both love and religion.

Juana Inés Ramirez was born out of wedlock to Isabel Ramirez and Manuel de Asbaje in a small village in Mexico, New Spain. Manuel soon abandoned the family, so mother and child spent a great deal of time with Juana’s grandfather, Pedro Ramirez. It was in Pedro’s book-filled house that Juana learned to read. (Girls of her time were rarely, if ever, formally educated.) The door to learning then burst open — the young prodigy would embark upon a life shaped and shaken by intellectual inquiry. She quickly gained renown in society and became a lady-in-waiting in the court of the Spanish viceroy. Yet she soon left the court for the nunnery; practically speaking, this was the best way for an illegitimately born woman to secure the time and resources for scholarship.

But Sor Juana did not shut herself away in an ascetic cell. She started out as a novice in the Carmelite order, but the order’s predilection for little sleep and self-flagellation repelled her after a few months. Eventually she found a sect that was more her speed as a lady of letters and a former courtier: the order of San Jerónimo gave her an entire suite of her own, complete with bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, library, and servant. Her library — which held Mexico’s largest book collection — developed into a meeting-place for the intellectual elite. Those who frequented the salon included future viceroy Marquis de La Laguna and the Countess de Pareda, known to her intimates as Maria Luisa.

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Edmund Emil Kemper III: A Case Study

Edmund Emil Kemper III was born on December 18, 1948, in Burbank, California to Clarnell and Ed Kemper Jr. He was the only son of the family. Edmund’s childhood was anything but normal. While most other little boys were playing games pretending they were super heroes, Edmund was pretending he was in a gas chamber and his sister was throwing the switch. Once the switch was thrown he would wiggle around on the floor as if he were dying of asphyxiation. Edmund also enjoyed cutting the heads and hands off of his sisters’ new dolls.

He had trouble relating to his peers because he was afraid of them, afraid of any intimate contact between himself and another. During his childhood years, Edmund also found it amusing to torture the family cats. He buried the first cat up to its neck then kept the severed head as a trophy. His mother replaced the cat. With the new cat Edmund decided to continue his torturing spree by cutting it with a machete, exposing its brains and dissecting the body. These ants resulted in numerous pieces of trophies for him to keep. Until his mother discovered them in his closet.

From this point on is when his mother truly began to express her opinions of him as having a “weirdo” personality. lf his home life was not weird enough, Edmund had a crush on his second grade teacher, Whom his sisters teased him about relentlessly. With this crush developed fantasies of killing his second grade teacher. Edmund’s reply to his sister’s teasing was, “If I kiss her, l’d have to kill her first. ” On numerous occasions Edmund visited her house with his father’s bayonet and his fantasies. With Edmund’s home life already a rough one and the fantasies of killing already in his head, the news of his parents divorce did not sit well.

His parents fought constantly leaving Edmund, now age 9, to bounce back and forth between them. After his mother became fed up with him she sent him to live with his father, Ed Jr. , and his stepmother. However, this did not last long before he was sent to live with his paternal grandparents at the age of thirteen in rural North Folk, Ca. Edmund did not get along with his grandparents any better than he did with his mother or father. In fact, Edmund lasted with them until August 27, 1964, at age fourteen, when he shot his grandmother in the back of the head with a . 2 caliber rifle after an argument.

He later stabbed her lifeless body numerous times with a kitchen knife, and then he shot his grandfather as he returned home. He called his mother and told her what had happened and waited patiently for her and the police to arrive. Once the police arrived and they questioned him about what had happened, Edmund’s only response was, “I just wondered how it would feel to shoot grandma. ” Edmund later explained that grandpa was shot out of mercy, a way to spare him from the discovery of his wife.

As a punishment for the murder of his grandparents, the courts sentenced Edmund to Atascadero State Hospital where he was placed in the criminally insane unit. Atascadero State Hospital is an all-male, maximum security, forensic facility serving the entire state of California. Upon entering the facility the psychiatrists there examined and tested Edmund’s level of intelligence and came up with the findings that he had an IQ of about 145 and possessed the personality disordered titled personality trait disturbance, passive-aggressive type.

While in ASH Edmund became such a model inmate that the doctors trained Edmund in how to administer the tests. Knowing how the tests worked allowed Edmund to learn ways in which to provide the doctors with appropriate responses that would pave the way for him to be later deemed no longer a danger to society. Once Edmund passed the tests, he was released back into the world under his mother’s care. Now age twenty-one, Edmund returned to his mother’s house and fell right back into the tormented ways. Edmund’s mother blamed him for everything.

She would repeatedly yell at him that it was his fault she had not been with a man for a number of years. With Edmund’s new found way of life, he decided he would try to find work. His mother saw how intent he was on getting a job so she tried to have his juvenile records sealed. He first worked at a Green Giant canning plant as a laborer before he applied with the State Division of Highways in 1971; a job that would allow Edmund to hang out with law enforcement. He tried hard to get a job in law enforcement but was rejected due to his large size, of six foot nine inches, and weighing almost 300 pounds.

But his new found friends supplied him with handcuffs, a training badge and gun. Part of Edmund’s release agreement was to visit with a psychologist regularly. Edmund did this, however as he began to get close with the police officers, and attend his weekly sessions, he began training himself for his next kill. That is he would pick up hitchhikers and provide them with the necessary ride, putting on the “gentle giant” charade so as to provide a sense of genuine sincerity for those whom he picked up. This manipulation and control over the situation are primary talents of this psychopathic serial killer.

Edmund’s first kill did not happen until May of 1972, in which he picked up two college women, Mary Anne Pesce and Anita Luchessa, on a freeway ramp. Edmund knew the area so well that he was able to get the car turned around without the girls having any clue that their direction had changed. Edmund then drove to a remote area he learned about from his interaction with the highway department. Upon arriving to the area, Edmund handcuffed Pesce in the backseat and placed Luchessa in the trunk of the car. Edmund returned to Pesce and placed a plastic bag over head, and tied it on with the belt of a bathrobe.

However, the belt broke and Pesce had managed to bite through the bag, so Edmund drew his knife and began stabbing her inthe back. These stabbings did not seem to have any effect on her because she was still wiggling around and fighting back. Then Edmund grabbed her by the chin, pulled back her head, and slit her throat. After killing Pesce, Edmund went back to the trunk and began stabbing Luchessa repeatedly in the throat, eyes, heart and forearms. Now that these women were dead, he took them back to his apartment where he dissected their bodies, took Polaroid pictures, and cut off their heads.

I remember there was actually a sexual thrill. You hear that little “pop’ and pull their heads off and hold their heads up by the hair. Whipping their heads off their body sitting there. That’d get me off” (Vronsky). Edmund took the remainder of the two women and put them into plastic bags, of which he buried in the Santa Cruz hills, their torsos and limbs in one area, their hands in another. All the while disguising the burial ground with techniques he had learned as a Boy Scout. With the excitement of the killing behind him, Edmund began to return to his normal routine of attending bars filled with law enforcement personnel.

All the while he was attending these local gatherings; he was remaining one step ahead of all clues about the cases. In September 1972, Edmund struck again, only this time it was a fifteen year old girl, Aiko Koo, on her way to dance class in San Francisco. Edmund took her to a remote location where he strangled her into unconsciousness, raped her, and then placed her body in the trunk of his car. On his way home however, he stopped off for a beer. When he returned to his car he opened the trunk and, admiring my catch like a fisherman’s looked in at the little girl.

The next day Edmund buried the body in his typical fashion, but kept her head. With the head of Koo in the trunk of his car he drove to the psychiatrist’s office for his regularly scheduled appointment. While at the appointment, the psychiatrist is quoted as saying, “If I were seeing this patient without any history available or without getting the history from him, I would think that we’re dealing with a very well adjusted young man who had initiative, intelligence and who was free of any psychiatric illness…

In effect, we are dealing with two different people when we talk of the 15 year old boy who committed the murder and of the 23 year old man we see before us now. . . it is my opinion that he has made a very excellent response to the years of treatment and rehabilitation. . . ” (Vronsky). No one knows for sure what the psychiatrists would have said that day if they had known of the head in Edmund’s trunk. After living on his own for a while, Edmund decided to move back home with his domineering mother. Since the last killing in September Edmund was doing well, that is until he picked up college student Cindy Schall.

Edmund shot Schall in the head and brought her body back to his mother’s house, and when she wasn’t looking he carried her up to his room and put her in his closet. The next day while his mother was at work Edmund took the corpse to bed and had sex with it. After this he drained the body of blood in his mother’s bathtub, cut the body into pieces, bagged them and threw them off of a cliff. He kept the head, this time repeatedly having sex with it. When he grew tired of the head Edmund buried it in the backyard facing up towards his mother’s bedroom window.

The local university at this time had gotten word of a string of unsolved murders and warned its students not to take rides from strangers. Lucky for Edmund his mother worked at the university and frequently needed him to pick her up, so he ended up with a decal for the university to allow for his easy access. His mother was well liked, respected, and known for her kindness at the university. Edmund used the decal on his car to pick up two more unsuspecting college women. He then took these women back to his mother’s house where he decapitated one of them in the trunk of his car.

Later that night while his mother was sleeping he carried the headless body up to his room. Edmund has been quoted as saying, in “… the head is where everything is at, the brain, eyes, mouth. That’s the person. I remember being told as a kid, you cut off the head and the body dies…. that’s not quite true. With a girl, there is a lot left in the girl’s body without the head. Of course, the personality is gone (Vronsky). Edmund went from the kill of the two college women until one fatal Easter weekend in 1973.

On this weekend Edmund had finally conquered what had driven his hatred all these years, Edmund killed his mother. While his mother lay sleeping in her bed the night before Easter Sunday, Edmund went in with a claw hammer and smashed his mother’s head in. Edmund then decided, what’s good for my victims was good for my mother’s He then proceeded to decapitate her, and raped her headless corpse. He then removed her larynx and tried to run it through the garbage disposal only to have it jam and spit the larynx back at him. Edmund later recalled to police as saying, “even when she was dead, she was still bitching at me.

I couldn’t get her to shut up. ” This same evening Edmund called and invited his mother’s best friend over for a “surprise” dinner party. Upon her arrival however, Edmund punched her, strangled her, and again cut off the head which he placed in his bed. He then slept in his mothers bed. The next day Edmund got in his car and began to drive aimlessly. He drove all the way from Santa Cruz, Ca. to Colorado. A11 the while listening to the radio hoping for some sort of news flash to come out of the killing he had just committed.

But since no such thing happened, and he had grown tired of waiting, Edmund called the Santa Cruz police confessing to all of the crimes. They however, knowing Edmund as friend, did not believe him, forcing him to call several times before they took his word. Which then lead local authorities to his destination where he surrendered willingly. While awaiting trial, Edmund attempted twice to commit suicide by slashing his mists, and was soon transferred to a solitary cell. The trial itself was rather short – the evidence was there, and it showed clear premeditation.

A1l of the psychiatrists asked, testified that Edmund was sane at the times he committed his crimes. Edmund was put into prison, where he calmed down and became a well-behaved inmate. At the trial he was asked what he thought would be an appropriate punishment for his actions, his response was “death by torture. ” He was sentences to response was death by torturers He was sentenced to eight concurrent life-prison terms with possibility of parole. Edmund has been up for parole since 1980, but has been denied every time he’s applied. Edmund Kemper is said to have been a egotistic lust killer.

That is these people set out not with the interest to kill or hurt anyone, but with the intention of wearing your skin or eating your liver, or in the case of Edmund to have sex with your severed head and decapitated corpse. lts just that your life gets in the way of their fanta sy. In Edmund’s instance he explained that the actual killing of each victim had little to do with his fantasies, he goes on to say, “but what I needed to have was a particular experience with person, and to possess them in the way I wanted to: I had to evict them from their human bodies. (Vronsky). When it comes to classifying Edmund as a psychopath, it can be done but in the broadest sense of a definition. A psychopath derives their tendencies from biological predispositions. Including, but not limited to faulty family enviro ends, aloof parents, and inconsistent rewards and punishments. In Edmund’s life his parents w re never really there for him, they just shuffled him back and forth before finally sending him to live with extended family.

The punishments were inconsistent because his mother locked him in his basement “bedroom” due to the fear felt by his sister even though he did nothing to provoke the fear. I believe more appropriately Edmund Kemper fits the definition of having a Homicidal Pattern Disorder. Which according to the future volume of the DSM will be defined as deliberate and purposeful murder or attempt at murder of strangers on more than one occasion; tension or affective arousal at some time before the arts; and pleasure, gratification, or relief in commission or reflection of the ants.

In the end, I believe that all Edmund truly wanted was a woman’s love. Something he wished for greatly, but was always an illusion, never attainable. It is clear what Edmund’s purpose for killing these women was, the need to feel a close intimate connection with a member of the opposite sex, more specifically a connection between himself and his mother. Once this conquest was fulfilled, the intimate connection between him and his mother, Edmund willingly turned himself in because his mission was over.

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Lal Bahadur Shastri

Achievements: Played a leading role in Indian freedom struggle; became Parliamentary Secretary of Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant, the then chief minister of Uttar Pradesh; became the Minister of Police and Transport in Pant’s Cabinet; appointed as the Railways and Transport Minister in the Central Cabinet; also held the portfolios of Transport & Communications, Commerce and Industry, and Home Ministry in the Central cabinet; became Prime Minister of India in 1964; led India to victory over Pakistan in 1965 war.

Lal Bahadur Shastri was the second Prime Minister of independent India. Though diminutive in physical stature he was a man of great courage and will. He successfully led country during the 1965 war with Pakistan. To mobilize the support of country during the war he coined the slogan of “Jai Jawan Jai Kisan”. Lal Bahadur Sastri also played a key role in India’s freedom struggle. He led his life with great simplicity and honesty and was a great source of inspiration for all the countrymen.

Lal Bahadur Shastri was born on October 2, 1904 at Mughalsarai, Uttar Pradesh. His parents were Sharada Prasad and Ramdulari Devi. Lal Bahadur’s surname was Srivastava but he dropped it as he did not want to indicate his caste. Lal Bahadur’s father was a school teacher and later on he became a clerk in the Revenue Office at Allahabad. Though Sharada Prasad was poor, he lived a life of honesty and integrity. Lal Bahadur lost his father when he was only one. Ramdulari Devi raised Lal Bahadur and her two daughters at her father’s house.

There is a very famous incident regarding Lal Bahadur Shastri’s childhood which took place when he was six years old. One day, while returning from school, Lal Bahadur and his friends went to an orchard that was on the way to home. Lal Bahadur Shastri was standing below while his friends climbed the trees to pluck mangoes. Meanwhile, the gardener came and caught hold of Lalbahadur Shastri. He scolded Lal Bahadur Shastri and started beating him. Lal Bahadur Shastri pleaded to gardener to leave him as he was orphan. Taking pity on Lal Bahadur, the gardener said, “Because you are an orphan, it is all the more important that you must learn better behavior.” These words left a deep imprint on Lal Bahadur Shastri and he swore to behave better in the future.

Lal Bahadur stayed at his grandfather’s house till he was ten. By that time he had passed the sixth standard examination. He went to Varanasi for higher education. In 1921 when Mahatma Gandhi launched the non-cooperation movement against British Government, Lal Bahadur Shastri, was only seventeen years old. When Mahatma Gandhi gave a call to the youth to come out of Government schools and colleges, offices and courts and to sacrifice everything for the sake of freedom, Lal Bahadur came out of his school. Though his mother and relatives advised him not to do so, he was firm in his decision. Lal Bahadur was arrested during the Non-cooperation movement but as he was too young he was let off.

After his release Lal Bahadur joined Kashi Vidya Peeth and for four years he studied philosophy. In 1926, Lal Bahadur earned the degree of “Shastri” After leaving Kashi Vidya Peeth, Lal Bahadur Shastri joined “The Servants of the People Society”, which Lala Lajpat Rai had started in 1921. The aim of the Society was to train youths that were prepared to dedicate their lives in the service of the country. In 1927, Lal Bahadur Shastri married Lalitha Devi. The marriage ceremony was very simple and Shastriji took only a charkha (spinning wheel) and few yards of Khadi in dowry.

In 1930, Gandhiji gave the call for Civil Disobedience Movement. Lal Bahadur Shastri joined the movement and encouraged people not to pay land revenue and taxes to the government. He was arrested and put in jail for two and a half years. In jail Shastriji became familiar with the works of western philosophers, revolutionaries and social reformers. Lal Bahadur Shastri had great self respect. Once when he was in prison, one of his daughters fell seriously ill. The officers agreed to release him out for a short time but on condition that he should agree in writing not to take part in the freedom ‘movement during this period. Lal Bahadur did not wish to participate in the freedom movement during his temporary release from prison; but he said that he would not give it in writing. He thought that it was against his self-respect to give it in writing.

After Second World War started in 1939, Congress launched “Individual Satyagraha” in 1940 to demand freedom. Lal Bahadur Shastri was arrested during Individual Satyagraha and released after one year. On August 8, 1942, Gandhiji gave the call for Quit India Movement. Lal Bahadur actively participated in the movement. He went underground but was later arrested. Lal Bahadur Shastri was released in 1945 along with other major leaders. He earned the praise of Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant by his hard work during the 1946 provincial elections. Lal Bahadur’s administrative ability and organization skills came to the fore during this time. When Govind Vallabh Pant became the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, he appointed Lal Bahadur Shastri as his Parliamentary Secretary. In 1947, Lal Bahadur Shastri became the Minister of Police and Transport in Pant’s Cabinet.

Lal Bahadur Sastri was the General Secretary of the Congress Party when the first general elections were held after India became Republic. Congress Party returned to power with a huge majority. In 1952, Jawahar Lal Nehru appointed Lal Bahadur Shastri as the Railways and Transport Minister in the Central Cabinet. Lal Bahadur Shastri’s contribution in providing more facilities to travelers in third class compartments cannot be forgotten. He reduced the vast disparity between the first class and third class in the Railways. Lal Bahadur Shastri resigned from Railways in 1956, owning moral responsibility for a railway accident. Jawaharlal Nehru tried to persuade Shastriji but Lal Bahadur Shastri refused to budge from his stand. By his action Lal Bahadur Shastri set new standards of morality in public life.

In the next general elections when Congress returned to power, Lal Bahadur Shastri became the Minister for Transport and Communications and later the Minister for Commerce and Industry. He became the Home Minister in 1961, after the death of Govind Vallabh Pant. In the 1962 India-China war Shastriji played a key role in maintaining internal security of the country.

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Betty White

Betty White was born in Oak Park, IL on January 17, 1922, daughter of Horace L. White, a traveling salesman and Tess Cachikis. She attended Beverly Hills High School from which she graduated in 1939. Her career started in the early 1940s with a modeling job. She also worked on a few radio shows including Blondie, The Great Gildersleeve, and This Is Your FBI and later, her own radio program name, The Betty White Show. In 1949 she debuted on television when she appeared with Al Jarvis on Hollywood on Television, she later hosted it on her own when Jarvis left.

From 1952 to about 1977 she appeared on several television shows including Life With Elizabeth, Date With the Angels, Password, What’s My Line? , To Tell the Truth, I’ve Got A Secret, Match Game, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, and Pyramid. In 1977 she was given her own sitcom on CBS called The Betty White Show. (Not to be confused with her radio show with the same name. ) In 1987 she scored her second signature role of the St. Olaf, MN – native Rose Nylund, on The Golden Girls. The show was centered on four divorced or widowed women in their ‘Golden years’ that share a home in Miami.

Although Betty has no children, she has been married three times. The first in 1945 to Dick Barker, a US Army Air Corps Pilot. This marriage was short-lived, only one year. The second to Lane Allen, a Hollywood agent, which only lasted two years also ending in divorce. On June 14, 1963 she married television host and personality, Allen Ludden. He proposed to Betty at least twice be fore she accepted. Allen died of stomach cancer on June 9, 1981. She hasn’t remarried since his death.

Betty has won six Emmy Awards, three American Comedy Awards (including a Lifetime Achievement Award in 1990. ), and two Viewer’s For Quality Television Awards. She was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame and has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. On January 23, 2010 at the Screen Actor’s Gild Awards, she was awarded, by Sandra Bullock, the Life Achievement Award. She is also a pet enthusiast and animal health advocate who works with a number of animal organization such as the Los Angeles Zoo Commission, the Morris Animal Foundation, and Actors & Others for Animals.

Betty is the president of the Morris Animal Foundation where she has served as a trustee of the organization since 1971. And she donated $100,000 to the Los Angeles Zoo in April 2008 alone. She was also just on Saturday Night Live over the weekend, and it was hilarious! I was laughing so hard.. So, having said all that. I’d say she is the coolest eighty-eight year old you could probabaly ever get a chance to meet. I hope she lives forever!