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Ibsen’s Nora: A Character Analysis

Nora in  A Doll’s House (1888) represents the oppressed woman of all ages. She begins as a conventional housewife dominated by her husband Torvald Helmer. From the role of a docile housewife she gradually emerges as a rebel with a cause. In the last decade of nineteenth century she got worldwide  attention as a  rebellious protagonist who fought against patriarchy. However, she begins as a conventional housewife of nineteenth century and it is the force of circumstances that brings about a sudden awakening in her.

She stormed the complacent society, and the play became the subject of debates and discussions. She challenges the male domination  by slamming the door on her puritan husband and leaving his three small children. She refuses to live with a “stranger” who treats her as a doll wife, imposes all his restrictions on her, but does not support her at the greatest crisis of her life. In  Pillars of  Society Ibsen also created a liberated woman named Lona Hessel, the protagonist who surpassed the male characters and thereby introduced a new dimension to drama.

The most striking thing about Nora’s character is her mental growth. In the first and second Acts Nora dutifully plays the roles of a devoted mother preparing for Christmas and a wife who dares to forge her father’s signature to defray the expenses of a trip to Italy for the restoration of her husband’s health. As a member of patriarchal society she accepts the affectionate pet names given by her condescending husband such as  “little squirrel” , “little skylark” “little featherbrain” and “little “scatterbrain”.(Ibsen.148).

Her delight at her husband’s promotion as bank manager with promise of  “heaps and heaps of money”(p.155) is eclipsed by the emergence of a Machiavellian blackmailer named Krogstad. Nora makes a desperate attempt to live happily and peacefully by reinstating Krogstad, who is also implicated in forgery,  but gets involved in more lying. But Helmer  refuses to be seen influenced by his  wife. Helmer’s vanity is hurt by Christian name calling by his classmate which Nora thinks as petty.

Throughout the play her innocence is interpreted by Helmer and Mrs.Linde as immaturity. She tells  Nora : “You are only baby, Nora”(p.158) To  Helmer she at times appears to be  “extremely obstinate” and “irresponsible”(p.187).Without this trait, her desertion of her husband and children for going on a solo journey of self-education and self-discovery would not be dramatically convincing. At the climax she waits for the miracle to save her from the blackmailer; but it never   happens.

A letter from Krogstad shatters their eight-year-old conjugal life. She charges her husband: “You and Papa have committed a grievous sin against me: It’s your fault that I’ve made nothing of my life.(p.226) But Helmer was too much of a prig to regard her anything more than a spendthrift wife. Her responsible act of borrowing money on her own is so much frowned upon by him that he calls her “a liar, a hypocrite – even worse a criminal!” (p.221) He considers her unfit to bring up the children, and later  laments that he is “brought so pitifully low all because of a shiftless woman.” (p.221) Yet after the critical situation is saved  by Mrs.Linde, Nora emphatically rejects the proposal of perpetuating the façade of marital life “only in the eyes of the world of course.”(p.221)

Nora is not simply the protagonist of A Doll’s House, she has become the symbol of women’s protest against the dead laws, conventions and the religions of all society. Her awakening is every woman’s awakening. Her assertion for individual freedom has a universal appeal: “I must stand on my own feet if I’m to get to know myself and the world outside.” (p.227)

Work Cited:

Watts, Peter (Trnsl.). Ibsen: Plays. Harmondsworth. Penguin. 1965

All quotations are from this edition.

November 19, 2007

“You’ll see I’m man enough to take it all on myself.”p.190

Nora is affected vy Helmer’s belief that an atmosphere of lie and hypocrisy of a mother vitiates the atmosphere of a home  Nora is pale with fear and says in distress: “Corrupt my little children – poison my home? That’s not true! It could never, never be true.” P.181 ..Nora is awefully fightened to hide the truth

 

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The Only Character Responsible for the Tyranny of Macbeth

‘The only character responsible for the tyranny of Macbeth is the man himself. Discuss’ Macbeth is not the only person responsible for all the poorly made decisions and unjust ruling. This character based theme is shown extensively throughout the play ‘Macbeth’ by William Shakespeare. During the play we are shown Macbeth as a tyrant ruler who is always killing people. Just at the start of the play we see Macbeth fighting against Norway and Ireland and at the end of the play Macbeth if fighting against Macduff and his army.

Everyone around him influenced on his behaviour and caused him to kill many innocent people. the witches caused him to search for power because of their prophecies. Lady Macbeth used Macbeth to become queen and to do everything to stay like that. Banquo did not speak even though he knew the truth. Malcolm had got defeated to his fears which caused him to flee. All the major characters contributed into Macbeth’s tyranny. The witches prophecies caused Macbeth to become a oppressor. Macbeth was a brave and courageous general before he met the witches which caused his life to change. For brave Macbeth-well he deserves that name. ‘ After Macbeth learned that the first prophecy which was that he would become the ‘Thane of Cawdor,’ he believed in the witches more strongly. The other prophecy was that he shall ‘be king hereafter. ‘ Macbeth immediately begins to harbour ambitions to become king. After hearing what the witches said, he didn’t want to leave it as a chance but rather take the matters into his own hands, and he kills king Duncan and becomes the new king. But if he had never learned those prophecies from the witches than he wouldn’t have killed King Duncan.

He goes to the witches second time and learns three new prophecies. One of those prophecies it to be ‘beware of Macduff,’ which then causes Macbeth to attack Macduff’s castle and kill his wife and his ‘babes. ‘ Therefore the witches had a huge influence on Macbeth and the actions in which he took. Lady Macbeth provoked Macbeth to kill Duncan. Lady Macbeth also had huge impact on Macbeth’s life and on his journey towards kingship. Macbeth was not thinking about killing his king, but Lady Macbeth defeated his thought by challenging his manlihood. Was the hope drunk where in you dress’d yourself? Hath it slept since? ‘ She easily persuades Macbeth into killing King Duncan. Also Lady Macbeth is the one that’s doing all the planning while Macbeth is the one implementing it. Lady Macbeth successfully convinces Macbeth into killing Banquo and his son Fleance because of Witches prophecy, ‘Thou shalt get kings. ‘ So it leaves Macbeth no choice but to kill his best friend. After Macbeth reaches the point of nihilist where he doesn’t care how many people he kills.

But Lady Macbeth feels the sense of guilt and goes crazy and sees imaginary bloodstains on her hands. ‘Out, damned spot! Out I say! ‘ She has great influence on decisions which Macbeth takes and easily convinces him. Banquo is also responsible for all the devastation caused by Macbeth. After Duncan is killed by Macbeth, Banquo becomes suspicious of Macbeth but does not confess this because he also believed in the witches prophecies regarding him which were, ‘Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none. He chose to stay silent and watch Macbeth kill all those innocent people because he was selfish. He saw that Macbeth’s prophecies came true so he believed that his ones will become true. Macbeth became aware of this and added Banquo to his death list. But if Banquo had told the truth then he might’ve had been alive and would’ve saved the lives of innocent people. But he, just like Macbeth had fallen trap to his own self and payed it off with his life. But Banquo’s son Fleance managed to escap, ‘Fly, good Fleance. Banquo stayed quiet which caused Macbeth to rule as a murderer. King Duncan’s son’s Malcolm and Donalbain flee leaving the throne to Macbeth. After Malcolm and Donalbain learn about their fathers murder, they fear that their lives may be in danger,’There’s daggers in men’s smiles, the near in blood, the nearer in bloody. ‘ So they decide to flee, which Malcolm goes to England,’I’ll to England,’ and Donalbain goes to Ireland,’To Ireland. ‘ But because they run away, people believe that they were responsible for Duncan’s murder and rightfully give the throne to Macbeth.

If they had stayed then Malcolm would have been the king because he had been chosen as the heir by King Duncan. They cared more about their life than their own family and values. By saving their own lives they caused many other innocent people to die. In conclusion the play,’Macbeth,’ written by William Shakespeare is a tragedy which explores around Macbeth and his family and friends. Macbeth causes many tyranny events to occur but what causes to become a tyrant ruler is not only himself but also people around him.

People make decisions for him and controll his life to become a ruler who kills. The witches give him prophecies that he shall be king and he makes that come true by killing Duncan. In order to become King Lady Macbeth convinces Macbeth to kill Duncan and his best friend Banquo. In order for his son’s to become king, Banquo becomes quiet even though he knows that Macbeth killed Duncan. Lastly Malcolm and Donalbain flee to different countries leaving the kingship to Macbeth. People around Macbeth cause him to become unjust and tyrant ruler. MUSTAFA TELLI

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Jing-Mei Character Analysis

Amy Tan’s short story “Two Kinds” illustrates a young girls struggle with her highly opinionated mother and finding her own way. Jing-Mei’s mother continually enforces Jing-Met to carry out tasks the way she wants her to, her way. Therefore Jing-Mei is unable to grow as her own person and carry out the choices she wants to. Throughout Jing-Mei’s journey she begins to develop negative thoughts of herself and displays the attributes of insecurity, stubbornness and cruelty.

Jing-Mei’s stubbornness encourages her to believe her mother is being unfair and cruel, “when [her] mother had told [her] this, [she] felt as though [she’s] been sent to hell. ” When in reality, all her mother is doing is guiding her so she won’t have to go through the hardships she herself had gone through (Page 5). Jing-Mei has no desire to cooperate with her mother. She fights with her every way she can, determined to extinguish her mother’s dreams of her becoming successful, Jing-Mei neglects her studies as well as the piano.

Jing-Mei believes her mother is trying to change her, Jing-Mei states “I won’t let her change me… I won’t be what I’m not…” despite her mother’s real intentions of her becoming successful (Page 3). Jing-Mei feels she must reject her mother in order to find herself “right then and there, [she] was determined to put a stop to her foolish pride. ” however, in doing so, she is rejecting her heritage and identity (Page 7).

Suyuan Woo’s constant criticism hands Jing-Mei the idea of lack of affection, which results in Jing-Mei’s insecurity. Suyuan’s values of family obedience, concealment of unnecessary emotions, and criticism as expressions of love contrast with Jing-Mei’s American ideas of independence, self-esteem and open expressions of love guide Jing-Mei’s belief of never fulfilling her mother’s expectations. Therefore, Jing-Mei constantly puts herself down “[she] looked in the mirror… [she] began to cry, such a sad ugly girl! due to misunderstanding her mother’s intentions (Page 3). Her mother’s high expectations and criticism are her way of expressing love and faith in her daughter. Jing-Mei misunderstands her mother’s actions which lead her to the conclusion that she will “never be the kind of daughter [her mother] wants her to be” and leads her to the question of “why don’t you like me the way I am? I am not a genius! ” (Page 10,5).

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Retail Services Characteristics

In this paper the most common services characteristics, namely perishability, intangibility, inseparability and heterogeneity will be applied to a well – known retail services brand. In this case the focus shall be on how the aforementioned characteristics apply to Starbucks. In order to better understand the problem the history of the company alongside current corporate objectives will be briefly described. In the following paragraphs the notice will be mainly on the retailer’s ability to cope with the theory’s implications. The first Starbucks coffee shop was opened in 1971 in Seattle.

The name was inspired by Moby Dick and the logo which has now become somehow of a cult figure is a twin-tailed mermaid. However it wasn’t until 1987 when a major breakthrough came and the brand started to receive a world – wide recognition. In August, Howard Schultz backed with the capital from local investors bought the Starbucks. Since then the company grew in an exponential manner which resulted in opening more than 16,000 stores in over 55 countries to this day. Similar as the majority of large enterprises Starbucks also incorporates its own business and social objectives.

The goal is to project the brand image in a consumer and environmental friendly way. Their mission statement is to inspire and nurture the human spirit through their exceptional service and high quality coffee. In a very holistic approach they are aiming to improve every aspect of the business, from the customers and employees to the suppliers and shareholders. Moving on from this brief description of Starbucks the focus will now shift to the retail services characteristics, more precisely on intangibility and its implications. Experts agree that a service is intangible because the customer cannot sense it (Newman and Cullen, 2002).

It is an abstraction which cannot be directly examined before the purchase. In the case of most goods a prospective buyer is able to inspect the quality of the good by relying on his senses, whereas a pure service has to be purchased and consumed to fully verify its quality. The level of services’ tangibility can be seen from tangible goods, which are included and consumed within the service offer, it can also be extracted from the physical environment which surrounds the service or with the tangible evidence of the service performance (Palmer, 2005).

In the case of various food and drink outlets, goods form an important component of a service offer. This also applies to Starbucks and therefore it is possible to place it somewhere in the middle of the tangible to intangible service dominant scale (Shostack, 1977). Starbucks uses scent of fresh coffee to attract customers and make them sense a tangible good which can be purchased at the premises. The physical environment also plays a big part in customer’s perception of service quality.

Starbucks acknowledged this and therefore their outlets are usually very well furnished with comfortable chairs, Wi-Fi and other features which give a customer a sense of quality and comfort. Tangibility can be further provided with the evidence of service production methods. This is certainly the case in Starbucks where you can see the whole process of making a cup of coffee. A lack of physical evidences of services quality can increase the level of uncertainty that a customer faces when choosing between competing services.

However, Starbucks developed a strong brand associated with quality of services provided and the company values therefore creating a positive image in consumers’ perception. From describing how intangibility applies to Starbucks we shall now turn the attention to another service characteristic, namely heterogeneity. Services heterogeneity means that the quality of services depends on who provides them as well as when, where and how they are provided. Products can be standardized and basically the same for every customer.

However, services on the other hand can be delivered in different ways, regarding on customer’s personal requirements. The service must normally be produced in the presence of the customer without the possibility of intervening quality control. Specific problems can occur where staff is involved in providing services on a one-to-one basis. In these cases no easy method of monitoring or control is possible. There are two particular aspects of heterogeneity which are relevant to the services. The first one is the extent to which production standards vary from a norm, both in terms of outcomes and of production processes.

The second one is the extent to which a service can deliberately be varied to meet the specific needs of particular customers (Palmer, 2005). In order to tackle the aforementioned aspects of heterogeneity and also to satisfy customer needs retailers usually standardize the service as much as possible without noticeably affecting the perceived customer value. Many service organizations have reduced variability by adopting equipment-based production methods or by offering already prepared menus or meals. However Starbucks took a slightly different approach here then some fast-food outlets.

They are offering more than 87,000 different drink combinations. With that in mind they cannot simply standardize the whole process of coffee making. Customers want to see consistency and quality in their stores so for that purpose they offer their front-line staff a basic training and they are also using some motivation tools to enhance staff performance. So for instance they refer to their employees as partners and their pay package is called “Your special blend”. The heterogeneity of service output can sometimes pose problems for brand-building in services compared to tangible goods.

However Starbucks cope with these problems quite well through their excellent staff to management relation which results, again in a strong brand personality. From heterogeneity we shall now shift our attention to another characteristic, which is perishability. Perishability applies to services because unlike goods services cannot be stored for later use. So for an example a factory which produces cars and is unable to sell all its output in the current period can carry forward stocks to sell in a subsequent period.

The only significant costs are storage and financing or the possibility of loss through obsolescence. However on the contrary, a producer of a service which is unable to sell all of its output produced in the current period gets no chance to carry it forward for sale in a subsequent period. A great example of perishability is an airline company. For instance if the plane departs at twelve o’clock and the airline company didn’t sell all the available seats, then it is impossible to sell the rest since the plane is already in the air. Another problem which defines perishability is the demand pattern through time.

Demand fluctuates because of many reasons however most common reasons for inconsistency of demand occur during the day, week and season. A typical example of seasonal fluctuation of demand is tourism. During the summer the demand for holidays is often off-peak and hotels by the sea are required to bring in extra work-force. On the other hand the demand in winter is significantly lower and some hotels are therefore unused. Inability to store services and short-term supply inelasticity are leading causes for perishability of services.

As mentioned before problems occur when demand pattern is irregular. It can also happen where there is requirement for “just-in-time” production of service or if demand is not managed effectively (Palmer, 2005). Services providers are trying to even the demand with the use of pricing and promotion or with locating places where demand is more or less even during the day, such as it is in city centres or busy airports. Problems with storing the services have now also been reduced with recent advancement of technology (Newman and Cullen, 2002).

For instance Starbucks uses RFID technology to track perishable food delivered to its cafes thus ensuring freshness of products. Starbucks is usually located there where demand is relatively constant, such as shopping centres and airports and they are also using a lot of promotions ensuring a steady demand through the day. Even their menu is adapted to different seasons of the year. It does not consist only of hot drinks but they also offer other trendy beverages such as smoothies and a variety of bottled drinks which are suitable for hot summer days.

Now we shall take a look at the last of four services characteristics. Inseparability of services should be the main topic through the following paragraphs. Inseparability means that the service is produced and consumed at the same time. Both, buyer and seller must be present for the exchange to occur (Newman and Cullen, 2002). The service provider is at the same time also a marketer and promotes both the service and the company. Interaction is of extreme importance in services and therefore the key to success is competent personnel.

Inseparability of services leads to customers being co-producers and often being co-consumers of the service with other consumers. They are also usually required to travel to the service provider. This results in management to attempt to separate production and consumption. They are also trying to manage the consumer to producer interaction and improve the service delivery system. Starbucks is a typical example of services inseparability. They are offering a wide range of beverages and customers can choose their own mix.

That means that customers are contributing in the production process of a cup of coffee. As mentioned before Starbucks normally furnish their stores in a very comfortable way which means that a lot of customers are consuming the product there, which results in being a co-consumer. Starbucks stores are often located in city centres and this means that customers have to travel there to receive the service. Maybe in the future Starbuck will offer delivering their products to customers home, but this could possibly take away the charm of visiting a Starbucks coffee shop.

However, they are already improving their service system with the opening of drive thru stores. In conclusion it is possible to say that all four services characteristics can be applied to Starbucks. However, some are more visible than others. Starbucks developed an extremely strong brand image and a loyal global population of consumers. This has established them as one of the biggest brands in the world. Through excellent quality of their products, care for the environment and bringing back the sense of community they have already become a household name.

They are coping very well with all the services characteristic implications and are always striving for perfection. They are a prime example of the so called “cultural capitalism” and are setting an example for many companies. References: Adrian Palmer, 2005. Principles of services marketing, 4th edition. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Education Andrew J Newman and Peter Cullen, 2002. Retailing: environment & operations. London: Cengage Learning Starbucks, 2011. Our heritage [online] Available at: http://www. starbucks. com/about-us/our-heritage [Accessed 16 April 2012 ]. RSA animate, 2010.

Slavoj Zizek, First as tragedy, then as farce Available at: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=hpAMbpQ8J7g [Accessed 16 April 2012 ]. Starbucks, 2011. Our mission statement [online] Available at: http://www. starbucks. com/about-us/company-information/mission-statement [Accessed 16 April 2012 ]. Des Monk, Daniella Ryding, (2007),”Service quality and training: a pilot study”, British Food Journal, Vol. 109 Iss: 8 pp. 627-636 G. Lynn Shostack, 1977. Breaking Free from Product Marketing, Journal of Marketing, [online] Available at: < http://www. jstor. org/discover/10. 307/1250637? uid=24747&uid=3738032&uid=2134&uid=373370127&uid=2&uid=70&uid=3&uid=373370117&uid=24745&uid=5910784&uid=67&uid=62&uid=60&sid=47698847505567 > [Accessed 16 April 2012 ]. Lena Goldkuhl, Maria Styven, (2007),”Sensing the scent of service success”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 41 Iss: 11 pp. 1297-1305 Marketingmagazine. co. uk, 2011. Starbucks to open 200 drive-thru stores [online] Available at: <http://www. marketingmagazine. co. uk/news/1107181/Starbucks-open-200-drive-thru-stores/> [Accessed 17 April 2012 ].

Pedro M. Reyes, Patrick Jaska, (2007),”Is RFID right for your organization or application? “, Management Research News, Vol. 30 Iss: 8 pp. 570-580 Starbucks, 2011. Store design [online] Available at: <http://www. starbucks. com/coffeehouse/store-design> [Accessed 17 April 2012 ]. Starbucks, 2011. Working at Starbucks [online] Available at: <http://www. starbucks. com/career-center/working-at-starbucks> [Accessed 17 April 2012 ]. Superbrands. co. uk, 2012. Starbucks [pdf] Available at: <http://www. superbrands. uk. com/starbucks> [Accessed 17 April 2012 ].

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Character breakdown

Set at a fictional university, all the characters reside in a fraternity sponsored house within the confines of university grounds. All the characters are an attempt to break stereotypes, and come from regularly viewed backgrounds found in American society.

Marcus Pullman

Senior, African-American middle-class from New York.

Marcus Pullman is not a star athlete, or the campus drug dealer. He is as about as average as they come, with a good GPA, an interest in football and baseball, but an even stronger interest in environmental issues and obtaining a degree in political science. He is one of many American families from the middle-income band, with a father who is a NY firefighter and a mother who works as a legal assistant at a law firm.

Marcus is part of a small statistic, an alarming statistic of overall African-American males in universities in America. According to an article in 2004, “today, black men make up 41 percent of the inmates in federal state, and local prison, but black men are only 4 percent of all students in American institutions of higher education” (Maxwell). It has to be said, however, that circumstance is everything, and whilst Marcus is part of a 4% statistic, he is also one of  “17% of blacks age 25 and older who had a bachelor’s degree or more in 2005” (US Census, 2007).

Marcus has been in the fraternity since his Freshman year and is seen as a figurehead of the house.

Simon Li

American-Asian, Freshman, music student from Louisiana.

It isn’t unusual for there to be a diverse ethnicity in fraternities, but it is also been cited as something as irregular. According to some fraternity members, this comes down to simply just a matter of comfort. “Minorities don’t rush because they are intimidated by the stereotypically white Greek system,” Ngan said. On the other hand, “a lot of minorities do rush, they are just more comfortable hanging out with people of the same ethnic background.”(Brubaker, 2000).

Simon Li is a ‘Rushee’ and a freshman music student from Louisiana. He is a second generation American-Asian, with roots in China. According to the census bureau, Louisiana has a registered American-Asian population of 1.4% (2005) with 2.5% of firms owned by Asians in the state. Simon Li’s parents own and operate a chain of successful auto-part stores – and nothing related to restaurants or grocery stores, as is often the stereotype. Having grown-up in Louisiana, Simon has a soft spot for anything Cajun, as well as an interest in music – from country to bluegrass. His predominant interests do not lie with traditions, but with incorporating grassroot sounds with techno, or club music.

Dermot “Ozzie” Sullivan

Australian, Sophomore, medical student.

International students continue to make-up a large percentage of undergraduates at American universities. According to Hahn-Koenig, within Philadelphia, “more than 11,000 are enrolled in the city alone, with thousands more studying elsewhere in Pennsylvania” (2007). Whilst the Australian university system is considerably good, Dermot has come to America to broaden his horizons. His family is part of the wealthy upper-class in Australia, which avails him the high tuition fees and ability to apply for a student visa. Despite Australia being a part of the Visa Waiver Program, Dermot would have had to apply for a F-1 visa in order to study in America (State Dept, 2007). Dermot is an easy-going guy who is hard-working but also knows how to enjoy life. He appears to be a well-liked sort on-campus.

Victor Henson

Sophomore, member of a neo-nazi group.

The antagonist of the characters. Victor is a Caucasian American from a poor background in middle America. He has not known his father, and his mother continues to struggle to make ends meet and keeping a family. His family are like many who should have seen better times after Clinton’s welfare reforms, but still suffer from poverty conditions.

The Anti-Defamation League have cited a 12% decline in anti-Semitic activities, in recent surveys, however “it is disturbing that there are still an average of about four anti-Semitic attacks per day in America” (ADL, 2007). Victor indulges in many on-campus parties, and unsurprising is his overindulgence in alcohol. He is the student who is trying to fit in, and is a “Rushee” of the fraternity.

SCRIPT

Scene: Outside the campus library. It is a noticeably Fall day, and overcast.

Marcus (leaving the library): Hey, Ozzie! How’s it going?

Ozzie (seated on the stairs of the library): Gudday, Marcus. Yeah, s’alright, I reckon. Weather’s a bit foul, eh?

Marcus (looks up briefly, smiles): Definitely going to rain. Hey, you seen that new rushee? Uh, Victor I think his name is.

Ozzie: Yeah, yeah, I have. Saw him last night. Was hammered something nasty, I tell ya. Looked real green in the bushes (laughs)

Marcus: Drunk?

Ozzie: Aw, totally smashed, mate.

Marcus: Hm, well Freshman, I suppose. But, listen, you think you can have a talk with him? See what he wants from joining a fraternity, and if he’d fit in. (slaps Ozzie on the arm with a book) Be a spy, eh?

Ozzie: Yeah, yeah. Sure. Check ya later, eh?

Marcus and Ozzie part ways.

Scene change: Ozzie is in the frat house with Simon, who is ‘plugged in’ to a laptop and appears to be listening to music. Ozzie throws a screwed up paper ball at him.

Simon (loudly): What?

Ozzie demonstrates to remove the earphones, and Simon does.

Simon (normal volume): What?

Ozzie: Ya seen that new kid? Victor?

Simon: Yeah, he was looking a little rough in the kitchen. Told him to clean the dishes for us.

Ozzie: Smooth move, mate, smooth move. Hey, what ya think of him?

Simon: Meh, he’s okay, I guess. He doesn’t say much to me.

Ozzie: Hm, fair enough. I’ll go talk to him. Marcus wants the scoop on him, see if he’ll fit.

Simon nods and plugs back into his laptop.

Ozzie goes to the kitchen where Victor is struggling in removing a pair of rubber gloves from his hands.

Ozzie: Hey mate, lemme give ya a hand. Hah – get it.

Victor: Yeah, I got it.

Ozzie: Jeez, no humor, eh?

Victor: Sorry, still hungover a bit.. and… (voice trails off)

Ozzie: What’s up? Feelin’ a bit crock still?

Victor: Huh?

Ozzie: Ill. The hangover…

Victor: Nah, not the hangover. Just… hey, I can talk to you right, yeah?

Ozzie: Sure, mate. We’re all brothers. Or, well.. you “might” be, eh? (smiles)

Victor: Yeah, I guess.. well.. I don’t know. Seems really… well…

Ozzie: What?

Victor: Well, why are they in charge here?

Ozzie: Who ya mean? The seniors?

Victor: Nah.. well yeah.. but… nevermind.

Ozzie: Something bothering you, you know you can tell me. Or Marcus even, mate.

Victor (sneers): I don’t think so.

Ozzie: What? Marcus? Nah, he’s cool, mate. Don’t need to worry about him. He’s a good egg.

Victor: Egg? Rotten, more like. His sort are nothing but trouble.

Ozzie: His sort? What Greenpeace Al Gore types? (laughs)

Victor: No… his “sort”.

Ozzie: Don’t get you mate… you mean New Yorkers?

Victor (laughs): Yeah… New Yorkers. Whatever.

Victor leaves, sees Simon still plugged in and shakes his head. Ozzie looks perplexed and follows Victor out of the house.

Ozzie: Wait up. So, I don’t get what you meant in there.

Victor: You want me say, for real?

Ozzie: Yeah, mate. For real.

Victor: I don’t trust Marcus. His type are nothing but trouble, they take advantage of everything.

Ozzie: Wait, wait.. his type? What’s his type?

Victor: Black, man. I got to spell it out, or what? You fucking blind? Blacks are nothing but trouble.

Ozzie: Woah.. woah… you can’t be serious…

Victor: Yeah… well maybe I am. He’s always getting up in my business.

Ozzie: Well you are trying to join the fraternity…

Victor: Yeah, well screw it. I don’t want to be a black man’s brother, ya know.

Ozzie: Jesus… well.. yeah, I don’t think I want you around either…

Marcus walks up to them outside the house. Victor falls silent but stares at Marcus. Ozzie is stunned, but looks serious. Marcus notices the uneasiness quickly.

Marcus: Everything alright?

Victor (snorts): Yeah, man.

Victor walks away, and Marcus looks at Ozzie questioningly.

Marcus: Ozzie? What happened?

Ozzie: I dunno mate… I really dunno….

References

_. Lousiana State Quick Facts. Census Bureau.

(available from: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/22000.html )

_. New York City, Black History Month, 2007.

Census Bureau Press Release, February, 2007.

(available from: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/007862.html )

_. Anti-Semitic Incidents in US. Press Release.

Anti-Defamation League, 2007.

(available: http://www.adl.org/PresRele/ASUS_12/4993-12.htm )

_ . Student Visas.

US State Department, Bureau of Consular Affairs.

(Available from: http://travel.state.gov/visa/temp/types/types_1268.html )

Brubaker, C. “Greek system concerned with diversity”

The Cavalier Daily, April 5, 2000.

(available: http://www.cavalierdaily.com/CVArticle.asp?ID=3898&pid=564 )

Hahn-Koenig, A. “Coming to America.”

OneBigCampus.com 2007

(available: http://www.onebigcampus.com/article_comingtoamerica.htm )

Maxwell, B. “On campus, grim statistics for African-American men.”

St. Petersburg Times, January 4, 2004.

(available from:

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A Beautiful Mind Characterization and Dialogue

Writing Portfolio The 2001 biopic/drama film ‘A Beautiful Mind’, directed by Ron Howard is a prime example of a text in which visual and verbal techniques are used to develop the personality of a character. An important job for the director of any film is to establish a framework and personality for the protagonist. ‘A Beautiful Mind’ is no different, and visual and verbal techniques are used effectively to develop the personality of John Nash.

But because Ron Howard is dealing with a very complex character in the form of a paranoid schizophrenic mathematician, his personality is forever changing and the differing film techniques achieve this. As this film is a biopic/drama drawn into one, the viewer follows Nash’s life over a number of years. Nash faces many tricky dilemmas and the way he deals with these situations are conveyed to the audience, using these film techniques. Nash (who is portrayed by Russell Crowe) changes drastically throughout the text, because he suffers from paranoid schizophrenia.

Director Ron Howard uses the technique of ‘characterisation’ to adapt his personality in different ways. Throughout the text, the viewer is introduced to several ‘imaginary characters’, who are in fact delusional figures created by Nash. The first component of the ‘characterisation’ technique is when director Ron Howard chooses to introduce these characters. Often injected at great times of stress for Nash, the delusion characters normally create further dispute between Nash and his real life companions.

An important stage of the text is just after the climax, where Howard chooses to include and remove Nash’s best friend Charles (in the form of the actor). Nash is preparing a bath for his baby son, while wife Alicia is outside tending to the washing outside. But because Nash suffers from schizophrenia, he is delusional and believes his friend Charles is watching the baby. For the viewer, all that is witnessed is the baby lying in the bath, crying it’s lungs out as water seeps over its head. Nash’s personality is developed negatively in this scene. For the viewer, Nash is developed negatively because of these delusions.

The delusions put his baby sons life at risk, and also cause a further rift between Nash and his wife Alicia. In earlier scenes, Nash’s friend Charles was in fact present to the viewer in the form of the actor (portrayed by Paul Bettany). The effort to include the actor in these earlier scenes is a bid by the director to create the same realism for Nash, as for the audience. But in later scenes, the removal of Bettany and other cast members changes the viewer’s perspective of this protagonist. As the actor is no longer present, the viewer is forced to side with Alicia in thinking John Nash is delusional.

The viewer here, is easily able to pin point the affects that paranoid schizophrenia has on Nash, and other sufferers of that disorder. Characterisation is important, as in these later scene his personality is changed into a very confused man. The confident, charming and intelligent John Nash of Princeton University is instantly transformed personality due to the including and removing of key characters. These key characters not only include Charles, but also his niece Marcee and Special Forces Operative William Pacher. Dialogue is another technique (this time verbal) which is important in developing the personality of character John Nash.

Director Ron Howeard opts to portray Nash as an arrogant and scornful outsider in the opening scenes of the film. During these stages, dialogue is crucial to develop this personality. “There must be some mathematical formula for how bad that tie is”, Nash statesto a fellow student on his first day at Princeton. While later, he criticises his co-recipient scholarship winner Martin Hansen by announcing “There isn’t one seminal or innovative idea” in either of his pre-prints. These quotes are just two extracts of dialogue from the early scenes of the text which develop this arrogant and scornful personality.

As the text continues and his problems with schizophrenia are developed, the idea of Nash being an outsider is put in place. Another form of dialogue is important in the closing scenes of the text. Nash’s personality has transformed remarkably from his younger days. In his elder years, he is back teaching at Princeton. Nash is a much more mellow man in these scenes and dialogue is again used as a technique to develop this personality. After being nominated for the Nobel Prize, Nash concludes during his reception speech. “Perhaps it’s good to have a beautiful mind, but it’s an even greater gift to discover a beautiful heart”.

This piece of dialogue is essential in reflecting the more mellow character that Ron Howard chooses to develop. In earlier scens, Nash is arrogant, scornful and pre-occupied to solve an innovative maths formula. Combined with his schizophrenia, this results in Nash being regarded as an outsider. In these times, he is greatly supported by his wife Alicia, as she deals with his mental disorder also. By Nash saying ‘an even greater gift is to have a beautiful heart”, proves that does identify the most important thing in life, which is his family.

His eternal love for Alicia and their son, is more important than solving mathematical formulas, and his dialogue re-iterates this changed persona. No longer is Nash a scornful outsider, and his great love for Alicia (in which he again displays) is seen more favourably by the viewers of the text and develops a nicer personality of Nash. All respect to Russell Crowe, who portrays the life of a paranoid schizophrenic fantastically, it’s the crucial visual and verbal techniques implemented by the director that implement this. Nash’s personality is troubled and he is presented as dangerous during the bath scene with his son.

By the removal of actors playing the delusional characters in the film, the viewer is truly able to see how disdurbed Nash is because of his illness. While the dialogue is unsed in the opening an clothing scenes to change Nash’s personality from an outsider, to a more open and affectionate man. Nash’s personality in the earlier scenes, is probably related to schizophrenia in general. People who suffer from the illness are often felt alone and compainionless. Ron Howard’s ability to truly reflect the persona of a PSD sufferer is important. In later scenes, Nash is drastically changed and no longer scene as an outsider.

This transformed personality is the result of careful and meaningful dialogue in the test. This would relate to Nash being much softer in the closing scenes towards both his wide and the wider society he lives in. This re-iterates the importance of language techniques and how they can be used to show a characters position amongst a community. Nash who in the beginning is established as an outsider, becomes a much more balanced man , involved in the Princeton community. Dialogue is just one of these techniques used to develop the character of John Nash effectively.

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How Steinbeck Presents the Character of Curley’s Wife

eys Examine how Steinbeck presents the character of Curley’s wife in ‘Of mice and men’ . Refer closely to the text in your answer to support your views. Throughout the novel Steinbeck presents the character of Curley’s wife in a number of ways. Initially he tells us that she is a beautiful girl who is lonely and she is the only female on the ranch. Steinbeck explains that she is presented as a sexual object for Curly. Even though she is the boss’s son’s wife she is still low in the hierarchy within the ranch. She clearly uses her sexuality as a weapon and is seen as a sexual predator.

This is shown as she wears a lot of red and ostrich feathers. The red signals love, danger and sex. Unfortunately her sexuality has no impact on the farm because everyone is scared of being friendly or seen with her due to her husband’s power. She is flirtatious ‘you guys seen Curly anywhere? ’ She asks this just to be able to enter the stable to be with the men and this is used a decoy to get her to be able to socialise with the men. Stein beck is giving the reader a negative image of her, almost as a sex slave.

We see this negativity in other character’s description of her: George states she is a ‘rattrap and a tramp’ , Lennie calls her ‘ purdy’, Candy states ‘ well that gloves full of Vaseline’ this refers to the idea that Curley wife is merely viewed by all as an object of sexual desire yet men are wary of her and avoid contact where possible. She seeks out greater weaknesses in others in order to protect herself or to survive. This she does with her appearance: ‘full rough lips, heavily made up eyes, finger nails red, her hair hung in little clusters’ . Her choices of clothes are very feminine and tempting desire.

She wants to be admired and noticed. Her actions and mannerisms are also very sexual ‘leans against the door frame so her body is thrown forward. ’ Steinbeck is trying to present the character as a tease and an object of desire. This however clearly shows that she is a beautiful and desirable women who is merely seeking reassurance and love. Steinbeck presents Curley’s wife as not being important. This is evidenced by the fact she has no name and is only defined by her relationship with Curley. This is quite sad and emphasises that she has no real family, friends and is the only female.

She is Curley’s possession and is used in the novel to show his masculinity and that she is trapped in a loveless marriage. Yet despite being unimportant she has a big impact on George, Lennie and Candys future dreams – they disappear on her death. Steinbeck shows the hierarchy of people clearly in the novel. Curley’s wife has little power as men are portrayed as more important. This is shown when Curley orders her to go back to the house and he treats her as a possession. Sadly the novel refers to her background as not being happy as her mother instructed her not to marry Curley but she did.

Curley’s wife is shown as a lonely character who is desperate for companionship. She flirts with the men on the ranch and forces her company on them. Sadly she pays the price for her need of company when she encourages Lennie to stroke her hair and he overpowers her and accidently kills her. The American dream is key to the novel – this means everyone should have equality and hope for the future. Curley’s wife has a dream of becoming a Hollywood star, ‘says I was a natural’ and ‘I could have been in the movies’ This is still her dream to escape from the ranch.

This emphasises her innocence as she still believes she will get her chance in life and these were her last thoughts before she was killed by Lennie. Steinbeck shows Curley’s wife as a victim – sweet and innocent in death. No one is sad for her – they only worry about Lennie- George is only worried about Lennies mistake, Curley wants revenge and to be seen as a strong man ‘I’m gonna shoot the guts outta the big bastard’ Throughout the novel no one shows her any sympathy: Candy is angry as his dream has been shattered now ‘you god damn tramp…. you messed things up’. She has lived a life without love and without achieving her dream.

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Characteristics of the Classic Monster Movie

Monster movies took hold in the early 1930’s as a new spin on the horror-psychological thrillers beginning to debut.  The monster movie genre as a whole has taken much criticism as to its merits, but it holds its weight in the box office with nearly 15% of all movie sales (Fischoff).  And, while many things can be said about the monster movie as a genre, the monster movie can be taken apart and illuminated to pick out the three core, salient characteristics found in all movies of the genre: the type of monster, the psychological aspect of the monster, and the plot of the movie, or, more succinctly, the monster’s motive.

Fundamentally, certain genres lend to certain types of story arcs.  While the romantic comedy often follows a more character driven plot, where the characters find the meaning of true love, the monster movie follows a definable plot driven format.  And basically, in the plot driven movie, the overall story illustrates the efficiency of a town’s characters and how well they are able to stand up to the monster, before, either they are killed or the monster is finally neutralized or vanquished in a final, climax of a scene.

To be honest, the end result of the town and its people doesn’t really matter, and any ending is entirely plausible.  But, the intrigue that makes a good monster movie is to be competently presented with the monster, the origin of the monster, and for the audience to discover what that monster wants out of the society they are terrorizing.  While the monster makes the lives of the characters in the story miserable, the audience is torn between wanting the characters to win, or actually feeling sympathy for the monster because of the conditions presented surrounding that monster’s origin.

Moreover, monster movie plots have been known to fit into the plot categories and monster types to such a degree that a generator was actually created by David Neilsen.  Among the other completely hilarious and surprisingly useful generators to be had, the Monster Movie Pitch allows a user to create their own monster movie pitch by filling in the required fields.  Once filled in, the monster movie pitch is instantly created and a visitor can do what they want with the results.

Because this generator actually serves to illuminate the points within this paper, a short detour will be taken.  With that said, the generator dictates that a male lead, female lead, and male sidekick are required, as well as a title.  Then the setting must be chosen: either a dark and forbidding forest, a sleepy little town, a mental institution, at sea, or ancient ruins.  Then the monster type must be selected: either the undead, extra-terrestrial, scientific abomination, creature of folklore/myth/legend, or nature gone bad.  And finally, the monster motive must be defined: revenge, to feed, to protect its young, its slumber has been disturbed, or it seeks to destroy humanity.

Now, let’s see what fun can be had.  The selections have been made for the practice monster movie entitled, The Big Bad.  The rundown: heroic Zack and best buddy Trent, live in a sleepy little town and will come across an extra-terrestrial, leading lady Emily, and who seeks to destroy humanity.  Simple and sounds like a blockbuster.  Plugged into the generator, here’s the actual movie pitch:

Critically acclaimed Egyptian filmmaker Aslad Assop brings his nightmare back to the screen with The Big Bad. This long awaited sequel to his international hit, Gong of Deviled Oxen, reunites aggressive shepherd Huche Ramman (Zack) with his holy guide Hammotep (Trent) in their biggest adventure yet. This time, Huche discovers messages in the entrails of his sheep and the trail leads to an extra-terrestrial temptress (Emily) who wishes to use sin to destroy all of humanity. Now the temptress is invading Huche’s Sleepy Little Town of Grozer, Egypt and only Huche’s faith can save the world!

Sounds better than some of the monster movies out there.  Now, the purpose of the generator was not merely for amusement, though it was a bit of fun; however, it also serves to prove and illustrate the core, salient characteristics of the monster movie which are the type of monster, the psychological appeal of the monster, and the plot, or, motive of the monster.

Because Neilsen states the monster types right out, it’s easy to realize, once they are presented in such a manner, that every monster movie (probably ever made) fits well into the categories, without even needing wriggle room.  To be precise, Neilsen states that there are five basic types of monster.

The first type is the undead monster.  Now, the undead monster movie began in the 1930’s with Dracula and continued well into the freaky zombie thrillers of today like 28 Days Later and Resident Evil.  The undead category is not only chilling, but is perhaps the most used of all the monster types.  Even pop culture revolves around vampires, zombies, and the undead with shows like Buffy the Vampire Slayer, and Supernatural.  This type of monster has the greatest impact on an audience because of the psychological aspect and appeal behind that monster.

Moreover, the second monster type is the extra-terrestrial and is evident in movies like Alien, War of the Worlds and Predator.  ET actually fits this category as well, though that alien is more cute and cuddly than frightening.  Now, this monster type usually has the same motive, that to destroy all of mankind, and is the least escapable of all the monster types because they take more to vanquish than simple guns and grenades.  Characters in these movies die rapidly and often, and do little but to illustrate the irk of the monster.

The third monster type is known as the scientific abomination.  This is an interesting monster category because it actually encompasses many different sorts of monsters, from Frankenstein, to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, to the Invisible Man.  In all cases, this type of monster is created, even purposefully manufactured, and the outcome is accidental and tragic.  The creator of the monster is often murdered, or lost to his darker evil side, and the characters again, serve only to be killed off as the mad scientist almost realizes his folly.

The fourth type of monster is the creature from folklore/myth/legend.  This category encompasses monsters from The Mummy, to monsters in The Relic, Cerberus, and After Dark.  These monsters all have the same motive, and all, actually, seem to have become a plague to the characters because of that motive: being disturbed from their slumber, which serves to kill off most of the characters in the most violent and brutal method possible.

Finally, the fifth monster type is nature gone bad.  This fits the Armageddon sort of flick, where birds, bats, plague, or impending asteroids kill off a good portion of the characters.  Movies like Stephen King’s The Birds, Armageddon, 10.5, and The Day After Tomorrow fit this category well.  The problem with this last monster type is that it differs the most dramatically from the genre because a great deal more time is spent on character growth than on the priorities of the monster, being nature, but in the end, nature usually wins out, despite how great the characterization is.

Furthermore, Stuart Fischoff’s study commented on many things monster but one conclusion was striking, that “film monsters have proven to be such unforgettable characters that in many instances they have become part of our culture.”  In fact, they are unforgettable to the degree that “most Americans would recognize a picture of Frankenstein, Dracula, King Kong, Godzilla or the Mummy before recognizing a Supreme Court Justice” (Fischoff).

This conclusion is not only remarkable, it is entirely true.  John Rutledge is one of the most recently discussed Supreme Court Justices, but his name means nothing unless that person has been thoroughly engrossed in the newspaper for the past two years.  On the other hand, a person doesn’t even have to watch Godzilla to know that Godzilla is a dinosaur-like creature that wreaks havoc on Tokyo or that Dracula is a vampire with unconventional vampire powers.

Additionally, the second core characteristic of monster movies is the psychological aspect and appeal of the monster.  This aspect can roughly be defined as not only the type of monster, but the character of that monster and what affect that monster has on an audience.  Fischoff’s study was also to survey a group of people and conclusively determine who the “King of Monsters” was.

Turns out Dracula wins, though not because he is the most violent, nor is he the best killer among the monsters to choose from.  Freddy Krueger and Hannibal Lector obviously had the mass-slaying thing down, but they could never have the staying power that Dracula has because their nature is for violence and they lack the extreme psychological aspect that makes Dracula not only frightening, but also seductive.

Monster movies are great to watch when the monster is a monster.  But, when man becomes a monster, as in the case of Hannibal Lector in Silence of the Lambs, for reasons pertaining to his youth and not some botched experiment, the movie experience becomes nearly transcendently frightful with the very real aspect that Hannibal could be a real person in a very real neighborhood.  Same with Freddy Krueger, though he at least has that whole dream-killing thing happening which makes him, in reality, a bit less plausible, though his deeds are no less terrifying.

Fischoff offers some insight into this phenomena, stating that “it is believed to be the thrill of fright, the awe of the horrific, the experience of the dark and forbidden side of human behavior that lures people into the dark mouth of the theater to be spooked” (Fischoff).  Even though the man-monster takes off on a different path from the genre, hitting horror and the psychological aspect harder than ever before, people still flock to these movies in droves due to the need for fright, to experience the thrill without living the thrill (how scary would it be if Hannibal lived down the street?).  And, the best monster movies are able to produce at least that much.

Moreover, according to Fischoff’s survey, the top ten monsters of all time, in order, are: Dracula, Freddy Krueger, Godzilla, Frankenstein, Chucky, Michael Myers (Halloween), King Kong, Hannibal Lector, Jason Voorhees (Friday 13th), and Alien.  It is interesting to notice when looking at this list that the monster to man-monster ratio is an exact split between the ten.  Five genuine monsters and five men-turned-monsters.  When it comes to monster movies, the best monster is obviously a cross between the most horrific and the most frightening.

Furthermore, the third characteristic of monster movies is the use of plot as a device to form the movie around the monster.  Like Neilsen’s generator was helpful to suggest, there are five different plots that make up the monster movie genre, almost, in its entirety.  And, these plots all revolve around or are centered on, the motive of the monster.

Basically, the monster can be out for revenge, need to feed, need to protect its young, their slumber has been disturbed, or they want to destroy humanity.  All movies created in the early black and white era actually follow this format, the most famous of them setting up the very archetype known as monster movies today.

To begin with, Frankenstein (1931) demonstrates the classic revenge plot.  Dr. Henry Frankenstein wanted to make a man out of stolen body parts and actually managed to do so.  In fact, Dr. Frankenstein’s monster would have been a medical marvel if not for the criminal brain secured for his construction.  Because of that tiny little fatal flaw, the monster rises with a vendetta for Dr. Frankenstein.  And because Dr. Frankenstein screwed up, he becomes the obsession of his own creation.

In Dracula (1931), Count Dracula, something of a real estate tycoon and upwardly rich aristocrat, preys on the people he comes across in Transylvania.  Dracula is different than the average monster because of his strikingly literal human nature.  He also has the enhanced ability to seduce his victims beyond their control, which makes him exceptionally difficult to properly vanquish.  The story also ends heroically as Van Helsing is proven right and is able to destroy Dracula.  Dracula’s main motive, besides amusement, is simply, to feed.

King Kong (1933) differs from many monster movies because the character relationships are vitally important for the movie to progress.  There are two main relationships developed throughout, that of Ann and Jack and that of Ann and King Kong.  King Kong’s motive, once he falls for his new companion Ann, is to protect her from the evils in his jungle environment, and later, the evils he sees New York City.    One of the final lines in the movies, “it wasn’t the airplanes, it was beauty that killed the beast” strikes a cord in any heart and makes King Kong perhaps the most lovable of all movie monsters because of his human desire to protect Ann.

In The Mummy (1932) a priest is resurrected accidentally by an unwitting team of archeologists and sets about seeking his lost love.  Bad things happen along the way, one of the archeologists is taken as a replacement for the mummy’s lost bride, but the mummy is vanquished in the end when the archeologists destroy the scroll that brought him back to life.  The mummy, Im-ho-tep, basically sends his wrath out on the world and spends the movie causing mass destruction because his slumber was disturbed.  Simple as that.

Finally, in Godzilla (1954), Godzilla is a monster god (more like un-extinct dinosaur) that preys on the countryside of Tokyo and fits the classic monster out to destroy humanity plot.  The natives sacrifice virgins in an attempt to appease the monster, but Godzilla seems to enjoy wreaking as much destruction as possible.  The monster attacks every few scenes, with the people in a panic as to how to destroy him before they are all killed.  And, even though they manage to kill Godzilla in the end, the result is not joyful as the people still fear another Godzilla is just moments from rising from the sea.

Overall, all movies follow a specific formula which can be calculated and defined based upon the genre they fall in to.  The monster movie is a cross between the horror film and the psychological thriller and has certain core, salient characteristics that define the monster movie as a genre.  Neilsen helps to illuminate the various forms of monster and monster motives with his monster movie pitch generator, and it can be said that, categorically, monster type, psychological aspect of the monster, and motive of the monster as demonstrated in the plot combine to form the core characteristics of the monster movie.

Works Consulted.

Fischoff, Stuart, et al.  “The Psychological Appeal of Your Favorite Movie Monsters.”

International Scientific Communications, 2003.

—-.  “The Psychological Appeal of Movie Monsters.”  Journal of Media Psychology,

2005.

LaBarbera, Michael.  “The Biology of B-Movie Monsters.”  University of Chicago, 2003.

<http://fathom.lib.uchicago.edu/2/21701757/>

Neilsen, David.  “Monster Pitch Generator.”  Brunching Shuttlecocks, 2001.

Waters, Cullen.  “The Plot Archetypes of Giant Monster Movies.”  WordPress.com,

2005.  <http://welltuncares.wordpress.com/2005/04/18/the-plot-archetypes-of-giant-monster-movies/>

Zoombaba.  “Creature Feature: Monster Movie Roleplaying.”  Accessed March 22, 2007.

<http://homepage.mac.com/zoombaba/RPG/CF.html

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Count of Monte Cristo Character Analysis

The Count of Monte Cristo Character Analysis In the novel The Count of Monte Cristo, I read many events unfold. Edmond Dantes was a very happy and honest man. He has the perfect life, or so it seemed. On the day he was to be betrothed to Mercedes, three men tried to ruin his life. Dantes ended up in prison for fourteen years. Once he escaped prison, he sought revenge on those who lied to get him falsely accused of being a bonapartist agent. I think Edmond Dantes is the protagonist. He sees everyone for who they really are, he tries to get revenge while helping others, and he does not punish those who do not deserve it.

People have many personalities, depending on who you are in the world; you might get treated better or worse. It’s all about rank, if someone have something someone else wants, chances are, he/she will not get treated fairly. When everyone else was keeping secrets, Edmund knew exactly what was going on. Edmund saw that the three men were trying to ruin him; therefore, he did to them what was done to him. “I… have been taken by Satan into the highest mountain in the earth, and when there he… said he to me, ‘Child of earth, what wouldst thou have to make the adore me? … I replied, ‘Listen… I wish to be Providence myself for I feel the most beautiful, noblest, most sublime thing in the world, is to recompense and punish. ’” (Dumas The Count of Monte Cristo) Edmund finally saw what he had they wanted, he would have had a beautiful wife and was about to get a great job. Revenge is not always the answer, but sometimes as people, we are left with no choice. Monte Cristo seeks revenge but he does not let the revenge blind him. While Monte Cristo was avenging his false accusation, he did not just hurt people, he also helped them.

When Madame d’Villefort and her son Edward were in a carriage, it was being pulled by two “wild” horses. The carriage was out of control so Monte Cristo had his servant stop the carriage. Albert de Morcerf got captured by Luigi Vampa, a Roman bandit, and Monte Cristo saves Albert de Morcerf from getting killed. Monte Cristo did admit to going a little too far though. “He felt he has passed beyond the bounds of vengeance and that he could no longer say, ‘God is for and with me. ’” (Dumas The Count of Monte Cristo) Monte Cristo did not punish those who did not deserve to be punished.

Monte Cristo is somewhat a fair person, he spares quite a few lives. When he was supposed to fight Albert to the death, he spared his life because Mercedes asked him to spare her son’s life. He almost caused the death of Valentine but then saved her from having to marry someone she did not love. One Monte Cristo reunites Valentine and Maximillian, they are happy because they van finally be together at last. “There is neither happiness nor misery in the world; there is only the comparison of one state with another, nothing more.

He who has felt the deepest grief is best able to experience supreme happiness. ” (Dumas The Count of Monte Cristo) Monte Cristo sought revenge because he was imprisoned for no reason, at all. Revenge is not always okay, but if someone hurts someone else that bad, it is very much needed. Everything happens for a reason and people cannot just hurt eachother and expect everything to be all rainbows and butterflies. There were three antagonists in this novel, and Edmund Dantes is not one of them. How would other people act if they got arrested and put in prison for no reason?

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Characteristics of a Person

Characteristics of Personhood Rationality The ability to reason is seen as being one of the defining characteristics of personhood. Rationality can be summarised in our ability to make considered choices and decisions at a higher intellectual level. Rationality is illustrated in our ability to justify our thoughts and actions through reason, scaled to emotional or practical variables. Aristotle considered that the thought-processes that precede our actions are pivotal to personhood.

Such thought-processes generally involve evaluating the positive and negative consequences of our actions, and deciding whether the ‘reward’ is worth the ‘cost’. This ability to predict consequences of our actions isn’t shared by the lower animals, and is pivotal in making the distinction between a person and a non-person. We have the ability to justify our beliefs and actions and to enter into reasoned dialogue with others. Rationality also leads to the ability to evaluate experience and draw logical, considered conclusions which will influence our actions in the future.

The lesser animals lack this capability, a view which is illustrated in the following example: the squirrel stores food for the winter in order to survive, however the squirrel does not store food because it knows that food will be scarce in the winter; the squirrel stores food because of impulses governed by animalistic instinct, and nothing besides. The squirrel could not consider the possibility of an abundance of food in the winter, and decide that it did not wish to store food for the winter, and is confined to the demonstration of instinct.

To further illustrate this point we could say that dogs have desires but they do not have choices. For example, when a piece of meat is left unattended, a dog would see it and eat it straight away because it desires the meat and has no regard as to whom it belongs or whether eating the meat would be of benefit to it. In this sense, animals such as dogs act on the basis of their desires. On the other hand, we as humans would firstly deliberate between the pros and cons of what to do with this piece of meat, taking into account the various factors and potential consequences of eating it.

Humans will not simply act on the basis of their desires but will make a decision and then perform an action according to the decision that we make through our rationality. Possessing a network of beliefs Possessing a network of beliefs is a characteristic that predominately distinguishes humans as persons, as opposed to animals. A network of beliefs can be formed on the basis of reasons in accordance with our rational nature as persons are able to reflect upon the relative strengths and weaknesses of the evidence of these beliefs, basing our belief system on what others tell us and on our own experiences.

It is believed that in comparison to most animals, humans have a much more complex network of beliefs. For example, a dog may avoid eating chocolate because of a bad experience devouring a whole box – but it is doubtful that the dog is able consciously to hold the belief that “chocolate makes me sick”. A human, however, has the ability to make a rational decision from past experiences and act upon this belief.

For example, if a person eats chocolate and is allergic to it and is thus made ill by it, through a network of wider beliefs such as “allergies causing illness”, “the feeling of being ill being horrible”, etc a person can deduce that “chocolate makes me sick and therefore I won’t eat it again”. Unlike animals we can have beliefs about the past and future and refer to these beliefs as the past and future; an animal may remember something as a belief from the past such as the chocolate but can only see how it will affect the present.

We can also have beliefs about beliefs; humans have the ability to hold beliefs about possibilities and things that may happen in the future, whereas animals can only have beliefs about the actual and fact. Language User Language users are beings who can communicate with others through a range of mediums. This means that they are able to talk about ideas in the abstract. Furthermore, language is necessary for the possession of genuine ideas and concepts about the world. Language allows people to understand their desires; without language, beings would be unable to communicate and request their desires.

For example, a cow can feel hungry and desire grass but it doesn’t know that it desires grass and feels hungry because it does not have those concepts. These concepts are human linguistic concepts. A creature’s mental horizon is broadened by the ability to represent the world by signs. Language gives the user the ability to express thoughts about an infinite number of things. Furthermore language allows the intelligent construction of arguments; it allows the user to criticize and justify. Moreover, language permits a new king of socializing, based upon discussions.

It allows interaction and develops personalities. Language broadens people’s knowledge and their emotions. All of these examples mean that one is a person if one can use language. This is because language allows you to formulate your thoughts and having thoughts and self-awareness means you have the capacity to understand the thoughts of others. This means you are a person. Self Awareness Self awareness is the ability to experience and do things whilst understanding what it is that’s going on and having an awareness of the fact that it is ‘I’ that is having the experiences.

Descartes defines self awareness as having a conscious mind. He believed that using speech and reason were good examples of the mind working. He uses this theory to eliminate animals from what he classes as a person, and in turn describes them as ‘nothing more than a complex machine. ’ However, although we are unable to know whether an animal is self-conscious or not, they are clearly conscious in the sense that they are aware of their surroundings and at times can be unconscious. However, consciousness is not the same as self-consciousness.

Another way in which self awareness can be described is by a person’s ability to talk about themselves using words such as ‘I’ or ‘mine’. It is the ability to describe ones mental state to others and to understand them from the first-person point of view. Looking back upon your memories is another example and knowing that it is ones self that has experienced these memories. A good example to illustrate self-awareness is the ‘mark test’. This is where a mark is placed on the head of a participant who is then placed in front of a mirror.

If the participant tries to wipe the mark off their reflection in the mirror, then it is argued that they do not recognise the reflection in the mirror as them and therefore lack self-awareness. If, however, they wipe the mark off their foreheads, then clearly they understand that the reflection in the mirror is them and they therefore have a sense of self. Infant humans beyond the age of 24 months, as well as some animals such as apes, dolphins and elephants, can successfully complete the test whereas other animals are not.

This shows that self-awareness is not a characteristic that can be associated with all animals and as such may be a way of distinguishing between animals and persons. Social Being One characteristic that is thought to be essential for personhood is that of being a social being. Humans, unlike other animals, have a “prior awareness” of the existence of other human beings. We identify ourselves in the context of our relationships with other human beings and through our various roles in society. Arguably, we can only recognise ourselves as a person if we have prior awareness of the existence of other such persons.

Throughout life, humans form complex social relationships with others which they often maintain and develop. Human beings have a more developed society than animals such as dogs and horses due to the fact that humans have plans, intentions and schemes. They are individuals but this individuality stems from society. This inherent social nature is dependant upon our ability to communicate, allowing us to establish social roles and connect with others. Through this we see our own identity, as belonging to groups: work, culture, nationality and so on. Arguably, our “persona” might be largely formed because of these networks.

To have a good life, we must interact with others in order to be able to reflect upon our own selves. In this sense, persons depend on society for not only specific ambitions and goals but also for language, beliefs and to compare themselves to other individuals. It is through this that we can discover the best way to live and therefore hopefully live a good life. We cannot achieve a good life in isolation as we cannot share our thoughts and feelings with other people. Human beings are social animals and it can be argued that being a person necessarily involves having complex relationships with others.

Penguins huddle together for warmth, instinctively, not for any reason more complex than this. They don’t have meetings, parties or “heart to hearts”, and wouldn’t later reflect upon this, or develop because of it. Creativity, autonomy and individuality Autonomy is the ability to reason about whether to perform an action or not and suggests that persons are not controlled by our natural instincts, unlike animals. It appears that a person is not entirely influenced by basic instinct, and can refer to more complex thoughts and ideas in decision making.

This is shown through the example that a dog does not reflect on whether to bark at the stranger in the street, or continue to go about its own business in the shade, whereas a person will often reflect upon the reasons for and against acting upon their immediate desires. A person is able to rise above their basic animal drives and take a measure of control over their own lives. By enabling us to reflect on how to act, reason gives us some mastery over our passions, elevating us above the level of creatures of instinct.

The capacity to reflect and reason gives us a measure of autonomy or self-control. Individuality allows each person to identify and emphasize the uniqueness of each of us and it is argued that an individual person is defined not so much by their shared human essence as by the particular characteristics of his or her own nature. Human beings in all societies give themselves proper names which uniquely identify them as individuals and some philosophers have argued that it is a natural tendency for all human beings to construct a unique personality.

Also, animals appear to have no concept of creativity or imagination and only experience things for what they are. For example, an animal would not understand metaphor, because a metaphor is a representation of something else, and an animal cannot fathom this concept. Yet, people do have the ability to be creative and imaginative. Moral Sense Having a moral sense means that we are able to decide what we should and shouldn’t do, to identify what is good and bad, and to label actions moral or immoral. Kant says that a person uses their moral principles and this determines their actions.

He also says that we, as moral persons, are able to recognise what our duties are and then we can further choose whether to act in accordance with these duties. Acting in accordance with our moral duties rather than our desires is what makes our actions truly free as we can transcend our desires in order to do what we see we ought to. For example, although we may not want to give ? 5 to famine relief, we realise that we ought to and recognising this duty can motivate us to act on it. Morals tend to be related to humans, as animals don’t have the notion of orality. For example, in the case of a lion killing an antelope for food, we see this as an act of survival; therefore we cannot blame the lion for being immoral. However if a human killed an antelope for sport it could spark a moral debate, as some people would agree with it and some people would think it immoral. If we can’t attribute morals to animals, but we can attribute morals to humans, then there is a distinct difference between the two. This distinction illustrates that maybe we only attribute morals to persons.

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Good Will Hunting Character Analysis

Introduction Social- Cognitive theory believes that humans are individuals who are capable of proactively making things happen to assist in their own development (Parajes, 2002). In Good Will Hunting, Will Hunting did not believe that he was able to make a positive change in his life. Will is a prodigy, particularly in mathematics, who did not recognize his gift. He was born and raised in the slums, where he is now comfortable. He was abandoned by his parents and in and out of numerous foster homes. He experienced abuse and neglect in these homes. He was not only physically abused but also mentally and psychologically.

His ability to solve complicated mathematical equations caught the eye of a professor at the university where Will was employed. These equations had taken geniuses years to solve. The professor immediately took a liking to Will and desired to help him see his worth. He wanted Will to move forward in life. Will was not interested. His past failures influenced his decisions (Pajares, 2002). After seeing that Will was not at all interested, the professor seeked the help of his friend, a therapist. The therapist used empathy to assists Will. Wills view on life was negative. He does not feel he deserves a better life.

His therapist helped him develop ways to change his behavioral pattern (Glanz, Rimer & Lewis, 2005). •Section 1: Character Personality Matrix •Theory •Major Components Structure Process Growth and Development Psychopathology Change 1. Social-Cognitive Theory In Social-Cognitive theory the mind contains schemas. Schemas are “preexisting ideas in the mind” (Pervin, Cervone & Oliver, 2005). We use schemas to make sense of the chaos around us (Pervin et. al, 2005). In Good Will Hunting, Will Hunting was abused and endured a hard life. His knowledge kept him and helped him make sense of his crazy world.

He secretly answers difficult math problems at MIT, where he works as a janitor. He demonstrates many different schemas. Will Hunting has a negative self-schema. He believes he is worthless and deserves nothing better than the “southie” life he has. He is extremely intelligent, which could take him to greater places in life, but he doesn’t feel he deserves it. He is scared of change and feels more comfortable in the world he grew up in. Will meets a girl who he falls in love with but will not allow himself to show her how he feels. He didn’t want to accept her love for him because he felt he did not deserve it.

Self-discrepancies have to be resolved to avoid conflict in one’s self (Higgins, 1999). Growth and development occurs through observing and direct experience. Will was in need of therapy. He met with many therapists who were not able to connect with him. The choice of therapy used by these therapists was not effective. Will’s issues stemmed from “distorted, incorrect and maladaptive cognitions concerning the self, others and events in the world” (Pervin et. al, p. 322, 2005). The one therapist that was able to eventually connect with Will was able to help him replace his maladaptive cognitions with realistic thoughts.

This therapy is called Rational emotive-therapy (RET). Will was asked how he felt about different situations and what he said to himself. Cognitive Therapy was also used. Will’s therapist told him about his relationship with his wife and the positive outcome of letting go and falling in love. This was something that Will was not accustomed to. Will was able to make changes in his life with the help of his therapy. He finally realized that he did not have to remain in the situation he was in. He finally accepted the fact that the negative things that affected his life were not his fault.

In the end he accepted the love of a woman by leaving his hometown and following her to an unfamiliar place. He also now had the confidence to take on whatever employment or career that would come his way. 2. Rogers’ Theory Rogers’ phenomenological theory states that an individual tries to behave in the way that is consistent with their own structure (Pervin et. al, 2005). Will sees himself as a “southie”, a loser. To maintain congruence between his self-view and his experiences his acts out. He starts fights and stays in trouble. He doesn’t seek anything better for himself.

In Rogers’ theory an individual strives for self-actualization. Will is brilliant and has knowledge about many topics. He reads a lot to keep himself knowledgeable. He answers difficult math problems that are put on a board at MIT, where he works as a janitor. In trying to maintain congruence between his self-view and his experiences he does not trust anyone. When someone tries to get close and help him he denies needing help. Will is defensive towards everyone he comes in contact with. He experiences incongruence with his cockiness of being smarter than most but he doesn’t feel he deserves better than living as a nobody.

Will’s ability to push all his therapists and his girlfriend away shows his defensiveness. He keeps this tough boy attitude to make others not want to care about him because no one ever has. Rogers’ pathology includes defensive maintenance of self (Pervin et al. , 2005). Will’s therapist was concerned about Will and took an “active role in understanding the experiences of the client” (Pervin et al, p. 198, 2005). This therapy is called Client-Centered Therapy. The therapist doesn’t try to change Will but accepts him as he is. Will eventually changes by embracing his new found relationship with his girlfriend and realizes his potential. Section 2: Application of Personality Theory •Theory Description and Rationale Social-Cognitive Theory (SCT) is the theory that describes hoe behavior is learned. SCT helps to determine how and why an individual behaves and thinks a certain way. The main idea of social-cognitive theory is that everyone develops their own schemas based on their experiences in life. “Schemas are knowledge structures that guide and organize the processing of information” (Capuzzi & Gross, 2005). When an individual hears a song on the radio that they have never heard before, it makes sense to the individual.

The individual has developed schemas has to how the music is supposed to sound (Pervin, Cervone & John, 2005). We use schemas to make sense of our chaotic environment. In Good Will Hunting, the character Will Hunting came from a difficult and harsh environment. He lived his life based on these experiences. •Character Description Will Hunting is a young man who grew up in the slums of Boston. He went from foster home to foster home. In these homes he was abused and mistreated. He hung out with his closest friends, who are all trouble makers, below average knuckleheads. Yet, they were true and loyal to each other.

Will, on the other hand, was a genius, a prodigy of math. He was determined not to let this side of him show. He stayed in and out of trouble with the law. He had no faith in himself. He possessed low self-efficacy, “a construct that reflects optimistic self- beliefs” (Lippke, Wiedemann, Ziegelman, Reuter & Schwarzer, 2009, p. 522). He believed that the deprived life he lived was all he was worthy of. He purposely destroyed his relationship with his girlfriend once he felt her love for him. He thought himself to be unworthy of it. He developed a negative self- schema. •Character Analysis •Structure

In Social-Cognitive theory the mind contains schemas. Schemas are “preexisting ideas in the mind” (Pervin, Cervone & Oliver, 2005). We use schemas to make sense of the chaos around us (Pervin et. al, 2005). In Good Will Hunting, Will Hunting was abused and endured a hard life. His knowledge kept him and helped him make sense of his crazy world. He secretly answers difficult math problems at MIT, where he works as a janitor. He demonstrates many different schemas. •Process Will Hunting has a negative self-schema. He believes he is worthless and deserves nothing better than the “southie” life he has.

He is extremely intelligent, which could take him to greater places in life, but he doesn’t feel he deserves it. He is scared of change and feels more comfortable in the world he grew up in. Will meets a girl who he falls in love with but will not allow himself to show her how he feels. He didn’t want to accept her love for him because he felt he did not deserve it. Self-discrepancies have to be resolved to avoid conflict in one’s self (Higgins, 1999). •Growth and Development Growth and development occurs through observing and direct experience. Examining how an individual views life will assist in the development.

Determining why an individual behaves a certain way is necessary. The causes of events are called attributions, which involve a casual factor responsible for an observed event (Pervin et al. , 2005). Will constantly heard what a failure he was. It’s no surprise that he would believe that to be true. Will’s therapist tries to reverse the misconception. He constantly told Will how bright he was and how much he could achieve. Will could either change his thoughts of himself based on this new or continue to believe what he’s been told all his life. •Psychopathology Will was in need of therapy.

He met with many therapists who were not able to connect with him. The choice of therapy used by these therapists was not effective. Will’s issues stemmed from “distorted, incorrect and maladaptive cognitions concerning the self, others and events in the world” (Pervin et. al, p. 322, 2005). The one therapist that was able to eventually connect with Will was able to help him replace his maladaptive cognitions with realistic thoughts (Corey & Corey, 2007). This therapy is called rational emotive-therapy (RET). Will was asked how he felt about different situations and what he said to himself.

Cognitive Therapy was also used. Will’s therapist told him about his relationship with his wife and the positive outcome of letting go and falling in love. This was something that Will was not accustomed to. •Change Will was able to make changes in his life with the help of his therapy. He finally realized that he did not have to remain in the situation he was in. He finally accepted the fact that the negative things that affected his life were not his fault. In the end he accepted the love of a woman by leaving his hometown and following her to an unfamiliar place.

He also now had the confidence to take on whatever employment or career that would come his way. His expectations for himself were now higher. He was able to move forward and make positive changes in his life. •Internal and External Factors Internal and external factors shaped Will’s personality. He felt unwanted, unloved and abandoned due to not being raised by his own family. He went from foster home to foster home being abused in each one. He did not know how to love or how to receive it because love was never shown to him. These factors made him the young man he was. Will did not recognize his potential.

According to Bandura (1997) people base their actions and level of motivation on what they tend to believe and not on what is true. The positive feedback and encouragement from Will’s therapist helped Will make a positive change. He constantly expressed to Will that he was worthy of having a good life and being loved. His best friend even tells him that he better not still be a “southie” fifty years from now. He let Will know that he saw the potential in him. Eventually Will made a break through after being told that everything negative that happened in his life was not his fault.

He was able to embrace the positive things that were waiting for him. •Conclusion Use the BodyText Double style to type text in the conclusion. •Reference List Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman Pervin, L. A. , Cervone, D. , & John, O. (2005). CST5214: Theories of personality (Custom). NY: Wiley. Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retreived December 13, 2010, from http://www. emory. edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff. html Glanz, K. , Rimer, B. K. & Lewis, F. M. (2002). Health Behavior and Health Education. Theory, Research and Practice.

San Francisco: Wiley & Sons. Lippke, S. , Wiedemann, A. , Ziegelmann, J. , Reuter, T. & Schwarzer, R. (2009). Self-Efficacy Moderates the mediation of intentions into behavior via plans. Ameriacn Journal of Health Behavior, 33(5), 521-529. Higgins, E. T. (1999). Persons or situations: Unique explanatory principles or variability in general principles? In D. Cervone & Y. Shoda (Eds. ), the coherence of personality: Social-cognitive bases of consistency, variability, and organization (pp. 61-93). New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press Corey, M. & Corey, G. (2007). Becoming a Helper 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

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Character Analysis for Maus by Art Speigleman

Character List- round or flat Art Spiegelman- r * Art Spiegelman is the author and narrator of Maus, and also one of the story’s main characters. * Born in Stockholm after the Holocaust, he is the only surviving child of Vladek and Anja Spiegelman. * He is married to Francoise, a French woman who converted to Judaism upon their engagement. * Maus centers around two primary narratives: Vladek’s experiences as a Jew in World War II Poland, and Art’s relationship with his aging father. * When the story opens, Art lives in New York and does not see his father very often, though he lives only a short distance away in Queens. But as Art begins to draw this story about Vladek’s Holocaust experiences, he begins to visit his father more and more frequently. * Their relationship is strained, as Vladek’s gruff demeanor and unwillingness to spend money routinely infuriate his son. * Art is filled with complex feelings towards his father ranging from admiration for his survival in Auschwitz, to frustration towards his aggravating tendencies, and guilt for his own neglect of a father who has lived through so many difficult times. * Art also has complex emotions towards the Holocaust.

Though he did not live through it personally, he feels that he is constantly affected by it. * His father’s personality was largely formed from his experiences in Auschwitz, and this personality in turn directly affected the way in which Art was raised. Vladek Spiegelman- r * Vladek is Art Spiegelman’s father. * He grew up in pre-war Poland, and much of Maus traces his experiences in the Holocaust, as told in his own words to his son. * As the story opens in 1978, he is married to his second wife, Mala. The couple does not get along * Vladek’s personality is largely dominated by his Holocaust experiences. During the Holocaust, he exhibited a spectacular resourcefulness, work ethic, and presence of mind that often enabled him to secure food, shelter, and safety for himself and his family. * He was a shrewd businessman, and in the most troubling times he saved everything of use. In 1978, he still saves everything and tries to exchange those things that he no longer needs. * Once so resourceful and competent, he is still constantly working on small projects, some of which he is incapable of completing. Anja Spiegelman- r * Anja is Art’s mother and Vladek’s first wife.

The couple meets in Poland while Vladek is in a long-term relationship with another woman, Lucia Greenberg. * Always an anxious woman, she suffers an acute depression shortly after the birth of her son and spends three months recovering in a sanitarium. * She survives the Holocaust with her husband, and they immigrate to the United States a few years after the war. * Anja commits suicide in 1968, leaving both Art and Vladek in emotional turmoil. * Art’s last memory of his mother is recorded in a comic called “Prisoner on the Hell Planet,” in which she enters Art’s room and asks him if he still loves her.

His response, a terse and dismissive “sure,” haunts him for years. Lolek- f * Vladek’s nephew and Uncle Herman’s son. * Lolek lives with Anja’s family for much of the initial German occupation, first at Anja’s father’s house and then in the Srodula ghetto. * When the situation deteriorates and Vladek makes preparations to hide in a shelter until the Nazis have evacuated the town, * Lolek tells his uncle that he is tired of hiding, and he is soon transported to Auschwitz. He survives the camps and eventually becomes a college professor. Richieu Spiegelman- f Richieu is Vladek and Anja’s first child, born in Poland in 1937. * In 1943, Vladek and Anja send him to live under the protection of Uncle Persis, where they think he will be safer. * Richieu travels with Anja’s sister, Tosha; * But soon after, Zawiercie is liquidated by the Nazis. Rather than be taken to the gas chamber, Tosha poisons herself and the children under her care, including Richieu. * After his death, Vladek and Anja keep a photograph of their first child hanging on the wall of their bedroom. Mala Spiegelman- f * Mala is Vladek’s second wife, and a friend of his family from before the war. The couple does not get along. * Mala is consumed with frustration towards Vladek’s inability to part with money, while Vladek views his wife with considerable distrust and accuses her of trying to steal his money. Francoise- f * Art’s wife. * She is French and converted to Judaism in preparation for their marriage to please Vladek. * She is intelligent, kind, and opinionated, and their relationship is strong. * She plays a relatively minor role in the story, serving mostly as a means for Art to discuss his relationship with his father and the Holocaust. Mr. Zylberberg- f Anja’s father. * Before the war, he is a wealthy manufacturer who owns a factory. * When Vladek and Anja are married, he provides Vladek with a factory of his own. * He survives with his family in German-occupied Poland, until the family is captured and sent to await transport to Auschwitz. * By bribing his cousin, Haskel, Vladek is able to arrange for the release of himself and Anja. Orbach- f * A friend of Vladek’s family in Poland. * When Vladek is a prisoner of war, Orbach claims him as a cousin, so that Vladek is released into his custody and eventually returns home to Sosnowiec.

Vladek’s father- f * Vladek’s father is a tough and deeply religious man. * His wife dies of cancer before the worst of the Holocaust. * Before the war, Vladek’s father intentionally starves his son so that he will be declared unfit for the army. * Later, the Nazi grip tightens, and all Jews are made to register in a nearby stadium. Those who are fit to work are sent to one side, while the elderly and women with many children are sent to their deaths at the concentration camps. By registering at a table manned by his cousin, Mordecai, Vladek’s father is spared. Before he leaves the tadium, however, he sees his daughter, Fela (Vladek’s sister) and her four small children standing with those destined for Auschwitz. He crosses over to be with her, and all die in the camps. Uncle Herman- f * Anja’s brother. * Along with his wife, Hela, he is visiting the New York World’s Fair when the war begins, and they remain in the United States to escape the horrors abroad. Tosha- f * Tosha is Anja’s older sister. * At the beginning of the German occupation of Poland, she lives with Anja’s family in her father’s house, along with her husband, Wolfe, and their small daughter, Bibbi. As the situation deteriorates Uncle Persis offers to keep her safely in nearby Zawiercie ghetto, where he is a prominent member of the Jewish Council. * She agrees, and leaves with Wolfe, Bibbi, and Vladek’s son Richieu. Soon, though, the Germans slaughter the Jewish Council and begin to evacuate the Jews of Zawiercie to the camps. Rather than be sent to the gas chambers, Tosha poisons herself, her daughter, Herman’s daughter Lonia, and Vladek’s son Richieu. Mr. Ilzecki- f * A former customer of Vladek’s from before the war. The two meet again after the German occupation and begin conducting business on the Sosnowiec black market * Mr. Ilzecki has a son about the same age as Vladek’s, and he offers to send Richieu along with his own son to a Polish friend to hide until things get better. Nahum Cohn- f * A friend and business partner of Vladek’s during his black market days in Sosnowiec. * Nahum is arrested along with his son for selling goods without coupons. * The Nazis decide to make an example of them and they are hanged in a well-know black market center and left there for a full week. Anja’s Grandparents- f During the initial period of the German occupation, they live in Anja’s father’s house with the rest of the family. * Later, they are told to relocate to a “community better prepared to take care of the elderly. ” * The family hides them for over a month, until the authorities arrest Anja’s father and threaten to arrest more of his family if the grandparents are not given over to the Germans. * Anja’s grandparents are taken away to Auschwitz, where they are killed. Haskel Spiegelman- f * Haskel is Vladek’s cousin, and chief of the Jewish Police in the Srodula ghetto. He is the brother of Miloch and Pesach. He is what Vladek calls a kombinacya, or “schemer. ” * While he is a rather unsavory character, he is a good person to know in the ghetto. * When Vladek’s family is discovered in the “chandelier” bunker and sent to a compound to wait for transport to Auschwitz, Haskel arranges for Vladek, Anja, and Lolek to be released in exchange for valuables. Miloch Spiegelman- f * Miloch is Vladek’s cousin, and brother to Haskel and Pesach. * He is Vladek’s supervisor at the shoe repair shop in the Srodula ghetto, and an honorable man compared to the scheming Haskel. When the Germans make plans to eliminate all Jews in the ghetto, he prepares a hidden shelter behind a pile of shoes at the shop, where Vladek, Anja, and 15 other people hide for days. Pesach Spiegelman- f * Pesach is Vladek’s cousin, and brother to Miloch and Haskel. * Like Haskel, he is a schemer and a rather unsavory character. * His most significant involvement centers on a scheme to sell cake to the inhabitants of the ghetto. * He makes a fortune, but everyone who eats it becomes sick – the cake was accidentally made with laundry soap in addition to flour. Mr. Lukowski- f The janitor at Anja’s father’s house. * When Vladek and Anja escape from the Srodula ghetto, they knock on his door and he allows them to stay in a shed behind his house. Mrs. Kawka- f * Mrs. Kawka is the owner of a small farm on the outskirts of Sosnowiec, and for a price she allows Vladek and Anja to hide in her barn. * Mrs. Kawka is the person who tells Vladek about the smugglers who can take him to Hungary. Mrs. Motonowa- f * Vladek befriends Mrs. Motonowa at the Sosnowiec black market after the liquidation of Srodula, and she offers to hide him and Anja at her farm, with her seven-year-old son. She is a kind woman, and the house is comfortable, except for a ten-day period in which Mrs. Motonowa’s husband returns home from Germany on vacation, and they are forced to stay in the basement. * After Vladek and Anja attempt to escape to Hungary, she shelters Miloch and his family for the remainder of the war. Mandelbaum- f * Before the war, Mandelbaum owned a pastry store in Sosnowiec where Vladek and Anja often shopped. Abraham- f * Abraham is Mandelbaum’s cousin. * He agrees to accompany the smugglers, and promises to write Mandelbaum and Vladek if he arrives safely in Hungary. He is betrayed, however, and forced at gunpoint to write the letter anyway. The Karps- f * The Karps are Vladek’s neighbors at his Catskills bungalow. * When Art visits his father there, they take him aside and tell him that Vladek cannot possibly take care of himself. Vladek’s Kapo- f * A “kapo” is a Polish supervisor at a concentration camp. * Soon after Vladek arrives at Auschwitz, Vladek’s kapo asks the Jews in the barracks if anyone there can speak English. Pavel- f * Pavel is Art’s psychiatrist. * Like Art’s father, Pavel is a survivor of the Holocaust. Art sees him once a week, and the sessions always seem to make him feel better. Mancie- f * Mancie is a female Hungarian Jew at Birkenau with Anja, * has higher status as a result of an affair with S. S. guard. * She acts as a go-between for Vladek and his wife, carrying notes and food. The Frenchman- f * After Vladek is transferred from Auschwitz to Dachau, he befriends a Frenchman with whom he converses in English. * Because he is not Jewish, the Frenchman is able to receive packages of food through the Red Cross, which he shares with Vladek, probably saving his life. http://www. gradesaver. com/maus/study-guide/character-list/

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Characteristics of English Advertising

Characteristics of English Advertising 2. Definition of advertising As with any aspect of language contact phenomena, research on CS is plagued by the thorny issue of terminological confusion. Many linguists consider. (Romaine, 1994) Not all researchers use the same terms in the same way, nor do they agree on the territory covered by terms such as …. 2. 2 Classification of English advertising Research on …has recently been the subject of considerable debate. 2. 2. 1 Attitudes Should …in foreign language classroom settings will be mentioned with a critical perspective. 2. 2. 3 Two

After discussing what have been done on the issue of …worldwide, the following part now turn briefly to two pieces of research into the issue in China. 3 Translation of English Advertising Based on the above research questions, two prior constructs were assumed f… Thereafter, the paper will discuss the findings and their pedagogical implications. 3. 1 Principles 3. 1. 1 English translation 32 teachers ( half of EFL Chinese teachers in Hubei University of Technology), 10 of whom are teaching English majors and 22 of them teaching College English to non-English majors. . 1. 2 English translation 100 English majors (EM students) and 100 non-English majors (CE students) were selected respectively. 3. 2 Translation techniques Then, the discussion of the interview questions was transcribed and the field notes and transcripts were analyzed to flesh out major patterns in the teachers … in the classroom. 4 Translation of English Advertising Based on the above research questions, two prior constructs were assumed f… Thereafter, the paper will discuss the findings and their pedagogical implications. . 1 English translation 4. 1. 1 English translation 32 teachers ( half of EFL Chinese teachers in Hubei University of Technology), 10 of whom are teaching English majors and 22 of them teaching College English to non-English majors. 4. 1. 2 English translation 100 English majors (EM students) and 100 non-English majors (CE students) were selected respectively. 4. 2 Translation techniques Then, the discussion of the interview questions was transcribed and the field

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Character Evaluation

The film that I have chosen is Shrek. The character that I will be referencing to is going to be the character Shrek. On the low end of the extraversion scale, he fits perfectly well. He is more on the shy side and likes to be by himself for the most part. You can characterize his personality by his actions and responses being introverted. He is a person that is not too friendly with everyone. You can say that he is grumpy majority of the time.

He is not a people-friendly person, only to the people that he becomes friends with as the movie progresses on. Another character in this movie is Donkey. The main discussion between the two of these characters is that Shrek will not allow people to get close to him and only continues to push people away. He “fails to pause following punishment, pushing ahead to the next trial before learning from his mistakes. ” (Text book citation) When it comes to meeting new people, his initial greetings is very extroverted.

On the neuroticism scale, Shrek scored very high on this scale. There are many sign that he exhibits on the high end of this scale, including nervousness, moodiness, and hostility. When he is faced with different challenges, he becomes very irritable and very angry. This indicates that he is inferior with his coping skills. When it comes to adapting to his social responses to make the right for the situation, he has difficulty doing this. This is typical of neuroticism. These actions are shown throughout the film on a repeated basis.

Shrek scores very low on the openness to experience scale. The only that that concerns him is getting back to his old life in the swamp. This is an area that he is use to. His is not immediately affected by his well being is he does not exhibit curiosity in anything new. When he is faced with new situation or new people, his general demeanor is to quickly become aggravated or cranky with any of these situations. On the F scale he exhibits cynicism and destructiveness. His response pattern overall is very hostile.

Even though it may seem that Shrek is not agreeable or conscientious on the surface, he is very conscientious towards other people. He is a person that believes in working hard and strives to persevere in his endeavors. On the other end of the scale, he exhibits erratic behavior and being much unorganized. On the agreeableness scale, he is the epitome of the ogre. His enjoyment comes from teasing others and he is antagonistic. He is a person that is belligerent and very crude. These come from his overall persona.

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The Crucible: Abigail Williams Character Analysis

In Arthur Miller’s The Crucible, the main character Abigail Williams is to blame for the witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts. Abigail is a mean and vindictive person who always wants her way, no matter who she hurts. Throughout the play her accusations and lies cause many people pain and suffering, but she seemed to never care for any of them except John Proctor, whom she had an affair with seven months prior to the beginning of the play. The lies begin to unravel as the reader dives into the book. John Proctor and his wife Elizabeth used to employ Abigail, until Elizabeth found out about the affair between her husband and Abigail.

Immediately she threw Abigail out. Although John told Abigail that the affair was over and he would never touch her again, she tried desperately to restore their romance. “Abby, I may think of you softly from time to time. But I will cut off my hand before I’ll ever reach for you again. ” She claimed that she loved John and that he loved her. Before the play began, Abigail tried to kill Elizabeth with a curse. She thought that if Elizabeth were dead John would marry her. Further into the play, Abigail accused Elizabeth of witchcraft. She saw Marry Warren making a poppet.

Mary put a needle into the doll, and Abigail used that for her accusation. She stabbed herself with a needle and claimed that Elizabeth’s soul had done it. Although Abigail claimed she loved John, she may have just loved the care and attention he gave her. John cared for her like no one else had. In a way he could be described as somewhat of a father figure to her. When Abigail was just a child, she witnessed her parents’ brutal murders. “I saw Indians smash my dear parents’ heads on the pillow next to mine… ” After her traumatic experience, she was raised by her uncle, Reverend Parris.

In the play it was said, “He was a widower with no interest in children, or talent with them”. Parris regarded children as young adults who should be “thankful for being permitted to walk straight, eyes slightly lowered, arms at the sides, and mouths shut until bidden to speak”. Therefore, it is obvious to see that Abigail grew up without any love or nurturing. She also was without any real mother or father figures. Abigail grew up to be deceitful and treacherous, lacking trustworthiness. On account of the fear for her life, Abigail began to accuse the people closest to her of witchcraft. After she and the other irls were discovered in the forest dancing, she knew that they would be whipped and possibly hung. Abigail said that they were bewitched, and began to name those who were supposedly working with the devil. Nothing would stop her from protecting herself. When John forced Mary Warren to tell the truth about the lies that she, Abigail, and the rest of the girls were telling, Abigail proclaimed her innocence and then began to accuse Mary of being a witch. She claimed she saw Mary making a poppet of her, and sticking Abigail with a needle. “But God made my face; you cannot want to tear my face. Envy is a deadly sin, Mary. Abigail feared for her life so much that she protected it even when John was accused of witchcraft and was sentenced to be hung. Although she loved him, she would not sacrifice herself for him. In conclusion, the cause of the witch trials was Abigail Williams. Considering the facts about her love for John, traumatic childhood, and fear for her life it is easy to see that it was Abigail’s fault that the tragedy occurred. As the horrible person that she was, Abigail fought to get her way no matter who she hurt, and unfortunately in the end she did. Her web of lies entangled everyone she ever cared for.

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Iago’s Motivation for Manipulating and Destroying Other Characters

Iago’s Motivation For Manipulating and Destroying Other Characters In Shakespeare’s Othello, Iago is the most notorious villain. It is clear that Iago feels that other people’s lives that surround him are insignificant. He will use people as pawns signifying that he feels life is simply a game. Iago is very deceitful; he is capable of manipulating anyone who fits into his master plan. Considering Iago is such a phenomenal mastermind he can easily be compared to a director of a play this is because he finds any way possible to get exactly what he wants.

Iago’s capacity for cruelty seems limitless. Although Iago never reveals his motives for manipulating and destroying the lives of people he appears to care about, he demonstrates acts of hidden insecurities, deep resentment towards people, and feelings which influences him to desire to ruin their lives. Underneath Iago’s fearless facade lays numerous insecurities. Iago does not receive any genuine love from anyone. The lack of compassion in Iago’s life leads him to be to be profoundly resentful and cold hearted towards other people, love and even friendship.

He never lets his guard down for he feels he cannot trust anyone. Even though Iago is a married man, him and his wife Emilia are not in a loving relationship. Iago does not respect her or any other women. The lack of respect Iago has for women allows him to treat his wife unfairly and speak to her in a manner no man in love ever would. Iago will tell his wife to shut up when she is speaking her mind and feel no remorse for it. (4,2,140) Iago having an unsuccessful marriage has leaded him to believe that there is no such difference between love and lust.

Iago sees love as a useless emotion that makes you lose control and will ruin you. Iago proves this when he says: “If the balance of our lives had not one scale of reason to poise Another of sensuality, the blood and bareness of Our natures would conduct us to most prepost’rous Conclusions. But we have to cool our raging Motions, our carnal strings or unbitted lusts, Whereof I take this that you call love to be a sect or scion. ” (Shakespeare 1. 3. 321-328) Iago is convinced women and men are only capable of having physical attractions to each other not genuine love, similar to his own marriage. 1. 3. 303) Iago has no compassion for people in love therefore it is easy for him to manipulate Othello to destroy his marriage between him and his wife Desdemona. Iago’s resentment towards Othello goes deeper than believing his marriage with Desdemona is a sham. Iago heard a rumor that his wife Emilia had an affair with Othello. Iago believed this rumor with no doubt about it because of his insecurities within his marriage, even though Emilia Denys it. Emilia stresses her argument: EMILIA. O fie upon them! Such squire he was

That turn’d your wit the seamy side without And made you to suspect me with the Moor. IAGO. You are a fool, go to. (Shakespeare 4. 2. 144-147) Regardless of the possibility of Othello’s innocence, Iago continues motive hunting. Iago sees this as a perfect opportunity to have a solid reason for hating Othello. Whether Iago knows the real truth or not is insignificant because it would not change how he feels about Othello. Othello has been a victim of racism from the beginning of the play. (1. 1. 112-114) Iago is a racist toward Othello being a dark skinned man, a “moor”.

Iago resents Othello based on his race; it contributes to the hatred Iago feels towards him. Iago’s words declare the severity of his hatred: “I hate the Moor. My cause is hearted; thine hath no/ less reason. Let us be conjunctive in our revenge against him (Shakespeare 1. 3. 361-363). Othello is both a “Moor” and not even a Venetian man; therefore Iago looks down on Othello. Iago sees him as a worthless human being, someone whose life is free to be toyed with. Othello’s race is a motive for Iago to want to destroy his life because he simply hates the fact that he is a “Moor”.

Othello is the General, the leader of the Venetian armed forces. This means Othello is higher status among the Venetian forces than Iago is. Considering Othello is a “moor” as well as Iago’s boss, more resentment comes from Iago. Othello promoted Cassio to lieutenant over Iago, this made Iago irate with Othello considering they used to fight as soldiers together. Othello offends Iago numerous times, which motivates him to seek revenge on Othello. Although it isn’t Cassio’s fault he received the promotion, Iago’s jealousy drives him to sabotage Cassio.

Iago constructs a fight between Roderigo and Cassio by manipulating the both of them through lies and alcohol, which leads to Cassio loosing his position as lieutenant. (Shakespeare 2. 3. 142-155) Once Cassio had been dismissed the lieutenant job it was finally designated to Iago. Iago thanked Othello in the most peculiar way; he thanked him in a manner similar to saying vows: OTHELLO. Now art thou my Lieutenant IAGO. I am your own forever. (Shakespeare 3. 4. 475-476) Iago speaks to Othello using underhanded phrases similar to the way a wife converses with her husband.

Suggesting that Iago may have romantic feelings for Othello. Considering being a homosexual was not acceptable lifestyle in the sixteenth century, Iago would be sexually frustrated because women cannot satisfy him. This sexual frustration is a motive towards wanting to destroy the marriage between Othello and Desdemona. Iago having romantic feelings for Othello would explain why he put a substantial amount of effort into getting Desdemona out of the picture. Iago appears to be jealous of their relationship.

Iago’s motives are derived from very intense emotion, they are well planned and he ensures his revenge is executed. Iago’s insecurities and issues with people have motivated him to be incredibly deceitful, untrustworthy and incapable of positive emotions. Although Iago’s motivation for manipulating and destroying people’s lives is not revealed directly, he exposes it through his successful master plan. Shakespeare, William. The Tragoedy of Othello, The Moore of Venice. Ed Alvin Kernan, General, Ed. Sylvan Barnet. First Signet Classics Printing (Second Revised Edition) April 1998

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Winnie-the-Pooh

Milne named the character Winnie-the-Pooh after a teddy bear owned by his son, Christopher Robin Milne, who was the basis for the character Christopher Robin. Christopher’s toys also lent their names to most of the other characters, except for Owl and Rabbit, as well as the Gopher character, who was added in the Disney version. Christopher Robin’s toy bear is now on display at the Main Branch of the New York Public Library in New York. [2] Harry Colebourne and Winnie, 1914

Christopher Milne had named his toy bear after Winnie, a Canadian black bear which he often saw at London Zoo, and “Pooh”, a swan they had met while on holiday. The bear cub was purchased from a hunter for $20 by Canadian Lieutenant Harry Colebourn in White River, Ontario, Canada, while en route to England during the First World War. He named the bear “Winnie” after his hometown in Winnipeg, Manitoba. “Winnie” was surreptitiously brought to England with her owner, and gained unofficial recognition as The Fort Garry Horse regimental mascot.

Colebourne left Winnie at the London Zoo while he and his unit were in France; after the war she was officially donated to the zoo, as she had become a much loved attraction there. [3] Pooh the swan appears as a character in its own right in When We Were Very Young. In the first chapter of Winnie-the-Pooh, Milne offers this explanation of why Winnie-the-Pooh is often called simply “Pooh”: “But his arms were so stiff … they stayed up straight in the air for more than a week, and whenever a fly came and settled on his nose he had to blow it off.

And I think — but I am not sure — that that is why he is always called Pooh. ” Ashdown Forest: the setting for the stories The Winnie-the-Pooh stories are set in Ashdown Forest, Sussex, England. The forest is a large area of tranquil open heathland on the highest sandy ridges of the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty situated 30 miles (50 km) south of London. In 1925 Milne, a Londoner, bought a country home a mile to the north of the forest at Cotchford Farm, near Hartfield.

According to Christopher Milne, while his father continued to live in London “… he four of us—he, his wife, his son and his son’s nanny—would pile into a large blue, chauffeur-driven Fiat and travel down every Saturday morning and back again every Monday afternoon. And we would spend a whole glorious month there in the spring and two months in the summer. ” [4] From the front lawn the family had a view across a meadow to a line of alders that fringed the River Medway, beyond which the ground rose through more trees until finally “above them, in the faraway distance, crowning the view, was a bare hilltop.

In the center of this hilltop was a clump of pines. ” Most of his father’s visits to the forest at this time were, he noted, family expeditions on foot “to make yet another attempt to count the pine trees on Gill’s Lap or to search for the marsh gentian”. Christopher added that, inspired by Ashdown Forest, his father had made it “the setting for two of his books, finishing the second little over three years after his arrival”. Many locations in the stories can be linked to real places in and around the forest.

As Christopher Milne wrote in his autobiography: “Pooh’s forest and Ashdown Forest are identical”. For example, the fictional “Hundred Acre Wood” was in reality Five Hundred Acre Wood; Galleon’s Leap was inspired by the prominent hilltop of Gill’s Lap, while a clump of trees just north of Gill’s Lap became Christopher Robin’s The Enchanted Place because no-one had ever been able to count whether there were sixty-three or sixty-four trees in the circle. [5]

The landscapes depicted in E. H. Shepard’s illustrations for the Winnie-the-Pooh books are directly inspired by the distinctive landscape of Ashdown Forest, with its high, open heathlands of heather, gorse, bracken and silver birch punctuated by hilltop clumps of pine trees. In many cases Shepard’s illustrations can be matched to actual views, allowing for a degree of artistic license. Shepard’s sketches of pine trees and other forest scenes are on display at the V&A Museum in London. The game of Poohsticks was originally played by Christopher Milne on a footbridge across a tributary of the River Medway in Posingford Wood, close to Cotchford Farm.

It is traditional to play the game there using sticks gathered in nearby woodland. When the footbridge required replacement in recent times the engineer designed a new structure based closely on the drawings by E. H. Shepard of the bridge in the original books, as the bridge did not originally appear as the artist drew it. An information board at the bridge describes how to play the game. First publication Winnie-the-Pooh’s debut in the 24 December 1925 London Evening News There are three claimants, depending on the precise question posed.

Christopher Robin’s teddy bear, Edward, made his character debut in a poem called “Teddy Bear” in Milne’s book of children’s verse When We Were Very Young (6 November 1924) although his true first appearance was within the 13 February 1924 edition of Punch magazine which contained the same poem along with other stories by Milne and Shepard. Winnie-the-Pooh first appeared by name on 24 December 1925, in a Christmas story commissioned and published by the London newspaper The Evening News.

It was illustrated by J. H. Dowd. [6] The first collection of Pooh stories appeared in the book Winnie-the-Pooh. The Evening News Christmas story reappeared as the first chapter of the book, and at the very beginning it explained that Pooh was in fact Christopher Robin’s Edward Bear, who had simply been renamed by the boy. The book was published in October 1926 by the publisher of Milne’s earlier children’s work, Methuen, in England, and E. P. Dutton in the United States.

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Leadership Characteristics

Leadership Characteristics Executive summary: Since early beginning of the last century, the leadership has emerged as an important issue in the business regard of the dramatic transformation in the world economy. Thus far, the following report represents an attempt to shed the light on the leadership issue. In order to provide a hint of the leadership meaning, the report will demonstrate brief idea about some of the leadership theories which perceive the leadership skills form different view.

The report then will identify certain characteristics that should be attained in the personality of the leader which ensure his successful. The requisite of the contemporary leadership skills has appeared at the latter part of twentieth century, regard of the globalisation phenomenon as well the rapid development in technology; which resulted in the increase of the competition. As the knowledge does not stop, leaders require training and development, thus, the report will also investigate the process of leadership development. 1Chapter One: Introduction: Throughout the last century and insofar the 21st century, the mankind has undergone dramatic transformation in the whole domains, and the individuals needs and requirements significantly expended, however, many people managed to maintain successfully their life and obtained the benefit of this change, while others could not cope with this change, which resulted with dissatisfaction and pessimistic view of the life.

Significant amount of researches and investigations have been done in order to identify such a pattern or a process that can raise the performance of human beings, thus the concept of leadership appeared as a critical requisite for any entity, including an individuals, family, organisations or even countries. In the early part of 20th century, ‘Freud (1927) in his famous book the

Civilisation and It Discontents, he approached the leadership issue when he said that groups of individuals need leaders to provide them with an identity and sense of purpose’ (Higgs, 2003) With the rapid transformation in the world, the competition has become more aggrieve, and organisations urged to deal with this rapid change and the continue development has become an urgent need for the company prosper and survive. Hence, Leadership issue was put under the limelight as an important process for the company sustainability.

Although there have been momentous efforts devoted to investigate the leadership issue including theories, definitions and identification for its characteristics, till now there is no complete agreement about the notion of leadership, since these different suggestions and concepts approached the leadership from different perspectives. The following report embodies an attempt to shed the light on the leadership issues, throughout quick review of the leadership theories, and examine the leadership characterises in both the 20th and the 21st century, before dissect the reflection of the personal-experience on the leadership characteristics Chapter Two: Leadership Theories: Due to the importance of the leadership issue, many theories have been emerged throughout the time, each theory tackles with the leadership from different perspectives and aspects, and one can not determine whether this theory right and others are wrong; however the main theories of the leadership are: •Trait Theory: this theory defines specific characteristics which are existed in the successful leadership such as attitudes, personality, intelligence and decisiveness, regardless of any consideration of other assisted factors such as team work and the internal and external work environment.

However, there are two criticisms for this theory. “The first, it doesn’t specify what the most important leadership characteristics are, and the second, it ignores the contribution of the others. ” (Dessler, 1976) •Behavioural Theory: it approaches the leadership from another perspectives, it dissects the achievement of leaders and the outcomes of their contributions within the organisations. The remarkable differences between the trait and behavioural theory are that the last one emphasises on oth the accomplishment of the task as the main indications for the leader success, and employees’ satisfaction, •Situational leadership: According to this theory, the effectiveness of the leader is significantly correlated with situational factors which restrict the performance of the leader positively or negatively. In other words, “the efficiency of leader’s skills or traits are determined by the situation in which leaders exercise leadership” (Dessler,1976), These factors are: -Follower’s contributions. The availability and the utilization of the resources. However, creating the harmonisation and the collaboration between the situational factors and the leader are essential to determine leader’s effectiveness. •Contingency Theories: basically, the assumption of this theory, that the behaviour of the leader can not be standardised, instead, the leader should consider situational factors. The success of the leader in this theory is measured by the ability of leader to adopt such a style to achieve certain task with a consideration to the followers.

This theory was the beginning of new view of leadership; based on this assumption other contingency theories were emerged such as, Fiedler’s concept of situational favourability (1967), which defined position power, task structure and leader-member relation, as the main factors that determine the effectiveness of the leader’s style. Path-goal is another theory (House and Mitchell 1974) which assumes that the leader has a significant contribution on the follower to enable them to achieve their objectives. Horner, 1997) •Transactional theories: it assumes that since the task and responsibilities have been identified, the leader has a full right to do whatever it requires to achieve this task. This theory depends on praise and rewards as motivation system for followers, meanwhile, punishment is used to ensure the abidance by the roles and the request of the task. However, this theory is criticised as it assumes the behaviour of a human being is predictable without any consideration of the reflection of the environment. Transformational theories: this theory depends on the development of the vision and convinces the follower, in other words, the leader adopts the visions and does whatever it requires to encourage followers. In this case the leader will become an inspiration for followers and they create their relationship with them depending on trust. As it is clearly perceived, those theories tackle with the leadership from different perspectives. Since there is no enough room, the report will investigate the transformational theory. Transformational Theory: This theory was generated under assumption of people follow a person who has vision and passion.

He or she will inspire them to achieve the goal. Transformational leadership is the modern view of leadership that seems to match with the style of business leader in 21st century since the business competition; turbulence, unforeseen contingencies, and rapid change in technologies create such a momentous stress. Under this stress, the need for transformational leaders who are proactive is emerged as an important requisite to help follower to cope with the dramatic change. (Bass, 1997) The characteristic of transformational leaders is mainly embodied by their charisma; they inspire followers by their innovation and ability to create change.

However, the success of charismatic leader is through a belief in themselves rather than others, while transformational leaders concern with other around them such as colleagues and employees. They are not narcissistic as charismatic. This style of leader will create an important transformation to both organisation and employees. Moreover, it may impact the strategy and the structure of the organisation. The power of transformational leader is not derived by the reward system or rules and regulation, yet it is obtained from an intangible value such as their visions and the relationship among others. Draft, 2002) According to Tichy and Devanna (Lussier, 1996), there are three main activities for transformational leadership. Recognition for the need of revitalisation: leaders should understand the urgent need of the organisation for transformation, in order to create such a sustainable resource of competitive advantage to maintain the company success in such a competitive environment. Creating a new vision: by having visualise in innovation and organisation changed, leader will be able to inspire and motivate others to reach the objectives.

Institutionalising change: it is essential for transformational leaders to put an effort to convince others. Leaders need to advise and create trust among employees in the organisation in order to let them understand the idea of vision and reach the goal. The style of transformational leadership tends to match with the business world today since it is flexible and innovator. In addition, there are many business articles mentioned that workforce is the most important resource for organisation. Thus, this type of leadership takes into consideration of both business activity and relationship within organisation.

These two factors pave the passage of the company success. There are several distinctions between those theories; nevertheless, they agree that there are certain characteristics should be attained in the leader to ensure the efficiency of his contribution. 3Chapter Three: Leadership Characteristics: 3. 1Leadership Definition: As there are many theories approached the leadership, there are also many definitions have been suggested for the leadership, some authors identify the leadership as a process to achieve groups/ organisations goals, others see the notion of leadership as trait, transformation or even as management.

However, the definition of leadership by Rost (1993) can be used to dissect this notion (8). He defines the leadership as an influence relationship among leader and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes. According to Rost, leadership is: •Influence Relationship: the influence will be in both directions top-bottom and bottom-top. •Intend real changes: it means leadership includes substantial development in both leaders and followers. •Mutual purposes: both leader and followers agree about certain purposes which can be considered as missions or statements. . 2Leadership Characteristics: There is a view argues that leaders are born and other say it is a science can be taught, both of those views did not describe leadership accurately, “leadership is an art to be studied, practised, developed and lived. ” (Scott, 1996) There are certain characteristics that determine the effectiveness of leadership and shape the performance of leaders: 1. Communicative: the importance of this skill, that it provides the leader with an ability to deliver precisely the ideas, visions and objectives required to be achieved.

However, it is crucial to understand that the communications include the flow of data and information in two sides, top-bottom and bottom-top. Leaders have to consider sharing the ideas and unleash the contribution of employees, since occasionally, employees come up with innovative suggestions that might enhance or develop certain objectives. 2. Rewards and recognizes achievement: express the appreciation for others efforts, has a vital role as a motivation. Leaders could achieve that by financial rewards or even by praise the follower.

Sometime simple gestures such as approving nod, thumbs- up or even quick comment like ‘great job’, ‘you are doing well’ is enough to encourage followers to improve their performance and productivity. 3. Genuine interest in others: it is undeniable fact that financial rewards have a significant influence on followers; meanwhile, there are other motivations that should be attained. The leader should recognise the emotional support for followers since it creates loyalty.

Genuine interest does not require a lot of efforts; it might be expressed by asking about the personal health or family. For instance, in the company that I used to work, the owner asks employees about their general life before he asked about any other thing related to the work, this simple action was enough to motivate employees to work as they own the company. 4. Team orientation: the successful leader takes into account the importance of team-work; he gathers the followers and discusses with them the task or the missions.

The leader listens to their opinion, stimulates their innovation, and finally creates the harmony required to achieve the task. This gives employees more responsibility to improve their performance and productivity since they have significant role as decision- makers. 5. Visionary and idea-oriented: the long-term objectives are vital issue in the successful leadership agenda; he always seeks for new ideas and creativity. They consider the available competitive advantages and establish the stream of substantial competitive advantages.

When Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al-Maktoum (Dubai’s ruler) unveiled the growth strategy of 2015, it was unsurprising for many economists that the city had met its 2010 GDP target two years ago. Many people argue that Dubai is only a bubble and it would diminish after it consumes its oil. However, this completely untrue, nowadays, 74% of emirits GDP derives from real-estate, tourism and retail sectors (Kerr, 2007). The rapid strides of the development of Dubai is referred to the log-term successful visions of it rulers, and his ability to create new competitive advantages for the country instead of the oil.

Similar to that in the business world, “Henry Ford by his long term vision as well as rational risk calculated he managed to predict the market and customer trend and made Ford on of the most successful organisation. ” (Grint, 2000) 6. Decisiveness, responsibility and Integrity: although, it has been mentioned that followers should be involved in decision-making process, the leader is still the ultimate decision-maker depending on the ability to consider the right decision in the proper time.

Since a decision has been made, the leader is completely responsible for the consequences of any possible risk, even if the leader is involved directly in the execution. Integrity is also very important, “leaders do not use followers as means to achieve their purpose in satisfying the shareholder; instead, they understand that their contribution should consider the whole stakeholders. ” (Bowie et al, 2000) 7. Competence: the word of competence derives from innovation, training and development, accumulated experience, and the ability of the leader to learn.

Since the leadership is an art, leaders have to consider the importance of shaping and the development of their skills; this should be attained by substantial willing for knowledge and self-development. Those characteristics are very important to be attained by the leaders because they have crucial impact on the effectiveness of leadership, moreover, the effective leaders manage to create synergy between their followers, and loyalty required for achieving certain objectives and tasks. 4Chapter Four: Leadership in the 21st Century:

Since the latter part of twentieth century the world has witnessed dramatic change in the whole domains, “due to the rapid strides of technologies development, the spread of the globalisation phenomenon, demographic shifts, migration and the rapid degradation of social and natural capital – are creating opposing tensions. ” (Connor et al, 2003, P. 59). Taking into account those challenges, the demand of leadership has been increased noticeably with an urgent requisite of organisations for framework that tates the new criteria of leadership. Some of these are an expansion for the previous characteristics of leadership and others are new, however, those could be summarised as: •Understanding the Culture Diversity: although the geographical barriers have been eliminated, the cultural barriers are still an enormous challenge for businesses. Leaders should be aware that doing business is different from nation to nation, and it is completely restricted by the national traditions and habits.

For instant: In the USA, Innovations and achievements are considered as individual effort, hence, the influence of the individual recognition will be obvious in Human Resource Management of the American firms, individual reward system, appraisal and even in the job designed. While in China the individual efforts and innovations are referred to the founder of the firm. In Chinese tradition the achievement are always referred to the collective units such as families, organisations, and the country. (Tsang, 2007) The misunderstanding in the communication is another consequence of the lack of culture appreciation.

Many conflicts were occurred, contracts were rejected and negotiations failed at the last stage because of the lack of communication with other culture. Thus far, the comprehensive understanding for influence of the culture on business is vital, because the world has become more united under the umbrella of globalisation. •Strategic thinking: An organisation can not be considered as an individual entity, instead it is influenced by external factors, such as competitors, suppliers, customers, critical financers and fluctuation in the market demand.

From this view the needs of substantial change in the corporate strategy emerges as an important requisite to enable the company to cope with change of the business environment. However, “the ways-of-thinking of the leader have continues impact on corporate reorientation. ” (Hendry et al,1993). However, it is important to understand that strategic thinking is different from the strategic planning, “Mintzberg argues that strategic planning derives from strategic thinking” (Bonn, 2001, P63). The first aspect of the strategic thinking is observation and company knowledge.

The leader observes the company daily life with its complexity and understands the drivers of the organisation performance and the influence of the external factors on this performance. The second aspect of the strategic thinking is creativity; it is the core of strategic thinking. The leader seeks the substantial development for his organisation; he identifies solutions for the company problems and creates vision which will determine the future of firm. Thereafter, the strategic thinking of the leader establishes the implementation required to achieve the company vision.

Sharing vision with others is another significant element for the strategic thinking successful, since it generates loyalty and encourage them because they participate in decision-making process. Jeffery Bezos the founder of Amazon is considered as an important example of a successful leader, in such a high competitive business sector like the online, where other companies struggle to cope with the rapid stride of technology, Amazon imposes itself as the leader of the online industries and especially the e- retailers, there is no doubt that the strategic thinking of Bezos is an ultimate key of the Amazon success.

Bezos always has one eye on the future, in order to build the company long term objectives, however, his strategic thinking embodies by creating the Amazon vision and establishing the strategy needed to achieve the company objectives. Innovation is one of most important aspect of Bezos strategic thinking, since Amazon invests huge amount of money to provide the world with amazing technologies such as Elastic Compute Cloud (ECC) to ensure that the company is still the leader of the dot-com race. Hof, 2006) Whenever the world doubts, if Amazon can fulfil its promise to revolutionise retailing, Bezos wonders the people with such an innovative idea to reinforce Amazon position as being the e-retailer leader. With his strategic thinking as well as his creative working-team, Amazon never stops building its substantial competitive advantages. Humanistic awareness: as workforce constitutes the most value asset of the firm, the leader has significant responsibility to ensure their satisfaction; considerable motivation system, training and development, praise, empowerment, participation in decision-making process are samples to obtain employees satisfaction. Since they have impact on employees’ productivity and innovation. However, employees’ retention reflects the level of their satisfaction, and appreciation for company leader. Learning and self-awareness: the leader has to have a profound knowledge about his organisation to be able to recognise its capability in order to create the vision and framework and means needed to achieve this vision, moreover, the successful leader is knowledge seeker to cope with rapid change in the business world. Self-awareness is another issue that leaders should take into consideration; they distinguish their weaknesses and strengths, and use the last one to eliminate the weaknesses to improve the effectiveness of their leadership.

Hence, leaders empower their ability to inspire and unite employees around themselves to maintain the company performance. 5Chapter Five: Leadership Development: The increase of the competition in the business world urges organisations to search more for competitive advantages in order to be able to survive and conquer their competitors in such a hostile business environment. Nowadays organisations eventually start to concern about leadership development and devote tangible efforts to improve efficiencies of its individuals.

However, the leadership development program should be prepared comprehensively in order to attain its purpose. The 360 degree appraisal system is an important step to initiate this program, since it provides feedback about the employee performance from different resources which helps to determine the improvement required regard to his strengths and weaknesses. (Ladyshewsky, 2007). Thereafter, the priority of the leadership development will be for the higher level managers, regard to their expected contribution on their subordinates, yet the improvement of the subordinate should be in the leadership development agenda.

The leadership development program should cover the weakness of the employees that has listed in the 360 degree appraisal; meanwhile, it should depend on modern techniques and case studies from other companies, rather than depending on the literatures and theories only. The final step in the leadership development program is the evaluation which derived from many criteria, such as the feedback of the program, the examination of the participant’s understanding, and the tangible outcomes that the company will acquire which is the decisive for the program evaluation. Leskiw et al, 2007) However, there is another view should be deemed in the issue of leadership development, individuals perseverance is ultimate criteria for development, leader should have enough credibility to admit there weaknesses and finds the appropriate strategy to mitigate the impact of this weakness, moreover, the leader should be knowledge seeker to obtain the benefit of the others experience. 6Chapter Eight: Conclusion: The leadership an old requisite in the human beings life, nevertheless, it has become a considerable obsession for the organisations, regard to the substantial transformation in the world business.

Although the theories of the leadership are different, they agree that there are several characteristic that should be attain by a person in order to be such a successful leader. Most of the leadership theories concern about the characteristic needed to reinforce two main things, creating competitive advantages and the workforce. As the workforce is the most important asset for the firm, the leader should consider employee alignment around the company objectives throughout the leader humanistic consideration as followers need inspiration, different kind of motivation in order to enhance their performance.

Meanwhile, the leader should eventually find the resource of the competitive advantages. Due to the dissemination of the globalisation phenomenon as well as the rapid development in technology, organisations require new leadership characteristic to cope with change in the business environment. However, the new leadership characteristics have emerged from the need for crossing the culture barriers, since it is an enormous obstacle for organisation. Creating the long-term planning depends on the strategic thinking of the leader to identify new vision for the company.

The increase in the world competition is accomplished with raise of the leadership demand, thus far organisations should invest considerably in improving their leadership capability, since the world development will never stop. References Bass, B. M. , (1998), Stress and Transactional-Transformational Leadership, Transformational Leadership: Industrial, Military, and Educational Impact, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Bonn, I. , (2001) Developing Strategic Thinking as a Core Competency, Management Decision, Vol. 39, No. , pp. 63-71 Bowie, N and Elmer, L. , (2000), Kantian Theory of Leadership, Leadership & organisation Development Journal, Vol. 21 No. 4, pp. 185-193 Connor, R. and Mackenzie-Smith, P. (2003), The Leadership Jigsaw -finding the Missing Piece, Business Strategy Review, Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp 59-66 Dessler, G. , (1976) Leadership and Supervision, Organisation and Management: Contingency Approach, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Publication. Draft, R. L. , (2002), Management, 6th Ed. Mason, OH: South-Western Publication. Grint, K. (2000), Henry Ford: The Blind Business Visionary, The Arts of Leadership, Oxford: Oxford University Press Hendry, J (ed) and Johnson, G (ed) with Newton, J (1993), Strategic Thinking: Leadership and the Management of Change, England: John Wiley Publication Higgs, M. , (2003) How can we make sense of leadership in the 21st century? , Leadership & organisation Development Journal, Vol. 24 No. 5, pp. 273-284 Hof, R. D. , (13/10/2006), Jeff Bezos’ Risky Bet, Business week magazine [Online]. Available from Business week: http://www. businessweek. com/magazine/content/06_46/b4009001. tm Accessed (20/04/2007)) Horner, M. , (1997) Leadership Theory: Past, Present and Future, Team Performance Management, Vol. 3 No. 4, pp. 270-287 Kerr, S. , (24/07/2007), Emirate Sets its Sights on Trebled GDP by 2015, The Financial Times. Economy, pp. 2 Ladyshewsky, K. R, () A Strategic Approach for Integrating Theory to Practice in Leadership Development, Leadership & Organisation Development Journal, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 426-443 Leskiw, S and Singh, P. , (2007), Leadedrship Development: Learning from Best Practices, Leadership & Organisation Development Journal, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 444-464 Lussier, R. N. , (1996), Human relations in organizations: A skill-building approach. 2nd Ed. Chicago, IL: Irwin, Inc Rost, J. C, (1993), Leadership definition, Leadership for the Twenty-First Century, London: Praeger Publication. Scott , E. D. and Kleiner, B. H, (1996), Good? Leadership, Management Development Review, Vol. 9, No. 5, pp. 30-33 Tsang, D. , (2007), Leadership, National Culture and Performance Management in The Chinese Software Industry, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 56, No. 4, pp. 270-284

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Character Analysis of Harold Pinter’s the Caretaker

Erlina Suwardi 2009-031-055 Character Analysis of Harold Pinter’s The Caretaker In drama, characters play a dominant role in order to present the scenes. Whether good or bad the characters are, they are the ones who make the play and without them, there will be no play can be presented. In this play , there are only three characters, the brothers, which are Aston and Mick, and the old tramp, Davies. It begins with Aston who brings Davies to his place owned by his brother, Mick. Aston allows and offers Davies, who seems to be homeless, to stay in his room.

From the very beginning of the play until the end, the characters do not allow themselves to form good relationship with one another, as they come and go without certain purpose, and also their conversation seems often has no relevance to the situation they are in. Aston, the person who brings Davies to his place, is a mentally retarded man because of the brain treatment given to him forcefully by his mother and brother. Actually, Aston was a very talkative person before he was given the therapy. As he says, “ I thought…they understood what I said. I mean I used to talk to them. I talked too much. That was my mistake.

The same in the factory. ” (p. 906, line 58-60). He used to question about the certain things in society and thus he is made mentally retarded. After that, Aston not only loses questioning ability but also hard to communicate properly (p. 907, line 54-71). In my opinion, Aston’s weakness is trusting people too much. Aston even believes a person like Davies. As a result, he is betrayed by not only an intruder like Davies but also by his mother and brother. On the other hand, Davies is an old tramp which is homeless, in need of companionship and a place to stay. It is Aston who shows some kind of kindness to Davies.

He gets the opportunity to stay in Aston’s room. However, instead of enjoying what he has already got and being thankful, Davies always complains about a number of thing, for example like shoes (p. 891 line 36-57; p. 910, line 40-60) and the window (p. 906, line 16-20). Davies is a kind of back-stabber person when he turns against Aston and asks Aston to leave from his own place, “.. Find somewhere else?.. Me? You talking to me?… Not me man, you! .. You better find somewhere else.. I live here. I been offered a job here.. I’m going to be his caretaker, he’s going to run this place, and I’m staying with him… (p. 911 line 81- p. 912 line 5). He also seems to be racist person not only to Black people but also Greeks, Poles and Scotch eventhough they do no harm to him (p. 888 line 29-38; p889 line 19-20; p. 894 line48-54). Mick, who plays the role of Aston’s brother, is the one who is actually responsible to treat Aston with brotherly affection. However, Mick treats Aston as the outsider. Moreover, Mick is also not a responsible person because he is trying to switch responsibility from himself to Davies by offering Davies to be a caretaker eventhough he knows that Davies is not a qualified person.

Related essay: “Stand and Deliver Character Analysis

Though there is a hope between the brothers to communicate each other again when Mick smiles while looking Aston at the end of the play (p. 914, line 47-52), he does not stay or live with him. He chooses to leave Aston at the end. For overall, with these three different characters, the whole story just simpy does not make any sense. It is illogical, conflictless, plotless and meaningless and that is what it meant by the absurd play. Everything is pointless and beyond human rationality to understand. Absurd play came after the World War II to represent freedom.

It rebels against conventional plays which used to deal with language as a tool of logical communication and cause and effect relationships. However, the absurd authors seem to have reasons for the fight against the society. They want to explain the society, the world, and the life using a different point of view that life is indeed absurd. In this play, Pinter also reflects the life, the absurdness of the world and the poor communication among the characters. The play finally ends as it begins. All the three characters remains separated from each other and continues to live the life on their own.

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Good and Evil Hand-In-Hand

Characters such as Wolverine from the X-men, Batman from The Dark Knight, and Shrek from Shrek the movie are great examples of people who seemly are evil, but really do good for others around them. These characters are very similar to Jean Valjean in Les Miserables by Victor Hugo. People, in general, have both good and evil in them. Hugo proves this by showing that characters that do bad can still be a good person, that they use their conscience to make decisions, and that if they try they can make bad situations, good.

In Les Miserables by Victor Hugo, Hugo proves that people that do bad things can still be a good person. When you first learn about Jean Valjean, he seems to be this criminal up to no good. When he entered a town unknown to him, people “regarded this traveler with a sort of distrust” (7), which means he seem deceitful and mysterious. But throughout the book, Jean Valjean becomes a much kinder, nice person. At one point, he saves a young girl, named Cosette, from the abuse she was enduring from the Thenardiess.

Before he leaves the Inn that the Thenardiess were running, when he is talking to the lady innkeeper, he asks if he can take Cosette with him. All he says is, “suppose you were relieved of her? ” (174) and she was his. He did a lot for this young girl. One major thing he did was risk his life to save the man that she was in love with. After a big fight, Marius becomes greatly wounded, and Jean tries to save him. Marius was helped from “the hand which had seized him from behind at the moment he was falling… was the hand of Jean Valjean” (505). Jean tried to help everyone, even though he did badly when he was younger.

In Les Miserables by Victor Hugo, Hugo shows that characters use their conscience to make decisions. Everyone has choices to make on a daily basis and they can choose to do good or bad. In the book, the characters had the attempt to make the good choice in their decisions. When Jean Valjean stole from the bishop and got caught, he busted himself out even when the bishop covered for him. When the gendarme brought him back to the bishop, Jean “raised his head with stupefied air” (33) because he knew he had to face the kind people after he had stolen.

After this bad choice, he made the choice to do better, which theoretically his conscience is telling him to do good things. Javert also made the better choice by, at the end, letting Jean Valjean free. Throughout the whole book, it’s been a wild goose chase for Javert to catch Jean and finally he does. While Javert, he went on a walk. There he realizes that “there was matter for self-examination” (529) and he revaluates his situation. During his “self-examination” he realizes that Jean was good and that now Jean has saved him from death, he couldn’t send him to jail.

That self-examination is like having a conversation with your conscience and thinking of if you should do good or bad. And in the end, he did good and let Jean go. In Les Miserables by Victor Hugo, Hugo shows that anyone can make a bad situation, good. If you’re stuck in a bad condition, you need to think fast and get yourself out of that bad situation. Most people would do that by doing well. When Fantine gave up her daughter because she knew she couldn’t take care of her alone, she was trying to make a bad situation, better for someone else.

She even cut her hair off, so that her daughter had money. Towards the end of her life, she goes a tad crazy. She would say to herself, “When I am rich, I shall have my cosette with me, “(64) and she laughed, like she knew what she was saying was totally insane, but she kept telling herself that anyways. When Jean Valjean first took Cosette, he had to hide from Javert and the others with him. He was in a bad situation, but he tried to remember that he had a young girl with him and tried to make it a good situation. When they were running and finally gave up, Jean heard voices.

And “while these voices were singing Jean Valjean was entirely absorbed in them. He no longer saw the night, he saw a blue sky” (200). So even though he was in pain and struggling to go on, he let his religion over take him and he knew he had to go on to have Cosette. No matter how bad a person is, there is always some good in them. Hugo has proved this by conveying that characters that do bad can still be a good person, that they use their conscience to make decisions, and that if they try they can make bad situations, good.

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Characters of Noli Me Tangere

Main Characters Crisostomo Ibarra Juan Crisostomo Ibarra y Magsalin, commonly referred to the novel as Ibarra or Crisostomo, is the protagonist in the story. Son of a Filipino businessman, DonRafael Ibarra, he studied in Europe for seven years. Ibarra is also Maria Clara’s fiance. Several sources claim that Ibarra is also Rizal’s reflection: both studied in Europe and both persons believe in the same ideas. Upon his return, Ibarra requested the local government of San Diego to construct a public school to promote education in the town. Maria Clara de los Santos y Alba, commonly referred to as Maria Clara, is Ibarra’s fiancee.

She was raised by Capitan Tiago, San Diego’s cabeza de barangayand is the most beautiful and widely celebrated girl in San Diego. In the later parts of the novel, Maria Clara’s identity was revealed as an illegitimate daughter of Father Damaso, former parish curate of the town, and Dona Pia Alba, wife of Capitan Tiago. In the end she entered local convent for nuns Beaterio de Santa Clara. In the epilogue dealing with the fate of the characters, Rizal stated that it is unknown if Maria Clara is still living within the walls of the convent or she is already dead.

The character of Maria Clara was patterned after Leonor Rivera, Rizal’s first cousin and childhood sweetheart. Capitan Tiago Don Santiago de los Santos, known by his nickname Tiago and political title Capitan Tiago is a Filipino businessman and the cabeza de barangay or head ofbarangay of the town of San Diego. He is also the known father of Maria Clara. In the novel, it is said that Capitan Tiago is the richest man in the region of Binondo and he possessed real properties in Pampanga and Laguna de Bay. He is also said to be a good Catholic, friend of the Spanish government and was considered as a Spanish by colonialists.

Capitan Tiago never attended school, so he became a domestic helper of a Dominican friar who taught him informal education. He married Pia Alba from Santa Cruz. Padre Damaso Damaso Verdolagas, or Padre Damaso is a Franciscan friar and the former parish curate of San Diego. He is best known as a notorious character who speaks with harsh words and has been a cruel priest during his stay in the town. He is the real father of Maria Clara and an enemy of Crisostomo’s father, Rafael Ibarra. Later, he and Maria Clara had bitter arguments whether she would marry Alfonso Linares or go to a convent.

At the end of the novel, he is again re-assigned to a distant town and is found dead one day. In popular culture, when a priest was said to be like Padre Damaso, it means that he is a cruel but respectable individual. When one says a child is “anak ni Padre Damaso” (child of Padre Damaso), it means that the child’s father’s identity is unknown. Elias Elias is Ibarra’s mysterious friend and ally. Elias made his first appearance as a pilot during a picnic of Ibarra and Maria Clara and her friends. He wants to revolutionize the country and to be freed from Spanish oppression.

The 50th chapter of the novel explores the past of Elias and history of his family. In the past, Ibarra’s great-grandfather condemned Elias’ grandfather of burning a warehouse which led into misfortune for Elias’ family. His father was refused to be married by her mother because his father’s past and family lineage was discovered by his mother’s family. In the long run, Elias and his twin sister was raised by their maternal grandfather. When they were teenagers, their distant relatives called them hijos de bastardo or illegitimate children.

One day, his sister disappeared which led him to search for her. His search led him into different places, and finally, he became a fugitive and subversive. Pilosopong Tacio Filosofo Tacio, known by his Filipinized name Pilosopo Tasyo is another major character in the story. Seeking for reforms from the government, he expresses his ideals in paper written in a cryptographic alphabet similar from hieroglyphs and Coptic figures hoping “that the future generations may be able to decipher it” and realized the abuse and oppression done by the conquerors.

His full name is only known as Don Anastasio. The educated inhabitants of San Diego labeled him as Filosofo Tacio (Tacio the Sage) while others called him asTacio el Loco (Insane Tacio) due to his exceptional talent for reasoning. Dona Victorina Dona Victorina de los Reyes de Espadana, commonly known as Dona Victorina, is an ambitious Filipina who classifies herself as a Spanish and mimics Spanish ladies by putting on heavy make-up. The novel narrates Dona Victorina’s younger days: she had lots of admirers, but she did not choose any of them because nobody was a Spaniard.

Later on, she met and married Don Tiburcio de Espadana, an official of the customs bureau who is about ten years her junior. However, their marriage is childless. Her husband assumes the title of medical doctor even though he never attended medical school; using fake documents and certificates, Tiburcio practices illegal medicine. Tiburcio’s usage of the title Dr. consequently makes Victorina assume the title Dra. (doctora, female doctor). Apparently, she uses the whole name Dona Victorina de los Reyes de de Espadana, with double de to emphasize her marriage surname.

She seems to feel that this awkward titling makes her more “sophisticated. ” Sisa, Crispin, and Basilio Sisa, Crispin, and Basilio represent a Filipino family persecuted by the Spanish authorities: * Narcisa or Sisa is the deranged mother of Basilio and Crispin. Described as beautiful and young, although she loves her children very much, she can not protect them from the beatings of her husband, Pedro. * Crispin is Sisa’s 7-year-old son. An altar boy, he was unjustly accused of stealing money from the church. After failing to force Crispin to return the money he allegedly stole, Father Salvi and the head sacristan killed him.

It is not directly stated that he was killed, but the dream of Basilio suggests that Crispin died during his encounter with Padre Salvi and his minion. * Basilio is Sisa’s 10-year-old son. An acolyte tasked to ring the church bells for the Angelus, he faced the dread of losing his younger brother and the descent of his mother into insanity. At the end of the novel, Elias wished Basilio to bury him by burning in exchange of chest of gold located on his death ground. He will later play a major role in El Filibusterismo. Due to their tragic but endearing story, these characters are often parodied in modern Filipino popular culture. Note: The Franciscan Order was shown by Rizal as hypocrites not because they were such during his time but because they are the most loved, and had significant numbers. Strategically, if one must attack the Spanish friars, the best is to attack the most popular during that time. Other characters There are a number of secondary and minor characters in Noli Me Tangere. Items indicated inside the parenthesis are the standard Filipinization of the Spanish names in the novel. * Padre Hernando de la Sibyla – a Dominican friar. He is described as short and has fair skin.

He is instructed by an old priest in his order to watch Crisostomo Ibarra. * Padre Bernardo Salvi – the Franciscan curate of San Diego, secretly harboring lust for Maria Clara. He is described to be very thin and sickly. It is also hinted that his last name, “Salvi” is the shorter form of “Salvi” meaning Salvation, or “Salvi” is short for “Salvaje” meaning bad hinting to the fact that he is willing to kill an innocent child, Crispin, just to get his money back, though there was not enough evidence that it was Crispin who has stolen his 2 onzas. * El Alferez or Alperes – chief of the Guardia Civil.

Mortal enemy of the priests for power in San Diego and husband of Dona Consolacion. * Dona Consolacion – wife of the Alferez, nicknamed as la musa de los guardias civiles (The muse of the Civil Guards) or la Alfereza, was a former laundrywoman who passes herself as a Peninsular; best remembered for her abusive treatment of Sisa. * Don Tiburcio de Espadana – Spanish Quack Doctor who is limp and submissive to his wife, Dona Victorina. * Teniente Guevara – a close friend of Don Rafael Ibarra. He reveals to Crisostomo how Don Rafael Ibarra’s death came about. Alfonso Linares – A distant nephew of Tiburcio de Espanada, the would-be fiance of Maria Clara. Although he presented himself as a practitioner of law, it was later revealed that he, just like Don Tiburcio, is a fraud. He later died due to given medications of Don Tiburcio. * Tia Isabel – Capitan Tiago’s cousin, who raised Maria Clara. * Governor General (Gobernador Heneral) – Unnamed person in the novel, he is the most powerful official in the Philippines. He has great disdain for the friars and corrupt officials, and sympathizes with Ibarra. * Don Filipo Lino – vice mayor of the town of San Diego, leader of the liberals. Padre Manuel Martin – he is the linguist curate of a nearby town who delivers the sermon during San Diego’s fiesta. * Don Rafael Ibarra – father of Crisostomo Ibarra. Though he is the richest man in San Diego, he is also the most virtuous and generous. * Dona Pia Alba – wife of Capitan Tiago and mother of Maria Clara, she died giving birth to her daughter. In reality, she was raped by Damaso so she could bear a child. Non-recurring characters These characters were mentioned in the novel, appeared once, mentioned many times or have no major contribution to the storyline. Don Pedro Eibarramendia – the great-grandfather of Crisostomo Ibarra who came from the Basque area of Spain. He started the misfortunes of Elias’ family. His descendants abbreviated their surname to Ibarra. He died of unknown reasons, but was seen as a decaying corpse on a Balite Tree. * Don Saturnino Ibarra – the son of Don Pedro, father of Don Rafael and grandfather of Crisostomo Ibarra. He was the one who developed the town of San Diego. He was described as a cruel man but was very clever. * Salome – Elias’ sweetheart.

She lives in a little house by the lake, and though Elias would like to marry her, he tells her that it would do her or their children no good to be related to a fugitive like himself. In the original publication of Noli, the chapter that explores the identity of Elias and Salome was omitted, classifying her as a total non-existing character. This chapter, entitled Elias y Salome was probably the 25th chapter of the novel. However, recent editions and translations of Noli provides the inclusion of this chapter, either on the appendix or renamed as Chapter X (Ex). * Sinang – Maria Clara’s friend.

Because Crisostomo Ibarra offered half of the school he was building to Sinang, he gained Capitan Basilio’s support. * Iday, Neneng and Victoria – Maria Clara’s other friends. * Capitan Basilio – Sinang’s father, leader of the conservatives. * Pedro – the abusive husband of Sisa who loves cockfighting. * Tandang Pablo – The leader of the tulisanes (bandits), whose family was destroyed because of the Spaniards. * El hombre amarillo (apparently means “yellowish person,” named as Taong Madilaw) – One of Crisostomo Ibarra’s would-be assassins. He is not named in the novel, and only described as such.

In the novel, he carved the cornerstone for Ibarra’s school. Instead of killing Ibarra, he was killed by his cornerstone. * Lucas – the brother of the taong madilaw. He planned a revolution against the government with Ibarra as the leader after he was turned down by Ibarra. He was said to have a scar on his left cheek. He would later be killed by the Sakristan Mayor. * Bruno and Tarsilo – a pair of brothers whose father was killed by the Spaniards. * Nor Juan (Nol Juan) – appointed as foreman of the school to be built by Ibarra * Capitana Tika (Rustica) – Sinang’s mother and wife f Capitan Basilio. * Albino – a former seminarian who joined the picnic with Ibarra and Maria Clara. Was later captured during the revolution. * Capitana Maria Elena – a nationalist woman who defends Ibarra of the memory of his father. * Capitan Tinong and Capitan Valentin – other known people from the town of San Diego. * Sacristan Mayor – The one who governs the altar boys and killed Crispin for his accusation. * Hermano Pedro, Hermana Rufa, Hermana Sipa, Hermana Juana – Some of the persons included in the Chapter 18. These persons were talking about indulgencia plenaria.

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Using Examples Compare and Contrast the Characteristics

Using examples compare and contrast the characteristics of both managers and leaders. Introduction: Leadership and management are two bipolar systems of worker administration in current business environment as defined by Kumle and Kelly (2000, 8). It is a topic most debated upon due to the similar characteristic of the roles they play in an organization which often intertwine. Leaders and managers are however disparate in their nature of act. As applied in a team-based organizational structure, the argument is that managers and leaders differs in the perceived entailment of authority they posses as viewed by their employees.

However, they compliment one another and can be cultivated in order to be effectual. In this essay we will discuss how the traits of managers and leaders contrast one another by comparison. We will then analyze and evaluate how these differences can offset the other leading to the conclusion that both positions are highly congruent in order to achieve an effective situational leadership approach in an organization, eliminating the “false dichotomy” between the two (Adair 2005, 31).

It is vitally important for leaders to posses not only leadership quality but also substantiated managerial skills, and vice versa, especially in today’s cutthroat business environment. Leaders and managers are often confused due to the stark similarity of authoritative position they entails but are different in their defining factors. They are the same because of their essential role of being the person in the lead of the employees and being their source of command.

However they are different in the effect they play in an organization as well as the perspective they emanates to the employees as well as the world. Leadership is the aptitude to guide and direct the embodying team towards an end goal while management is the astute means of completing the targets (Kumle and Kelly 2000, 9). As the famous saying by Warren Bennis (1989), “managers do things right while leaders do the right thing”. It is essential to realize the difference because some managers might not possess certain leadership qualities, as it is that leaders might not necessarily be an ffective manager. Managers are more structural in nature through perseverance, consistency and knowledge while leaders on the adverse lean more towards an artistic and innovative mindset (Zaleznik 1992, 127). The difference lies in the nature of act. Managers often referred to the position of authority while leaders refer to an inspirational and far-sightedness innate trait of a person. The style of corporate management distinguishes leaders from managers. Being a leader refers to the possession of innate characteristics and trait models of visionaries.

They are the source of inspiration as they posses illuminating qualities and attributes which would be the driving force leading the company towards success. Personality traits such as charisma, gusto, honesty, assurance and the ability to foster genuine connection with people (Adair 2005, 29-30) is the fundamental composition that will bring together the entire workforce to advance towards success. A manager on the other hand is the behavioral model that these leaders ought to undertake in order to be effective in committing their roles.

One might be an effective manager but they may not be the epitome of a leader that will push an advance the organization beyond their limit. For example, Apple Corporation have had fair management control but they only attained its high innovative achiever status due to Steve Job’s charismatic and ground-breaking input that transformed the company (Shontell 2011). Thus, this highlights the empirical quality that is characteristically of leaders and not necessarily of managers.

Therefore, the style and characteristics of managers and leaders differentiate them in terms of extend of success they produce. The nature of relationship with employee is an evident difference between leaders and managers. Leaders guide with the instinct of gaining “followers” while managers have “subordinates” (Storms 2011). Leaders do not abide the conventional mode of commanding control instead act on the ground of emancipating inspiration (King 2010) and ensuring the wellbeing and progress of the team as whole.

This is because leaders are “more emotional” (Leadership Pages 1997) and are concern of the human aspect of their company. For example Phil Knight of Nike emphasizes highly on allowing mistakes and keeping a positive environment in spite of times of turmoil (Jay 2001, 92) and this train an effective pool of workers which is a result of Knight’s leadership quality of emanating inspiration and garnering trust of employees and genuine loyalty. Managers on the other hand act on a stern basis of control system.

This hierarchical positioning in turn ingests a pseudo psychological disdain of workers to managers as they feel they are being treated with contempt as subsidiaries (Katcher and Snyder 2007, 52). This will in turn limit the willingness for employees to put in the extra effort and they will thus not produce exemplary results due to the lack of loyalty and dedication. Richard Brandson (2011) instills the importance of leaders being supportive of their employees that led the success of Virgin Company.

The structural construction of the role played by managers instills this notion of quality difference of employee control in the effectiveness of managers compared to leaders. Comparing in this light, leadership must be incorporated in managerial control because to attain corporate success, it is highly essential to sustain the passion, assurance and ambition of stakeholders especially the workers as Narayana Murthy (2011), Chairman Emeritus of Infosys, suggests. Each individual have their own defining qualities and the personalities describing them might be an advantage for one in certain industries.

When these traits are combined with the managerial position, the personality traits would suit the respect the manager receive when they have high aspect of certain traits such as the Big Five Personality Traits (Waddell, Jones and George 2011, 133). It is important for managers, being in their position, to possess certain unique individuality to propel their quality and attractiveness as a leader especially in the magnificently transformed prospect of the current business environment.

Personality type is the factor that separates leaders and managers as all personals can become good managers, but good leaders are ones who are privileged with the narcissistic personality whom people look up to due to their gripping attitude and incredible ideas that galvanize others (Maccoby 2000, 72-73). Therefore, it clearly prove that in a real world situational analyses the characteristics of both managers and leaders may differ, but they are needed to corroborate one another in order to advocate and augment an effective form of leadership and management in an organization.

The inherent individual traits of a manager determine the quality of a leader it makes. At the same time, inborn leaders without the technical qualification of a manager could not execute as an effective leader. The effectiveness of an organization is highly reliant on the synergy of leadership and management quality and this create an empowerment that will transcend the organization well beyond the competitors. Leadership quality of supplying the vision of an end goal when combined with the resourceful conscientiousness of managers would create a highly effective company that has high visualization.

At the same time the common exchange of respect and inspiration they give as a leader would ingest the essence of teamwork that will propel the organization further forward as every member of the organization shares the common dedication and passion to attain their ultimate goals. This loyalty from every contributing body can only be attained when their leader has the charisma and ability to unite the organization, at the same time possess a conscientious managerial role that would instill trust in the employees that their leader would bring success.

Hence the synergy of inborn leadership traits and hardware managerial skills is the highly regarded form of leadership style that is highly respectable by the companies’ employees as well as other stakeholders and eventually become the driving force that will push the organization forward especially in the new age of business environment and ethics that is increasingly demanding and critical, as well as the democratic progress that inspire people to be more conspicuous of exercising their rights. Reference List Adair, John. 2005. How to Grow Leaders. London and Sterling, VA: Kogan Page Limited.

Bennis, Warren. 1989. On Becoming A Leader. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Brandson, Richard. 2011. Richard Brandson: Advice for Entrepreneurs. YouTube videos, 0:04. http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=VH35Iz9veM0&feature=fvwrel Leadership Pages: The Difference Between Management And Leadership. 1997. ME96 Leadership Page. http://www. ee. ed. ac. uk/~gerard/MENG/ME96/Documents/Intro/leader. html Jay, Ros. 2001. Winning Minds. Oxford, United Kingdom: Capstone Publishing Limited. Katcher, Bruce L. and Adam Snyder. 2007. 30 Reasons Employees Hate Their Managers.

United State of America: American Management Association King, William. 2010. “Distinguishing between Manager and a Leader, Are they Really Different? ” Team Building Articles, August 2. http://www. 212articles. com/distinguishing-between-manager-and-a-leader-are-they-really-different/ Kumle, John and Nancy J. Kelly. 2000. “Leadership vs. Management. ” SuperVision, 61(4), 8-10. http://search. proquest. com/docview/195590555? accountid=10382 Maccoby, Michael. 2000. “Narcissistic Leaders: The Incredible Pros, The Inevitable Cons. ” Harvard Business Review, January – February Issue. http://edocs. ibrary. curtin. edu. au/eres_display. cgi? url= dc60009629. pdf&copyright=1 Murthy, Narayana. 2011. Narayana Murthy on Values & Leadership. YouTube videos, 3:26. http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=QBaCRu7by10&feature=related Senior, Carl, Robin Martin, Michael West and Rowena M. Yeats. 2011. “How Earlobes Can Signify Leadership Potential”. Harvard Business Review, November Issue. Shontell, Alyson. 2011. “The Legacy Of Steve Jobs: How He Took Apple From Near Bankruptcy To Billions In 14 Years And Changed The World. ” Business Insider, October 6. http://www. businessinsider. om/the-legacy-of-steve-jobs-how-he-took-apple-from-near-bankruptcy-to-billions-in-13-years-and-changed-the-world-2011-10 Storms, Cherie. 2011, April 10. “Managers have subordinates, Leaders have followers. ” Cherie Storms – Saving the world one day at a time. http://cheriestorms. wordpress. com/2011/04/10/managers-have-subordinates-leaders-have-followers/ Waddell, Dianne, Gareth R. Jones, Jennifer M. George. 2011. Contemporary Management. 2nd ed. Australia: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. Zaleznik, Abraham. 1992. “Managers and leaders: are they different? ” Harvard Business Review, March – April Issue.

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Opposing Views on Columbus’ Character

It is quite clear that Columbus is a controversial figure in American history; many different views of the “Admiral of the Ocean” are presented to the American public. For starters Columbus Day is still viewed as a national holiday; on the other side many people are strongly rooted against celebrating the landing of Columbus on the Americas. Some people argue that there is no point to the holiday because Columbus did not even land in North America; others say that he is a crucial part of American History, and of course some say he did more harm than good.

Academics have many varying views on the explorer as well; for example Zinn and Morrison, both men wrote on almost exactly the same topic and the end results were two completely different views. Both Zinn and Morrison’s views on Columbus are much more different than similar resulting in two very different articles. Each author depicts Columbus as a different figure entirely. Howard Zinn seems to portray Columbus as a power hungry, money seeking, and arrogant war monger: “The first man to sight land [For money]… Rodrigo never got it.

Columbus Claimed he had seen a light the evening before. He got the reward (Zinn). ” (Morrison does not acknowledge this) The reader can clearly feel a strong sense of anger from the author towards Columbus, for one thing this particular sentence was not crucial to the essay whatsoever, therefore the lack of necessity and the bluntness of the statement reveals a strong bias. This was only one example of how Zinn portrays Columbus as the next worse thing to the plague, he continues on by explaining, in immense detail, various unnecessary acts of violence by Columbus.

Morrison on the other side of the spectrum presents Columbus more neutrally, writing on both Columbus’ good deeds and negative also. Morrison also delves into Columbus’ background to explain some of his shortcomings such as greed and the need for attention. However Morrison almost defends and sympathizes with Columbus at points by saying Columbus was “forced” into the position in which he had to act immoral. In comparison, though, Morrison takes a more neutral stand point on Columbus’ character than Zinn.

Of course both authors share something in their writing and that is bias, however Zinn’s sense of bias is much stronger than that of Morrison’s. Zinn’s bias primarily focuses on his view of Columbus’ treatment of the Natives and Columbus’ character, which greatly influences Zinn’s article. It is clear from the beginning that Zinn wishes to write primarily about the Indians and how they were treated by the way his first paragraph is centered on the Indians and how Columbus planned to treat them.

Every chance Zinn was able to write in violence he chose to; five different instances of violence can be read in his article. Finally Mr. Zinn states that Columbus’ second much larger voyage was only due to his “exaggerated report and promises (Zinn). ” This statement is supplied with no evidence whatsoever and any somewhat read person could plainly see this as an opinion. Morrison on the other hand almost seems to take the side of Columbus, perhaps to counter all the negativity towards the infamous explorer.

Bashing Columbus was simply not the goal of Morrison; instead he takes a more in analytical approach by acknowledging both good and bad qualities to the trip and chooses to focus on the journey as a whole and how it began to evolve. To contrast the two writers, three events were mentioned in both articles but all three were totally represented differently. The first being when Columbus takes a few Arawaks to guide him to the gold, Morrison simply states that he picked “up a few Indians as guides,” while of course Zinn decides to say Columbus took “some of them [Indians] as prisoners. Of course as a reader it is difficult to discern which is more accurate. Both authors explain the destruction of fort Navidad, however very differently, Morrison is straight forward saying the sailors got into a quarrel with the Indians because of their search for girls and gold; at the same time Zinn goes into explicit details that the sailors were attempting to rape and plunder. The last incident is Columbus’ request of gold tributes from the natives, both explain that the tribute was impossible but Zinn goes into grotesque detail regarding the punishment of the slaves furthering how biased he really is.

The angry passion Zinn writes with is something that could make it hard for the audience to believe. Instead of using a strong argument and direct evidence Mr. Zinn chooses to write angrily on his topic and is extremely blatant in doing so, because of this his account of the entire journey is much harder to believe than that of Morrison’s. Simultaneously Zinn’s style of writing versus Morrison’s makes both articles, although pertaining to the same thing, extremely different.

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Characterization in “Charles”

Laurie’s lies In the story “Charles” , Shirley Jackson vividly creates an entertaining main character, Laurie, through a description of his own looks, clothing, his own words, and actions. Shirley Jackson shows Laurie as having three main personality traits. Laurie can be best described as rude, impish, and disruptive. Early on in this story Laurie shows us his rude behavior when he starts kindergarten. Laurie is rude to everyone. He is rude to his teacher, his dad, and his mom.

He says to his dad “hey pop you old dust mop”. That’s rude most dads would have slapped him. Laurie shows another trait later on in the story “impish”. He got in trouble and the whole class stayed to watch what would happen. He also makes up this character Charles he tells his mom that “Charles does whatever he really does at school. ” That is just some really impish attitude. Laurie also has a third trait disruptive. Laurie disrupts the whole class a lot in this story. He tells a little girl in his class to say a bad word. ” The little girl did and got in trouble. Then Laurie goes ahead and says the word himself and gets in trouble. That shows disruptive behavior. In our world today kids are the same. They all do stuff to get attention. This story will bring to parents attention how their kids act when they are not around. All kids today can have the same characteristics as Laurie does rude, impish, and disruptive.

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Knowledge without Character

Taking a more inclusive view of the biblically-based Seven Deadly Sins, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (i.e. Mahatma Gandhi) wrote his version: the Seven Deadly Social Sins.  One of the sins he warns of is “Knowledge without Character,” and to understand why he presents this combination as a potential sin, one must look at what Gandhi thought of education (Hansen).

Of education, Gandhi said, The ancient aphorism “Education is that which liberates,” is as true as it was before.  [. . . .]  Knowledge includes all training that is useful for the service of mankind and liberation means freedom of all manner of servitude [. . . – . . .] slavery [and] domination from outside and to one’s own artificial needs.  The knowledge acquired in the pursuit of this ideal alone contributes [to] true study.  (“Gandhi & Education”)

A simple interpretation of this statement requires that those who are currently pursuing a higher education in a collegiate setting need to analyze their reasons for doing so, and if they find that the potential to earn a greater income is the primary drive, they are headed down a path of social sin.  Students need to consider the bigger picture: what can their particular academic interests do to make the world a better place?  Can the lessons learned in an economics class be applied to that student’s participation in local government; to a solution to nation-wide obliteration of homelessness; to increasing the wealth of the entire world so that no human being is faced with dying of hunger; or is that lesson merely a small step towards making more money for a private enterprise?

A grander interpretation of these words could be applied to the current desire to end terrorism.  Looking back to WWII, the scientific knowledge needed to create the atomic bomb was used without character.  Without taking sides or creating a political debate, the fact is that the United States of America dropped two atomic bombs on Japan, and no other country before or since has dropped an atomic bomb in an act of war (Burr).

Moving back to today, it is the United States that is leading the fight against terrorism, and that fight began as an eradication of world-wide weapons of mass destruction—weapons that were made possible and whose force was proven by the same nation that is currently acting as the world’s watchdog.  Fortunately, the United States is getting a second chance: if we are able to combat terrorism and eliminate the threat of atomic weapons and their kin, it may be that the knowledge gained so long ago regarding the devastation of the atom bomb will be applied today with the necessary character by assuring all of humanity that such force will never again be unleashed.

The reason that the Social Sin of “Knowledge without Character” is such a great threat to humanity is directly related to the degree of power that is inherent to the possession of knowledge.  Looking back at the plight of Frederick Douglass, a man born into slavery who taught himself to read and write so that he might better understand his captors and eventually escape his enslavement, it is clear that absent the knowledge of reading and writing, he never would have had the power to forge his papers and flee to the South (Douglass passim).

Today, politicians, attorneys, the media, and others like them who generate the information used by society to stay informed must comprehend the responsibility of what they do.  The power they possess to control the knowledge that is dispersed into society demands that they have the character to present all sides of an issue and report only factual details—of course, as Gandhi predicted, the character flaws inherent in the average human being often precludes the knowledge being disseminated in a manner that is completely accurate and/or honorable.

Consumers of this information must take it upon themselves to assess what they read and hear and are told with a critical eye, and when discrepancies are found, each observer must demand correction.  The knowledge needed to assess information critically is often honed in the arena of higher education, so individuals involved in academia have an opportunity to gain knowledge and apply that knowledge with strength of character.

Patrick Bassett expresses the relationship between educators and Gandhi’s Seven Social Sins in this way, we must continually seek to discover opportunities to challenge our students and to have them challenge us on values issues.  We must continually seek to carve out time to address issues of the community.  We must continually keep the moral agenda before us. When our first and second curricula merge, we teach youngsters to avoid all of Gandhi’s sins and perhaps a few of their own design.  (Bassett)

As responsible individuals in a world that is partially in our hands, we must each consider the words of Gandhi and our connection to them.  It may be the role of the educator to plan actions, but it is the role of the student to take them.  If this were not the case, the words spoken by Gandhi would have fallen uselessly to the ground, never having been truly heard and incorporated into the lives of those who have both the necessary knowledge and character.

Works Cited

Bassett, Patrick F.  “‘Do the Right Thing’: The Case for Moral Education.”  NAIS Academic Forum.  Dec. 1995.  Independent Schools Association of the Central States.

Burr, William.  Ed.  “The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II: A Collection of Primary Sources: National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 162.”  The National Security Archive.  5 Aug.  2005.  27 Sept. 2006.  <http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/

NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/index.htm>.

Douglass, Frederick.  Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself.  New York: Dodo, 2005.

“Gandhi & Education: Basic Education (Buniyadi Shiksha).”  MKGandi.Org: The Complete Site on Mahatma Gandhi.  25 Sept. 2006. <http://www.mkgandhi.org/edugandhi/

index.htm>.

Hansen, Paul.  “Biblical Justice Consultancy: Gandhi’s Seven Deadly Social Sins – A Reflection.”  Redemptorists of the Edmonton-Toronto Province.  2005.  27 Sept. 2006.  <http://redemptorists.ca/justice_articles/social_sins.htm>.

 

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The Study of Simon’s Character in Lord of the Flies

From a Freudian perspective, the tripartite components of the human psyche—id, ego, and superego —are enacted symbolically by Jack, Ralph and Piggy, in the respective order. Simon’s existence in the story serves no purpose to portray this psychic mechanism whereas the other three main characters wrestle with each other and attempt at role balancing in response to survival need. Jack is the id-ridden one, who follows the primitive instinct of the body, and hunting and killing to his satisfaction at any cost.

Obviously, even as one of the Hunters, Simon’s apathy about hunting and his abstinence from eating meat evince the dominion of his mind over his body. Considering the superego, readers might confuse Simon with Piggy and equate their roles as both of them stand for the ethical voice on the island, trying to maintain moral standards by which the ego, Ralph, operates. In fact, the characteristics possessed by Piggy are more consistent with the core of superego.

Intending to be socially conventional, Piggy constructs an ethical frame according to the rules imposed by adults, by which he emphasizes their importance whenever in the face of injustice. In contrast, Simon knows man’s essential illness as a result of long time introspection, in a natural shelter concealed in undergrowth from humanity. On the other hand, Simon’s altruistic tendency, shown by his feeding of the hungry horde of neglected littluns, intensifies his saintliness, as the divisions of the psyche essentially embody three levels of desires.

Recalling the scene when Simon, Ralph and Jack find the candle-like plant, the difference in their interactions with the outside world is clearly demonstrated. Ralph denies their illuminating functions and Jack shows contempt for their inedible quality. They associate an external object with its possible practical use in reality. Simon differs in “seeing” the candle buds, treating an experience as a pure communion, through which insights would have developed according to his sense of impression. Such internal individual perception is limited to affect his inner world of beliefs, but never the others’.

This account for the great difficulty Simon encounters when he tries to explain the beast that he “sees”, actually a concept, is true when those utilitarians cannot even understand Piggy’s practical and logical consequence. Another item worth mentioning is Simon’s inclination to be internally or spiritually satisfied—he detects the candle buds after telling his companions that he is hungry. Candles are a commonly used decoration in religious venues, generally meaning a connection to spirit. Similar instance occurs when the others think that he would be bathing in the lagoon, he seeks solitude— a cleansing of his mind.

Although realizing that the beast-innate evil nature of mankind does exist, Simon is steadfast in his faith in original virtue of humanity, which was once heroic and sick. If the island is personified as a female, Simon is prone to embrace its beauty and tranquility, meditates alone in a glade surrounded by white glimmering flowers of the candle buds, which symbolize mankind’s spiritual purity. He is not ever disturbed by the affirmed discovery of the beast, and feels completely at ease with going by himself across the forest to rejoin Piggy’s group.

The other boys interpret the island in an opposite manner, and become more aware of her danger and hostility as time passes by, giving vent to this restlessness by claiming the existence of the beast. During an assembly, Simon makes a valiant and unsuccessful effort to indicate the essence of the beast- “maybe it is only us”, implying that he expects the beast is one of the two dimensions of our nature . Then he questions the crowd, asking “what is the dirtiest thing there is? ”, assuming mankind’s natural tendency to have an affinity with the clean- the virtuous side of himself.

This belief is radically undermined when he witnesses the brutal killing of a sow with a sense of violent sexual imagery comparing it to a rape, rendering the glade a filthy and bloody place. The concrete ugliness of the body—the spilled guts and the pungent smell, juxtaposes with the abstract one—the hunters’ indulgences to bestial impulse . Nature, which he used to hold in regard for her sacred beauty, is tainted with the sin of flesh, where its root is man’s body, an indispensable part since birth.

The pig’s head on a stake, foul but magnetizing a flock of flies, changes into the Lord of the Flies in Simon’s hallucination, in which he remains conscious, suggested by his comment on the self-proclaimed beast- merely “a Pig’s head on a stick”. The Lord of the Flies is an externalization of human sin envisaged by Simon, acting as a medium for presenting his inner conflict with choosing between compliance and self-preservation, the ignorant lie and the despairing truth, at last the abusiveness of evil and the fragility of virtue.

Through the monologue in a form of phantasm, Simon refutes his previous notion of human nature and brings a new definition to it—the beast is part of us instead of being in dichotomy; “Fancy thinking the Beast was something you could hunt and kill! ” he said to himself. He comes to recognize his own plight and that of the island, having a premonition of death as the Lord of the Flies promises to have “fun” on the island. Awake, Simon defies the threat and accepts his fate, as “What else is there to do? ”.

He undergoes a physical and spiritual transformation-“The usual brightness was gone from his eyes and he walked with a sort of glum determination like an old man”. The unmasking of the supposed beast on the top of the mountain which he finds to be a dead parachutist, confirms his belief- the beast is within us. Before climbing down the mountain to make public the truth, he frees the corpse of the fallen man from the bondage in compassion, with a significance of “dust thou art, to dust returnest”, enabling nature to purge the sin from the body.

In his last and desperate attempt in liberating mankind from sin, Simon fails, albeit his love and unwavering faith in mankind, believing that confronting the truth would achieve them a conversion into goodness. His death is inevitable, as a testament to his hypothesis—he stumbles into a circle of insanity before he can explain the nonexistence of the beast, then being torn apart by a group of dancing and chanting “beasts” that have their predatory instinct unleashed and their identities lost. In the arms of the sea, a sign of life’s eternality, Simon finds the homeland of his soul.

The ‘strange, moonbeam-bodied creatures with fiery eyes’ that forms a halo around his head give a little consolation to his death, but they are actually low form of life similar to flies, which are aesthetically accepted by nobody. It is Simon’s noble spirit, under that decaying body, makes them glow. Simon’s death produces no corrective effect on the boys’ ignorance of their inner beast, as ironical as his death, most of the boys give in to such bestiality afterwards so as to gain a psychologically completeness of the brutalities that they have committed, and the island soon ends up being an earthly hell in blaze.

The participation of Ralph and Piggy in Simon’s murder, driven by the need to join the “demented but partly secure society”, indicates the irreversible loss of the boys’ innocence to animality, as the two are the only left on behalf of rationality, yet being insensible to the internal beast, believing that ‘evil is somewhere else’. Even for Piggy, who reasons scientifically, has his own limitation to reach the understanding of their defects by nature, and simply concludes Simon’s death as an accident when he ants to exculpate himself. This explains the futility of Science when tackling with the dark side of humanity. The story itself is a miniature of mankind history, and the reason for the collapse of a society can be inferred- neither determined by the fire nor the conch. The former represents technology—can be the first spark ever ignited but also a destructive atomic bomb, helps, at the same time, totally destroys civilization.

And the latter refers to a democratic parliamentary system which Golding had elaborated on in his speech-“The moral is that the shape of a society must depend on the ethical nature of the individual and not on any political system however apparently logical or respectable. ” Therefore, Simon is the final resolution for all chaos, who exemplifies the ideal moral that individual should have- he is temperate in sensual desire, sacrifices for mankind’s welfare expecting nothing in return, sees through man’s latent ill nature but martyr for a faint possibility of healing it.

Nonetheless, here comes the paradox- Simon is not a convincing character that can come to life. The author had him idealistically created and endowed him a propensity to put overly the spiritual above the material: basically, he does not express the normal desire to survive, neither in a primitive society nor a civilized one, for the structural model of psyche is inapplicable to him. Again, he spontaneously has an insight into human nature with a covert thinking process, likely to produce an ill-founded outcome for his reliance on idealism (of philosophy) if being in reality.

Rather than calling him an idealistic thinker, he suits better to the role of a visionary, having a supernatural intuition that Ralph could go home eventually. Thus the only way to justify for his motivations is that he is deliberately intended to be a Christ figure, admitted by Golding in an interview, in which he also said, “What so many intelligent people…find, is that Simon is incomprehensible. …a person (Simon) like this cannot exist without a good God.

Therefore the illiterate person finds Simon extremely easy to understand…” In “Lord of the Flies”, Simon is designed to be a symbol of religion, because of the parallelism between his fate and Jesus’s which is found by many critics. Unlike Jesus, Simon’s death is not redemption of the world from sin. It indeed coincides with an assertion made before the outbreak of World War II, by a German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche—”God is dead”, literally meaning that the conventional Christian God is no longer a feasible source of any absolute moral principles.

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Characterization of the Film Sling Blade

The scene in Sling Blade which our class watched effectively created characterization for the character known as Carl. To begin the scene, it starts with Carl sitting and listening to a fellow in the same institution. A doctor interrupts his talking and says “there are some people for you to see”. The look on the man interrupted is dumbfounded. I can infer this is because Carl doesn’t receive many visitors. This is the author’s first note of characterization. It shows that Carl wasn’t a very popular man.

Also throughout the scene there are dimmed lights, which make the audience believe that Carl is a dark person. He killed a man, and he never talks, all daunting characteristics which also contribute to the dark persona Carl seems to be carrying. The doctor continues to talk to Carl with precautions before they enter the interviewing room. He does this by using a tranquil voice and informing Carl “it’s a woman” which makes us question Carl’s character. Carl could be sexist, he might have killed a woman, or the doctor may just be saying this to persuade Carl into going.

The doctor then enters a room with two women, he makes one of them leave, he turns the lights off, and then informs the interviewer that “Carl doesn’t like to answer questions”. The detail that the doctor is taking so many reforms to reassure Carl’s satisfaction is rightly acknowledged by the interviewer when she asks what is stopping him from killing again. It also proves that the minor details shown by the doctor are proof that he doesn’t believe Carl is ready to leave. This is a massive reflection on Carl’s character, showing that he is like a ticking time bomb waiting to explode.

Carl finally enters the room and the audience is able to hear his first words. The transition can be felt by the viewer when the camera focuses in on Carl. His speech is raspy, and he is confined in his posture, fiddling with his hands. This shows low self-esteem which is also conveyed in his interview. He opens up to everyone in the room. He expresses his difficult childhood which creates empathy and pathos within the audience. This is the main transition, when the audience starts to feel sorrow towards the man who grew up in the barn, who was picked on in school, and who was fed “pretty regular”.

The man sounds as if he was being raised as an animal, and yet the way he conveyed his story sounded as if he was complacent with the way his parents raised him. Carl characterized his dad by saying “my father was a hard working man, more than I can say for myself”. This describes Carl as a man with values. This intriguing man, known as Carl, has been characterized by many separate factors. All of which create someone who has great psychological obstacles which can make the average person understand further why Carl committed the crime he did.

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The Double Helix – Character Guide

Double Helix Readers Guide * Max Perutz – was the head of the unit where Crick works at Cambridge University. Perutz also shared important X-ray crystallography imagery with Watson and Crick that he had received from Maurice Wilkins and Franklin. Whether he was supposed to give this information to Watson and Crick without Franklin’s knowledge is unknown, nor is it entirely known how important her work was to the discovery of the structure. Sir Lawrence Bragg – the head of the Cavendish laboratory at Cambridge university, met with much resistance from Watson and especially Crick. Bragg is the youngest ever Nobel prize winner, which he won for the discovery of the Bragg low of X-ray crystallography. Bragg also wrote the foreword to Watson’s book, adding dramatically to the respectability of the book. * John Kendrew – English educated, also worked in the Cavendish laboratory under the direction of Bragg. Worked closely with Perutz and shared the 1962 Nobel prize with him for their work on X-ray crystallography. Erwin Schrodinger – his book What is Life was a great inspiration to Watson, who agreed that many secrets can be uncovered if the scientific world dedicated itself to discovery of what the true secrets of life are * O. T. Avery – important because their research on DNA/protein after Griffiths experiment on the transforming factor, was decisive enough for Watson to believe that DNA was the genetic material (not protein as was believed) * Max Delbruck – pioneered bacteriophage research which allowed Hershey and Chase to conduct their experiments with radioactive labeling. Maurice Wilkins – was Rosalind Franklin’s partner in X-ray crystallography and played an important role in providing Watson with the B-structure of DNA that Franklin and Gosling had made. Franklin, Gosling and Wilkins all worked at King’s College, London. * Rosalind Franklin – Although Franklin had not agreed to the exchange Wilkins had made (providing of B-structure imagery to Watson), her work proved that DNA was helical and that the bases were on the inside with the sugar phosphates on the outside (as she had said all along).

In short, her 3 contributions were crucial to Watson’s development of the model, although the B-model proved one of her theories wrong but several right. Furthermore, Watson and Franklin had a very heated relationship, which led to many heated debates and sometimes even conflicts. * Linus Pauling – the greatest chemist in the history of the United States, worked at Cal Tech and was the closest competition to Watson and Crick in the discovery of the structure of DNA. Famous for the discovery of the hydrogen bond and the alpha-helical structure of protein.

He’s also famous for publishing a wrong model of DNA (three strands) for which he saw major public embarrassment. * Herman Kalkar – was the head of the laboratory in Copenhagen where Watson did phage research soon after he graduated. He did not enjoy his time in Copenhagen, which is why he left soon after getting there. * Salvador Luria – James Watson was Luria’s first graduate student at the University of Indiana. Luria would go on to do groundbreaking work with phages in biochemistry. He would later win the Nobel prize for medicine along with Hershey and Delbruck for their work on phages. J. T. Randall – was the head of the King’s College laboratory team with Wilkins as his deputy. He shared the 1962 Nobel prize with Watson and crick * Dorothy Hodgkin – was the other major female character in the book. Both of the women clearly struggled in a world that was heavily dominated by men. However, Hodgkin was known to get along with men much better than Franklin. She said this was because of her gender, whereas Franklin experienced the opposite. Franklin and Hodgkin worked closely in the contemplation of the DNA structure. Both scientists were X-ray crystallographers.

Hodgkin won the 1964 Nobel prize for chemistry * Willy Seeds – was famous for calling Watson “honest Jim. ” Worked with Maurice Wilkins in the King’s laboratory and was famous for his pioneering work on the DNA fibers. Him calling Watson honest Jim was clearly sarcasm because they King’s scientists were still bitter about Watson stealing their data to make his model * R. G. Gosling – this was Franklin’s lab partner at King’s College laboratory * Erwin Chargaff – discovered the bases in the purines and pyrimidines (double and single ring) and also discovered that A matches with T and C matches with G.

Gave Watson an important clue in his model building, that he had to match the bases. * Al Hershey – was a scientist that was known for conducting the final proof of DNA being the hereditary material. Their experiment ended the race and assured the scientific world that DNA was the inherited material. * Martha Chase – was Hershey’s lab partner, and was one of the few other women in the scientific world * Peter Pauling – Linus’ son, came to study in London and Watson showed him around. In the process Peter gave Watson some important hints that his father was getting close to the discovery of the alpha helical structure.

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Characters in Hamlet

Jose Cruz December 12, 2011 My English Research Paper Use general quote about betrayal (brainyquote. com) not from Hamlet. This quote from Shakespeares Hamlet includes two very important words; The words “Haste” and “revenge” not only deal with life but with many other literary works as well. In order to take revenge upon someone often means to get back at them or to inflict hurt or harm on them for an injury or wrong done to oneself.

Such is the case in Hamlet where Betrayal (revenge) is the biggest and main conflict of the play because, King Hamlet was ruler of Denmark until his brother Claudius, murders him to become King and marry the Queen, Gertrude. That plot right there creates a whole lot of tension between Hamlet and the new King Claudius because Hamlet wishes to vengeance his fathers death. Therefore, In the play Hamlet, William Shakespeare exemplifies the impact of betrayal on family dynamics throught the use of conflict, dialogue, and irony. Shakespeare uses conflict to show how the betrayal affects family dynamics. Now might I do it pat, now he is praying; And now I’ll do’t. And so he goes to heaven; And so am I revenged. That would be scann’d: A villain kills my father; and for that, I, his sole son, do this same villain sent To heaven” (3. 3. 1). One of the main conflicts of the play is that Hamlet feels betrayed on many levels by the King. (better explaination on this quote)King Claudius is the murderer of his father, King Hamlet. What Hamlet is saying in this quote is his father has died and he is asking for him to revenge him, so since a villain, (King Claudius) killed his father.

Since he is King Hamlets only son, he feels he must take revenge upon his fathers death and kill King Claudius. “No place, indeed, should murder sanctuarize; Revenge should have no bounds” (4. 7. 13). A quote said by King Claudius; Then Laertes and Claudius conspire to murder Hamlet. Laertes and Hamlet both have a father to revenge is this play, Laertes wishes to take revenge upon Hamlet for his father was murdered by King Hamlet during a war. When Claudius later asks Laertes how far he would go to avenge his father, Laertes replies that he would slit Hamlet’s throat in the church (4. 7. 98).

Through out most of the play, there is a build up of tension between Hamlet, Claudius, and Laertes. There are critics all around the world who put there two sense in about all different books. There are plenty of critics who write about what they think about the play Hamlet, and most of them can have very interesting write ups. Acritic named William Hazlitt and from reading his page, some say they have personally found his work very observing. “He is the prince of philosophical speculators; and because he cannot have his revenge perfect, according to the most refined idea his wish can form, he declines it altogether” (William Hazlitt).

Hazlitt says that Hamlet cannot have the revenge he wishes and intends to on the King, so he then scruples to trust the suggestions of the ghost. In the play, it reveals that the ghost is the spirit of King Hamlet and he is reaching out to Hamlet personally to seek revenge for his death and kill Claudius. Summarize how conflict is used as a technique by Shakespeare to demonstrate effects of betrayal on family dynamics. Shakespeare uses dialogue as his secondary to show the impact of betrayal.

The term dialogue means to have a conversation between two or more persons. In the play, Hamlet is approached by the ghost of King Hamlet multiple times, and what the ghost is asking of his is to avenge his death. “In the darkness, the ghost speaks to Hamlet, claiming to be his father’s spirit, come to rouse Hamlet to revenge his death, a foul and most unnatural murder” (1. 5. 25). The most common conclusion is that the dialogue used to create the impression of a significant time lapse between Hamlet’s encounter with the ghost and the subsequent action. The interchange of question and answer, as a basis of dialogue, is fundamental to dramatic technique whenever it serves a purpose, becomes dialectic” (Levin, 227). The dramatic technique in Hamlet is all based upon the dialogue used in the play. The conversations between all the characters in Hamlet discusses betrayal and family dynamics. For example, when Claudius and Hamlet have a conversation, Hamlet tries to play it cool but inside all this tension is building up at any moment, he could strike on Claudius but he chooses not to and waits for the best moment.

Everyone knows that betrayal is the main conflict of the play Hamlet. “So art thou to revenge, when thou shalt hear” (1. 5. 7). Here is when the plot of revenge is established and continues until the end of the play. Shakespeare uses irony as another technique to illustrate how family dynamics ae affected by betrayal. Irony is the expression of one’s meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect (Dictionary). After Hamlet’s first meeting with the ghost, he decides to put on an antic disposition (1. 5. 172).

He pretends to be mad but really he’s just trying to hide the fact that this behavior is a kind of a shield or protection against Claudius and the others who may try to pry out his secret and foil his revenge. (Rosenblum 731). Hamlet shows irony at this part of the play because he acts and speaks as if he’s mad and angry but really he’s just trying to keep a low profile. Critic Harry Levin says that the interplay between these preoccupations is the source of innumerable ironies, both conscious and unconscious, some of them attached to the hero’s viewpoint, other detached in a reminiscent overview (231).

What Levin is saying is that Hamlet has no plan on what he should do to avenge his fathers’ death and how and when he should strike Claudius to his death. Claudius begins his speech saying, “’Tis sweet and commendable in your nature, Hamlet, To give these mourning duties to your father“, but that he “must know your father lost a father, That father lost, lost his. ”(1. 2. 87-89)  But he insults Hamlet, adding “’Tis unmanly grief. ”(1. 2. 94). When Claudius says that it is “sweet and commendable” to give this duty, he’s praising Hamlet for something that will eventually kill him.

Shakespeare is often considered on of the world’s greatest playwrights, and has a style to back it up. He writes with poetic diction using eloquent words and phrases. He uses irony to convey the impact of betrayal on family relationships The use of conflict, dialogue, and irony are used throughout the play Hamlet enabling Shakespeare to show the impact of revenge. Shakespeare uses conflict as his primary to express his characters’ reaction to betrayal. All throughout the play Shakespeare reates conflict between all the characters whether its between Hamlet and Claudius, or Laertes and Hamlet, etc.

By doing so he shows betrayal and its results. As said in the second paragraph, the main conflict of the play is betrayal and this leads to the desire for revenge. Many characters are seeking revenge at someone, but the main character with this feeling is Hamlet, who wishes to avenge his father’s death caused by the new king, King Claudius. All of this conflict in the play is seen into the dialogue of the characters. Shakespeare uses dialogue as another method to show the impact of betrayal.

He uses the conversations between those characters with vengeance on their minds to create moods throughout the play. Lastly, Shakespeare uses irony as his third to show the impact of betrayal. Take for example, when Claudius kneels to pray and Hamlet enters, this could’ve been Hamlets chance to kill Claudius, but he decides to spare him because then Claudius would not receive the tourturous afterlife Hamlet wishes upon him, instead he would go to heaven. That creates some sort of irony because Hamlet does the opposite of what he really wants to do. | |

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Do Genes Determine Character Traits

“Character Traits Determined Genetically? Genes May Hold the Key to a Life of Success, Study Suggests. ” I: Introduction Do genes distinguish our personality traits or is it simply environment, and upbringing that makes us who we are? Psychologists at the University of Edinburgh have discovered that genes may play a greater role in forming character traits than they were thought to before. Things such as self-control, decision-making or sociability could be more nature than nurture. II: Background

The debate of Nature vs. Nurture has been a widely argued topic among psychologists for more than a century. Both opinions of the nature vs. nurture debate have been examined among researchers and a great amount of research has been found, just no clear conclusions of whether it is one or the other. We have always thought of genes distinguishing your physical features such as eye color, hair color, height, etc. , but can genes play more of a role in your personality than scientists thought? III: Experiment

In this study, more than 800 sets of twins, mostly age 50 and over were tested by a method of asking a series of questions to see how they viewed themselves and others. The questions that were asked included questions like “Are you influenced by people with strong opinions? ” and “Are you disappointed about your achievements in life? ” The answers to these questions were then compared with the Ryff Psychological Well-Being Scale. This scale is a Self-perceived quality-of-life scale that is used as a psychological assessment instrument.

It is based on a comprehensive theory of the Self-Perceived Quality of Life and provides a multi-faceted measurement of health-related and non-health-related aspects of well-being. The psychologists found that genetics were more influential in shaping key traits than a person’s home environment and surroundings. They also found through this study that genes affected a person’s sense of purpose, how well they get along with people and their ability to continue learning and developing through out their own lives.

The research team for this study found that the identical twins who’s DNA was exactly the same were more likely to share traits compared with non-identical twins. These findings are significant because, the stronger the genetic link, the more common it is that these character traits are carried through a family. These results also can make a link of epigenetics and the influence epigenetics have on generations. IV: Reflection Nature vs. nurture and the study of genes has been the one topic that has most interested me throughout this class.

I find genes and epigenetics fascinating; therefore I chose to do my paper on this particular topic. This article expresses many aspects of genes and DNA that we went over not only in lab but in lecture as well. Environment plays a key role in the way we personally grow and develop, but genes and epigenetics carry a large part as well. People don’t always realize that genes can cause personality. We have always been taught that genes distinguish things like hair and eye color, and I feel this article shows that genetics is important in all aspects of “creating” an individual.

V: Sources University of Edinburgh (2012, May 16). Character traits determined genetically? Genes may hold the key to a life of success, study suggests. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2012/05/120516115903. htm The Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being by Tricia A. Seifert, University of Iowa http://www. liberalarts. wabash. edu/ryff-scales/ Nature Nurture in Psychology by Saul McLeod published 2007 * http://www. simplypsychology. org/naturevsnurture. html