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Prominence of Computer Security and Forensics

INTRODUCTION

Forensics and related courses are fast flattering current career of the students. It has a global reputation for excellent in the development of the techniques of forensics. The forensics is the investigation process which is related to the police services.

Many students are focused in forensics some of the area are the following

Criminology
Toxicology
Questioned Documents
Odontology
Pathology / Medical Examiner
Physical/ Forensic Anthropology
Forensic psychiatry/psychology

Many opportunities are waiting for the students who are pursuing forensics science and other related courses. The main criteria in the forensic science are

Chemistry -analysis of paint, chemicals counting fire investigation and reconstruction of accidents.
Biology – It is associated to crimes in contradiction of people murder, assault and rape cases.
Drugs and toxicology.

Research Enterprises of Forensics

Consulting with people on the front appearances and document their problems.
Eavesdrop to law enforcement and relate our own knowledge of computer forensics according to those problems.
Learn current investigating techniques and suggest alternatives, measuring the alternatives in real world and reporting the results.
Pay attention to the sufferers and give them a good solution to analyse what happened to them and report it appropriately.

Job availability segments for forensic students

Law enforcement
Financial
Consulting and
Academic.

Forensics courses develop the unique skills which means a person cannot handle the networks without any knowledge of it and for example a computer engineer cannot survive in the forensic field just because he can knows only about the system management. So the above are the sectors for the computer forensic students.

Importance of security

Security is the most important thing in everyone’s day to day life. A mail can be hacked by fetching the original information and it is replaced by a fake data to cheat people with the help of some software’s.

A fake websites are there by collecting the personal bank information of an individual person, it happens like a person is asked to buy some stuffs by sending them a portal of the bank information to be filled and after sometime that pages are fetched and hacked by some frauds .

These are all the techniques used to hack the personal information and trouble them so computer security is there to give some surety to the companies by protecting the secrets of each and every person’s information.

Anonymous tools

It could be used to create an unidentified data form the original data. Forensic researchers will be having packet dumps, email messages, document files, disk images, etc..,

Types of forensics

Disk forensics
Network forensics
RAM forensics
Phone forensics
Document forensics and
Software forensics

Services of forensics

Examining the evidence of hacking
Analysing of electronic mail, chatting capability and deleted files for worker annoyance.
Checking the computer system for the evidence of IP address theft
Examining the erased internet action and server log files for evidence of unauthorised activity of a person.
Investigation into the denial of data systems and computer strategy
Extracting the evidence for non-computer concerned with investigations.
Producing reports to the industrial courts.
Observing the common employees misusing the computer
Developing the software’s to solve some specific problems.

Available Job Opportunities by studying computer security and forensics

In detecting and investigating the cyber related crimes
In using tools of forensics
Handling the cyber-crimes with intelligence of tackling them
Finding the loss of account and recovering them

The techniques gained by studying computer security and forensic course

Trouble shooting the operational issues:

Finding the incorrect physical location of the network and resolving the problem in the correct way in the host.

Log monitoring:

Analysing log entries and correlating log entries from multiple systems.

Recovering data from the system:

Fetching the lost data that has been hacked by anyone or modified with help of tools etc…

Mobile Forensics

Mobile devices are terribly increasing in the recent trend. Many communication protocols like Bluetooth, WiFi and 3g allow the free data transfer across international restrictions. Users are allowed to transfer the data, browsing and send and receive e-mail with attaching files.

Analysis of call data records

The records of the call data has been showed below

Date of call
Time of call
Call duration
Number making the call (originating)
Number receiving the call (terminating)
IMEI – International Mobile Equipment Identity
CI – Cell site identity number

Description of Audio and Video

Audio Analysis

Audio can be recorded in high diverse range including mobile phones, dicta phones, covert recording devices, cameras and mobile phones CY4OR is a full enhanced and transcription service in the forensic audio and video suite.

Video Analysis

The propagation CCTV equipment on virtually every street corner, outside business buildings and even for domestic properties is increased for some evidence are available for inspection.

This type of evidence is seriously trusted upon in court but often needs improving to ensure that is obviously presented. CY4OR’s practiced video team uses formal of the art equipment to enable the augmentation, de-multiplexing and restoration of material.

Data Recovery

Data recovery is the process of recovering data from damaged, failed, corrupted, or inaccessible secondary storage media when it cannot be accessed normally. Data can be retrieved from storage media such as hard disk drives, storage tapes, RAID, CDs, DVDs, and other electronics.

Recovery may be required due to physical damage to the storage device or logical damage to the file system that prevents it from being mounted by the host operating system.

Conclusion

The skills that are gained from computers security and forensic course include the broad knowledge of forensic principles, procedures, tools and techniques to handle the problems. So it develops the skills required by the employers and fulfills them. Apparently there is more possibility of new techniques as well as advancements yet to develop in the area of forensics because “computer security and forensics is only a journey but not a destination” student who currently learns will say many things new to this world by studying this course. Hence this paper briefly explains about the required skills by the employers to work in the forensic field and also in pertinent sector by attaining this course.

Reference:

http://www.cy4or.co.uk/forensic-services/mobile-device-forensics

www.intaforensics.com

www.krollontrack.co.uk

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The term “digital technology” refers to the technology that is electronic or computer based

Introduction

The term “digital technology” refers to the technology that is electronic or computer based, . The field of digital technology is incessantly evolving and has dramatically changed the way of communication in a variety of arenas.

Digital technology has made its mark in the technology world; everything is seemed to be inspired by it. Things had become easy and handy to maintain. It is so vast that now we have different types of digital media available that are run on different platforms but they have a common character that is they all use digital technology. Digital technology enforces an electronic media in to new world. Computer, Television, audio/video devices, I Pods, cellular phones etc. The effect of the digital media is common everywhere. , Newspapers books and magazines are also become digital. This is because of the latest facilities and features that digital technology provides to its end users.

Digital marketing and communication

The concept of “digital marketing” has been used more frequently and operationally, where as the theoretical understanding and comprehensive models ofwhy and how to use different digital channels are still in developing process. Urban (2004) suggests, “The Digital marketing uses the Internet and information technology to extend and improve traditional marketing functions.” He relates all the traditional 4 P’s, and focused on both customer retention and acquisition.Terms like “interactive marketing,” “one-to-one marketing,” and “e-marketing” are close to digital marketing, but neither are they defined very precisely. Coviello et al,(2001) define e marketing as “using the Internet and other interactive technologies to link the firm with the identified or targeted customers. They consider e- marketing as a subject of e-commerce. They focused e- marketing as managing continuous IT-enabled relationships with consumers by forming dialogue and interactivity (scripts).

Paradigm on Customer Loyalty and branding communications in the field of digital marketing communications

As described in Fig. 1 which proposes an integrative model of the effects of digital marketing communication on customer loyalty. This model consists of means of brand communication via different sources or channels.

· Moderators – interactivity and personalization
· Outcomes -Perceived values and commitment,
· Customer loyalty, Mediators customer characteristics, situational factors, involvement, and relationship.

By “brand communication” we refer the quality of communication between the brand and customers. It includes direct marketing, advertising, newsletters, or any other related consumer’s activity in a brand community. This complies the process of building brands and customer relationships is much more efficient than traditional media advertising as example given by Aaker and Joachimsthaler 2000, Duncan et al,1998. The presented model focused on how brand communication affecting customer loyalty. There are two main factors in building brand communication what are expected to affect customer loyalty and its frequency example, how many brand messages and content, promotional or relational.

The main outcome in the model is customer loyalty is divided into behavioral example purchases and attitudinal loyalty or consumers brand attitude. For true customer loyalty to exist, a pattern of repeat purchases must be accompanied by a positive attitude ( Jakoby and Chestnut 1978). This distinguishes it from spurious loyalty, where only behavioral loyalty is detected with low relative attitudes (Dick and Basu 1994).

Brand communication can also be personalized. For example, customer profiles or preferences effects the brand communication are constructed in customers minds through information so the assumption also mediating factors that affect how the loyalty effects of DMC are created. They can be used to create customized message content for different marketing segments or individual customers delivered via their chosen channels that increase the value of communication to the customer. Identifying the content, timing, and channels are also personalized elements to look after. Brand contacts can differ interactively example customers can search the information or make inquiries, and can leave the feedback or various other activities with marketers or other customers can be processed. It leaves the positive effect on customer loyalty.

Interactivity can be described as its divisions:

Functions (e.g. a web contact form),
Processes (e.g. that messages are contingent upon previous messages),
Perceptions (how customers perceive interactivity), and time spent
Brand (e.g. playing games on branded website).

The effects of brand communication on customer loyalty can be verified from behavior and attitudes of the consumer: example purchases, visits, brand satisfaction attitudes, feedback forms etc

E-Marketing Mix.

The e-marketing mix considers the elements of presenting the marketing mix online.

E-product strategies

The buyer knows immediately about product features, the facts, not sales persons, consumers know what they get as the verity of choices available.

The buying process is also customized for returning visitors, making repeat purchases easier. Organisations can also offer immediately ancillary products along with the main purchase. Example, the chance to buy extra printer cartridges along with your purchase of your printer online. The product can also be customised to consumers needs.

E-price strategies

The Internet has made pricing very competitive. Many costs i.e. store costs, staff cost have disappeared .The Internet gives consumers the power to shop around for the best deal at a click of a button. The competition on pricing is unpredicted and global. . The online auction company www.ebay.com has grown in popularity with thousands of buyers and seller bidding daily.

E-place strategies

One of the biggest changes to the marketing mix is online purchasing. Consumers purchase direct from manufacturers cutting out retailers totally. The challenge for online retailers is to ensure that the product is delivered to the consumer within a reasonable time. Location is important within our place strategy. Online location can refer to where links are placed on other websites. Placing a link on www.google.com home page would generate high consumer traffic for you. Knowing your customer and knowing where they visit should help you understand where to place your online links and advertisements.

E-promotion strategies

Promoting products and service online is concerned with a number of issues.

E-promotion includes:

Having a domain name.: (A recognisable domain name is first stage towards e-promotion. Organisations such as egg.com have successfully positioned their brand on the online world. )
Banner promotions: (Placing banner advertisements on other WebPages )
Web public relations (WPR):
E-leaflets:
Direct email: (It is a popular and common form of e-promotions, although slowly becoming the most hated my many consumersDirect emailing is also known as SPAM which stands for Sending Persistent Annoying eMail. (SPAM). )

Consumer online buying behavior.

The consumers” buying behavior has always consider as a popular marketing issue, with broadly considered and also debated over the last decades. The principal approach, explaining fundamentals ways of customer behavior, mention the customer buying procedure as learning, information-processing and decision-making action categorized in various following steps:

Identi?cation about a particular problem
Search tool that contains information.
Alternative evaluations.
Purchasing making decision.
Post-purchase behavior

(Bettman, 1979; Dibb et al., 2001; Jobber, 2001; Boyd et al., 2002; Kotler, 2003;Brassington and Pettitt, 2003)

To understand the mechanism of virtual online shopping and the consumer relationship behavior of the online customers is a main concern for practitioners challenging in the fast growing practical marketplace. By giving the constant expansion of using the Internet techniques in terms of user statistics, transaction volume and business infiltration to the huge amount of research attempt is not giving any kind of surprising. There is 20 per cent of Internet user in several countries who already purchase goods and services online (Taylor Nelson Sofres, 2002) while about50 per cent of US net user frequently buying online.

(Forrester Research, 2003). These kinds of development are regularly transforming e-commerce into a mainstream business activity while at the same time online customers are growing and practical vendor understand the importance and necessity for an expert and customer-oriented approach. While totally understand the needs of customers and behavior of the consumer who dealing online (Lee, 2002) while most of them “ . . . continue to resist with how successfully to market and sell goods online” (Joines et al., 2003, p. 93). A very significant input in classify the rapidly growing number of investigate papers on the issue of the effective customer’s behavior is the study of Cheung et al. (2003). The ?ndings of their complete prose review are summarizing in a form that depict the major category of factors that disturbing the online consumer.

Online marketer’s persuasion tools and the Web experience

Next to the personal and external uncontrollable factors in?uencing the buying behavior, exposure of customers to the company’s marketing can affect the decision-making by providing inputs for the consumer’s black box where information is processed before the anal consumer’s decision is made (kolter, 2003). Online marketers can in?uence the decision making process of the virtual customers by engaging traditional, physical marketing tools but mainly by creating and delivering the proper online experience, the Web experience: a combination of online functionality, information, emotions, cues, stimuli and products/ services, in other words a complex mix of elements going beyond the 4Ps of the traditional marketing mix. The prime medium of delivering the Web experience is the corporate Web site, the interfacing platform between the ?rm and its online clients (Constantinides, 2002).

Consumer Relationship management and ICT

The Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is now became a strategic imperative for all company as its efficient execution be able to add to customer satisfaction, reliability and maintenance and so, in general sale and replicate purchases (Feinberg & Kadam 2002, Kotorov 2002, Anton & Hoeck 2002). However, though CRM is consider as one of the fastest growing management approaches thay is adopted across many business firms (Adebanjo 2003) and mainly tourism and hospitality firms (Sigala 2003), CRM operation is not mean to always delivered the predictable results (Rigby et al. 2002), many CRM initiative have unsuccessful (Early 2002, Feinberg & Kadam 2002), while Kekoe (2002) notify that almost 20% of business executive were claimed that CRM initiative had been damage by consumer relationships. With a result, several organisation in the tourism sector are presently surprised their CRM funds or delay implementation of their future project (Sigala 2003a). Furthermore, the incapacity of CRM application to carry expected profit has not just intensify the legality of earlier findings and claims about the ICT productivity paradox (Sigala 2003b), but it is also boost with current investigate, which is reflect with the huge number of study investigative the grave success factor of CRM (e.g. Cann 1998, Rigby et al. 2002, Rheault & Sheridan 2002). Though, even if these studies offer personal evidence of the impact of ICT management practice on CRM effectiveness, and also there is a lack of experimental studies that may questioning the association in between CRM association and presentation aspects (Tu et al. 2001). Karimi et al. (2001) showing the full force on ICT association to perform on consumer service application, but there is a procedure has been unsuccessful for providing full proof of the relative of these create with concert profit.

CRM: DEFINITION AND BENEFITS EVALUATION

CRM realization is greatly reliant on and driven by ICT tools & advances (Bradshaw & Brash 2001), it is broadly argued that CRM is a combination of software, hardware, processes, management commitment, and application (Sigala 2003a, Rigby et al. 2002). The ICT tools exploitation and their integration with the applications of CRM are expected to take a number of benefits such as (Krishnan et al. 1999, Fitzsimmons & Fitzsimmons 1997): improved service and product quality; customer satisfaction; improved financial performance, higher productivity; and formation of barriers to entry; customer services and enhanced convenience through the initiation of new products and various other service/delivery channels. The diverse CRM tools enabling such benefits can be classified as follows (Dyche 2001, Karimi et al. 2001): operational tools for improving customer service, automating sales force, online marketing, etc; improving relationships, analytical for building data warehouses, analysing data etc; collaborative for the creation of online communities, service personalization ;developing b2b customer exchanges, etc. Customer focused CRM applications help firms in enhancement of effectiveness and efficiency of customer service, online sales and marketing,aby automating: 1)asales forceaprocesses toareduce informationaasymmetry andadelays, and toaimprove efficiency; 2) callacentre’s andaintegrating customeradatabases to reduce staffarequirements and theatotal cost ofaownership of callacentres; 3) e-mailainteractions withacustomers to improveacustomer service andaservice efficiency andaintegrate e-mail, telephone andaweb interfaces; and 4) customer responsesaand profiles, tracking marketingacampaigns throughavarious media across a numberaof channels and managingaquote andaproposal processesafrom negotiationsato closing. Operational focusedaCRM processes benefitafirms in supply chainamanagement, orderamanagement andaservice field by: 1) usingadatabase information and supplierapipeline processes toaforecast demandamore accuratelyaand create viableascheduling applications;a2) reducing overallaproductionacostsaby streamliningathe flow ofagoods through productionaprocesses and byaimproving informationaflow; and 3)aimproving lead time/qualityaand enabling moreacustomization at a loweracost.

ICT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND CRM BENEFITS

ICT managementasophistication is found toasignificantly moderate the materialisation of the fullaICT business valueaand has been traditionallyaused to characterise aafirm’s evolution in itsamanagement orientation,aplanning, organisationaand control aspectsaof its ICT functiona(Karimi et al. 2001, Sigala 2003b, Tallon et al. 2000). Greater ICTamanagement sophistication is characterised by (Karimi et al. 2001):athe IT manager beingaaware of the firm’s long-termastrategic plans; theafirm’s future strategicaplans being explicitly consideredaduring ICT planning; and theaICT performanceabeing evaluated based onacontribution to the overallafirm’s objectives andanotexclusively on cost savings.aParallel, in firms withahigh ICT managementasophistication, top managementais expected to have greateraknowledge about ICT andaparticipate moreaactively in ICTaplanning. Moreover,astudies investigatingathe ICT productivityaparadox have also revealedathat CRM benefits’ materialization depends onathe sophistication ofaICT management as CRM successais inhibited/facilitated by theafollowing factors: failure to developaa CRM strategy andaadopt a strategic orientationa(Cann 1998, Rigby et al. 2002, Sigala 2003a); lack of robustaimplementation approaches (Rheault & Sheridan 2002, Adebanjo 2003); lack ofameasurement tools (Abbot 2001); selectionaand configuration of theaCRM tools according to businessaprocesses and strategic goals (Rheault & Sheridan 2002; Adebanjo 2003); ICTaimplementation and integration (Cavaye 1995, Adebanjo 2003, Sigala 2003a); ICTamanagement (Karimi et al. 2001); and management of organisationalachange, cultural management (Corner & Hinton 2002, Sigala 2003a, Fjermestad & Romano 2003). Previous research (Karimi et al. 2001, Tallon et al. 2000) has also proved thatacorporate strategic ICTagoals have a direct as well as anaindirect (by influencing the wayaorganisations plan, invest, useaand monitor ICT projects) impact onaICT benefits. Based on this analysisathe followingahypotheses can beaproposed: H1) managers in firms with moreafocused goals for ICT will perceiveagreater CRM benefits; and H2) managers claiming higherasophistication in their ICT managementapractices will perceiveahigher CRM benefits.

References

Urban, Glen L. 2004. Digital Marketing Strategy: Text and Cases, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Coviello, Nicole E., Roger Milley and Barbara Marcolin. 2001. “Understanding IT-enabled Interactivity in Contemporary Marketing.” Journal of Interactive Marketing 15 (4): 18-33.

Aaker, David A. and Erich Joachimsthaler. 2000. Brand Leadership. New York: The Free Press.

Duncan, Tom and Sandra E. Moriarty. 1998. “A Communication-Based Marketing Model for Managing Relationships.” Journal of Marketing 62 (April): 1-13.

Jacoby, Jacob & Chestnut, Robert. 1978. Brand Loyalty: Measurement and Management. New York: Wiley.

Dick, Alan S. and Kunal Basu. 1994. “Customer Loyalty: Toward an Integrated Conceptual Framework”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 22 (2): 99-113

Bettman, J.R. (1979), An Information-Processing Theory of Consumer Choice, Addison-Wesley, Glen View, IL.

Dibb, S., Simkin, L., Pride, W.P. and Ferrell, O.C. (2001), Marketing Concepts and Strategies, 3rd ed., Houghton-Mif?in Company, Boston, MA.

Boyd, H.W., Walker, O.C., Mullins, J. and Larre? che? , J-C. (2002), Marketing Management, A Strategic Decision-Making Approach, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Columbus, OH.

Kotler, P. (2003), Marketing Management, 11th ed., Prentice-Hall International Editions, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Brassington, F. and Pettitt, S. (2003), Principles of Marketing, 3rd ed., Prentice-Hall/Financial Times,Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Taylor Nelson Sofres (2002), The TNS Interactive – Global eCommerce Report,availableat;www.tnsofres.com/ ger2002/home.cfm

Brassington, F. and Pettitt, S. (2003), Principles of Marketing, 3rd ed., Prentice-Hall/Financial Times,Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Forrester Research (2003), “Forrester Research projects US ecommerce to hit nearly $230 billion”, press release, available at: www.forrester.com/ER/Press/Release/ 0,1769,823,00.html, and “Consumer technographics: the online consumer 1998 to 2003”, available at: www.forrester.com/ER/Research/Brief/Excerpt/ 0,1317,17225,00.html

Lee, P-M. (2002), “Behavioral model of online purchasers in e-commerce environment”, Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 2, pp. 75-85.

Constantinides, E. (2002), “The 4S Web-marketing mix model, e-commerce research and applications”, Elsevier Science, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 57-76.

Feinberg, R., and Kadam, R. (2002). e-CRM web service attributes as determinants of customer satisfaction with retail Web sites, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 13 (5), 432 – 451

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Adebanjo, D. (2003). Classifying and selecting e-CRM applications: an analysis based proposal, Management Decision, 41 (6), 570 – 577

Sigala, M. (2003a). Implementing Customer Relationship Management in the hotel sector: Does ‘IT’ always matter?”, 11th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) “New Paradigms in Organisations, Market and Society’: UniveS. Cuore, Naples, Italy 16 – 23 June, 2003

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Practices on Customer Service”, Journal of Management Information Systems, 17 (4), 125 – 158

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The sciences of collaborating the computer programming consist of mathematical and logical expressions

Abstract

Art and Mathematics: Analogy

The beauty of art relies on a person, who visualizes it, feels it and creates it. It stimulates us to see, hear and feel things that aren’t part of the material world. There has been a striking relation between mathematics and art. There are several patterns of nature that seems artistic and follows mathematical principles. In fact, mathematics and art have long momentous connection. Many painters turned into mathematicians and many art works have the underlying principles in it.

Visual Mathematics :

Right from Da Vinci’s Golden ratio to modern Fractal art and computer animation, art has been a medium to express certain mathematical principles. The modern way of expressing art begins with the play of binary numbers defining certain algorithms to create unique masterpieces. Mathematics is inherent in all artworks. Even soap bubbles follow certain symmetry. Geometry has become a form of art leading to evolution of origami. Southern India is famous for their patterned art form called as kolam/ Rangoli created from dots which have line, mirror rotational symmetry. Even these decorative patterns follow mathematical calculations and some of them are based on Fibonacci numbers as well. A simple system to generate symmetric square kolams is based on the identity n^2 = (n-2) ^2 + 4(n-1). In this way patterns are made and then converted into geometrical loops in a decorative way.

Both math and art breaks the boundaries of reality. It’s all about expressing the boundless realm we have within us and which in our real life can only come in finite ways. Algorithms, Codes and Patterns are all forms of art and we have to explore the possibility of linking several unnoticed beautiful creations of nature.

The sciences of collaborating the computer programming consist of mathematical and logical expressions and art forms are case studied with some of the innovative approaches. In the contemporary world of changing technologies within the creative arena the conclusion of the thesis will bring the opportunity to learn more about the smart approach to create art in any forms. The method of code generated artworks has created unusual designs using interesting platforms and has been modus operandi in painting technology. Generative art evolved from artwork and programming allows the artists to evolve them digitally and create novel masterpieces involving intrinsic mathematical codes.

Fractal art:

It is kind of algorithmic art that exist as electronic images derived from certain calculations. These mathematical calculations are represented as images and animations. The power of modern computers allows us to visualize complex objects. Fractal art is used in modeling mountains, fire and other natural substances. It is basically a fragmented geometric shape arranged in random fashion.

Evolution of Fractal Art:

A snowflake evolved from an equilateral triangle is a kind of fractal art . The mathematical phenomena of recursive self-similarity are exhibited in these art works. Ocean waves, DNA, heartbeat and crystals can be depicted using fractal art. From Generation of new music to computer graphic design for organic environments Fractal art has been a pioneer in projecting these. These art follow equations like Zn+1 = Zn^2 + C where n is the iteration number and each iteration number is given a different color.

Mathematics and geometry in art is clearly illustrated in these forms of art. To the mathematician they bring a glut of very difficult surmises that no one can unravel and to the artist they provide pillars around which imagination can play at will. In this way art and math are used to create graphic of intangible quality.

Fractal art allows us to use iterative procedure to generate unique designs and provides a new experience of the beauty of mathematical calculations and parameters.

Dynamic Painting:

Dynamic painting is a movement in visual arts that has been generated algorithmically by a computer system. It can be considered as a generative art. An artist begins creation of a Dynamic Painting by visualizing an idea for the painting, choosing colors, shapes and principles of their development over time. Using a many procedures that have deep origins in the styles of conventional paintings, an artist transforms the brush strokes into algorithms that can exactly express his original design of a digital painting. These algorithms govern the vitality of the developed art.

The deployment of computational algorithms for generating dynamic artworks might lead to a never ending picture that will not repeat itself from which animation, abstract designs and novel creations can be derived. The algorithm creates a slight mutation in the original system and evolves it into numerous paintings. A prudent algorithm uses a computer to generate a series of unique images that follow the style and pattern of original painting. The painting is always in the state of an everlasting transformation.

The concept of dynamic painting made us realize the value of self-shifting digital paintings and how algorithms are used to generate dynamism. This makes us think to deploy and work on novel algorithms or at computational level to generate unique artworks that has even the possibility of creating painterly animations. This tells how interesting platforms/ libraries are used to generate and different algorithms like ‘The Evolutionary algorithm’ are employed

Platonic Solids in art:

Platonic solids are recurring subject in western art. These belong to the group of geometric figures called polyhedral. The regular solids that are possible are: Cube, Tetrahedron, Octahedron, Icosahedron and dodecahedron. These were the elements that were linked with four elements of nature. The cube to earth (most immobile), icosahedron to water (least mobile), tetrahedron to fire (most mobile) and octahedron to air (intermediate) and the fifth construction used for adorning the constellations . In this way geometric solids were unified with nature. The golden ratio was contained in pentagons and several illustrations from nature follow the rule.

Modern day algorithms are cleverly used to produce smooth, rounded forms from coarse polygons. One can generate many forms with entirely diverse attributes by modifying certain algorithms and process parameters. Mostly the process is iterative and this produce entirely new forms unlike those seen in nature. This is a kind of generative art that employs algorithms to make out masterworks. The use of computational algorithms establishes a strong interconnection between mathematics and art till date and the future is unpredictable. The artwork can be fed into computer which can find out the underlying principle or fundamental notion inside it. Viral structures are built of regular icosahedron, grids based on atmospheric flow are based on icosahedron and the common dice is a platonic solid.

This kind of art that employs algorithms display a novel aesthetic and an amazing complexity whose degree of branching , porosity , topography and fractalization can be modified . These determine the surface development and variation in textures. Platonic solids date back to century of Plato but till date it has been an interesting area to explore for novel graphic design.

Conclusion

Generative art evolved from artwork and programming allows the artists to evolve them digitally and create novel masterpieces. The concept of dynamic painting, Fractal art and platonic solids boils down to concept of employing unified algorithm to create new style of artworks. These topics clearly establish a strong connection between mathematics and art. This enables us to proceed with an iterative algorithm to create a generative artwork. In this way the artist chooses the attributes of his style to be incorporated and develop it into a distinctive work.

Bibliography

1.Hyung W. Kang , Uday K.Chakraborty , Charles K.Chui , Wenjie He(2005);”Multi-Scale Stroke-based Rendering by Evolutionary Algorithm”.In Proc. International Workshop on Frontiers of Evolutionary Algorithms (JCIS),pp 546-549.

2. David G. Stork (2009)”Computer Vision and Computer Graphics Analysis of paintings and drawings: An introduction to the literature” CAIP ’09 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns

3. Dr. Gift Siromoney(1974)“Array grammars and Kolam” Computer Graphics and Image processing Vol 3, pp – 63-88

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Categories
Free Essays

Mark Zuckerberg, an American computer scientist, software developer and philanthropist

Introduction

“When you give everyone a voice and give people power, the system usually ends up in a really good place. So, what we view our role as, is giving people that power.” Said by Mark Zuckerberg.

The above quotes is said by the founder of facebook, Mark Zuckerberg, an American computer scientist, software developer and philanthropist best know for creating the social networking site- Facebook.(Kroll, 2008) Despite his young age of 26, he is already a billionaire and had awarded the Time Person of The Year 2010.(Grossman, 2010)

Facebook is a social networking website launched in February 2004 and operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc.(PenNameEM, 2011). It initially targeted Harvard students, but was later opened to other universities and then high schools. The website’s membership was initially limited by the founders to Harvard students, but was expanded to other colleges in the Boston area.

It later expanded further to include any university student, then high school students, and, finally, to anyone aged 13 and over. In 2006, Facebook allowed everyone to join and also added a News Feed feature that would broadcast changes in members’ pages to all Facebook users identified in their personal network of friends. It turned Facebook into a personalized social news service (Farlex, 2010).

Facebook has a lot of features, (Social Media Boomer, 2009) like for example; people can add friends and send the messages, messages can be sent privately or publicly. A wall which allows friends to post messages for the user to see and use can tell what he/she up to by updating his/her status update. The news feed publishes updates on every user’s homepage and computer seen by the friends of the user. Facebook notes is a blogging feature that allows text and images and some blogs can be imported and Facebook. Facebook has a chat feature which allows instant messaging to friends.

Mark Zuckerberg knew the power of social network more than anyone else and thus had created Facebook which had evolved to an essential-must-visit-site-each-day to many people all around the globe. The successful of Facebook had well enough to convey the importance of social network and had attracted a number of business people to venture the field.

As Mark Zuckerberg said, “the web is at a really important turning point right now.” More and more people had engaged in social networking, resulting with a common norm in voicing out your opinion at the website instead of in front of the public, making friends blindly and deviatory exposing your whereabouts which in terms making the individual becomes more fragile to various danger .

While on the bright side, social networking do have several advantage, It helps people to keep in touch despite geographical distances and it’s a much cheaper medium compare with the others. In short, facebook have its pros and cons, people have to aware the impact, be a smart user and not to fall prey on the downfall.

Background

Studies shows that facebook users had tremendously increase globally and how serious people get addicted to facebook.(Foster, 2010) This phenomenon had brought up both positive and negative issues. People start to realize the power of facebook politically, economically and nevertheless socially. A lot of investments from well-known people had made to the facebook company. Thus, facebook had been upgraded and had expanded to all its potential direction, and yet meets no limitations.

The website currently has more than 400 million active users worldwide. It is undeniable a huge phenomena and had affected other social website as well. At January 2009 Facebook has defeated MySpace. (TechCrunch. 2010)

Since people are become more and more attach to this particular social networking website, it somehow had stirred up some important issue to the society. Facebook has somehow crush with some rules and regulations and has been banned in some countries including Pakistan(Aljazeera,2010), Syria(Global Voices, 2010),China(Youth Radio, 2010),Vietnam (CNN. 2010), and Iran( Telegraph Media Group, 2010).It has also been banned at many places of work to discourage employees from wasting time using the service. (Facebook. 2010)

Facebook settled a lawsuit regarding claims over source code and intellectual property. The site has also been involved in controversy over the sale of fans and friends. Privacy issue had been hotly debated among the people.(Facebook. 2010) Single status updated in facebook will allow the whole network friends knew what you are up to. Nevertheless the photo album posted, strangers may happen to approach to you on the street despite the fact that you do not even know them. Stalkers issue is also a triggering phenomenon.

On the other hand, facebook had its positive side. It had been seen as a wide, rewarding potential market to the investors. Since it was a global phenomenon, international marketers utilize this fact and met its satisfying result. Advertise in facebook is also an effective way to reach target audience.

Facebook has undeniable brings double edge effect to the life of many, and thus the studies of awareness of public both positive and negative impact of Facebook will be further examined by the researcher.

Problem statement

“With the creation of Facebook in 2004, colleges and universities across the United States have been playing catch-up with students. This new technology carries much weight as a new medium for students to build social connections and grow as members of their institutions. However, this new technology also brings negative implications such as lowered GPAs when with greater use,” proclaimed by Boogart. (2004)

People may not aware of the double-sided impact of facebook in their lives. They only realize how social networking crushes them at the point where they had become the victim of social networking.

Addiction to facebook will cause a lot of problem in our lives, such as widen the gap between friends and family as one willing to stick on the computer screen rather than socializing with people around. Seriously attach to facebook will also be an obstacle in performances. One may affect productivity during office hour due to the overly attached to facebook, student’s grades may fall due to this too.

On the other hand, facebook was undeniable a convenient place to socialize and keep in touch. Do the public realize both the positive and negative impact of facebook to the society and are they the smart user or blind user of Facebook?

Objectives

The main purpose of this research is to determine the level of awareness among Malaysians regarding the impact of facebook in the life. Besides, it is also designed to identify media preference and consumption patterns of the public. Those findings will help in further effective message creations. The researcher strongly agrees that the public should have a better understanding of the double-edged impact of facebook, how it will affect their life and the potential direction/growth of facebook in the future

Research Questions

What is the role of media in creating awareness
What is the use of Facebook
What is the impact of Facebook

Significance

Social networking had been a big hit all around the world, and has undeniable becomes a necessity for people all around the world. Most of us have limited knowledge about the pros and cons of social networking and are one of the blind users who use the site for granted. Majority of the people do not dwell much on the core meaning of social networking and thus had neglected many important issues which then had cause some serious agitation both positively and negatively.

Upon all of the incidents that had happened all around facebook, it is necessary to alert the public about the double-sided effect of facebook. By listing all of the advantage and disadvantage of the impact of Facebook, It will aid in creating public’s awareness in personal security issue, social networking fraud and etc, such effort will certainly minimize the potential harm and also to brighten the horizon of the people about the emerging possibilities of facebook in various field.

Limitation

The first obstacle face during the research will be the individual’s bias. As the research is about the double edge impact of Facebook, predictable and unavoidable incidents such as intensive individuals will hold tight with their own perspective and will defy the oppositional view of it. For example, a Facebook supporter will always stand on his/her ground and strongly oppose the negative sides of Facebook, and oppositional, Facebook hater will always discriminates Facebook despite the advantages it brings. Fair and just opinion from both oppositional sides is critical in aiding the accuracy of the research.

The next obstacle will be the sampling issue. Although everyone seems to be able to access to the Internet, there will still be minority of them whom are not familiar with the site. Have to be assure that the target sample is in alignment with the objective. Age range is important too due to the perspective and values holds are different along with age growth. Penetrating observation and estimation of the target sampling is essential in order to obtain accurate outcome of the research.

Besides, another problem that has to be deal is the potential fraud/dishonesty responses from the target audience. They might want to please the researcher and distort their very own opinion or are afraid to voice their perspective out. Therefore, it is crucial to explain to them that the above survey is highly confidential and for educational purpose only before spreading out the questionnaire to them.

Literature Review

The Role of Media

According to the journal “Role of media to engage the masses in water debates and Practices” by Shahzad (2008, p.2), the media is crucial in disseminating news, development facilitator and the agent of change in today’s times. Mass media is essential in creating awareness of various issues as to shape publics’ perception and opinion, particularly with reference to environment issue. Public escalating attachment to the information technologies had aid the growth of the importance of mass media. (Shahzad and Paquistani, 2008, p.2)

Media coverage does influence social flow. Shahzad and Paquistani (2008, p. 5) argue that in their recent coverage of the poor quality of water and sanitation facilities in public hospitals of twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, they are able to attract federal health minister and the NGO to take action and had solved the above problem. Their media coverage had inspired and moved the authorities to install the filtration plant. It shows that media is playing a crucial role in conveying the message to various parties and inspire changes.

Dorji (n.d, p.1) claim that communication is always the primary elements in society, especially in this era called “satellite communication”; mass media has indeed a necessity in human existence. Information and knowledge is being exchange through communication and with the advance technology, distance and other boundaries had been overcome. Various mass media had aid in communication among people all around the world, so as to globalization.

According to Menon (1981) (cited by Alahari, 1997) in the journal “Attitude towards Mass Media and its role in promoting Environment Consciousness” by Tshering Dorji , the function of mass media had been upgraded to serve a wider coverage at a faster pace worldwide. This indeed has helped the media to reach a wider audience. Moreover, media assists people all around to world to interact and connect with each other. (Dorji, n.d)

According to the journal “Attitude towards Mass Media and its role in promoting Environment Consciousness” by Tshering Dorji, it had provided evidence that the media did influence in peoples’ decision making. The more one’s expose to media, the more he/she will be affected by the media. According to the above case study, it stated that mass media has a potential power in fostering a kinship for environmentalism. For instances, mass media had reinforced the links between the environment preservation and culture heritage in Bhutan

Characteristic of Social networking Sites

According to the report ‘Social Computing: Study on the Use and Impact of Online Social Networking’ by Romina Cachia, there are generally 6 characteristics of SNS, which are (1)presentation of oneself: a profile page; (2)externalization of date: viewing and sharing information; (3) new ways for community formation: communicate through various digital objects; (4) Bottom-up activities: idea platform for user to gathered; (5) ease of use: homepages are easy to create and development; and lastly (6) reorganization of Internet geography: removed geographic barrier. Nevertheless, SNS has drastically changes our way of communication.

Differences between Social Networking Sites

Different website serves different people and attracts different types of users despite their similarity of SNS. Like for example, ‘MySpace’ was generally used by musician; YouTube links people through videos; Flickr links people through pictures and etc. (Cachia, 2008)

While on the other hand, Friendster was been utilized to get in touch with old friends and had attracted many youth due to its innovation. MySpace too was created based on that platform but had soon evolved into more of a music platform. On 2004, Flickr which had became known for its dynamic platform for sharing photos was emerged due to the popularity of SNS photo sharing. (Cachia, 2008) And up to date, Facebook with its massive of active users is the one most successful SNS.

Cachia argues that the simplicity and ordered profiles has contributed to Facebook’s successfulness. The vast number of application too has added in fun aspect to Facebook users. The ‘wall’ which allow user to post pictures, comment and link is also another factor that lead its popularity among the public.

Use of Facebook

Boogart (2004) argues that majority use Facebook to stay in touch with high school friends. He founds out only 21.1% of people use Facebook to connect to college peers. Boogart (2004) also states that demographic play a role in defining the user and usage. Women and students are two large populations whom are the active Facebook users. According to him, one will feel more connected to people if he/she use Facebook more frequently. These trends had further extended the addiction of students towards Facebook. Simply put, the more one engages on Facebook the more addicted one would perceive themselves to be.

According to the findings by Joinson (2008), he generally found out that people use Facebook to keep in touch with friends, social surveillance, re-acquiring lost contacts, to communicate by writing on wall or private message, sharing pictures, perpetual contact meaning just to find out people’s status, making new friends and simply because it is easy to use.

Besides, according to Joinson (2008), social network serves as social an emotional support, information resources and ties to some people. Lampe et al. (2006) (cited by Joinson, 2008) states that there’s a differences in ‘social searching’ and ‘social browsing’ in Facebook. Social searching is to find out more information about someone offline while social browsing is an act uses Facebook to further develop a relationship.

Lampe et al. (2006) (cited by Joinson, 2008) also notes social networking sites such as Facebook serves as a surveillance function, where by user is constantly updated about their friends and family, the groups where they belonged.

Impact of Facebook (Positive and Negative)

Positive Impact

According to the journal “Lessons from Facebook: The Effect of Social Network Sites on College Students’ Social Capital” by Kee, Park and Valenzuela (2008), Facebook can aid in unify the community. For example, collective action can be called up common interests groups. Facebook can aid in fostering trust and norms by constantly exchanging opinions and views among users.

Boogart (2004) indicates that Facebook had help to university administrators to connect with students in Campus. It helps them to feel ‘less stranger’ on the school ground and constantly help them to keep in touch with one another and school activities as well.

According to Merritt (2008) (cited by Kee et al., 2008) Facebook no doubt is a social network sites that allow the users to deliver shared, relevant information, a place for exchanging ideas and thus had fulfill many of the promises of civic journalism.

Besides, it is crucial for the media to help citizens to stay connected with the society especially in the time of damaged credibility in public institutions according to Rutigliano (2007) (cited by Kee et al., 2008). Ultimately, it had assist journalist and traditional news organizations in gaining lessons on how to reach individuals, especially young adults from the social network.

Social networking can reduce relationships’ gap for those who are being apart by distances according to Thompson (2009). It brings them together despite the physical separation.

According to Vocus (n.d), it stated that one have to understand the potential of social media can bring. Social media had removed the possible barriers one company has towards its audience, it aid in spreading the intended information, generate sales leads, gauge customers satisfaction and increase brand recognition. The social media has indeed provides the tools and tactics for a company and prove its value.

Facebook help in creating social awareness among people, Facebook users will ultimately been updated by various news posted by their friends, making them aware of the incidents that had recently occurred and as well provide them a better understanding of things (Sagi, 2011) Facebook has help in increasing environment sensitivity among the user despite their hectic lifestyle.

Negative Impact

According to the thesis “Uncovering the Social Impacts of Facebook on a College Campus” by Boogart (2004), there is a significance relationship between heavy use of Facebook and lower GPA among students.

Although Facebook was created to have a positive impact in person to person communication, studies show that it could have a harmful effect according to Thompson (2009). Facebook was first been used as a way for liked minded students to share their life experiences and keep in touch. But it too had reduced the real connection in reality, the interpersonal connection between people. It is like an escapist experience and had displaced the real interaction to an alternative cyber world.

According to the journal “Facebook Games by Design have a Negative Social Impact” (The University of Melbourne, 2010), Facebook games had causes problems such as addiction to internet, decreasing sociability, mis-education to children and fall in productivity among people. Facebook games can lead players distracted and addicted as well. The addiction should be categorized as mental disorder to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders according to Block J. (2008) (cited by The University of Melbourne, 2010), an American Journal of Psychiatry editorial writer.

In addition, Facebook games are easy to be accessible in nature. It runs almost in every modern computer which allows nearly everyone to be able to play them. The game itself is designed to be addictive too; the in-game award system had leaded the players to further enhance their desire to accomplish the goal of the game (The University of Melbourne, 2010). Besides the game have a negative impact on the young. Facebook games such as Texas Poker has indeed encouraged the young user to be involved in gambling.

Moreover, according to the journal “Facebook Games by Design have a Negative Social Impact” (The University of Melbourne, 2010), it stated that Facebook games causes degradation in academic achievement among the students. Students spend more time on Facebook rather than revising their works. Besides, it lowers the work productivity of office workers as well.

Williams and Gulati (2008) argue that using Facebook to hold an online campaign is a non-significant, near zero impact on vote share only due to those candidates who made little effort to cultivate a social network presence and put together it into their campaign strategy. Additionally, campaign supporter in Facebook is hardly to be defined. The amount of the supporter is either the real things or just a hoax created by the candidates themselves.

Theory Applied

Uses and Gratifications Theory

Uses and Gratifications Theory applied in this research. As cited in Chasse and Jenkins (n.d, p2), West and Turner (2005) stated that Uses and Gratifications Theory implies that “people actively seek out specific media and specific content to generate specific gratifications” and also to explain people’s involvement and need for media. According to the article “The role of theories in Uses and Gratifications studies (1979)”, by Blumer, there are six types of audience activity (Bulmer, 1979)

Firstly, people tend to use media to accomplish their task, like for example in this case; most of our respondents use Facebook to connect to their long lost friends.

The second type is intentionality, where use of media is decided by the motive. Respondents’ use of Facebook was difference from one another; their intention behind their impulse can be listed from the purpose of entertainment to socialize as well as other reason.

Thirdly, selectivity, whereby the choice of media reflects the existing interest. People can always choose other media besides Facebook to stay in connect with their friends, there must be significance behind every action they did. The attachment of public towards Facebook too has its own explanation.

Fourthly is to influence, whereby people create own meaning from media content. Different media serve different purposes and effect and people in return decide what to absorb from the media and how the media will influence them. Facebook is convenient in every ways, whether to connect friends from a thousand miles away or to exchange pictures taken shortly ago. The beneficial of Facebook ultimately will have its own meaning to different individuals.

Fifthly, fifth is activity, which means what people use media for. Like for instance, people listens to radio for the timeliness news and hits music, watch television for TV drama, and etc.

Lastly, the activeness, meaning the freedom of the audience in involving. Public involved themselves more in forum or chat room that is found in the internet for the reason that the amount of freedom of participating in such activity is being granted.

Media System Dependency Theory

According to Maxian (2009), Media System Dependency theory in microscopic level is defined as “a relationship in which the capacity of individuals to attain their goals is contingent upon the information resources of the media system.” Those information resources can be categorized as the ability to create and gather, process, and disseminate information.

While in the macro level, the theory is define as the social perspective if the greater increasing people become more dependent on the media, the impact of the media will rise and role of media in society will become more central. Facebook had already been globalization and many of us have been active users itself. The impact of Facebook in our lives can be seen in many prospects. Maxian also proposed that the media is very powerful as it controls every information or resources that needed by the people to achieve their informational goals.

As cited in Maxian (2009), Ball-Rokeach (1998) described that individuals are assumed to function along three main dimensions in the relation between individual and media dependency; which are goal, referent, and intensity.

The goal dimension refers to the motivation of people to achieve their informational goals through the information that provided by the media. For example, people will seek information from media to reduce their stress, entertainment, as well as for self and social understanding. They also use media information as a guide on their daily interaction and situation faced. Facebook serves as many purposes for the public. Many of them claimed that they use Facebook for entertainment, to socialize, to kill times and to escape reality. Those intentions will further push the user to continue to stick on Facebook.

Next will be the referent. The referent dimension refers to the number of media that the people used at once to accomplish his/her goal. For example, a person who is seeking information for his/her assignment will use various media such as newspapers, television, Internet and etc to complete his/her task.

Finally, the intensity dimension refers to the extent of intensity of media used by an individual to achieve informational goal. For instances, if a media source such as the Internet provide the most and best information for people, the dependency of the Internet will be more intense in terms or achieving that informational goal. This can be explained the phenomenon of the addiction towards Facebook by the majority. People had found out what they can do in Facebook and how it had satisfied them in serving their own purpose, thus had strengthen their independency towards Facebook.

Research Design

Quantitative research method will be employed in this study. There are two major types of surveys, descriptive and analytical (Wimmer & Dominick, 2006) a descriptive survey is to explain current conditions and attitudes at the moment, while the analytical survey is to explain why the situation exists. Apparently, descriptive survey will be fully utilized in this study to check on the awareness of the public about the double-edged effect of Facebook.

The reason Quantitative research method is being employed in this study is because it is handy in every aspects to the researcher. Firstly, it helps the researchers to determine the exact situation; roots of the problem and behavior pattern can be defined. Usage of Facebook and public opinion on it can be well evaluated through quantitative research.

Secondly, its economic friendly since the researcher do not have the sufficient amount of money to conduct other research method. Since this is a University assignment, researcher had no financial support to conduct the research. As such, quantitative is the most convenient and cost effective way to help the researcher her findings.

Thirdly, quantitative research method is able to provide a better insight of the situation examined, again, usage of Facebook, media preferences of the public, demographics etc can be collected too.

Fourthly, it is convenient and flexible; it can be conduct everywhere within the target compound. The researcher does not have to undergo complicated situation yet still able to get the accurate outcome.

And lastly, there is numerous information that had already exist available for the researcher to use as primary sources or secondary sources. The positive and negative of social network had been hotly debated by various journalist on the past decade, this as well had save the researcher a lot time and had provide the researcher a better guidelines to finish the assignment.

Population and Sampling

According to Wimmer & Dominick (2006), population is a group of subjects, variables, concepts, or phenomena; an entire class or group is investigated in some cases. The population is this study will be the staff and students of Utar Kampar.

It is impossible to cover the whole population of Utar Kampar, thus a sample will be selected. Sample is a subset of the population that is representative of the entire population (Wimmer & Dominick, 2006). Through this study, 100 respondents age 18 and above will be randomly selected to complete the questionnaires. Location will be targeted at several hotspots in Utar: Block C, Block G, Cafeteria and other crowded places, not to forget via online too.

The reason staff and students are being chosen as the targeted respondents is because they are familiar with the social networking site, Facebook and their lifestyle, media consumption are aligned with the study. Thus, by choosing the right criteria, the researcher believes that it will aid in finding the accurate outcomes of this study.

Instrumentation

Questionnaire will be utilized in this study by the researcher due to the excessive amount of questions can be asked and answer can be obtained on spot from a huge sample.

The survey in this case study consists of three types of questions: (1) open-ended questions, which require the respondents to voice out their own opinion, give them freedom in answering questions and an opportunity to provide in-depth responses; (2) close-ended questions, a list of answer will be provided in which respondents can choose from; (3) likert-scale question, where by the respondent can be able to choose their answer based on the extent of their opinion, for example “strongly agree”, “neutral”, or “disagree.”

Overall, the survey consists of five parts. The first part will be the demographic part in which require the respondents to answer some basic information such as gender, age and education background.

The second part will be answering the research question: what is the role of media in creating awareness on the impact if Facebook, where by the researcher can get in-depth information about the respondents’ perception of media.

The third part is to investigate the reason people attached to Facebook and will also question them about the impact of Facebook brings.

The forth part consists of two sections, each of them study about positive impact and negative impact of Facebook. Respondents who agreed with the statement that there’s a double sided effect of Facebook in our lives will have to answer both section, and those who choose either one of the impact will be responsible solely to the chosen section. By categorizing the respondents in such ways, the researcher will have a better understanding of the perceptions of the majority towards the impacts of Facebook in their lives.

The fifth part will be asking the respondents about their opinion alerting the public about the impact of Facebook and which media will yield the wildest effect in creating public’s awareness of the relative issues.

Data Collection

Survey will be collected at once after the respondents had completed it. There will be a direct interaction between the interviewer and interviewee. As such, the interviewer can be able to help the respondents if they do no understand the survey.

The researcher will be using two kinds of methods to collect the surveys, mall interviews (on-spot interviews) and internet surveys. Mall interviews are a quick and inexpensive way to collect personal information (Wimmer & Dominick, 2006). And of course the mall mentioned is referring to the crowded places found within the University’s compound during peak hours.

The second method is the Internet surveys. According to Wimmer & Dominick (2006), the process of internet survey is very simple, surveys will send out and completed via email. This method undeniable saves cost and is environment friendly.

The survey had been completed in one week time, starting from 14th March 2011 to 20th March 2011.

Data Analysis

According to Wimmer & Dominick (2006), statistics are mathematical methods to collect, organize, summarize, and analyze data. The researcher will use descriptive statistics to convert the huge amount of data into a much understandable and meaningful method. The researcher will present the data by using pie chart and bar chart, together with details description and explanation.

Figure 2.8 denotes that 85% of respondents stated that the information/news from the media will certainly affect their attitude and behavior and had given their reason about it. They said it was because the message media brings is very persuasive and always is the truth of fact. Moreover, the media helped them to gain a better insight of things and lead them to wider perceptions of seeing things.

Besides, the succeed of Shahzad and Paquistani (2008) using media to influence the attitude of the authority has it solid astand for the above statement.

The remaining 15% of respondents’ behavior or attitude will not change by the media was because they found out the media is not a reliable source and some of them actually did not care about it.

In sum, A lot of the information gained from the media inevitably will influence publics’ behavior.

According to figure 3.0, 24% of respondents used facebook for both entertainment purpose and socialize. Another 21% claimed that the reason they used Facebook was because of the peer’s pressure while 16% was to kill times. Remaining 15% of the respondents affirmed that they were merely following the trend.

West and Turner (2005) (cited by Chasse and Jenkins, n.d,) stated that Uses and Gratifications Theory implies that “people actively seek out specific media and specific content to generate specific gratifications” and also to explain people’s involvement and need for media. Facebook served different purpose for different people.

Majority of the respondents had claimed that they used Facebook mainly for entertainment and to socialize. Again, the hectic lifestyle had make Facebook as an entertainment spread like a wildfire among the public. Insufficient time to socialize with one another can now be solved through Facebook.

Discussion and Conclusion

Discussion

The researcher has been able to identify RQ1: the role of media in creating awareness. By referring to the findings (Q4), it can be presumed that most people use media for the purpose of entertainment, followed by surveillance. This is quite a norm to the society as people nowadays are busy in fulfilling their material life and thus do not have the ample time to do other things. Media, in such way has provided the public the best solution to be entertained and so as to be updated on various things. As such, people are gradually influenced by the media (Shahzad and Paquistani, 2008, p5).

According to the findings of question 5, the role of media in creating awareness can be by constantly educating the public about relative issues, in this case is about the awareness of the public on the double sided effect of Facebook, is believes to have the widest effect in alerting the public. This shows that media have the power to influence and shape the public opinion. Shahzad and Paquistani (2008, p.2), also argue that media is essential in creating awareness to shape publics’ perception and opinion.

Covering relative news to aware the public is also another way for the media to influence public. Truth fact is most likely credible and thus will motivate public to change. As stated by Shahzad and Paquistani (2008, p. 5), media coverage does influence social flow. Their coverage of the poor quality of water and sanitation facilities in public hospitals of twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad are able to attract federal health minister and the NGO to take action and had solved the above problem.

Findings from question 6 states that most people found news from media is trustworthy and are aware of the latest issues broadcasted by the media (Q8). Such dependence to the media had prove that media plays an important role in them. Media has indeed become an necessity in the society (Dorji ,n.d, p.1).

The level of public’s dependency towards media and the effect of it to the society found in research question 11, which is high in dependency has nevertheless establishes the claims of media dependency theory. The level of dependency of media will directly affect the role of the media in the society, the greater they rely on it, the superior media will be (Maxian , 2009).

Next, the researcher is able to classify answers of RQII: What is the use of Facebook in part III of the questionnaire. People used Facebook for different purposes, such as ranking from the highest to the lowest according to the findings of question 13: entertainment, to socialize, to blend in the society’s trend and etc. User and gratification theory states that people seek specific media to generate specific gratification and thus explain their use and need for media (Chasse and Jenkins, n.d, p.2).

Majority agree that Facebook has become a necessity in peoples’ lives (Q5). Again, media dependency theory stated that the superior the media get, the powerful it will have its impact on the society (Maxian, 2009), which had been aligned with the findings. Many had agreed with the statement that there’s a double sided effect of facebook in our lives (Q18).

Part IV of the questionnaire is been designed to find out the answer for RQIII: What is the impact of Facebook. Both positive and negative impact will be scrutinized thoroughly. The potential of social media can bring is wide and effective in publicity according to Vocus (n.d), hence it is in line with the researcher’s findings which the respondents agree that Facebook aid in publicity (Q21). Facebook is able to reach a larger market regardless the location and financial. It is the most cost-effective to promote one’s company or product.

Many had agreed that Facebook help them to keep in touch with friends (Q20). According to Thompson (2009), social networking can help in reducing the gap between relationships, whereby many of the respondents agreed as well. Constantly keep in touch with friends and families that are being apart help smoothen a relationships and will perhaps diminish the potential conflict between them.

In addition, on the negative sides, many had agreed that Facebook causes degradation of studies (Q23). Boogart (2004) also stated that there is a significance relationship between heavy use of Facebook and lower GPA among students. Students had spent most of their time playing Facebook and therefore had neglected their studies. The Facebook game too had contributed to the above matters (The University of Melbourne, 2010).

Moreover, most of the respondents states that Facebook will induce lower work productivity (Q23). The University of Melbourne (2010) do suggest that addiction to internet, decreasing sociability will aid in the fall in productivity among people.

As for people busying building and maintaining their relationship via cyber world, the real relationship and interaction in the reality consequently will be hinder. About 22% of the respondents are consent of it (Q23). Thompson (2009) asserts that many had displaced the real interaction to an alternative cyber world.

Based on the findings in question 24, faked Id, online fraud and hacker issues had been also hotly debated by the public. People no longer feel secure while online because they never know the source of their information. Online campaign is been categorized as a non-significant compare to the real campaign (Williams and Gulati, 2008). The information and the amount of the supporters are impossible to be defined.

Majority of the respondents strongly agree that media should aware the public of the double sided effect Facebook brings. They knew the how Facebook can help in one life and to destroy one’s as well. Therefore, media such as newspaper, TV, radio, Internet campaign, etc must play their role to alert the public.

Conclusion

Assessing the importance of media in raising public’s awareness on the double-edged of Facebook is the primary objective in this study. This research also aims to determine the media role in society as well as to understand the impacts Facebook has towards the society. A total of 28 survey questions regarding public perception towards the importance of media role and the impacts of Facebook were studied. Research has shown that media is mainly serve as an entertainment, followed by surveillance, social interaction and personal identity.

Researcher found out most of the respondents agree that media is a trustworthy source and had strongly relied on them. They trusted information from the internet more than news from newspaper as they believe that newspaper was in favor of the politicians. News and information from media poses a great power since they had the ability to alter, shape and influence public decision making.

In addition, researcher is acknowledged that most of the respondents are active Facebook user and they agree that Facebook has become a necessity in peoples’ lives. They do aware of the double sided effect Facebook brings.

The researcher had obtained the percentage of various positive and negative impacts facebook had from the survey questionnaires in which had provide the researcher about the perceptions of the public towards Facebook.

Meanwhile, the researcher found out the negative news of Facebook will affect the use of Facebook among Facebook user. This shows that majority of Facebook user is still a smart user rather than a blind user.

Lastly, researcher also gained an understanding about public opinion on whether the media should alert the public about the double sided effect of Facebook. Public has come in agreement that media plays an extremely important role in creating awareness. Internet has the best effect in alerting according to the findings.

In short, this study is helpful in conveying important information on the impacts of Facebook. As a result, it has provided the researcher with a clearer understanding on the importance of media in creating awareness.

Categories
Free Essays

Electronic Flight Bags is a term used to describe a computer-based system

INTRODUCTION

Electronic Flight Bags is a term used to describe a computer-based system that replaces or augments the traditionally paper-based reference materials and documents used on a flight deck. EFB comprises of both the harware and software used to provide this service. It however does not include Personal Data Assistants (PDAs), Calculators etc which are personal belongings of crewmembers. These personal belongings are tagged Personal Electronic Devices (PED).[1]

EFBs were developed in the early 1990s. The market for EFBs underwent a geometric increase after the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) published a circular on EFB giving guidelines for certification, airworthiness and operational approval. [2] Today, EFBs come in a variety of forms with variying software/harware capabilities. They have not only provided the basic information needed on the flight deck but also serve as a medium to communicate new information to the flight deck.

The EFB is an integral part of flight operating procedures and full training is required to utilise all its functionalities. The sensitivity of information derived from the EFB cannot be overemphasised and as such care must be taken by its operator to verify that such information are accurate and derived from verifiable and reliable sources. The EFB is manned by an EFB Administrator.

EFB Administrator is in charge of the EFB hardware and software. His responsibilities include ensuring that the hardware meets the required specifications and also that the current software applications for maximum yield is installed. He is also in charge of the EFB’s hardware that no unauthorised user accesses it and that no unauthorised user amends information on the EFB’s software.

The latest EFB are broad in their mode of operations. They correspond in near real-time to ground structures for example maintenance management, crew roaster and briefing, flight scheduling and safety organization.

Pilots could have the capability to annotate and archive electronically distributed flight plans post-flight and read/acknowledge electronic noticies; provide two-way messaging between pilots and ground staff; allows flight support staff to wirelessly transmit last-minute updates or revisions to aircraft anywhere in the world.

CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRONIC FLIGHT BAGS

Electronic Flight Bags fall into three hardware classes:

Class 1: Considered as a controlled Personal Electronic Devices, these are generally commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS)-based computer systems used for aircraft operations e.g. a laptop or pen tablet PC loaded with appropriate electronic approach plates, charts and other flight planning software. They are portable and are loaded with data (such as chart updates, weather forecasts and flight reports) outside the aircraft and carried on board by the pilot. They are not attached to an aircraft mounting device but can connect to aircraft power through a certified power source. They are normally without aircraft data connectivity except under specific condition. This class of EFB systems do not require airworthiness approval.

Class 2: Considered as controlled PED, these are commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS)-based computer systems that have been modified by their resellers to include appropriate software and hardware to enable them work with the avionics, particularly the GPS. They are portable and pilots can take them outside the aircraft, they are connected to an aircraft mounting device during normal operations. They provide access to aircraft data and to an optional airborne network server that can be connected to an Airport Terminal Wireless LAN Unit and satellite avionics as well as the ACARS unit. This class of EFB systems require airworthiness approval.

Class 3: These are EFB systems purposely designed and built for use in the cockpit, they are able to access critical systems requiring heavier certification. These:

display the aircraft position on airport runways and the position of surrounding aircraft
connect to airborne file servers linked to various aircraft communication systems, providing real-time weather information
integrate into the airline’s operational systems, providing performance information, technical data and crew information.

Applications that run on Electronic Flight Bags

The applications run on Electronic Flight Bags are categorized in three software categories which are Type A, Type B and Type C.

Type A

These include:

Static applications, such as document viewer (PDF, HTML, XML formats);
Electronic checklists (ECL);
Flight Crew Operating Manuals, and other printed documents like airport NOTAM;
Flight performance calculation;

Type B

These include:

Non-interactive electronic approach charts or approach charts that require panning, zooming, scrolling; (AC120-76A, App B)
Head-down display for Enhanced Vision System (EVS), Synthetic Vision System (SVS) or video cameras;
Real-time weather data display, including weather map;

Type C

Can be used as a Multi-function display (MFD) in at least one case as part of an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast system. Type C applications are subject to airworthiness requirements, such as software certification. Type C applications must run on Class 3 EFB.

BENEFITS OF ELECTRONIC FLIGHT BAGS

The following are some of the benefits derived from the use of EFB systems:

Weight reduction: The incorporation of EFB systems reduces the amount paper in the cockpit, which decreases weight and cuts down clutter:
Indexing: This allows quick and easy access to information
Improved maintenance readiness
Increased efficiency of operations
Improved aircraft-to-ground data transfer that is near real-time, highly resilient and secure
Keep information up-to-date, enabling easy document revision (e.g., through wireless data transfer)
Reduce time, cost and workload required to update documents
Reduce fuel and maintenance costs by using accurate take-off and landing calculations
Improve safety and punctuality with onboard performance calculations
Increase payload with real-time performance calculations
Improve routing decisions by accessing real-time weather information

FEATURES OF LATEST TYPES OF ELECTRONIC FLIGHT BAGS

Some of the features and advantages of the latest types of EFB systems are:

They are designed to offer exceptional readability in all cockpit ambient light conditions for charts, documents, weather data or other electronic data.
They increase situational awareness in-flight with en-route, approach charts, moving map display, graphical weather information.
Enabling pre-flight scheduling and efficient right of entry to up-to-date aircraft documentation, checklists, and operational scheduling information improves productivity
Compact, light weight design enables easy installation in a variety of cockpits.
There is also additional line select keys, which the EFB offers a “film-on-glass” touch-sensitive screen giving pilots a choice when accessing or navigating through EFB software applications

The functionalities of the Application Manager capabilities include the following:

Electronic Tech Log – this a log with all technical a data entries, pattern of workflow control to guarantee quality of the aircraft release procedure and quick-entry tools for fault logging; ARINC 429 compatible
Journey Log – this section of the log keeps records of crew hour, tracking the location and time left on the journey and it also records data and data capture, including ground-service usage, block times and fuel uplifts
Flight Library –. There’s a complete navigational support which is reliable and booked marked with search facilities that will reduce pilots’ time to find and access necessary information
Flight Folder – this is a folder has capacity for pilots to make notes on and this archive is electronically distributed flight strategy post-flight and read / accept electronic notices; it is also
endow with two-way messaging between pilots and ground staff; permits flight support staff to wirelessly transmit last-minute updates or revisions to aircraft anywhere in the world
Forms Library – with these flexible data-capture through airline-configured form templates it allows keyboard or pen entry, attachments, comments and pictures; with simple validation rules certify data quality; form data is sent wirelessly to the proper recipient
Charts, Weather, and CCTV – An easy and fast integration of specialist tools for performance, charts, weather and closed-circuit TV allow you to change stuff whenever you choose.

DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTRONIC FLIGHT CONTROL BAGS

Usability: EFB systems come in different shapes and forms and because there are no “standard” or “fixed” specifications with respect to dimensions, some may be difficult to use by the pilot during flight. For example, a large flip-top laptop used as EFB may be too bulky and awkward to work with in the cockpit; similarly, a tiny PDA may have a keypad which pose a difficulty in data entry or a screen size too small to be read at a particular distance. Some EFB systems may even have greater advantages in some situations than others.
Complexity: EFB systems incorporate several functions into their make up, thus making it complex. This complex nature may make it difficult to use. Some may even require their users to undergo special training sessions before using them.
Costs: EFB systems can have high initial/installation costs, especially class 3 EFB. Some EFB systems may require the purchase and installation of additional software to make them work.
Legal requirements: Legal issues such as non-interference requirements, evaluation and certification approval have to be taken into account in the use of EFB systems. For example, Class 3 EFB systems are required to meet the same certification requirements of any avionics product.
Technical issues: As with almost all electronic devices, some technical difficulties may be encountered in their use e.g. battery life, availability of backlight in case of use in the low lighting conditions, usability in certain weather conditions, etc.
Data integrity: Typically, EFB systems accept data as input, processes the data and gives result as output. If the data fed into it is inaccurate, it gives wrong results.

FACTORS THAT MAY AFFECT THE SELECTION OF EFB SYSTEMS

The non-standard and personalised nature of some of EFB systems can make the process of selection of an appropriate system a challenge. The high initial and/or installation costs of EFB systems do not make this process any easier. While EFB systems are designed to have the primary objective of replacing or augmenting the traditionally paper-based reference materials and documents used on a flight deck, other factors are worth considering before investing in them.

Bitterfield (2010) shows a “decision matrix” which is a compilation of factors in the form of questions to consider before selecting an appropriate EFB system:

Questions to ask before selecting an EFB system:

Initial purchase cost
Annual subscription cost
Software Features that you must have
Flight Planning (on/offline)
VFR Charts
IFR Charts Low Enroute
Approach Plates/Procedures
Airport Directory of one kind or another (AFD or AOPA)
Do you fly above 18KIf so high-enroute. Good to have if you have a turbo and might need one day.
How long does it take to update the information
Subscription
What is included
Is it priced by region/country
Do I pay for everything ala-carte
Hardware Features
Can I buy my own hardware
What is the warranty
How is warranty work done
What platform(PC/iPAD/Proprietary)
Is an SSD Required (Do you fly above 10k’ regularly?)
External USB port for Jeppesen / King updater
Screen Brightness
SUPER BRIGHT for Canopy
Moderate Bright for Low Wing
Regular screen for High Wing
GPS
Can the GPS be used in flight(AC 92.21)
Does it work with your aircraft (Hi/low wing)
How long does the battery last(Recommend a 4hr).
Heavy use of transmitters Bluetooth , WiFi, or 3G limit battery life
Weather (Is it an option)
XM [ Paid ]
ADS-B [Free ]
What does the receiver cost
Terrain(Is it an option)
Do I need it
Might already be in my 430/530.
What is my total cost of ownership for the year

CONCLUSION

Since the advent of the computer age, the world has been tending more and more towards digitization and computerization of systems. The aviation industry has not been an exception to this and among the evidences that support this opinion is the emergence of EFB systems. While the total replacement of the use of traditional paper-based documents and reference material in the cockpit may not immediately be in sight, current trends seem to show that EFB systems are here to stay.

Based on the arguments presented in this essay, it is safe to say that the implementation of EFB systems takes other factors into consideration in order to be effective and it will be of use for the aviator to be aware and consider some of those factors before venturing into investing in EFB systems.

REFERENCES
Isle of man Aircraft Registry
27th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences

Bitterfield, Colin (2010) How to Select an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) Available at: http://mooniacs.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-to-select-electronic-flight-bag-efb.html (Accessed: March 31, 2011)

Smith, Dale (no date) What’s New With Electronic Flight Bags[Online] Available at: http://www.aeapilotsguide.com/pdf/03_Archive/AEAPG03EFBs.pdf (Accessed: March 31, 2011)

Teledyne Controls (2010) Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) Available at: http://www.teledyne-controls.com/productsolution/efb/benefits.asp (Accessed: March 31, 2011)

Categories
Free Essays

Computers and computer networks

Introduction

OSI layers

1. Physical – Data unit: bit

The Physical Layer defines electrical and physical specifications for devices. It defines the relationship between a device and net, example cable (copper or optical ), pins, hubs, repeaters, network adapters and more.

2. Data Link – Data unit: frame

The Data Link Layer provides the means to transfer data between network device and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical Layer.

3. Network – Data unit: packet

The Network Layer provides the means of transferring data sequences from a host on one network to a destination on a different network, while maintaining the quality of service.

4. Transport – Data unit: segments

The Transport Layer provides transfer of data between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers.

5. Session – Data unit: data

The Session Layer controls the connections between computers. It provides for full-duplex, half-duplex, or simplex operation.

6. Presentation – Data unit: data

The Presentation Layer establishes context between Application Layer entities, in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a mapping between them.

7. Application – Data unit: data

Network process to application

The Application Layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application.

Regenerative repeater

Regenerative repeater is a device which regenerates incoming digital signals and then retransmits these signals on an outgoing circuit. This device is useful because signals in twisted pair cable is degrading then moving long distances. If I am correct than after 100 meters signal is degraded beyond repair, so it is necessary to put router, switch or regenerating repeater. Switches and routers are more important than to give a boost to the signal. Their also are more expensive. Repeater uses transport layer. It is different from other components because it is not doing anything difficult. It receives signal, boost it and send it forward. It is used then there is long cable and signal can seriously degrade.

Bridge

Computer has two different memory types, slow and fast. Fast is managed in upper part of motherboard, and slower – lower part. Both memory managers have special chip where their memory is configured/used accordingly. Between them is bridge. It is very important part which is to ensure computers work. Bridge connects processing memory with storage memory what computer processes could be done. It uses physical layer. It differs from other components because it is just connection between two memory „managers“. Situation with this component is impossible. It is necessary to computer work.

Hub

Hub is a device for connecting multiple devices together and making them act as a LAN. It is just like network switch, but this is the older version. The device is a form of multiport repeater. Hubs was before the switches and there are not good enough anymore. Then hub receives a data packet it isn’t send to computer for witch it belongs, but it is send to all computers, whose are connected to computer. The right one takes it, the others ignores it. If two computers send data at the same time, then collision occur. In other words better use switches, hubs are old and not reliable. It is using physical layer. It different from other components because it is used to connect computers and other devices together into network. The availability of low-priced network switches has largely rendered hubs obsolete but they are still seen in older installations and more specialized applications. To pass data through the repeater in a usable fashion from one segment to the next, the packets and the Logical Link Control (LLC) protocols must be the same on the each segment.

Router

A router is a device that chooses path for data packets across computer networks. Network between end-users is a giant net, where all joint spots are routers. ISP routers usually exchange routing information using the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Also called a Provider Edge router, is placed at the edge of an ISP network. The router uses External BGP to EBGP protocol routers in other ISPs. This device is different from other because it is created to ensure data packet travel across network. It is considered a network layer device.

Charlie and Lola

a)

Files must be kept in order at all times. Keeping them spread is not good idea because then needed, they can be hard to find around other files there. And desktop is not a place for “secret” files.

C:/Documents and Settings/Charlie/MySecretFiles/TopSecret.odt

When he press “Save As”, it depends where was his last save. When he has to navigate to his “special” file he have several options. There suppose to be quick buttons which will move directly to My Documents or My Computer. If My Documents is used, then you need to open MySecretFiles folder and than save your file. If My Computer used, then you need to open Local Disk (C:), then Documents and Settings, after that folder Charlie, after that My Documents and finally MySecretFiles. Then you can save your file. I don’t fink what folder MySecretFiles and file TopSecret.odt is so secret after all. When you have something secret don’t call it secret.

b)

This question is tricky one. It depends where is Mary. Because if he would be on the same LAN than Mary can make his printer accessible through LAN and Charlie would be able to print his file from his home. Just he need to order printing through Mary’s printer. But then anyone could print through that printer. Well Charlie’s out of luck. Mary’s is on other LAN, but that is not a problem. To send file to someone else is not very hard. There is several ways to do it:

Skype. This program can be used to talk to someone, to write messages and to send files.

E-mail. Using your mail to create new message, you can attach a file and send it with a message. It is secure because email sites like Yahoo uses secure connection. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a combination of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol with the SSL/TLS protocol to provide encrypted communication and secure identification of a network web server.

c)

Well the message start from Charlie’s PC to his wireless device, which forwards it to router. Then it will move across network to Mary’s PC. It will use lots of different network protocols:

ARP – Address Resolution Protocol

RARP – Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

L2F – Layer 2 Forwarding Protocol

L2TP – Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol

LLDP – Link Layer Discovery Protocol

MTP – Message Transfer Part

IPv6 – Internet Protocol version 6

RIP – Routing Information Protocol

NFS – Network File System

DNS – Domain Name System

FTP – File Transfer Protocol

HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol

There is a lot more protocols which will be used at some times but there is no way to name them all. Now I explain the main of these.

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a version of the Internet Protocol (IP) which was designed to succeed his predecessor Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). The Internet operates by transferring data packets that are guided across networks as specified by the Internet Protocol.

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a naming system built on a database, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. Most importantly, it translates domain names known to users into the IP addresses for the purpose of locating and addressing these devices worldwide.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to copy a file from one host to another over a Transmission Control Protocol based network, such as the Internet.

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a networking protocol for using information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.

These four protocols is the main ones to let Charlie’s message to reach Mary. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol will enable Charlie to use internet. Domain Name System protocol will found email site Charlie’s using. File Transfer Protocol will ensure files movement from host to host. That can be Charlie to Mary, or Charlie to email site and email site to Mary. Internet Protocol version 6 guides data packets across network. Charlie’s file will newer be send like it is. It will be divine in several (or thousands) data packets and send to destination.

d)

Lora and Lotta are not hackers. Then it comes to intercept data transfer there three levels of security. Highest level is fiber wire. Light comes through it so to hack it you have to cut it and it will be detected. The middle level of security is twisted pair cable. The little device can be attached to cable and it will read all data coming through. The lowest security is wireless LAN or WLAN, or wireless local area network. When transmission is send through air anyone can access it (with high hacking skills and extremely expensive equipment).

Lotta is very good with computers, what about hacking and network. Neither of girls don’t have skills. And normally messages are encrypted due to use of HTTPS. He can also put a password on a file (if possible). Or he can compress file to archive with password (rar, zip, 7z).

e)

Well first of all Soren Lorensen is IMAGINARY. He can’t do anything. He knows what Lora knows. If he will try to help Lora just keep pressing random buttons he shows and she definitely end up formatting her hard drive. She better have imaginary friend Smarty Hacker.

REFERENCES

JAVVIN network management & security (no date) OSI 7 layers Model of Network Communication [Online]. Available from:

http://www.javvin.com/osimodel.html [Accessed 06th April 2011]

Internet Society (no date) IPv6 [Online]. Available from:

http://www.isoc.org/internet/issues/ipv6.shtml [Accessed 06th April 2011]

Webopedia (no date) What is DNS[Online]. Available from:

http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/D/DNS.html [Accessed 06th April 2011]

Webopedia (no date) What is HTTP[Online]. Available from:

http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/H/HTTP.html [Accessed 06th April 2011]

About.com Personal Web Pages (no date) FTP – What Is It and How Do I Use It [Online]. Available from:

http://personalweb.about.com/od/ftpfileuploadprograms/a/01ftp.htm [Accessed 06th April 2011]

Categories
Free Essays

Computer Law

Introduction

1.Background

Computer crimes are increasing day by day all over the world, internet is the prime medium for commit the crime both domestic and international activities. Criminals are targeted by using electronic tools like computer and other programmable devices. Computer Crime could affect any electronic device vulnerable attacks through the network which may be personal computer or protected computers. Today’s nature of the computer and internet mean that the criminal activities easily can carry out across the nation border. These kinds of crimes create problem over the jurisdiction and investigating the crime, different countries using different low and enforcement for the relevant crimes took place over the country. Older computer crimes was conducted using computer as tool such as illegally store images in the hard disk using mobile phone for harassment, download music, videos illicitly, software piracy, forgery and fraud these kind of computer crimes prosecute other relevant laws rather than computer law.

New type of cyber-crime is very different than older, now the attackers are using specific technologies or programmes which may be virus, malware, Trojan, worms and spyware; these programmes are very dangerous, effective and accurate to commit cyber-crimes. Attacks are now common against financial companies, banks and identity theft; some electronic attacks are using terrorist attack to the targeted computer and network through remotely. Unauthorised access, delete or modify the stored data in the computer system; these activities are prosecuted under computer crime legislation. According to the British Crime Survey showed that most of the computers are affected by virus in the house hold using internet in the U.K about 62 % in 2006 because of increase of the computers and broad band connection.

Computer related activities are very complex to be prosecuted; law makers and the security consultants frustrated these kinds of activities are very difficult to legislate without affecting others. The legislation authority of UK recently clamping down on computer crime fell under some sort of trap; such kind of trap can avoid providing the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (RIPA) 2000 which provision provides massive surveillances in the computer networks and the users.

The news of the world phone hacking has been investigating since 2005, this case is very popular and on-going case; and here some suspicious people include news of the world Chief editors, reports, investigator, celebrities and politician. According to some popular newspaper report; I would like to explain this case, who all are the suspicious and guilty person in this case and which laws they are broken.

2. Judicial Process in U.K

European communities include England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, in this judiciary system has three courts of jurisdiction system arranged according to the cases which brought before the court.in U.K has two main type of judiciary system.[9]

The European laws from the European Union, the legal system in the UK largely based on the judge here judge will made law and decide the cases and this cases brought before the judge this process is until 17th century this system is called common law or case law. But the Scotland totally dissimilar form this jurisdiction process at that time there has been a new law implemented the Act of Parliament that was policies of Government of the day. At that time a judge made law according to the case and the public need to follow this law this pronouncement technically known as precedent. The precedent plays very significant role in the common law this ensure logical progress, certainty, consistency and law development.[9]

Legislation or statutory new law act in the parliament has become common, it reform in the 17th century; the modern time laws applied in the jurisdiction at any combination of jurisdiction in the U.K. but the common law has limited jurisdiction in the public general act. it may limited geographical location in the jurisdiction for a person and organisation. The most significant Act in the legislation in the parliament known as Primary legislation this primary legislation made by the parliament act 1911 -1949 in the House of Lords and then it accepted by the Royal assent from the Queen. This legislation is laid under Government Ministers and it come today’s greater volume.[9]

The category of criminal law considers with Most of the criminal cases in the England and Wales called prosecutions. The Court prosecution on the basis of indictment document, here most of the case prosecution instituted by prosecutor on behalf of the Crown Prosecution Service, the case takes over form the police the specified crime accused with whom in the state. The first stage of the case answer is called prime face and this process is called committal. In this document magistrate disclose some papers which are based on the evidence submitted by the prosecutor, these cases have heard in the Crown court. Crown Court only one but there nearly 70 jurisdiction centres in this country. [9]

The litigation process before the judge and the jury they preside over the whole trail prosecution the judge and the jury justify the fairness about the case at the same time the prosecutors need to submit all the evidences these evidences admissible by jury at this time the jury give the accurate view and relevant law to this case. Finally, the jury decide who will be the culprit and who will be the innocent. [9]

Magistrates’ court deal with fewer amounts of criminal cases, there is no committal and jury for jurisdiction. Here trial bench has three magistrates deal with the cases are lay person. Magistrates court appeal to the Crown Court some criminal cases such most criminal cases taken to the divisional court in the High Court. Finally, these matters may be appeal to the House of Lords. [9]

The civil cases trial is begun by a plaintiff, the plaintiff; it may be a company or a person or government. Most of the civil cases deal with the country court typically claim cases choice of the value of the property for claim a person; in addition, the country court also deal with divorce cases and bankruptcy cases. Moreover, the claim cases has limitation up to ?3000 could be handled by the country court. [9]

The High Court has three sub division to deal cases, Family Division, Chancery Division and Queen’s Bench Division [9]

Family Division usually considers family matters like divorce cases and child welfare cases, child protection is the aim of this court, and sometimes they brought child to some agencies for the protection of the child. The High court has some difficulty to do divorce cases so country court deal with these matters, the family division has deal with the overseas cases like administration of wills process known as probate. [9]

The Chancery Division deal with difficult matters like bankruptcy, copyright and patent, settlement, land law, trust and corporate laws. Most of the cases consider in the subdivision of this court which division is highly skilled specialists deal with this cases. [9]

The Queen’s Bench division consider business cases about land and contracts torts , in this division has some specialised sub division al so commercial court in this court consider most difficult cases in the part of the business torts. [9]

The European community was developed under the Treaty of Rome in the year of 1957, the judges could be appointed by 15 member stated of the court called Luxembourg in this sits comprised one British Judge. English legal system made the Court in the European Community Act 1972 section three in this states. [9]

The Interference could raise Treaty of Rome under article 177; firstly, the jurisdiction give introductory decision would be taken by the justice in this court for the interpretation from the Treaty of Rome. The tribunal may be questioned before the tribunal’s member of the state the court of justice ruling the any civil cases and criminal matters in the U.K courts can ask any judgment points about the dispute the court will give necessary decision as soon as possible, the court of justice is peak court in this nation. [9]

The Scotland follows own legal system based on Edinburgh of the court the Act Union of England and Wales in 1707, Scotland holds so many law system form English.

1) Adversarial

Adversarial judicial System, which legal system the two advocates would be represent for the suspected and petitioned parties, in this system there usually have a jury or judge for decide whether the accused person is guilty or not.

2) Inquisitorial

Inquisitorial legal system totally opposite to the adversarial legal system, here the court would investigate the case, this legal system some countries use only for civil cases and they use common laws.

3. European Law

English law falls in to Criminal Law and Civil Law, offence related to person and the property and affecting the whole community is under the criminal law and it is called prosecution this law is applicable for computer related crimes. The wrong relating confliction between individuals with in the community which action for claim the case is under the civil case.

Most Effective Computer Laws in U.K/European Union [10]

Computer Misuse Act 1990
Police and Justice Act 2006
Telecommunication regulations 2000
Communications Act 2003
Human rights Act 1998
Privacy and electronic communication regulations 2003
European Laws
Data Protection Act 1998
Anti-Terrorism, crime and security Act 2001
Regulation of investigatory powers Act 2000
Wiretap Act
Pen / Trap Act
Electronic Communication Privacy Act

4. Presenting Digital Evidence in the Court

The Digital Evidences such as floppy disk, USB, CD, an Image, log files, MAC time, which evidences supports the claim or that rejects the claim. The evidences are significant and need to maintain integrity and confidentiality is very important. The integrity means that the digital evidence has been not tampered and the confidentiality means that make sure the process or the content of the evidence must not view unauthorised person but only the authorised person. For integrity maintaining need to create MD5 or SHA-1 check sum value using lawful authority approved tools.

The collecting evidence and making report is very important this process is called Chain of Custody, to prove the case need to prepare detailed report and to make sure that the evidence handled step should be follow.

What is the evidence
How did you get it
When was it collected
Who has handled it
Why did that person handle it
Where has it travelled, and where was it ultimately stored

When the evidence is electronic form it becomes two dimensional types of objects tangible and intangible this need to be preserved and tracked in the chain of custody. The physical evidence is called tangible objects such as laptop, hard drives, CD’s, backup tapes, digital cameras. Intangible data like documents, email and metadata. Authentication of the digital evidence is significant and the evidence is multi faced and it must be verified the digital authenticity of the digital evidence. For the integrity need to use digital signature technology which can maintain the evidence integrity.

5. Case Scenario

The News of the World (NoW) phone voice message hacking case is on-going case in the UK, the News of the World case was complained on November 2005 against the three royal staffs’ members, after reporting the story about Price William’s phone voicemail interception, and this case was registered at the Metropolitan Police on November 2005. The accused Clive Goodman was the royal editor Edmondson was the assistant editor of the NoW and Glenn Mulcaire is a private investigator. Goodman was jailed four months and Glen Mulcaire was jailed six months in January 2007. The NoW current executives and the current chief reporter Neville Thurlbeck 50 and former new editor Lan Edmonson 42 ware arrested suspiciously by the Metropolitan Police in April for illegally intercepted private telephone conversation, this unlawful offence under section 1 of the RIPA 2000(Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000) and Criminal law Act 1977 Section 1 (1) has been charged the police. They were released on bail in September. After two and half years latter one of the famous newspapers in the UK claimed that the world-famous phone mailbox hacking case has involved NoW journalists and politician, sports stars, celebrities.[2,4,11]

In July 2009, some newspapers reported that Deputy Prime Minister Lord Prescott,singer George Michael, celebrity cook Celebrity Nigella Lawson, London Mayor Boris John, actress Gwyneth Paltrow, Comedian Lennny Henry, Late reality TV start Jade Goody and Coulson also includes in the phone hacking list; a chief executive of professional football’s association Gordon Taylor, Lib Dem MP Simon Hughes, sports agent Sky Andrew and Model Elle Macpherson had been victims.[3]

In July 9th 2009 The News of the World apologised in the court actress sienna Miller was not committed this crime and the NoW she was not attend the prosecution and high court settled for this case ?100,000 legal cost ant damages.[13]

September 2009, the owner of the News Group Newspaper paid ?1 million for settle the case three subjected people in this phone hacking case such as professional footballers Association Chairman Gordon Taylor, who had been settled this case out of the court said the Guardian newspaper report and they had this evidence, which evidence exposed that of illegal activities and they published that the NoW staffs were used around 1000 of mobile phone. This year the Scotland Yard claimed that they identified the suspected victims they are royal, military, police and government bodies. After a few days the PCC (Press Complaints Commission) said that about the phone hacking allegation they have not get any Evidence so this case is going on.[3]

In February 2010, there was a report in the newspaper The Guardian; the 3 mobile phone company revealed that nearly 100 of customers have had hacked answer phone messages. And Police had found that around 91 PIN codes in their investigation, these PIN Codes they had been used for accessing voice mail to some others these information collected form the Clive Goodman and Glen Mulcaire.by the March 2010, Max Clifford intercepting the voice mail case was found the settlement details about ?1 million payment was done by News of the World, this case found that Clive Goodman had had involved another phone hacking case. After that the New York Times published in September 2010 the NoW journalist attempted to hack one of the television personality’s voice message. Then in December 2010, Crown Prosecution Service judged according to the Scotland Yard Police Inquiry report, they have not found any admissible new evidence whether they hacked the phone or not.[2]

In January 2011, Lan Edmonson was suspended form the NoW after claiming phone hacking, one of the 91 victims, the Actress Sienna Miller have had relationship with Mr Jude Law from 2003 – 2005.Mr Justice Vos notice that Sianna Miller was appeared in some article in News of the Word from 2003 -05 year this may be consider she might have involved in this phone hacking case.[4]

In 10th April 2011, the News of the world apologised the phone hacking case they are ready to pay compensation to those individual has been accused in this phone hacking case, this news was published in News of the World newspaper.[7]

6. Laws Broken by Accused

According to the BBC news these accused persons were committed unlawful interception of public communication under the UK law RIPA 2000(Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000) of Section and the unauthorised access computer and gaining any stored data from the hard disk / voice messages from the computer against the UK law Computer Misuse Act 1990 section 1 (1) have been violated these proposed guilty people in the News of the World Phone Hacking case 2005 -2011.

7. The phone hacking case happened in the UK

“ Morgans v Director case

This case was in December 1998 to 2000; Morgan was hacked British Telephone computer Monolog telephone call logger for making some international calls. This case the prosecutor charged CMA 1990 section 1 (1) and Section 11 (2), But this case was quashed.” [6]

“R v Moody case

In this case ex-employee of the IT specialist he accessed remote maintenance port in the local authorities computerised telephone, he could not made any outgoing calls but he routed incoming calls to single extension. The police sized his pc and hard disk which has been corrupted by previous police investigation, so the court had stayed indictment.

He was violated CMA 1990 section 3 and Admissibility Pace section 69s” [6]

“R v Malcolm Farquharson case

In this case was happened in 1993, the accused person was committed mobile phone cloning, the accused person convicted unauthorised access he had been sentences nearly six month imprisonment.” [6]

“R v Emma Pearce case

This case was registerd 1993, this case also phone cloning he accessed telephone records so the court sentenced ?300 fine only.” [6]

“Gold and Schifreen

In 1985, two journalists were hacked British Telecom computer and they were accessed prince Philip’s voice mail box at that time for the investigation proved that these two people were committed activity but there was no computer misuse act to punish them. At that time they created a new law computer misuse act in 1990.” [6]

8. Conclusion

According to the BBC news and other popular Newspaper report claimed that, the News of the World chief editor, reporter and private investigator was committed this phone hacking case the police has some evidence against them according to this evidence the Court had imprisoned these three people in 2006 around 6 months, after one year this case was reopened by Met police UK; but the police investigation is going on and they yet to be find any solid evidence against them and rest of the 3000 suspicious person, during this investigation 10th April 2011 the news of the world apologised to all accused suspected people and they are willing to give compensation to all this people. Even though they withdraw the case it is crystal clear that some of the NoW staffs were involved and committed this case. In my point of view these suspicious persons violated UK laws above mentioned, but this case was withdrawn why because of the pressure from the political leader, they need to hide some professional or celebrities, Politicians involvement in this case; most of the suspicious people were settled this case out of the court with billions of money this deal are very secret. This is clear that most of the computer related cases fail because of investigation problem or computer evidences are very easy to be damage and sometimes there would not be proper evidences to prove. I believe

References
http://www.adviceguide.org.uk/index/your_rights/legal_system/courts_of_law.htm [Accessed: 8th June 2011].
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-11195407 [Accessed: 9th June 2011].
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-11930168 [Accessed: 8th June 2011].
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-12253968 [Accessed: 8th June 2011].
http://www.charlesrussell.co.uk/UserFiles/file/pdf/Reputation%20Management/phone_hacking.pdf [Accessed: 8th June 2011].
http://www.computerevidence.co.uk/Cases/CMA.htm [Accessed: 9th June 2011].
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1374946/Rupert-Murdochs-News-World-apologizes-sets-victims-compensation-fund.html [Accessed: 9th June 2011].
http://www.internetrights.org.uk/briefings/irtb08-rev1-draft.pdf [Accessed: 20th May 2011].
http://www.leeds.ac.uk/law/hamlyn/courtsys.htm[Accessed: 4th June 2011].
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2000/23/contents [Accessed: 8th June 2011]
http://www.mediaspy.org/report/2011/04/06/uk-police-arrest-news-of-the-world-phone-hacking-suspects/ [Accessed: 9th June 2011].
http://www.mishcon.com/news/articles/phone_hacking_the_news_of_the_world_04_2011/ [Accessed: 8th June 2011].
http://www.newsoftheworld.co.uk/notw/public/nol_public_news/1266448/News-International-statement-News-of-the-World-says-sorry.html [Accessed: 8th June 2011].

http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/postpn271.pdf

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Critical Investagtion of the importance of Computer security (SME) within Business

ABSTRACT

The development of computer system has revolutionised business firms in the world. Business firms virtually rely on computer systems in storing information which is a very vital resource in any business because it is the success of the business. However, the safety of the computer systems needs to be ensured considering the importance and relevance of the information stored in it.

One of the most important barricades in the success of the use of computers in business firms, most especially in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) is the negligence to computer security. Over the years, it has been discovered that small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are more prone to potential intruders than the larger enterprise due to common and vast knowledge of popular operating systems and application software’s (e.g. MySQL Database and Microsoft respectively). The internet has created opportunities in the implementation of innovative business applications such as electronic commerce, electronic data interchange and inter-organisational systems (Sousa, KJ et al. 2005), which has kept both business firms and customers vulnerable to threats. We will critically outline the various computer threats in our introduction chapter. Computer security threats keeps multiplying and is still expected to multiply [4]. Taking all of those into consideration, the importance of computer security in business (SME) cannot be over emphasized.

Accordingly, the general purpose of this academic write-up is to outline the importance of computer security in business; basically in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise (SME). First and foremost, we would critically define computer security, the various kinds of computer threats and their respective security measures. Also, we would explain what SME is all about, some examples of SME and the use of computer in SME. At last, we would critically outline the importance of computer security in business (SME).

INTRODUCTION

The basis of computer security comprises of the reply to the question “What is computer security”. The word “Security” means to protect or could mean to freedom or prevention from danger, risk or damage. Therefore, computer security which is also referred to as Information Security can be defined as the protection of data and information in a system from or against authorized users or recipients. In other words, computer security is the ability of the computer system to guard data and information against intruders, unauthorized users or malicious users with confidentiality and integrity.

Furthermore, computer security is broken down into an acronym CIA which describes the basic goals of computer security and its aim is to protect the data and the system processing the data. The acronym means Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability.

Confidentiality ensures that data and information is kept away from intruders, unauthorized users or malicious users but yet still made available to those users who are authorized to access the data and information. This is also applied to the system processing the data, the network and other devices that are in the network and the computer system itself. Most times, these data are classified into three (3) levels. Some data are classified as public which means that anyone can access the data; some data are classified as company property which means that only users within the company can access the data and while some data is classified at the government level such as top-secret data which is only accessible by users within the government. To ensure the confidentiality of data and information, some security measures are implemented known as “Controls” such as authentication controls, encryption controls, etc.

Integrity ensures that the data and information in the computer system has not been tampered or altered by intruders, unauthorized users or malicious users and even the authorized users. It guarantees that the data and information has not been changed or destroyed either accidentally or intentionally by intruders, unauthorized users or malicious users. It also ensures that the data and information remains in its authorized state or form. In order to ensure the integrity of data and information, several measures such as hashing or encryption, auditing is implemented.

Availability ensures that data/information and systems are made available to only authorized users for use. It protects the authorized users from all sorts of events that may not allow them access to the system and data in the system e.g. accidental events and malicious events. In order to protect the availability of data, some measures are implanted such as backups, server clusters, and redundant systems.

Other terminologies associated with computer security are “Vulnerability” and “Threat”. Every part of a network such as the computer, people, network devices, operating systems, etc. have unique weaknesses which is called Vulnerability. In order words, vulnerability is a weakness in computer systems. Vulnerability can be exploited. Exploiting vulnerability is the use of weaknesses in diminishing the system security. Therefore, an action taken to exploit against vulnerability by unauthorized or malicious users is known as Threat. Threats can be natural or man-made, intentional or accidental, technology.

REFERENCES

David A. Bradbard, Dwight R. Norris, Paramjit H. Kahai 1990, ‘Computer Security in Small Business: An Empirical Study’, Journal of Small Business Management, vol 28.

Sousa, Kenneth J; MacDonald, Laurie E; Fougere, Kenneth T 2005, ‘Computer Security in the Introductory Business Information Systems Course: An Exploratory Study of Textbook Coverage’, Journal of Education for Business, vol 81, p. 15.

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New developments in digital crimes and the challenges to computer forensics

Abstract

Computer forensics is becoming an increasing important field as technology continues to bring the world closer. This literature review assesses the new developments and challenges in the field of computer forensics with the goal of identifying potential strengths and weaknesses. The evidence presented here illustrates that technology and cyber-crime are intertwined, and it will take a continuous effort to maintain effective digital forensics. This study will be useful to any further study of computer forensics.

Introduction

Digital security and computer forensics is an area of growing concern for the entire world. As the phenomenon of cyber-crime continues to expand, the need to recover and use evidence to thwart crime increases. With a consistent process of development and innovation responsible for pushing the limits of technology, the need to examine and assess the newest developments and challenges in the digital forensics field is a critical exercise. This literature review will address the issue beginning with a brief overview of the need for digital forensics alongside a review of the emerging trends.

Computer Forensics

The emerging field of computer forensics address issues that arise following the commission of a digital crime (Forensics.nl. 2013). Computer forensics describes the efforts involved in recovery of digital, or computer data and utilizing this as a form of evidence in an investigation. This field of criminal activity covers computers and electronic malfeasance with the stated goal of conducting a structured investigation in order to determine what exactly happened on the suspect digital system (Crime-research.org. 2013). There are three phases to a computer forensic investigation including the acquisition of evidence, analysis of evidence and the generation of a report on the evidence (Forensics.nl. 2013). In this age, most cyber or computer criminals will leave a footprint behind as they trespass; it is the role of computer forensics to determine how that was done. The increasing ease of access to very complex technology makes this task increasingly difficult.

Recognizing the challenge to the existing digital enforcement system, agencies around the world are upgrading their computer forensics unit due to the rising rate of digital crime (Crime-research.org. 2013). With cyber-crime being viewed as a threat to national infrastructure, the need to prioritize the defence against this form of crime is paramount to many governments. A new development in the forensics industry is emerging organisations including F3 that are beginning to address the issues by creating an active forum for computer users to access the latest forensics information and trends (F3.org.uk. 2013). These organisations have been credited with undermining the efforts of several regulatory authorities by providing security information to the general public (Ariu, Giacinto and Roli 2011). Lacking any overriding enforcement or regulatory procedure, cyber-crime and how to deal with it is left up to individual nations, which in turn weakens the overall effort. There are several new developments in the field of computer forensics that are emerging security concerns (Ibid).

Developing Forensic Concerns

The next generation of computer technology is bringing a greater threat of computer centred crime (Garfinkel 2010). Lacking a global effort to produce a coordinated standardized counter strategy, the next ten years of technology development has the potential to radically outpace the law enforcement mechanisms (Ibid). However this concept of a standard platform is argued to be an easy platform for cyber criminals to infiltrate (Pilli, Joshi and Niyogi 2010). Reilly, Wren and Berry (2010) illustrate the point that emerging technology is providing as many opportunities for enforcement as it is for digital malfeasance, making it critical to consistently upgrade technology in order to stay current. Others point out that this increase in technology is hard to master, making implementation very difficult (Pilli, Joshi and Niyogi 2010). This indicates that security is dependent on the unique company, and individual budgets may not be sufficient to maintain pace with development (Pilli, Joshi, and Niyogi 2010). With no continuous outreach in this area of security, the capacity to accomplish meaningful computer forensics is diminished as well as the potential to lose sensitive information. The next generation of challenges rests in the emergence of technology.

Cloud computing is quickly emerging as a security challenge for computer forensics due to privacy and legality concerns (Accorsi and Ruan 2012). Others argue that remote servers have the capacity to increase security in several cases using emerging technology in order to better serve consumers (Reilly, Wren, and Berry 2010). Cloud computing allows users to keep information and data, of all varieties, on remote servers. Cyber criminals are turning to these areas more and more in their efforts to co-opt personal information in the pursuit of crime (Accorsi and Ruan 2012). Cloud server companies often dispute the claim of vulnerability and cite increased security statistics (Reilly, Wren and Berry 2010). The combined elements of cost reduction and ease of access are driving the industry to expand at a very challenging rate for digital forensics to match.

The drive to implement a standard for oversight and enforcement is a significant challenge for digital forensics (Accorsi and Ruan 2012). Many who argue for the standardization cite the reduction in safety concerns as decreasing overall implementation cost (Reilly, Wren and Berry 2010).Others demonstrate that a standard system is increasingly vulnerable to risk factors (Accorsi and Ruan 2012). Each unique server and company will have the responsibility to upgrade their elements in order to aid in the digital forensic requirements of the modern and emerging era (Reilly, Wren, and Berry 2010). This leads to the recognition of larger issues that must be dealt with in order to achieve progress.

Another field of digital forensic challenges rests in the sheer quantity of data that must be analysed in order to justify the expense of resources (Garfinkel 2013). As the global market for electronics continues to grow and become incorporated into daily life, the number of opportunities for cyber-crime will climb. However, many companies cite the presence of emerging technology has being able to cope with the mass of information (Accorsi and Ruan 2012). The area of machine learning in computers has the potential to alleviate much of the tedious work that digital forensics entails (Ariu, Giacinto and Roli 2011). However, machine learning has been argued to produce security issues that could further complicate the digital forensics task at hand (Garfinkel 2013). Much of the issues of security have the potential to be resolved with the implementation of a wide ranging standard (Ibid). A published standard is argued to be more vulnerable and predictable than the piece meal approach used today (Casey 2004). While a good idea a standard substantially increases the overall risk factors.

As opposed to the area of cloud computing the areas of quantity and network forensics stands to become a primary area of concern as companies and individuals employ the technology for gain (Pilli, Joshi and Niyogi 2010). The development of Network Forensic Analysis Tools, or NFATs, is a challenge that must be met by regulators and oversight entities in order to minimize the fundamental impact of cyber-crime. Others illustrate that these same tools hold the potential to be turned against a standardized system (Ariu, Giacinto and Roli 2011). There needs to be a balance between oversight and individual freedoms as regards privacy and security.

Conclusion

The area of digital forensics is facing many new challenges going into the next generation. There is a need to balance the rights of the individual with those of the enforcement agencies. Further, the lack of a standard regulation around the world makes any long term enforcement prospect dim. At the same time, any implementation of a wide ranging standard runs the risk of becoming easy to corrupt, thereby raising even more digital issues. The area of Cloud Computing, due to the low cost to consumer and easy accessibility is a primary concern for the area of digital forensics. With challenges ranging from the acquisition to the processing to the legalities of the use of the data acquired form this market, there is a real sense of urgency in the drive to rein in cyber-crime. Each of these factors makes the market attractive to cyber-crime and a continuous challenge for digital forensics.

Further areas of development and increasing challenge rest in the processing of high quantities of data and the accompanying levels of security present on any single network. In each case of computer forensics in these areas there is a critical need to continuously update or risk the threat of being overrun by the sheer numbers. There is a need to innovate in order for computer forensics to recover and utilize evidence in the face of an ever increasingly complex digital world.

References

Accorsi, R. and Ruan, K. 2012. Challenges of Cloud Forensics: A Survey of the Missing Capabilities. Cybercrime, p. 32.

Ariu, D., Giacinto, G. and Roli, F. 2011. Machine learning in computer forensics (and the lessons learned from machine learning in computer security). pp. 99–104.

Casey, E. 2004. Digital evidence and computer crime. London: Academic Press.

Crime-research.org. 2013. Computer Crime Research Centre – Daily news about computer crime, internet fraud and cyber terrorism. [online] Available at: http://www.crime-research.org/ [Accessed: 10 Dec 2013].

F3.org.uk. 2013. F3 – The First Forensic Forum | Uniting digital forensic practitioners. [online] Available at: https://www.f3.org.uk/ [Accessed: 10 Dec 2013].

Forensics.nl. 2013. Computer Forensics, Cybercrime and Steganography Resources. [online] Available at: http://www.forensics.nl/ [Accessed: 10 Dec 2013].

Garfinkel, S. 2010. Digital forensics research: The next 10 years. Digital Investigation, 7 pp. 64–73.

Garfinkel, S. 2013. Digital Forensics Modern crime often leaves an electronic trail. Finding and preserving that evidence requires careful methods as well as technical skill. AMERICAN SCIENTIST, 101 (5), pp. 370–377.

Pilli, E., Joshi, R. and Niyogi, R. 2010. Network forensic frameworks: Survey and research challenges. Digital Investigation, 7 (1), pp. 14–27.

Reilly, D., Wren, C. and Berry, T. 2010. Cloud computing: Forensic challenges for law enforcement. pp. 1–7.

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New developments in digital crimes and the challenges to computer forensics

Abstract

Computer forensics as a field of study carefully collects and examines electronic evidence to assess the damage to computers caused by electronic attacks, recover the lost information and prosecute those responsible for such attacks. However, there are new developments in digital crimes that are posing challenges to computer forensics. This paper takes a look at such digital crimes and the different challengesthat they pose to computer forensics.

Introduction

As a relatively new and still growing field of study, computer forensics keeps facing new challenges that keep emerging with the advent of new technologies. Computer security is very important in the contemporary society where almost everything relies on computer from banking, marketing to making purchases online (Solomon et al , 2011, p54;Mohay, et al 2003, p99). This is the reason why computer security is very important as cybercrime poses a serious challenge to governments, business organisations and individuals. The new developments in digital crimes pose serious challenges to computer forensics thus calling for the need for the computer professionals to consistently look for new ways of mitigating the effects of such delirious acts so as to protect both organisations and individuals.

The new developments in digital crimes and the challenges to computer forensics

Vacca (2005, p66) says that computer forensics has quietly been able to resolve cases that would have otherwise not been possible to resolve in the last decade. Digital devices and computers have the ability of retaining data and as such are ubiquitous in the contemporary society. Criminals have taken advantage of this situation to pursue their own selfish interests. The contemporary criminals often use the same electronic devices used by everyone in the society like cellular camera phone, voice over internet protocol and text messaging in computer slang to protect their message from unauthorised audiences. Forensic examination often uncovers this trail and as such can reveal a lot of valuable information regarding such criminal activities although this trail often disappears when internet service providers overwrite logs thus making it very difficult to conduct any forensic audits (Shinder, 2002, p77). The same also happens when the data retention period expires thus creating a loophole for the criminals to cover up their trails.

The challenge of criminals covering up their trails is closely accompanied by the fact that the forensic officers often have to examine many different electronic devices containing large volumes of data (Kruse, &Heiser, 2003, p45 and Newman, 2007, p61. It is never easy for them to be effective given that they often work with limited resources thus making it very difficult for the officers to deliver exhaustive information in a timely manner. Additionally, the contemporary criminals are increasingly getting more skilled and as a consequence, are continuously able to conceal the devices and all related information that may provide useful leads to the forensic officers. For instance, a device like a microSD card is very small but has the capacity of holding information to the tune of two gigabytes. In essence, with the advancement of new technology, the contemporary criminals are even getting more difficult to handle as they keep generating better efficient ways of concealing their messages and activities (Volonino, Anzaldua, & Godwin, 2007, p62).

There are softwares that are readily available in the stores with the ability of wiping hard drives to the specifications of the department of defence. These softwares are available for free download online or even at the local convenience store. This is making things very difficult for the forensic officers because anyone with an internet connection can freely get information and resources for countering forensic computing. These measures include things like steganography where all illicit files are hidden inside the ones that look innocuous (Phillips, &Enfinger, 2009, p76). The other ones are encryption and rigging computer cases.

Still on technology and innovation, Sheetz (2007, p13) claims thattechnology continues to emerge at a very fast rate whereasforensicsand other associated security technologies are still lagging behind. For instance, Sheetz (2007, p76) asserts that recent products like MSI Tegra and HP slate are two new technologies that the cyber criminals can take advantage of in pursuing their unlawful acts. Furthermore, the number of tested and standardised forensic tools for conducting forensic investigations on such new and other emerging gadgets are very limited hence making the work of forensic officers very difficult since they are not at par with the criminals who waste no time in embracing new technologies (Mohay et al, 2003,p34).

Maras (2012, p52) claims that the cyber criminals continuously create new methods of circumventing forensic and security techniques through different means like quickly embracing new technologies, targeting outdated or emerging technologies before their weaknesses are noticed and corrected. The contemporary cyber criminals have even gone further to devise anti forensic techniques that may at times require the forensic experts to carry out endless investigations into the attacks but still fail to generate enough information for generating meaningful inferences. These criminals have also noticed that the forensic officers often rely so much on windows operating system and have switched to using other operating systems like Mac OS and Linux to make it more difficult for the forensic officers to unearth their activities (Ec-Council2009, p98). The over reliance on Windows by the forensic officers is weakening the power of forensic officers in investigation other non-Windows systems and in the process giving the criminals an upper hand in continuing with their unlawful activities. This is the reason why computer forensics should embrace new better ways of investigation using all types of operating systems to ensure that the criminals are dealt with in the best way possible.

Conclusion

Computer forensics is a very important field as it plays a critical role in mitigating and investigating criminal activities. However, there are very many different challenges facing the forensic officers in the modern society as highlighted in the paper. This calls for quick adoption of new, better ways of dealing with the cyber criminals to regulate their activities in good time before the whole situation spins out of hand. These new challenges can be addressed by pursuing an active approach to forensics and not allowing the cyber criminals to act first before moving in to generate solutions. The forensic officers should fully liaise with the manufactures of new devices and work together in tackling any use of such gadgets in unlawful activities. Computer forensics is an important field that should be enriched so as to not only mitigate the effects of cybercrime but also punish the criminals heavily to deter the criminals and other similar minded people from committing crimes.

Bibliography

Ec-Council (2009).Investigating Networking Intrusions and Cybercrime.Course Technology Ptr.

Kruse, W. G., &Heiser, J. G. (2003).Computer forensics: Incident response essentials. Boston, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

Maras, M.-H. (2012). Computer forensics: Cybercriminals, laws, and evidence. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Mohay, G. M., Anderson, A., Collie, B., Vel, O. ., &McKemmish, R. (2003).Computer and intrusion forensics. Boston, Mass: Artech House.

Newman, R. C. (2007). Computer forensics: Evidence collection and management. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach Publications.

Phillips, N., &Enfinger, S. (2009). Guide to computer forensics and investigations. Clifton Park, N.Y: Delmar.

Sheetz, M. (2007).Computer forensics: An essential guide for accountants, lawyers, and managers. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Shinder, D. L. (2002).Scene of the cybercrime: Computer forensics handbook. Rockland: Syngress Media.

Solomon, M., Rudolph, K., In Tittel, ., Broom, N., & Barrett, D. (2011). Computer forensics jumpstart. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Vacca, J. R. (2005). Computer forensics: Computer crime scene investigation. Hingham, Mass: Charles River Media.

Volonino, L., Anzaldua, R., & Godwin, J. (2007).Computer forensics: Principles and practices. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

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The Computer: Humankind’s Greatest Scientific Discovery

Discoveries throughout time have moved mankind forward in many fields, such as medicine, technology, communications and manufacturing. These findings have also contributed to shifting the way humankind operates on a global basis. Defining the greatest discovery should encompass the revelations which have had the most beneficial impact on our societies. For our generation, it is the
founding of the computer.

The computer has affected virtually every aspect of our lives, from the way people do business to the way we communicate. Since its humble beginnings with the inventions of the first binary computer in 1936 by Konrad Zuse, and the mechanical calculator, the use of computer has become more than just widespread: it has developed into a phenomenon that has altered the lives of every human living on Earth today in some shape or form. In 1939, Hewlett Packard was founded and by 1945, John von Neumann had discovered electronic storage for data.

Subsequently, the year 1967 saw the first metal oxide semiconductor built by Fairchild Camera and Seymour Papert, and it created a language on the computer for children that operated a mechanical turtle. Later in 1967, the first storage system for digital photography was invented by IBM, which had the ability to translate a trillion bits of information. In 1994, Windows first browser Netscape 1.0 was released. Additionally, the Internet search engine, Yahoo, was invented. From this point, computer technologies have constantly been improving and have resulted in modern wonders.

Computers have made the technological advances we enjoy today possible. These include online purchasing, business and private communication through social networks, selling to global markets, creating personal websites, or talking to people while seeing them on our computer screens while they are thousands of miles away, and many more advances. All of this is done with little cost, except for a wireless connection fee.

People tend to store information not in the public archives, libraries, or in other ways that require using physical media, but in a digital format with the help of cloud technologies. Many significant scientific discoveries are made with the help of computers, and even if the findings are made by hand, computers are still used to process and calculate data gathered during these researches. Computers are
indispensable for many business and financial operations, exchange trades, freelance jobs, medicine, production quality control and studying – almost all aspects of life today are tied to the use of the computer.

The Computer: Humankind's Greatest Scientific Discovery

Clement Mok, former creative director of Apple, once said, “Five years ago, we thought of the Web as a new medium, not a new economy.” As
civilization races ahead, technology also speeds up, creating new markets and jobs while helping with advances in medicine and agriculture. Computers have evolved from a simple mechanical calculator, which was still revolutionary for its time, into a sophisticated and complicated helpful tool that has become an essential part of humans’ everyday lives. Nowadays, it is difficult to find a part of modern humanity’s existence which has not been reshaped by the invention of the computer, and there is no way of knowing where this great discovery will end up leading civilization in the future.

References

  • Mok, Clement.  “Technology Quotes.” IT History Society. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2013. .
  • “Computer History Museum.” Timeline of Computer History. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2013..
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Importance of Computer Network Service Levels

This paper explains the importance of the different service levels of computer networking such as availability, reliability, response time and throughput. It aims to literate the people managing the network to be aware of these different key areas so that they may always be reminded of their duties and responsibilities in securing the network.

Network Computers

Networked computers have been a part of every business both big and small. People invest their time, effort and money to make sure that communication and information is always available. Information Technology as a part of any organization is crucial to a business success making it one of the most budgeted departments of the organization. People who takes care of the network should know the importance of service to customers and co-employees regarding availability, reliability, response time and throughput.
Availability

Technology is made to serve the people in the shortest time possible. The network group should always make sure that the network, workstations and other technological resources that is operational through networks are all stable and in perfect condition. Monitoring should always be a part of the network group’s daily routine to ensure that all devices are working properly to avoid any downtime. Risk management should always be implemented and observed at all time. The group should be knowledgeable enough to sustain the network in all possible circumstances and emergencies like earthquake, sudden power failure and more. The IT group with the help of the management and customers should also have an understanding in the implementation of availabilities of the business network and other resources through proper endorsements and reporting to make sure that communications and transactions will not be hampered.
Reliability

The information and data gathered from computers and other resources are one of the most important tools for decision making in any business or organization thus making it one of the most sensitive to monitor as well. It is important that customers and employees trust the accuracy of the software or machines that they use. The network group’s job is to make sure that all data and information are well transferred to customers and employees everyday. LAN testing should always be a part of their daily routine to test the reliability of their network.

Response Time

Fast and accurate information and output is so important in this fast world. That is why

the word downtime must not be in an IT group’s dictionary. Network performance must always be in its best. This can be assured through testing the network every now and then. The network group should also be knowledgeable enough to design the kind of network topology and know the tools that can be used in different kinds of work environment to ensure fast performance, resilience, scalability and flexibility of the network.

Throughput

Networking is at its best when they do their work as what they are expected. Processing speed is measured by users every time they work and throughput can be a kind of measurement to see if their device is doing its work well. For example, if a printer is expected to print 100 papers per hour but it seems that it’s only printing 65 papers, the time wasted in printing or downtime is a big factor for the performance of the users that may bring bad effect to their transaction as they go on. Network groups must not see this as a small problem because it may someday be an alerting one. They must have the time to check even the smallest details if they want to avoid larger problems that may come in the way.

Conclusion
Computer networking is one of the most challenging task that an IT or network group may have. It is the veins of success to any transaction. If the group who are responsible in making, designing and implementing networks are all knowledgeable and capable of maintaining and securing a network, then progress and good working environment will be at hand.

It is best that the network group is knowledgeable in their field. However, all of the hard works of the IT group will not be successful if they do not have the support of their co-workers and the top management.

Reference

1.) http://www.ictglobal.com/ICT009/imp_networks.html

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Types of Computers

A computer is one of the most brilliant inventions of mankind. Thanks to computer technology, we were able to achieve storage and processing of huge amounts of data; we could rest our brains by employing computer memory capacities for storage of information. Owing to computers, we have been able speed up daily work, carry out critical transactions and achieve accuracy and precision at work. Computers of the earlier times were of the size of a large room and were required to consume huge amounts of electric power. However, with the advancing technology, computers have shrunk to the size of a small watch.

Depending on the processing power and size of computers, they have been classified under various types. Let us look at the classification of computers. What are the Different Types of Computers? Based on the operational principle of computers, they are categorized as analog, digital and hybrid computers. Operational Principle Analog Digital Hybrid Analog Computers: These are almost extinct today. These are different from a digital computer because an analog computer can perform several mathematical operations simultaneously. It uses continuous variables for mathematical operations and utilizes mechanical or electrical energy.

Digital Computers: They use digital circuits and are designed to operate on two states, namely bits 0 and 1. They are analogous to states ON and OFF. Data on these computers is represented as a series of 0s and 1s. Digital computers are suitable for complex computation and have higher processing speeds. They are programmable. Digital computers are either general purpose computers or special purpose ones. General purpose computers, as their name suggests, are designed for specific types of data processing while general purpose computers are meant for general use.

Hybrid Computers: These computers are a combination of both digital and analog computers. In this type of computers, the digital segments perform process control by conversion of analog signals to digital ones. This was the classification of computers based on their style of functioning. Following is a classification of the different types of computers based on their sizes and processing powers. Processing Power Mainframe Microcomputers Mainframe Computers: Large organizations use mainframes for highly critical applications such as bulk data processing and ERP.

Most of the mainframe computers have capacities to host multiple operating systems and operate as a number of virtual machines. They can substitute for several small servers. Microcomputers: A computer with a microprocessor and its central processing unit is known as a microcomputer. They do not occupy space as much as mainframes do. When supplemented with a keyboard and a mouse, microcomputers can be called personal computers. A monitor, a keyboard and other similar input-output devices, computer memory in the form of RAM and a power supply unit come packaged in a microcomputer.

These computers can fit on desks or tables and prove to be the best choice for single-user tasks. Personal computers come in different forms such as desktops, laptops and personal digital assistants. Let us look at each of these types of computers. Personal Computers Desktop Laptop Netbook PDA Minicomputer Server Supercomputer Wearable Computer Tablet Desktops: A desktop is intended to be used on a single location. The spare parts of a desktop computer are readily available at relatively lower costs. Power consumption is not as critical as that in laptops.

Desktops are widely popular for daily use in the workplace and households. Laptops: Similar in operation to desktops, laptop computers are miniaturized and optimized for mobile use. Laptops run on a single battery or an external adapter that charges the computer batteries. They are enabled with an inbuilt keyboard, touch pad acting as a mouse and a liquid crystal display. Their portability and capacity to operate on battery power have proven to be of great help to mobile users. Netbooks: They fall in the category of laptops, but are inexpensive and relatively smaller in size.

They had a smaller feature set and lesser capacities in comparison to regular laptops, at the time they came into the market. But with passing time, netbooks too began featuring almost everything that notebooks had. By the end of 2008, netbooks had begun to overtake notebooks in terms of market share and sales. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs): It is a handheld computer and popularly known as a palmtop. It has a touch screen and a memory card for storage of data. PDAs can also be used as portable audio players, web browsers and smartphones. Most of them can access the Internet by means of Bluetooth or Wi-Fi communication.

Minicomputers: In terms of size and processing capacity, minicomputers lie in between mainframes and microcomputers. Minicomputers are also called mid-range systems or workstations. The term began to be popularly used in the 1960s to refer to relatively smaller third generation computers. They took up the space that would be needed for a refrigerator or two and used transistor and core memory technologies. The 12-bit PDP-8 minicomputer of the Digital Equipment Corporation was the first successful minicomputer. Servers: They are computers designed to provide services to client machines n a computer network. They have larger storage capacities and powerful processors. Running on them are programs that serve client requests and allocate resources like memory and time to client machines. Usually they are very large in size, as they have large processors and many hard drives. They are designed to be fail-safe and resistant to crash. Supercomputers: The highly calculation-intensive tasks can be effectively performed by means of supercomputers. Quantum physics, mechanics, weather forecasting, molecular theory are best studied by means of supercomputers.

Their ability of parallel processing and their well-designed memory hierarchy give the supercomputers, large transaction processing powers. Wearable Computers: A record-setting step in the evolution of computers was the creation of wearable computers. These computers can be worn on the body and are often used in the study of behavior modeling and human health. Military and health professionals have incorporated wearable computers into their daily routine, as a part of such studies. When the users’ hands and sensory organs are engaged in other activities, wearable computers are of great help in tracking human actions.

Wearable computers do not have to be turned on and off and remain in operation without user intervention. Tablet Computers: Tablets are mobile computers that are very handy to use. They use the touch screen technology. Tablets come with an onscreen keyboard or use a stylus or a digital pen. Apple’s iPad redefined the class of tablet computers. These were some of the different types of computers used today. Looking at the rate of advancement in technology, we can definitely look forward to many more in the near future. Read more at Buzzle: http://www. buzzle. com/articles/different-types-of-computers. tml The types of computers range from the Hybrid to the Analog types. The computers you come across in the daily course of your day range from laptops, palmtops and towers, to desktop computers, to name a few. But the very word “computers” reminds one of the desktop computers used in offices or homes. Different categories of computes have been devised in keeping with our varied needs. The Types Of Computers: Analog and Hybrid (classification based on operational principle) Analog Computers: The analog computer is almost an extinct type of computer these days.

It is different from a digital computer in respect that it can perform numerous mathematical operations simultaneously. It is also unique in terms of operation as it utilizes continuous variables for the purpose of mathematical computation. It utilizes mechanical, hydraulic, or electrical energy or operation. Hybrid computers: These types of computers are, as the name suggests, a combination of both Analog and Digital computers. The Digital computers which work on the principle of binary digit system of “0” and “1” can give very precise results. But the problem is that they are too slow and incapable of large scale mathematical operation.

In the hybrid types of computers the Digital counterparts convert the analog signals to perform Robotics and Process control. Apart from this, computers are also categorized on the basis of physical structures and the purpose of their use. Based on Capacity, speed and reliability they can be divided into three categories of computers: 1. The Mainframe Computer – These are computers used by large organizations like meteorological surveys and statistical institutes for performing bulk mathematical computations. They are core computers which are used for desktop functions of over one hundred people simultaneously. 2.

The Microcomputer – These are the most frequently used computers better known by the name of “Personal computers”. This is the type of computer meant for public use. Other than Desktop Computer the choice ranges as follows: Personal Digital Computer Tablet PC Towers Work Stations Laptops Hand Held Computer 3. The Mini computer – Mini computers like the mainframe computers are used by business organization. The difference being that it can support the simultaneous working of up to 100 users and is usually maintained in business organizations for the maintenance of accounts and finances. Yet another category of computer is the Super Computers.

It is somewhat similar to mainframe computers and is used in economic forecasts and engineering designs. Today life without computers is inconceivable. Usage of different types of computers has made life both smooth and fast paced. There are a lot of terms used to describe computers. Most of these words imply the size, expected use or capability of the computer. While the term computer can apply to virtually any device that has a microprocessor in it, most people think of a computer as a device that receives input from the user through a mouse or keyboard, processes it in some fashion and displays the result on a screen. PC – The personal computer (PC) defines a computer designed for general use by a single person. While a Mac is a PC, most people relate the term with systems that run the Windows operating system. PCs were first known as microcomputers because they were a complete computer but built on a smaller scale than the huge systems in use by most businesses. • Desktop – A PC that is not designed for portability. The expectation with desktop systems are that you will set the computer up in a permanent location.

Most desktops offer more power, storage and versatility for less cost than their portable brethren. • Laptop – Also called notebooks, laptops are portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, a pointing device or trackball, processor, memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an average hardcover book. • Palmtop – More commonly known as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), palmtops are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage.

These computers usually do not have keyboards but rely on touchscreen technology for user input. Palmtops are typically smaller than a paperback novel, very lightweight with a reasonable battery life. A slightly larger and heavier version of the palmtop is the handheld computer. • Workstation – A desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task, such as 3D Graphics or game development. • Server – A computer that has been optimized to provide…

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Computer Laboratory Management System

Purpose It is the project about Computer-shop management System. It automates the Systems records, their Selling and Maintenance, Balance evaluation, due to calculation other functions. In other words you can say it a complete computer-shop management System. In this project we can easily maintain systems sales details. It gives information’s of Annual Transaction of products, its services, daily sales, daily Receipt & Balance. We can see the Systems details before selling the particular items & view for our requirement-satisfying item detail. Project Scope

The scope of project ‘Computer-shop management system’ is to Develop Visual Basic based software to support for daily sale, receipt & Balance of products and maintain the all information of System related items. This software will be very useful for the Big Computer Shop as well as the customer. It will perform as the required task of Automation of product by itself in a systematic way. 8 It will also save lots of time, as system will perform all tasks in quick time profiting customer and shop owner as well, so it will prove very economical in every respect. Product Perspective

The Computer-shop Management System is the new, self-contained product. The Computer-shop management system is using vb6. 0 platform. All components follow Model-View-Controller pattern. The user can retrieve information of their shop progress. All pages of the system are following a consistent theme and clear structure. The occurrence of errors should be minimized through the use of checkboxes and scroll down in order to reduce the amount of text input from user. Error message should be located beside the error input which clearly highlight and tell user how to solve it. If system error, it should provide the contact methods.

The page should display the project process in different color to clearly reflect the various states. Each level of user will have its own interface and privilege to mange and modify the project information. User interface elements are easy to understand. Part of user interface is wellorganized on screen and the parts are concatenated right. When users look at the interface, they understand which pane is used for which purpose. Each task of an interface is specified clearly and users use them correctly. For example, when users press to any button on interface, they can know which operations are done by pressing this button.

The user interface is easy to learn. When users use the user interface, they can know which element is used to which operations. The interface actions and elements is consistent. When users press any button, required actions is done by the system. The screen layout and color of the user interface is appealing. When users look at the screen, it will have a nice vision. Colors will be selected clearly, thus eyes of users won’t be tired. To inhance the graphical user interface I use xp button, lv button and vk frame. Since the application must run on the PC, all the hardware shall require to

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My computer

Computers and networks are involved in virtually all social and academic services today. In this normal social world, it helps us save valuable time traveling to places just to see pictures and images of different places. The internet has virtually conquered the world and successfully conquered a very big part of our lives. One can never measure the space and time the internet has lived and evolved for years since its creation. Computers play a significant role in human lives either personal or business. You can see kids or grown ups do their work at their computers.

My computer can really act as my buddy. I play games in it, chat in it, and communicate with other people through Yahoo instant messenger, MSN, or Skype. I just get to log in and see if my friends are online, if not I can always look for new friends and buddies in the net that has the same interest as I have. And it has given me a good view of other culture, their attitude, their language and how they look at life. I get a different outlook with life and its meaning which make me understand people and the world better.

Communication is very important in building relationships. So my buddy computer has helped me a lot to send email messages and notes to my mom and dad. This I used to make a list of the things that I need to buy, update on some of my school activities, and of course asking favor from mom and dad on some things like additional allowances or weekend getaways with the family.  We do talk to each other personally of course but sometimes there are things that we need to put into writing so they can just print it out and bring it with them when they got to do the errand for my favors.

Sometimes I get bored and I am kind of lazy going out so I just lie down in my bed, set my speakers, and then off I go to the coolest music in town. I can download whatever games, music, videos, and a lot of other things in the net that gets my attention. Sometimes I danced with the music to exercise, watch basketball, or just plainly watch HBO or Cinemax. I am sure it contains more than any other human being can give you in terms of information and features. Of course the caring, the sharing and sometimes the quarrels are three human attributes a cold computer buddy can’t give.

My computer buddy helps me define my food selections for the day. Whenever mom and dad get lazy cooking meals, I am automatically assigned to chef. Being a chef means ordering and calling restaurants for food delivery. This is the most exciting part. This is the only time I get to order some things in the menu that I don’t understand and have it delivered to the house. There are plenty of websites where we can order food and their menus are already provided together with their prices. Anyway, I get to order what I like and they got to pay everything and it was fun.

My cousins visit us sometimes and when they are here at the house, the only thing we get on with the group is my computer buddy. We play music and plainly chat and enjoy each others company. We browse the net for games, and play. Whenever I have an assignment, I always go to my computer for research and references. My computer has always been a buddy for me although it is just an object to say but it has given me a lot of help and a lot of things that I enjoy. To describe it, I can say my computer is a good buddy with a very intelligent mind powered by the internet filled with useful information.

 

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Computer background

The booming industry of technology, one would naturally assume that computer literacy is not a problem. However, it is the case that not all of the people have the opportunity to learn the new technological advancement. It has been an issue that computer literacy has a big impact on a person’s capacity to find sufficient jobs. It has been a necessary requirement that one should have a certain background on computer works. It would seem then that being literate with computers had been a forgone issue for a person living in this era.

Nonetheless, the issue of computer literacy has always been present. The essential knowledge that a dichotomy of generations is still present should not have been neglected. The problem that could be seen here then is that not all of the previous generations have the sufficient information about computers and other technological advancements. Other people might have the opportunity to learn but others could not cope with the advancement. Main reason for this is the issue of the socioeconomic status that a person might have.

Learning to use computers would necessitate the need for computers in the home. Not all of the people though have the same opportunity financially though. At the rate of the fast advancement of computers, it would have been hard to be able to keep up with what ought to be learned.

The main issue here then is the socioeconomic status that a person has. Learning could be done through computer classes but having the means to learn is the problem. It would seem that the major hindrance for learning is the monetary issue. But what is socioeconomic status? It is known that this refers to the status or background of person. It is here that a person’s background that includes his/her “occupation, education, income wealth, and place on residence (“Socioeconomic Status”)” is scrutinized.

In this aspect, there could be those who are deemed to be unfortunate. They are the ones who are usually subjected to the harsh realities in this life. Those who could be considered poor then would have a deprived background. Those who could be considered well-off would have a privileged background. It could be seen here that not all of us has the privilege to have a relatively better socioeconomic status. The benefits of having a better status are countless especially when a person is determined. But determination could not always take us somewhere if we have not had the chances or opportunities in the first place.

I was one of the fortunate ones. Growing up in a family whose socioeconomic status is relatively better than others I had the benefit of going to a good school. I had learned to use the computer through school and had the opportune time to practice at home. As a child, I did not think that computers would have to be relevant in my life since all I cared about was fun and games. Computer class was not considered to be fun and games in my book then so I just went to class and tried my best to pass. As I grew older and childishness had deserted me, I have learned the real value of computer classes.

I took it seriously and realized that fun and games could also be found in computers. My teachers were drilling in me the basics of computer programs had given me the benefit of being called computer literate. It is not an uncommon knowledge that computer literacy is highly favored nowadays. When I filled out my resume, computer skills or literacy was an important factor. Offices now had long dispatched type writers and replaced it with the more convenient computers. In this time, it is believed that modernization would require the usage of technological aspects and computers are one of them.

Computers have been a given necessity that computer illiteracy was a forgotten issue. However, this issue is still in circulation but some would usually shrug at the thought of computer illiteracy. The main culprit here is the presumptuous thinking of the people. They have seemed to have conveniently forgotten those who are down the social triangle.

I have come across with other people who did not have the opportunity to learn the ropes of computers let alone had the chance in ever using or touching one. This is not an exaggerated case but this situation usually happens to those who did not have the blessings that I had. This person had to stop going to school so she did not have the opportunity to learn the usage of computers. It was later when she had a family that she realized that her children might suffer the same plight.

Although, it would not have been a problem for her since she had managed to send her children to a school that had computer classes. But her frustration came when she would observe her children in front of the computer. Her frustration stemmed out from the fact that she had to learn through her children plus she found computers to be complicated. Generally, a person trying to learn would think it to be complicated but one could not blame him/her. In this case, the woman did not have the opportunity and means to learn since she was busying earning a living.

Going back to what I have said earlier, computers had been a prerequisite when it comes to job hunting. The importance that the people had found in computers was due to the dependency that they have about it. My father told me that they did not have to use computers before nor was there a need to use other gadgets before. He usually frowns upon the great importance that people put on computers but in the end he had to learn. The company that he was working for made technological upgrades so he had to learn how to use a computer.

Fortunately for my father he had the means to learn and he had his children to teach him. Others would not have been lucky though. Some had a hard time coping with it that soon new employees were easily promoted than them. The company would not always hesitate to do so not because they were not grateful for the loyalty and service but they had to do it for the progress of the company. It was a sad situation but it was inevitable.

I think that the booming technologies would not be stopped especially when man thirst for a more unproblematic way of life. It could not be helped and maybe someday soon that what I know about computers would be rustic compared to the younger generations. The best way for me to avoid this is to accommodate the change and change as well. This change would have to be for the betterment of my status in life, work related or not.

Work Cited

“Socioeconomic Status.” The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Ed. Jr. E.D. Hirsch, Joseph F. Kett, James Trefil. Third Ed: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.

 

 

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We Are Becoming Increasingly Dependent on Computer Technology

As we move into the twenty-first century, it is clear to see that we have become more and more dependent on computers and information technology. This technology now reaches into almost every area of our lives and it is easy to predict that this phenomenon is only going to grow. My personal belief is that this presents a variety of dangers. It is highly likely that in the future there will be comparatively few aspects of our lives that will not be influenced by computer technology.

The probability is that it will control more and more forms of communication, transforming fields such as education and business when video-conferencing platforms become more stable. It might even affect romance with more people forming relationships online. While there may be benefits to this technological revolution, there are also a number of potential dangers. Perhaps the most serious of these would be that if people rely on computers too much for communication, they could in fact begin to communicate less well.

For example, if every member of a family had their own computer screen and smart phone, they might speak less and less often to one another and simply look at a screen. This would be serious because our ability to communicate is an essential part of our humanity. My conclusion is that the growth of computer technology is inevitable, but that this may not be entirely positive. Just one area in which it is possible to foresee dangers is communication, and if we are going to ensure that computers do not become a negative influence, we need to think carefully how we use them. (273 words)

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Data and Computer Communications

DATA AND COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS Eighth Edition William Stallings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data on File Vice President and Editorial Director, ECS: Marcia J. Horton Executive Editor: Tracy Dunkelberger Assistant Editor: Carole Snyder Editorial Assistant: Christianna Lee Executive Managing Editor: Vince O’Brien Managing Editor: Camille Trentacoste Production Editor: Rose Kernan Director of Creative Services: Paul Belfanti Creative Director: Juan Lopez Cover Designer: Bruce Kenselaar Managing Editor,AV Management and Production: Patricia Burns ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.

Pearson Prentice Hall Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Art Editor: Gregory Dulles Director, Image Resource Center: Melinda Reo Manager, Rights and Permissions: Zina Arabia Manager,Visual Research: Beth Brenzel Manager, Cover Visual Research and Permissions: Karen Sanatar Manufacturing Manager, ESM: Alexis Heydt-Long Manufacturing Buyer: Lisa McDowell Executive Marketing Manager: Robin O’Brien Marketing Assistant: Mack Patterson All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Pearson Prentice Hall™ is a trademark of Pearson Education, Inc. All other tradmarks or product names are the property of their respective owners. The author and publisher of this book have used their best efforts in preparing this book. These efforts include the development, research, and testing of the theories and programs to determine their effectiveness. The author and publisher make no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to these programs or the documentation contained in this book. The author and publisher shall not be liable in any event for incidental or consequential amages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing, performance, or use of these programs. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN: 0-13-243310-9 Pearson Education Ltd. , London Pearson Education Australia Pty. Ltd. , Sydney Pearson Education Singapore, Pte. Ltd. Pearson Education North Asia Ltd. , Hong Kong Pearson Education Canada, Inc. , Toronto Pearson Educaci n de Mexico, S. A. de C. V. Pearson Education Japan, Tokyo Pearson Education Malaysia, Pte. Ltd. Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, New Jersey For my scintillating wife ATS

WEB SITE FOR DATA AND COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS, EIGHTH EDITION The Web site at WilliamStallings. com/DCC/DCC8e. html provides support for instructors and students using the book. It includes the following elements. Course Support Materials The course support materials include • Copies of figures from the book in PDF format • A detailed set of course notes in PDF format suitable for student handout or for use as viewgraphs • A set of PowerPoint slides for use as lecture aids • Computer Science Student Support Site: contains a number of links and documents that the student may find useful in his/her ongoing computer science education.

The site includes a review of basic, relevant mathematics; advice on research, writing, and doing homework problems; links to computer science research resources, such as report repositories and bibliographies; and other useful links. • An errata sheet for the book, updated at most monthly T DCC Courses The DCC8e Web site includes links to Web sites for courses taught using the book. These sites can provide useful ideas about scheduling and topic ordering, as well as a number of useful handouts and other materials. Useful Web Sites The DCC8e Web site includes links to relevant Web sites, organized by chapter.

The links cover a broad spectrum of topics and will enable students to explore timely issues in greater depth. iv WEB SITE FOR DATA AND COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS, EIGHTH EDITION v Supplemental Documents The DCC8e Web site includes a number of documents that expand on the treatment in the book. Topics include standards organizations, Sockets, TCP/IP checksum, ASCII, and the sampling theorem. Internet Mailing List An Internet mailing list is maintained so that instructors using this book can exchange information, suggestions, and questions with each other and the author.

Subscription information is provided at the book’s Web site. Simulation and Modeling Tools The Web site includes links to the cnet Web site and the modeling tools Web site. These packages can be used to analyze and experiment with protocol and network design issues. Each site includes downloadable software and background information. The instructor’s manual includes more information on loading and using the software and suggested student projects. This page intentionally left blank CONTENTS Web Site for Data and Computer Communications Preface xv 1 iv Chapter 0 Reader’s and Instructor’s Guide 0. Outline of the Book 2 0. 2 Roadmap 3 0. 3 Internet and Web Resources 5 0. 4 Standards 6 PART ONE OVERVIEW 9 Chapter 1 Data Communications, Data Networking, and the Internet 10 1. 1 Data Communications and Networking for Today’s Enterprise 12 1. 2 A Communications Model 16 1. 3 Data Communications 19 1. 4 Networks 22 1. 5 The Internet 25 1. 6 An Example Configuration 29 Chapter 2 Protocol Architecture, TCP/IP, and Internet-Based Applications 2. 1 The Need for a Protocol Architecture 33 2. 2 The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture 34 2. 3 The OSI Model 42 2. 4 Standardization within a Protocol Architecture 44 2. Traditional Internet-Based Applications 48 2. 6 Multimedia 48 2. 7 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 53 2. 8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 54 Appendix 2A The Trivial File Transfer Protocol 57 PART TWO DATA COMMUNICATIONS 62 Chapter 3 Data Transmission 65 3. 1 Concepts and Terminology 67 3. 2 Analog and Digital Data Transmission 78 3. 3 Transmission Impairments 86 3. 4 Channel Capacity 91 3. 5 Recommended Reading and Web Site 96 3. 6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems Appendix 3A Decibels and Signal Strength 99 Chapter 4 Transmission Media 102 4. Guided Transmission Media 104 4. 2 Wireless Transmission 117 4. 3 Wireless Propagation 125 32 96 vii viii CONTENTS 4. 4 4. 5 4. 6 Line-of-Sight Transmission 129 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 133 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 134 Chapter 5 Signal Encoding Techniques 138 5. 1 Digital Data, Digital Signals 141 5. 2 Digital Data, Analog Signals 151 5. 3 Analog Data, Digital Signals 162 5. 4 Analog Data, Analog Signals 168 5. 5 Recommended Reading 175 5. 6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 175 Chapter 6 Digital Data Communication Techniques 180 6. Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission 182 6. 2 Types of Errors 186 6. 3 Error Detection 186 6. 4 Error Correction 196 6. 5 Line Configurations 201 6. 6 Recommended Reading 203 6. 7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 204 Chapter 7 Data Link Control Protocols 207 7. 1 Flow Control 209 7. 2 Error Control 216 7. 3 High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) 222 7. 4 Recommended Reading 228 7. 5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 229 Appendix 7A Performance Issues 232 Chapter 8 Multiplexing 239 8. 1 Frequency-Division Multiplexing 242 8. 2 Synchronous Time-Division Multiplexing 248 8. Statistical Time-Division Multiplexing 258 8. 4 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line 265 8. 5 xDSL 268 8. 6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 269 8. 7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 270 Chapter 9 Spread Spectrum 274 9. 1 The Concept of Spread Spectrum 276 9. 2 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum 277 9. 3 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 282 9. 4 Code-Division Multiple Access 287 9. 5 Recommended Reading and Web Site 290 9. 6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 291 CONTENTS ix PART THREE WIDE AREA NETWORKS 295 Chapter 10 Circuit Switching and Packet Switching 297 10. Switched Communications Networks 299 10. 2 Circuit Switching Networks 301 10. 3 Circuit Switching Concepts 304 10. 4 Softswitch Architecture 307 10. 5 Packet-Switching Principles 309 10. 6 X. 25 317 10. 7 Frame Relay 319 10. 8 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 324 10. 9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 325 Chapter 11 Asynchronous Transfer Mode 328 11. 1 Protocol Architecture 329 11. 2 ATM Logical Connections 331 11. 3 ATM Cells 335 11. 4 Transmission of ATM Cells 340 11. 5 ATM Service Categories 345 11. 6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 348 11. Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 349 Chapter 12 Routing in Switched Networks 351 12. 1 Routing in Packet-Switching Networks 352 12. 2 Examples: Routing in ARPANET 362 12. 3 Least-Cost Algorithms 367 12. 4 Recommended Reading 372 12. 5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 373 Chapter 13 Congestion Control in Data Networks 377 13. 1 Effects of Congestion 379 13. 2 Congestion Control 383 13. 3 Traffic Management 386 13. 4 Congestion Control in Packet-Switching Networks 13. 5 Frame Relay Congestion Control 388 13. 6 ATM Traffic Management 394 13. 7 ATM-GFR Traffic Management 406 13. Recommended Reading 409 13. 9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 410 Chapter 14 Cellular Wireless Networks 413 14. 1 Principles of Cellular Networks 415 14. 2 First Generation Analog 427 14. 3 Second Generation CDMA 429 14. 4 Third Generation Systems 437 14. 5 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 440 14. 6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 441 387 x CONTENTS PART FOUR LOCAL AREA NETWORKS 444 Chapter 15 Local Area Network Overview 446 15. 1 Background 448 15. 2 Topologies and Transmission Media 451 15. 3 LAN Protocol Architecture 457 15. 4 Bridges 465 15. 5 Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switches 473 15. Recommended Reading and Web Site 478 15. 7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 479 Chapter 16 High-Speed LANs 482 16. 1 The Emergence of High-Speed LANs 483 16. 2 Ethernet 485 16. 3 Fibre Channel 500 16. 4 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 504 16. 5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 506 Appendix 16A Digital Signal Encoding for LANs 508 Appendix 16B Performance Issues 514 Appendix 16C Scrambling 518 Chapter 17 Wireless LANs 522 17. 1 Overview 523 17. 2 Wireless LAN Technology 528 17. 3 IEEE 802. 11 Architecture and Services 531 17. 4 IEEE 802. 11 Medium Access Control 535 17. 5 IEEE 802. 1Physical Layer 543 17. 6 IEEE 802. 11 Security Considerations 549 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 550 17. 7 17. 8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 551 PART FIVE INTERNET AND TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS Chapter 18 Internetwork Protocols 556 18. 1 Basic Protocol Functions 558 18. 2 Principles of Internetworking 566 18. 3 Internet Protocol Operation 569 18. 4 Internet Protocol 576 18. 5 IPv6 586 18. 6 Virtual Private Networks and IP Security 596 18. 7 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 599 18. 8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 600 Chapter 19 Internetwork Operation 603 19. 1 Multicasting 605 19. Routing Protocols 614 19. 3 Integrated Services Architecture 625 19. 4 Differentiated Services 636 554 CONTENTS xi 19. 5 19. 6 19. 7 19. 8 Service Level Agreements 645 IP Performance Metrics 646 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 649 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 651 657 Chapter 20 Transport Protocols 655 20. 1 Connection-Oriented Transport Protocol Mechanisms 20. 2 TCP 674 20. 3 TCP Congestion Control 683 20. 4 UDP 693 20. 5 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 695 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 695 20. 6 PART SIX Chapter 21 21. 1 21. 2 21. 3 21. 4 21. 5 21. 6 21. 7 21. 8 21. INTERNET APPLICATIONS 699 Network Security 701 Security Requirements and Attacks 703 Confidentiality with Conventional Encryption 705 Message Authentication and Hash Functions 713 Public-Key Encryption and Digital Signatures 720 Secure Socket Layer and Transport Layer Security 727 IPv4 and IPv6 Security 732 Wi-Fi Protected Access 737 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 739 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 740 Chapter 22 Internet Applications—Electronic Mail and Network Management 22. 1 Electronic Mail: SMTP and MIME 745 22. 2 Network Management: SNMP 760 22. 3 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 770 22. Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 771 743 Chapter 23 Internet Applications—Internet Directory Service and World Wide Web 23. 1 Internet Directory Service: DNS 774 23. 2 Web Access: HTTP 784 23. 3 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 795 23. 4 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 796 Chapter 24 Internet Applications—Multimedia 799 24. 1 Audio and Video Compression 800 24. 2 Real-Time Traffic 808 24. 3 Voice Over IP and Multimedia Support—SIP 811 24. 4 Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) 820 24. 5 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 831 24. 6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 832 773 ii CONTENTS APPENDICES 835 Appendix A Fourier Analysis 835 A. 1 Fourier Series Representation of Periodic Signals 836 A. 2 Fourier Transform Representation of Aperiodic Signals 837 A. 3 Recommended Reading 840 Appendix B Projects for Teaching Data and Computer Communications B. 1 Practical Exercises 842 B. 2 Sockets Projects 843 B. 3 Ethereal Projects 843 B. 4 Simulation and Modeling Projects 844 B. 5 Performance Modeling 844 B. 6 Research Projects 845 B. 7 Reading/Report Assignments 845 B. 8 Writing Assignments 845 B. 9 Discussion Topics 846 References Index 858 ONLINE APPENDICES WilliamStallings. om/DCC Appendix C Sockets: A Programmer’s Introduction C. 1 Versions of Sockets C. 2 Sockets, Socket Descriptors, Ports, and Connections The Client/Server Model of Communication C. 3 C. 4 Sockets Elements C. 5 Stream and Datagram Sockets C. 6 Run-Time Program Control C. 7 Remote Execution of a Windows Console Application Appendix D Standards Organizations D. 1 The Importance of Standards D. 2 Standards and Regulation D. 3 Standards-Setting Organizations Appendix E Appendix F The International Reference Alphabet Proof of the Sampling Theorem 847 841 Appendix G Physical-Layer Interfacing G. 1 V. 24/EIA-232-F G. ISDN Physical Interface Appendix H The OSI Model H. 1 The Model H. 2 The OSI Layers CONTENTS xiii Appendix I Queuing Effects I. 1 Queuing Models I. 2 Queuing Results Appendix J Orthogonality, Correlation, and Autocorrelation J. 1 Correlation and Autocorrelation J. 2 Orthogonal Codes Appendix K The TCP/IP Checksum K. 1 Ones-Complement Addition K. 2 Use in TCP and IP Appendix L TCP/IP Example Appendix M Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) M. 1 Uniform Resource Locator M. 2 Uniform Resource Identifier M. 3 To Learn More Appendix N Glossary Augmented Backus-Naur Form

This page intentionally left blank PREFACE Begin at the beginning and go on till you come to the end; then stop. —Alice in Wonderland, Lewis Carroll OBJECTIVES This book attempts to provide a unified overview of the broad field of data and computer communications. The organization of the book reflects an attempt to break this massive subject into comprehensible parts and to build, piece by piece, a survey of the state of the art. The book emphasizes basic principles and topics of fundamental importance concerning the technology and architecture of this field and provides a detailed discussion of leading-edge topics.

The following basic themes serve to unify the discussion: • Principles: Although the scope of this book is broad, there are a number of basic principles that appear repeatedly as themes and that unify this field. Examples are multiplexing, flow control, and error control. The book highlights these principles and contrasts their application in specific areas of technology. • Design approaches: The book examines alternative approaches to meeting specific communication requirements. • Standards: Standards have come to assume an increasingly important, indeed dominant, role in this field.

An understanding of the current status and future direction of technology requires a comprehensive discussion of the related standards. INTENDED AUDIENCE The book is intended for both an academic and a professional audience. For the professional interested in this field, the book serves as a basic reference volume and is suitable for self-study. As a textbook, it can be used for a one-semester or two-semester course. It covers the material in Networking (NET), a core area in the Information Technology body of knowledge, which is part of the Draft ACM/IEEE/AIS Computing Curricula 2005.

The book also covers the material in Computer Networks (CE-NWK), a core area in Computer Engineering 2004 Curriculum Guidelines from the ACM/IEEE Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula. PLAN OF THE TEXT The book is divided into six parts (see Chapter 0): • Overview • Data Communications • Wide Area Networks xv xvi PREFACE • Local Area Networks • Internet and Transport Protocols • Internet Applications In addition, the book includes an extensive glossary, a list of frequently used acronyms, and a bibliography. Each chapter includes problems and suggestions for further reading.

The chapters and parts of the book are sufficiently modular to provide a great deal of flexibility in the design of courses. See Chapter 0 for a number of detailed suggestions for both top-down and bottom-up course strategies. INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORT MATERIALS To support instructors, the following materials are provided: • Solutions Manual: Solutions to all end-of-chapter Review Questions and Problems. • PowerPoint Slides: A set of slides covering all chapters, suitable for use in lecturing. • PDF files: Reproductions of all figures and tables from the book. Projects Manual: Suggested project assignments for all of the project categories listed below. Instructors may contact their Pearson Education or Prentice Hall representative for access to these materials. In addition, the book’s Web site supports instructors with: • Links to Webs sites for other courses being taught using this book • Sign up information for an Internet mailing list for instructors INTERNET SERVICES FOR INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS There is a Web site for this book that provides support for students and instructors.

The site includes links to other relevant sites, transparency masters of figures in the book, and sign-up information for the book’s Internet mailing list. The Web page is at WilliamStallings. com/DCC/DCC8e. html; see the section, Web Site for Data and Computer Communications, preceding the Table of Contents, for more information. An Internet mailing list has been set up so that instructors using this book can exchange information, suggestions, and questions with each other and with the author. As soon as typos or other errors are discovered, an errata list for this book will be available at WilliamStallings. om. PROJECTS AND OTHER STUDENT EXERCISES For many instructors, an important component of a data communications or networking course is a project or set of projects by which the student gets hands-on experience to reinforce concepts from the text. This book provides an unparalleled degree of support for including a projects component in the course. The instructor’s supplement not only includes guidance on how to assign and structure the projects but also includes a set of User’s PREFACE xvii Manuals for various project types plus specific assignments, all written especially for this book.

Instructors can assign work in the following areas: • Practical exercises: Using network commands, the student gains experience in network connectivity. • Sockets programming projects: The book is supported by a detailed description of Sockets available at the book’s Web site. The Instructors supplement includes a set of programming projects. Sockets programming is an “easy” topic and one that can result in very satisfying hands-on projects for students. • Ethereal projects: Ethereal is a protocol analyzer that enables students to study the behavior of protocols. Simulation projects: The student can use the simulation package cnet to analyze network behavior. • Performance modeling projects: Two performance modeling techniques are provided a tools package and OPNET. • Research projects: The instructor’s supplement includes a list of suggested research projects that would involve Web and literature searches. • Reading/report assignments: The instructor’s supplement includes a list of papers that can be assigned for reading and writing a report, plus suggested assignment wording. Writing assignments: The instructor’s supplement includes a list of writing assignments to facilitate learning the material. • Discussion topics: These topics can be used in a classroom, chat room, or message board environment to explore certain areas in greater depth and to foster student collaboration. This diverse set of projects and other student exercises enables the instructor to use the book as one component in a rich and varied learning experience and to tailor a course plan to meet the specific needs of the instructor and students. See Appendix B for details.

WHAT’S NEW IN THE EIGHTH EDITION This eighth edition is seeing the light of day less than four years after the publication of the seventh edition. During that time, the pace of change in this field continues unabated. In this new edition, I try to capture these changes while maintaining a broad and comprehensive coverage of the entire field. To begin the process of revision, the seventh edition of this book was extensively reviewed by a number of professors who teach the subject. The result is that, in many places, the narrative has been clarified and tightened, and illustrations have been improved.

Also, a number of new “field-tested” problems have been added. Beyond these refinements to improve pedagogy and user friendliness, there have been major substantive changes throughout the book. Every chapter has been revised, new chapters have been added, and the overall organization of the book has changed. Highlights include: • Updated coverage of Gigabit Ethernet and 10-Gbps Ethernet: New details of these standards are provided. • Updated coverage of WiFi/IEEE 802. 11 wireless LANs: IEEE 802. 11 and the related WiFi specifications have continued to evolve. viii PREFACE • New coverage of IP performance metrics and service level agreements (SLAs): These aspects of Quality of Service (QoS) and performance monitoring are increasingly important. • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP): This important protocol is now covered. • New coverage of TCP Tahoe, Reno, and NewReno: These congestion control algorithms are now common in most commercial implementations. • Expanded coverage of security: Chapter 21 is more detailed; other chapters provide overview of security for the relevant topic.

Among the new topics are Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) and the secure hash algorithm SHA-512. • Domain Name System (DNS): This important scheme is now covered. • New coverage of multimedia: Introductory section in Chapter 2; detailed coverage in Chapter 24. Topics covered include video compression, SIP, and RTP. • Online appendices: Fourteen online appendices provide additional detail on important topics in the text, including Sockets programming, queuing models, the Internet checksum, a detailed example of TCP/IP operation, and the BNF grammar.

In addition, throughout the book, virtually every topic has been updated to reflect the developments in standards and technology that have occurred since the publication of the seventh edition. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This new edition has benefited from review by a number of people, who gave generously of their time and expertise. The following people reviewed all or a large part of the manuscript: Xin Liu- (UC, Davis), Jorge Cobb, Andras Farago, Dr. Prasant Mohapatra (UC Davis), Dr. Jingxian Wu (Sonoma State University), G. R.

Dattareya (UT Dallas), Guanling Chen (Umass, Lowell), Bob Roohaprvar (Cal State East Bay), Ahmed Banafa (Cal State East Bay), Ching-Chen Lee (CSU Hayward), and Daji Qaio (Iowa State). Thanks also to the many people who provided detailed technical reviews of a single chapter: Dave Tweed, Bruce Lane, Denis McMahon, Charles Freund, Paul Hoadley, Stephen Ma, Sandeep Subramaniam, Dragan Cvetkovic, Fernando Gont, Neil Giles, Rajesh Thundil, and Rick Jones. In addition, Larry Owens of California State University and Katia Obraczka of the University of Southern California provided some homework problems.

Thanks also to the following contributors. Zornitza Prodanoff of the University of North Florida prepared the appendix on Sockets programming. Michael Harris of the University of South Florida is responsible for the Ethereal exercises and user’s guide. Lawrie Brown of the Australian Defence Force Academy of the University of New South Wales produced the PPT lecture slides. Finally, I would like to thank the many people responsible for the publication of the book, all of whom did their usual excellent job.

This includes the staff at Prentice Hall, particularly my editor Tracy Dunkelberger, her assistants Christianna Lee and Carole Snyder, and production manager Rose Kernan. Also, Patricia M. Daly did the copy editing. CHAPTER READER’S AND INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 Outline of the Book Roadmap Internet and Web Resources Standards 0 1 2 CHAPTER 0 / READER’S AND INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE “In the meanwhile, then,” demanded Li-loe, “relate to me the story to which reference has been made, thereby proving the truth of your assertion, and at the same time affording n entertainment of a somewhat exceptional kind. ” “The shadows lengthen,” replied Kai Lung, “but as the narrative in question is of an inconspicuous span I will raise no barrier against your flattering request, especially as it indicates an awakening taste hitherto unexpected. ” —Kai Lung’s Golden Hours, Earnest Bramah This book, with its accompanying Web site, covers a lot of material. Here we give the reader some basic background information. 0. 1 OUTLINE OF THE BOOK The book is organized into five parts: Part One. Overview: Provides an introduction to the range of topics covered in the book.

This part includes a general overview of data communications and networking and a discussion of protocols, OSI, and the TCP/IP protocol suite. Part Two. Data Communications: Concerned primarily with the exchange of data between two directly connected devices. Within this restricted scope, the key aspects of transmission, interfacing, link control, and multiplexing are examined. Part Three. Wide Area Networks: Examines the internal mechanisms and user-network interfaces that have been developed to support voice, data, and multimedia communications over long-distance networks.

The traditional technologies of packet switching and circuit switching are examined, as well as the more recent ATM and wireless WANs. Separate chapters are devoted to routing and congestion control issues that are relevant both to switched data networks and to the Internet. Part Four. Local Area Networks: Explores the technologies and architectures that have been developed for networking over shorter distances. The transmission media, topologies, and medium access control protocols that are the key ingredients of a LAN design are explored and specific standardized LAN systems examined.

Part Five. Networking Protocols: Explores both the architectural principles and the mechanisms required for the exchange of data among computers, workstations, servers, and other data processing devices. Much of the material in this part relates to the TCP/IP protocol suite. Part Six. Internet Applications: Looks at a range of applications that operate over the Internet. A more detailed, chapter-by-chapter summary of each part appears at the beginning of that part. 0. 2 / ROADMAP 3 0. 2 ROADMAP Course Emphasis

The material in this book is organized into four broad categories: data transmission and communication; communications networks; network protocols; and applications and security. The chapters and parts of the book are sufficiently modular to provide a great deal of flexibility in the design of courses. The following are suggestions for three different course designs: • Fundamentals of Data Communications: Parts One (overview) and Two (data communications) and Chapters 10 and 11 (circuit switching, packet switching, and ATM). Communications Networks: If the student has a basic background in data communications, then this course could cover Parts One (overview), Three (WAN), and Four (LAN). • Computer Networks: If the student has a basic background in data communications, then this course could cover Part One (overview), Chapters 6 and 7 (data communication techniques and data link control), Part Five (protocols), and part or all of Part Six (applications). In addition, a more streamlined course that covers the entire book is possible by eliminating certain chapters that are not essential on a first reading.

Chapters that could be optional are Chapters 3 (data transmission) and 4 (transmission media), if the student has a basic understanding of these topics; Chapter 8 (multiplexing); Chapter 9 (spread spectrum); Chapters 12 through 14 (routing, congestion control, cellular networks); Chapter 18 (internetworking); and Chapter 21 (network security). Bottom-Up versus Top-Down The book is organized in a modular fashion. After reading Part One, the other parts can be read in a number of possible sequences.

Figure 0. 1a shows the bottom-up approach provided by reading the book from front to back. With this approach, each part builds on the material in the previous part, so that it is always clear how a given layer of functionality is supported from below. There is more material than can be comfortably covered in a single semester, but the book’s organization makes it easy to eliminate some chapters and maintain the bottom-up sequence. Figure 0. 1b suggests one approach to a survey course.

Some readers, and some instructors, are more comfortable with a top-down approach. After the background material (Part One), the reader continues at the application level and works down through the protocol layers. This has the advantage of immediately focusing on the most visible part of the material, the applications, and then seeing, progressively, how each layer is supported by the next layer down. Figure 0. 1c is an example of a comprehensive treatment and Figure 0. 1d is an example of a survey treatment. 4 CHAPTER 0 / READER’S AND INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE

Part One Overview Part Two Data Communications Part Three Wide Area Networks Part Four Local Area Networks Part Five Internet and Transport Protocols Part Six Internet Applications (a) A bottom-up approach Part One Overview Chapter 18 The Internet Protocol Part Six Internet Applications Part Five TCP/IP Part Three WANs Part Four LANs Part Two Data Communications (c) A top-down approach (d) Another top-down approach (b) Another bottom-up approach Part One Overview Chapter 18 The Internet Protocol Part Six Internet Applications Part Five TCP/IP Part Three WANs (10, 12) Part Four LANs (15) Part One Overview (1, 2) Part Two Data Communications (3, 6, 7, 8) Part Three WANs (10, 12) Part Four LANs (15) Part Five TCP/IP (18, 20) Figure 0. 1 Suggested Reading Orders Finally, it is possible to select chapters to reflect specific teaching objectives by not sticking to a strict chapter ordering. We give two examples used in courses taught with the seventh edition.

One course used the sequence Part One (Overview); Chapter 3 (Data Transmission); Chapter 6 (Digital Data Communications Techniques); Chapter 7 (Data Link Control); Chapter 15 (LAN Overview); Chapter 16 (High-Speed LANs); Chapter 10 (Circuit and Packet Switching); Chapter 12 (Routing); Chapter 18 (Internet Protocols); and Chapter 19 (Internet Operation). The other course used the sequence Part One (Overview); Chapter 3 (Data Transmission); Chapter 4 (Guided and Wireless Transmission); Chapter 5 (Signal Encoding Techniques); Chapter 8 (Multiplexing); Chapter 15 (LAN 0. 3 / INTERNET AND WEB RESOURCES 5 Overview); Chapter 16 (High-Speed LANs); Chapter 10 (Circuit and Packet Switching); Chapter 20 (Transport Protocols); Chapter 18 (Internet Protocols); and Chapter 19 (Internet Operation). 0. 3 INTERNET AND WEB RESOURCES There are a number of resources available on the Internet and the Web to support this book and to help one keep up with developments in this field.

Web Sites for This Book A special Web page has been set up for this book at WilliamStallings. com/DCC/ DCC8e. html. See the two-page layout at the beginning of this book for a detailed description of that site. As soon as any typos or other errors are discovered, an errata list for this book will be available at the Web site. Please report any errors that you spot. Errata sheets for my other books are at WilliamStallings. com. I also maintain the Computer Science Student Resource Site, at WilliamStallings. com/StudentSupport. html. The purpose of this site is to provide documents, information, and links for computer science students and professionals.

Links and documents are organized into four categories: • Math: Includes a basic math refresher, a queuing analysis primer, a number system primer, and links to numerous math sites • How-to: Advice and guidance for solving homework problems, writing technical reports, and preparing technical presentations • Research resources: Links to important collections of papers, technical reports, and bibliographies • Miscellaneous: A variety of useful documents and links Other Web Sites There are numerous Web sites that provide information related to the topics of this book. In subsequent chapters, pointers to specific Web sites can be found in the Recommended Reading and Web Sites section. Because the addresses for Web sites tend to change frequently, I have not included URLs in the book. For all of the Web sites listed in the book, the appropriate link can be found at this book’s Web site. Other links not mentioned in this book will be added to the Web site over time.

The following are Web sites of general interest related to data and computer communications: • Network World: Information and links to resources about data communications and networking. • IETF: Maintains archives that relate to the Internet and IETF activities. Includes keyword-indexed library of RFCs and draft documents as well as many other documents related to the Internet and related protocols. 6 CHAPTER 0 / READER’S AND INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE • Vendors: Links to thousands of hardware and software vendors who currently have Web sites, as well as a list of thousands of computer and networking companies in a phone directory. • IEEE Communications Society: Good way to keep up on conferences, publications, and so on. ACM Special Interest Group on Communications (SIGCOMM): Good way to keep up on conferences, publications, and so on. • International Telecommunications Union: Contains a listing of ITU-T recommendations, plus information on obtaining ITU-T documents in hard copy or on DVD. • International Organization for Standardization: Contains a listing of ISO standards, plus information on obtaining ISO documents in hard copy or on CD-ROM. • CommWeb: Links to vendors, tutorials, and other useful information. • CommsDesign: Lot of useful articles, tutorials, and product information. A bit hard to navigate, but worthwhile. USENET Newsgroups A number of USENET newsgroups are devoted to some aspect of data communications, networks, and protocols.

As with virtually all USENET groups, there is a high noise-to-signal ratio, but it is worth experimenting to see if any meet your needs. The most relevant are as follows: • comp. dcom. lans, comp. dcom. lans. misc: General discussions of LANs • comp. dcom. lans. ethernet: Covers Ethernet, Ethernet-like systems, and the IEEE 802. 3 CSMA/CD standards • comp. std. wireless: General discussion of wireless networks, including wireless LANs • comp. security. misc: Computer security and encryption • comp. dcom. cell-relay: Covers ATM and ATM LANs • comp. dcom. frame-relay: Covers frame relay networks • comp. dcom. net-management: Discussion of network management applications, protocols, and standards • comp. rotocols. tcp-ip: The TCP/IP protocol suite 0. 4 STANDARDS It has long been accepted in the telecommunications industry that standards are required to govern the physical, electrical, and procedural characteristics of communication equipment. In the past, this view has not been embraced by the computer industry. Whereas communication equipment vendors recognize that their 0. 4 / STANDARDS 7 equipment will generally interface to and communicate with other vendors’ equipment, computer vendors have traditionally attempted to monopolize their customers. The proliferation of computers and distributed processing has made that an untenable position.

Computers from different vendors must communicate with each other and, with the ongoing evolution of protocol standards, customers will no longer accept special-purpose protocol conversion software development. The result is that standards now permeate all of the areas of technology discussed in this book. There are a number of advantages and disadvantages to the standards-making process. We list here the most striking ones. The principal advantages of standards are as follows: • A standard assures that there will be a large market for a particular piece of equipment or software. This encourages mass production and, in some cases, the use of large-scale-integration (LSI) or very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) techniques, resulting in lower costs. A standard allows products from multiple vendors to communicate, giving the purchaser more flexibility in equipment selection and use. The principal disadvantages are as follows: • A standard tends to freeze the technology. By the time a standard is developed, subjected to review and compromise, and promulgated, more efficient techniques are possible. • There are multiple standards for the same thing. This is not a disadvantage of standards per se, but of the current way things are done. Fortunately, in recent years the various standards-making organizations have begun to cooperate more closely. Nevertheless, there are still areas where multiple conflicting standards exist.

Throughout this book, we describe the most important standards in use or being developed for various aspects of data and computer communications. Various organizations have been involved in the development or promotion of these standards. The following are the most important (in the current context) of these organizations: • Internet Society: The Internet SOCiety (ISOC) is a professional membership society with more than 150 organizational and 6000 individual members in over 100 countries. It provides leadership in addressing issues that confront the future of the Internet and is the organization home for the groups responsible for Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB).

All of the RFCs and Internet standards are developed through these organizations. • IEEE 802: The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee develops local area network standards and metropolitan area network standards. The most widely used standards are for the Ethernet family, wireless LAN, bridging, and virtual bridged LANs. An individual working group provides the focus for each area. 8 CHAPTER 0 / READER’S AND INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE • ITU-T: The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an international organization within the United Nations System where governments and the private sector coordinate global telecom networks and services.

The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors of the ITU. ITU-T’s mission is the production of standards covering all fields of telecommunications. • ATM Forum: The ATM Forum is an international nonprofit organization formed with the objective of accelerating the use of ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) products and services through a rapid convergence of interoperability specifications. In addition, the Forum promotes industry cooperation and awareness. • ISO: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO)1 is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from more than 140 countries, one from each country.

ISO is a nongovernmental organization that promotes the development of standardization and related activities with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological, and economic activity. ISO’s work results in international agreements that are published as International Standards. A more detailed discussion of these organizations is contained in Appendix D. 1 ISO is not an acronym (in which case it would be IOS), but a word, derived from the Greek, meaning equal. PART ONE Overview The purpose of Part One is to provide a background and context for the remainder of this book. The broad range of topics that are encompassed in the field of data and computer communications is introduced, and the fundamental concepts of protocols and protocol architectures are examined.

ROAD MAP FOR PART ONE Chapter 1 Data Communications, Data Networks, and The Internet Chapter 1 provides an overview of Parts Two through Four of the book, giving the “big picture. ” In essence, the book deals with four topics: data communications over a transmission link; wide area networks; local area networks; and protocols and the TCP/IP protocol architecture. Chapter 1 provides a preview of the first three of these topics. Chapter 2 Protocol Architecture, TCP/IP, and Internet-Based Applications Chapter 2 discusses the concept protocol architectures. This chapter can be read immediately following Chapter 1 or deferred until the beginning of Part Three, Four, or Five.

After a general introduction, the chapter deals with the two most important protocol architectures: the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and TCP/IP. Although the OSI model is often used as the framework for discourse in this area, it is the TCP/IP protocol suite that is the basis for most commercially available interoperable products and that is the focus of Parts Five and Six of this book. 9 CHAPTER DATA COMMUNICATIONS, DATA NETWORKS, AND THE INTERNET 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 1. 4 1. 5 1. 6 Data Communications and Networking for Today’s Enterprise A Communications Model Data Communications Networks The Internet An Example Configuration 1 10 The fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point. The Mathematical Theory of Communication, Claude Shannon KEY POINTS • The scope of this book is broad, covering three general areas: data communications, networking, and protocols; the first two are introduced in this chapter. Data communications deals with the transmission of signals in a reliable and efficient manner. Topics covered include signal transmission, transmission media, signal encoding, interfacing, data link control, and multiplexing. Networking deals with the technology and architecture of the communications networks used to interconnect communicating devices. This field is generally divided into the topics of local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs). • •

The 1970s and 1980s saw a merger of the fields of computer science and data communications that profoundly changed the technology, products, and companies of the now combined computer-communications industry. The computercommunications revolution has produced several remarkable facts: • There is no fundamental difference between data processing (computers) and data communications (transmission and switching equipment). • There are no fundamental differences among data, voice, and video communications. • The distinction among single-processor computer, multiprocessor computer, local network, metropolitan network, and long-haul network has blurred.

One effect of these trends has been a growing overlap of the computer and communications industries, from component fabrication to system integration. Another result is the development of integrated systems that transmit and process all types of data and information. Both the technology and the technical standards organizations are driving toward integrated public systems that make virtually all data and information sources around the world easily and uniformly accessible. This book aims to provide a unified view of the broad field of data and computer communications. The organization of the book reflects an attempt to break this massive subject into comprehensible parts and to build, piece by piece, a survey of the state of the art.

This introductory chapter begins with a general model of communications. Then a brief discussion introduces each of the Parts Two through Four of this book. Chapter 2 provides an overview to Parts Five and Six 11 12 CHAPTER 1 / DATA COMMUNICATIONS, DATA NETWORKS, AND THE INTERNET 1. 1 DATA COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING FOR TODAY’S ENTERPRISE Effective and efficient data communication and networking facilities are vital to any enterprise. In this section, we first look at trends that are increasing the challenge for the business manager in planning and managing such facilities. Then we look specifically at the requirement for ever-greater transmission speeds and network capacity. Trends

Three different forces have consistently driven the architecture and evolution of data communications and networking facilities: traffic growth, development of new services, and advances in technology. Communication traffic, both local (within a building or building complex) and long distance, both voice and data, has been growing at a high and steady rate for decades. The increasing emphasis on office automation, remote access, online transactions, and other productivity measures means that this trend is likely to continue. Thus, managers are constantly struggling to maximize capacity and minimize transmission costs. As businesses rely more and more on information technology, the range of services expands. This increases the demand for high-capacity networking and transmission facilities.

In turn, the continuing growth in high-speed network offerings with the continuing drop in prices encourages the expansion of services. Thus, growth in services and growth in traffic capacity go hand in hand. Figure 1. 1 gives some examples of information-based services and the data rates needed to support them [ELSA02]. Finally, trends in technology enable the provision of increasing traffic capacity and the support of a wide range of services. Four technology trends are particularly notable: 1. The trend toward faster and cheaper, both in computing and communications, continues. In terms of computing, this means more powerful computers and clusters of computers capable of supporting more demanding applications, such as multimedia applications.

In terms of communications, the increasing use of optical fiber has brought transmission prices down and greatly increased capacity. For example, for long-distance telecommunication and data network links, recent offerings of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) enable capacities of many terabits per second. For local area networks (LANs) many enterprises now have Gigabit Ethernet backbone networks and some are beginning to deploy 10-Gbps Ethernet. 2. Both voice-oriented telecommunications networks, such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN), and data networks, including the Internet, are more “intelligent” than ever. Two areas of intelligence are noteworthy.

First, today’s networks can offer differing levels of quality of service (QoS), which include specifications for maximum delay, minimum throughput, and so on. Second, today’s networks provide a variety of customizable services in the areas of network management and security. 1. 1 / DATA COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING FOR TODAY’S ENTERPRISE Speed (kbps) Transaction processing Messaging/text apps Voice Location services Still image transfers Internet/VPN access Database access Enhanced Web surfing Low-quality video Hifi audio Large file transfer Moderate video Interactive entertainment High-quality video Performance: Poor Adequate Good 9. 6 14. 4 28 64 144 384 2000 13 VPN: virtual private network Figure 1. 1 Services versus Throughput Rates 3.

The Internet, the Web, and associated applications have emerged as dominant features of both the business and personal world, opening up many opportunities and challenges for managers. In addition to exploiting the Internet and the Web to reach customers, suppliers, and partners, enterprises have formed intranets and extranets1 to isolate their proprietary information free from unwanted access. 4. There has been a trend toward ever-increasing mobility for decades, liberating workers from the confines of the physical enterprise. Innovations include voice mail, remote data access, pagers, fax, e-mail, cordless phones, cell phones and cellular networks, and Internet portals.

The result is the ability of employees to take their business context with them as they move about. We are now seeing the growth of high-speed wireless access, which further enhances the ability to use enterprise information resources and services anywhere. 1 Briefly, an intranet uses Internet and Web technology in an isolated facility internal to an enterprise; an extranet extends a company’s intranet out onto the Internet to allow selected customers, suppliers, and mobile workers to access the company’s private data and applications. 14 CHAPTER 1 / DATA COMMUNICATIONS, DATA NETWORKS, AND THE INTERNET Data Transmission and Network Capacity Requirements

Momentous changes in the way organizations do business and process information have been driven by changes in networking technology and at the same time have driven those changes. It is hard to separate chicken and egg in this field. Similarly, the use of the Internet by both businesses and individuals reflects this cyclic dependency: the availability of new image-based services on the Internet (i. e. , the Web) has resulted in an increase in the total number of users and the traffic volume generated by each user. This, in turn, has resulted in a need to increase the speed and efficiency of the Internet. On the other hand, it is only such increased speed that makes the use of Web-based applications palatable to the end user.

In this section, we survey some of the end-user factors that fit into this equation. We begin with the need for high-speed LANs in the business environment, because this need has appeared first and has forced the pace of networking development. Then we look at business WAN requirements. Finally we offer a few words about the effect of changes in commercial electronics on network requirements. The Emergence of High-Speed LANs Personal computers and microcomputer workstations began to achieve widespread acceptance in business computing in the early 1980s and have now achieved virtually the status of the telephone: an essential tool for office workers.

Until relatively recently, office LANs provided basic connectivity services—connecting personal computers and terminals to mainframes and midrange systems that ran corporate applications, and providing workgroup connectivity at the departmental or divisional level. In both cases, traffic patterns were relatively light, with an emphasis on file transfer and electronic mail. The LANs that were available for this type of workload, primarily Ethernet and token ring, are well suited to this environment. In the 1990s, two significant trends altered the role of the personal computer and therefore the requirements on the LAN: 1. The speed and computing power of personal computers continued to enjoy explosive growth. These more powerful platforms support graphics-intensive applications and ever more elaborate graphical user interfaces to the operating system. . MIS (management information systems) organizations have recognized the LAN as a viable and essential computing platform, resulting in the focus on network computing. This trend began with client/server computing, which has become a dominant architecture in the business environment and the more recent Webfocused intranet trend. Both of these approaches involve the frequent transfer of potentially large volumes of data in a transaction-oriented environment. The effect of these trends has been to increase the volume of data to be handled over LANs and, because applications are more interactive, to reduce the acceptable delay on data transfers.

The earlier generation of 10-Mbps Ethernets and 16-Mbps token rings was simply not up to the job of supporting these requirements. The following are examples of requirements that call for higher-speed LANs: • Centralized server farms: In many applications, there is a need for user, or client, systems to be able to draw huge amounts of data from multiple centralized servers, called server farms. An example is a color publishing operation, in 1. 1 / DATA COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING FOR TODAY’S ENTERPRISE 15 which servers typically contain tens of gigabytes of image data that must be downloaded to imaging workstations. As the performance of the servers themselves has increased, the bottleneck has shifted to the network. Power workgroups: These groups typically consist of a small number of cooperating users who need to draw massive data files across the network. Examples are a software development group that runs tests on a new software version, or a computer-aided design (CAD) company that regularly runs simulations of new designs. In such cases, large amounts of data are distributed to several workstations, processed, and updated at very high speed for multiple iterations. • High-speed local backbone: As processing demand grows, LANs proliferate at a site, and high-speed interconnection is necessary. Corporate Wide Area Networking Needs As recently as the early 1990s, there was an emphasis in many organizations on a centralized data processing model.

In a typical environment, there might be significant computing facilities at a few regional offices, consisting of mainframes or well-equipped midrange systems. These centralized facilities could handle most corporate applications, including basic finance, accounting, and personnel programs, as well as many of the business-specific applications. Smaller, outlying offices (e. g. , a bank branch) could be equipped with terminals or basic personal computers linked to one of the regional centers in a transaction-oriented environment. This model began to change in the early 1990s, and the change accelerated through the mid-1990s. Many organizations have dispersed their employees into multiple smaller offices.

There is a growing use of telecommuting. Most significant, the nature of the application structure has changed. First client/server computing and, more recently, intranet computing have fundamentally restructured the organizational data processing environment. There is now much more reliance on personal computers, workstations, and servers and much less use of centralized mainframe and midrange systems. Furthermore, the virtually universal deployment of graphical user interfaces to the desktop enables the end user to exploit graphic applications, multimedia, and other data-intensive applications. In addition, most organizations require access to the Internet.

When a few clicks of the mouse can trigger huge volumes of data, traffic patterns have become more unpredictable while the average load has risen. All of these trends means that more data must be transported off premises and into the wide area. It has long been accepted that in the typical business environment, about 80% of the traffic remains local and about 20% traverses wide area links. But this rule no longer applies to most companies, with a greater percentage of the traffic going into the WAN environment [COHE96]. This traffic flow shift places a greater burden on LAN backbones and, of course, on the WAN facilities used by a corporation.

Thus, just as in the local area, changes in corporate data traffic patterns are driving the creation of high-speed WANs. Digital Electronics The rapid conversion of consumer electronics to digital technology is having an impact on both the Internet and corporate intranets. As these new gadgets come into view and proliferate, they dramatically increase the amount of image and video traffic carried by networks. Two noteworthy examples of this trend are digital versatile disks (DVDs) and digital still cameras. With the capacious DVD, the electronics industry has at last 16 CHAPTER 1 / DATA COMMUNICATIONS, DATA NETWORKS, AND THE INTERNET found an acceptable replacement for the analog VHS videotape.

The DVD has replaced the videotape used in videocassette recorders (VCRs) and replaced the CD-ROM in personal computers and servers. The DVD takes video into the digital age. It delivers movies with picture quality that outshines laser disks, and it can be randomly accessed like audio CDs, which DVD machines can also play. Vast volumes of data can be crammed onto the disk, currently seven times as much as a CDROM. With DVD’s huge storage capacity and vivid quality, PC games have become more realistic and educational software incorporates more video. Following in the wake of these developments is a new crest of traffic over the Internet and corporate intranets, as this material is incorporated into Web sites. A related product development is the digital camcorder.

This product has made it easier for individuals and companies to make digital video files to be placed on corporate and Internet Web sites, again adding to the traffic burden. 1. 2 A COMMUNICATIONS MODEL This section introduces a simple model of communications, illustrated by the block diagram in Figure 1. 2a. The fundamental purpose of a communications system is the exchange of data between two parties. Figure 1. 2b presents one particular example, which is communication between a workstation and a server over a public telephone network. Another example is the exchange of voice signals between two telephones over the same network. The key elements of the model are as follows: • Source.

This device generates the data to be transmitted; examples are telephones and personal computers. Source system Destination system Source Transmitter Transmission System (a) General block diagram Receiver Destination Workstation Modem Public telephone network (b) Example Modem Server Figure 1. 2 Simplified Communications Model 1. 2 / A COMMUNICATIONS MODEL 17 • Transmitter: Usually, the data generated by a source system are not transmitted directly in the form in which they were generated. Rather, a transmitter transforms and encodes the information in such a way as to produce electromagnetic signals that can be transmitted across some sort of transmission system.

For example, a modem takes a digital bit stream from an attached device such as a personal computer and transforms that bit stream into an analog signal that can be handled by the telephone network. • Transmission system: This can be a single transmission line or a complex network connecting source and destination. • Receiver: The receiver accepts the signal from the transmission system and converts it into a form that can be handled by the destination device. For example, a modem will accept an analog signal coming from a network or transmission line and convert it into a digital bit stream. • Destination: Takes the incoming data from the receiver.

This simple narrative conceals a wealth of technical complexity. To get some idea of the scope of this complexity, Table 1. 1 lists some of the key tasks that must be performed in a data communications system. The list is somewhat arbitrary: Elements could be added; items on the list could be merged; and some items represent several tasks that are performed at different “levels” of the system. However, the list as it stands is suggestive of the scope of this book. The first item, transmission system utilization, refers to the need to make efficient use of transmission facilities that are typically shared among a number of communicating devices.

Various techniques (referred to as multiplexing) are used to allocate the total capacity of a transmission medium among a number of users. Congestion control techniques may be required to assure that the system is not overwhelmed by excessive demand for transmission services. To communicate, a device must interface with the transmission system. All the forms of communication discussed in this book depend on the use of electromagnetic signals propagated over a transmission medium. Thus, once an interface is established, signal generation is required for communication. The properties of the signal, such as form and intensity, must be such that the signal is (1) capable of being propagated through the transmission system, and (2) interpretable as data at the receiver.

Not only must the signals be generated to conform to the requirements of the transmission system and receiver, but also there must be some form of synchronization Table 1. 1 Communications Tasks Transmission system utilization Interfacing Signal generation Synchronization Exchange management Error detection and correction Flow control Addressing Routing Recovery Message formatting Security Network management 18 CHAPTER 1 / DATA COMMUNICATIONS, DATA NETWORKS, AND THE INTERNET between transmitter and receiver. The receiver must be able to determine when a signal begins to arrive and when it ends. It must also know the duration of each signal element.

Beyond the basic matter of deciding on the nature and timing of signals, there is a variety of requirements for communication between two parties that might be collected under the term exchange management. If data are to be exchanged in both directions over a period of time, the two parties must cooperate. For example, for two parties to engage in a telephone conversation, one party must dial the number of the other, causing signals to be generated that result in the ringing of the called phone. The called party completes a connection by lifting the receiver. For data processing devices, more will be needed than simply establishing a connection; certain conventions must be decided on.

These conventions may include whether both devices may transmit simultaneously or must take turns, the amount of data to be sent at one time, the format of the data, and what to do if certain contingencies such as an error arise. The next two items might have been included under exchange managem

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Computer Manufacturing Industry Analysis

1. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS a. Definition of the Industry The following study presents a brief analysis of the Computer and Electronic Manufacturing Industry in the USA (NAICS 334 – North American Industry Classification System) with special focus on the Personal Computer’s sub-sector. I made the decision to focus on just one of the sub-sectors due to the large scope of the general industry. Industries in the Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing subsector group establishments that manufacture computers, computer peripherals, communications equipment, and similar electronic products, and establishments that manufacture components for such products. ” (Bureau of Labor Statistics) Given the previous description of the general Industry, I can now go further in the definition of the real point of study for this paper, which is the Computer Manufacturing, clustered in laptops, PC’s and servers. “This industry manufactures and/or assembles personal computers (PCs), laptops and servers.

Operators typically purchase computer components (e. g. motherboards and graphics cards) from dedicated manufacturers in other industries” (IBIS World report 33441a, Semiconductor and Circuit Manufacturing). “This industry does not include tablet computers, nor does it include manufacturers of computer monitors, mice, keyboards and printers” (IBIS World report 33411b, Computer Peripheral Manufacturing). When covering the whole industry, “The US computer manufacturing industry includes about 1,200 companies with combined annual revenue of about $75 billion.

Major companies include Dell, Hewlett-Packard, and IBM. ” (Hoovers 2012) The computer manufacturing industry’s revenue is divided and measured according to each of the sub sectors that conform it. “Personal computers account for about 40 percent of industry revenue; mainframes and servers, 13 percent; and storage devices, about 10 percent. ” (HOOVERS) While respecting to the sub-industry in which this paper is focused (PC’s, laptops and servers), and considering just the United States, it is conformed by 355 businesses generating annual revenue up to US$37 billion.

Being the leading companies Hewlett-Packard, Dell and Apple. The total amount of units sold for the industry must be taken in consideration from the quantity of units shipped in the last year: Preliminary United States PC Vendor Unit Shipment Estimates for 4Q11 (Units) Company 4Q11 Shipments 4Q11 Market Share (%) 4Q10 Shipments 4Q10 Market Share (%) 4Q11-4Q10 Growth (%) HP 4,137,833 23. 1 5,598,619 29. 4 -26. 1 Dell 4,020,549 22. 4 4,210,000 22. 1 -4. 5 Apple 2,074,800 11. 6 1,718,400 9. 0 20. 7 Toshiba 1,925,100 10. 7 1,968,091 10. 3 -2. 2 Acer Group 1,756,838 . 8 1,982,477 10. 4 -11. 4 Others 4,014,644 22. 4 3,583,418 18. 8 12. 0 Total 17,929,764 100. 0 19,061,005 100. 0 -5. 9 Note: Data includes desk-based PCs, mobile PCs, including mini-notebooks but not media tablets such as the iPad.? Source: Gartner (January 2012) Comparing the studied sub-industry results with previous years, profit and revenue have been constantly decreasing and the annual growth in the last 5 years have been negative for the industry in about 5. 1%. Analysts from IBIS project that this will continue falling for the future 5 more years.

Nonetheless, “The industry is capital-intensive: annual revenue per employee is about $460,000” (HOOVERS), while the whole Computer Manufacturing Industry in the US counts with approximately (in thousands) 1,099. 9 employees. b. Internal and External Analysis OPORTUNITIES -There is a growing consumer demand for PCs and tablets. -“Their rapid growth (of the market) suggests that they will become even more important to the economies of all three North American countries in the future” (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012) -“The proliferation of cloud computing will prompt companies to increase their server investments” (IBIS 2012)

THREATS -“Industry profit will continue to fall because of intense price competition” (IBIS World 2012) -“The Computer Manufacturing industry is being rapidly supplanted by imports, particularly from China. ” (PR Web 2012) -Imports are a threat for local manufacturing revenue. “While import penetration in this industry stood at 50. 7% in 2007, imports are expected to satisfy an estimated 68. 6% of domestic demand in 2012,”  (IBIS World 2012) -“While the emergence of new products and services will boost industry performance, US manufacturers are not expected to produce the required hardware (locally). (PR Web 2012) -“(…) Tablets will cut into industry revenue since they are manufactured abroad and are a competing force to domestic computer manufacturing. ” (PR Web 2012) -“Computer and peripheral equipment prices fell from 2007 to 2012, and as a result, personal computer (PC) sales are estimated to generate razor-thin margins of 1. 0% in 2012. ” (PR Web 2012) STRENGTHS -“The Computer Manufacturing industry operates in a highly globalized market, bringing together components that are manufactured worldwide for assembly in a single location.

The concentration of computer manufacturing facilities near major ports comes as no surprise. With the widespread use of lean-manufacturing protocols, computer manufacturers heavily favor locations that minimize delays in getting products to market, not to mention shipping expenses. ” (IBIS World 2012) -“Fortunately, PCs are not the only products in this industry, and industry profit, which includes computers and more profitable products, is expected to account for 3. 8% of revenue in 2012. ” (PR Web 2012) WEAKNESSES The profitability of individual computer companies depends on purchasing and production efficiencies, and on technological expertise. (HOOVERS 2012) -“Computer manufacturing and design also require highly-educated employees” (IBIS World 2012), these are very hard to find, especially in the same area of the business offices. -“As a result of offshoring by US-based companies and increased competition from international firms, domestic manufacturing activity has declined”. (PR Web 2012) -The demand for the Computer Industry is tied to consumer and business income, so it’s very sensitive and variable. . Customer Analysis The total domestic (US) annual demand for the industry by the end of 2011 was US$62. 2 billion. “The industry’s woes cannot be blamed on a lack of demand. In fact, the share of US households that owns at least one computer increased by 7. 5 percentage points from 2007 to 2012. While demand has grown, fierce competition and widespread product homogeneity (the result of computers being assembled from standardized components) have led to falling prices and profit margins” (PR Web 2012)

The identified target markets/segments for the Computer Manufacturing Industry are the following: 1. Large corporate customers (B2B) – Big companies 2. Small and medium size businesses (B2B) – Who represent about 20% of U. S. sales 3. Individual Customers and Consumers (B2C) – Who represent about 10% of U. S. sales 4. Public sector (government and educational) customers. 3. Competitors Analysis The computer manufacturing industry is highly concentrated within its most revenue-significant businesses due to the top 50 companies are responsible of about 90 percent of the total industry’s revenue. Competition from abroad has tightened profit margins and prices on mass-market computer systems. Consequently, most of the industry’s largest players operate in several related industries to diversify their revenue sources, with a particular emphasis on the highly profitable enterprise segment and Information Technology (IT) services. ” Currently, Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Dell are the largest US-based computer manufacturers, followed by Apple. The total revenue and market share of personal computers for the last year, regarding the top 3 companies in the industry is: . Hewlett Packard PC Market Share: 23. 1% Total Company Revenue (Jul 2011-Jul2012): $122. 52B 2. Dell PC Market Share: 22. 4% Total Company Revenue (Aug 2011-Aug 2012): $60. 30B 3. Apple PC Market Share: 11. 6% Total Company Revenue (Jun 2011-Jun2012): $148. 81B Brands Description: Hewlett Packard Hewlett-Packard Company and its subsidiaries provide products, technologies, software, solutions, and services to individual consumers and small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs), as well as to the government, health, and education sectors worldwide.

It divides in several segments according to their offerings: Personal Systems Group segment (commercial personal computers, software and services for the commercial and consumer markets), Services segment (consulting and outsourcing to businesses), Imaging and Printing Group segment (consumer and commercial), Enterprise Servers, Storage, and Networking segment (industry standard and business servers), Software segment (IT software and solutions), Financial Services segment (leasing, financing and utility programs for enterprise customers, SMBs, and other entities) and Business Intelligence Solutions.

The company was founded in 1939 and is headquartered in Palo Alto, California. They serve more than 1 billion customers in more than 170 countries and have approximately 349,600 employees worldwide. HP defines its function in society like this: “We explore how technology and services can help people and companies address their problems and challenges, and realize their possibilities, aspirations and dreams. We apply new thinking and ideas to create more simple, valuable and trusted experiences with technology, continuously improving the way our customers live and work. ” Hewlett-Packard HP Key Positioning: You + HP make it matter. At HP we don’t just believe in the power of technology. We believe in the power of people when technology works for them. To help you create. To make the digital tangible. To harness the power of human information. At HP we work to make what you do matter even more. ” (Hewlett-Packard) Dell Dell Inc. provides integrated technology solutions in the information technology (IT) industry worldwide. It designs, develops, manufactures, markets, sells, and supports mobility and desktop products, including notebooks, workstations, tablets, smartphones, and desktop PCs, as well as servers and networking products.

The company also offers several technology solutions, systems, software and specialized services. The company sells its products and services directly through its sales representatives, telephone-based sales, and online sales; and through retailers, third-party solution providers, system integrators, and third-party resellers. It serves corporate businesses, law enforcement agencies, small and medium businesses, consumers, and public institutions that include government, education, and healthcare organizations. Dell Inc. was founded in 1984 and is headquartered in Round Rock, Texas.

Dell describes its function in society like this: “In all we do, we’re focused on delivering solutions to enable smarter decisions and more effective outcomes so our customers can overcome obstacles, achieve their ideas and pursue their dreams. Above all, we are committed to the superior long-term value they need to grow and thrive. Dell Key Positioning: “Simple and affordable information technology for everyone” “They are focused on making information technology affordable for millions of customers around the world. As a result of direct relationships with customers.

They are best positioned to simplify how customers implement and maintain information technology and deliver hardware, services, and software solutions tailored for their businesses and homes. ” (MBA Knowledge Base 2012) Apple Apple Inc. , together with subsidiaries, designs, manufactures, and markets mobile communication and media devices, personal computers, and portable digital music players; and sells related software, services, peripherals, networking solutions, and third-party digital content and applications worldwide.

The company sells its products and services to consumers, small and mid-sized business, education, enterprise, and government customers through its retail stores, online stores, and direct sales force, as well as through third-party cellular network carriers, wholesalers, retailers, and value-added resellers. As of September 24, 2011, the company had 357 retail stores, including 245 stores in the United States and 112 stores internationally. Apple Inc. was founded in 1976 and is headquartered in Cupertino, California. Apple defines its function in society like this: Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings. ” (Apple) Apple Key Positioning: Innovation leaders Competitive Advantage and Strategy of each: Apple’s “Post PC Strategy”: “They want to be the dominant operating system through your life – at home and on the move. That sounds a little geeky but it means that they want you to be so delighted with your experience on the iPhone’s operating system that you want that same experience on your tablet.

After you are satisfied with that experience, you start to wonder why you are still using a PC versus a Mac or MacBook Air as your “desktop computer. ”  And then that will extend to your television. ” (Forbes 2012) “Apple wants to own a generation of post-PC world users and block out their competitors until such time as they can present a higher-quality user experience than Apple. That might be a long time. ” (Forbes 2012) “The accelerating popularity of mobile computing devices such as Apple Inc’s iPad has been eroding PC sales for years.

To combat the erosion in sales to consumers, as well as dwindling margins as companies compete on price, Dell and HP have been gradually focusing more on sales to large enterprises. ” (Reuters 2012) Dell’s Strategy: “Dell has been diversifying its revenue base in the face of weakened consumer demand, giving up low-margin sales to consumers and moving into higher-margin areas, such as catering to the technology needs of small and medium businesses in the public sector and the healthcare industry.

The company now finds itself lagging larger rivals like HP and IBM in the race to become one-stop shops for corporate IT needs. ” (Reuters 2012) HP’s Strategy: “HP today announced that it has completed its evaluation of strategic alternatives for its Personal Systems Group (PSG) and has decided the unit will remain part of the company. (…) PSG is a key component of HP’s strategy to deliver higher value, lasting relationships with consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and enterprise customers.

The HP board of directors is confident that PSG can drive profitable growth as part of the larger entity and accelerate solutions from other parts of HP’s business. ” 4. Executive Summary After this industry analysis, we can see that the computer manufacturing industry in the US is constantly loosing revenue and market share in the world. Almost every business in this Industry (top ranked) are loosing revenue and decreasing profitability. The only company that has increased revenue and has actually grown in the last five years is Apple.

For this, I would recommend Apple’s executives to maintain their actual “Post-PC” strategy because it is known that demand for PC’s is decreasing while demand for other similar electronics such tablets is increasing and will continue doing so in the future. I would recommend Apple, as well, to focus a little bit also in extending their portfolio of offerings by including special services and solutions in order to attend the B2B market and gain some of their competitors share in this segment too. SOURCES 1. Bureau of Labor Statistics (http://www. bls. gov/iag/tgs/iag334. htm#about) 2.

NAICS CODES (http://naicscode. com/search/MoreNAICSDetail. asp? N=33411) 3. IBIS World (http://www. ibisworld. com/industry/default. aspx? indid=740) 4. Hoovers (http://www. hoovers. com/industry-facts. computer-manufacturing. 1843. html#megamenu_0. html) 5. Gartner – Newsroom (http://www. gartner. com/it/page. jsp? id=1893523) 6. PR Web – Article: “Computer Manufacturing in the US Industry Market Research Report Now Available from IBISWorld”. August 14, 2012 (http://www. prweb. com/releases/2012/8/prweb9797684. htm) 7. Research and Markets (http://www. researchandmarkets. com/reportinfo. asp? eport_id=451844=e) 8. Fox Business (http://www. foxbusiness. com/technology/2012/01/12/apple-remains-in-third-place-with-116-us-computer-market/) 9. Yahoo Finance – HP (http://finance. yahoo. com/q/ks? s=HPQ) 10. Yahoo Finance – Dell (http://finance. yahoo. com/q/pr? s=dell) 11. Yahoo Finance – Apple (http://finance. yahoo. com/q/pr? s=aapl) 12. The Wall Street Journal (http://online. wsj. com/article/SB10000872396390443862604578030391796799174. html) 13. HP Official Web Page (www. hp. com) 14. Dell Official Web Page (www. dell. com) 15. Apple Official Web Page (www. apple. com) 16. Reuters

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computer

Advantages of computers: Increases speed of computing and processing information in any other way. People can use sophisticated statistical and mathematical tools for decision making and further purposes without learning in details the algorithms used for computing. This way people can use much more sophisticated analytical tools that would have been possible with only manual information processing. Computers can store large volumes of information without occupying too much space, as is in the case of information stored in form of books and paper documents.

Computer processing eliminates the human errors of computing and information processing. Information once entered in computer system can be easily accessed by the same person or other persons at different times for different persons. This reduces the work load of capturing same information multiple times for different purposes. It also makes it possible for different person to work with same information, avoiding the possibility of different persons using different versions of the same information.

The work of entering and editing information is made mush more easy and simple by software that offer many powerful user friendly features for performing these tasks. Computer now offer sophisticated and powerful software for representing information in rich formats with visual and video facilities. Computers combined with communication technology offer very fast speed and rich communication facility at low cost. Computers, with all these features are now used for automating all kinds of equipments and processes. Disadvantage of Computers The cost of computer and associated equipments is falling steadily.

Still these equipments are and continue to be much more costly as compared to manual processing equipments like pen and pencil. Also technological complexity of these equipment makes it more difficult to learn and maintain these equipments as compared to equipments of manual information processing. Use of computers require additional infrastructure, such as power supply and software back up. This increases the chances of problems due to failure of infrastructure. For example, a computer will not work where there is no electric power supply. Even a laptop with a battery will work without power supply only for a limited period.

Failures of computer system can be more serious and difficult to correct. For example, one scratch on a hard disk can make the complete data on the disk inaccessible. In comparison, manual system faults have comparatively limited impact. One page torn from a cabinet full of documents has no impact on other documents. Computers generally reduces the errors of processing. However if there is an error in input data, it can result in major blunders in the processing which the computer system is unable to detect. In manual systems the chances of such blunders passing undetected and corrected is much less.

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Matching Dell

The Matching Dell Business case by (Rivkin. J & Porter, M) defines the personal computer industry and outlines its history and development, with focus on Dell Computers. This paper will analyze the case study by means of the Strategic Situation Analysis and Planning Method (SSAP), by portraying and comparing Dell with its main competitors, namely: IBM, Compaq, Hewllet-Packard and Gateway.

Approaching the strategic situation from SSAP method’s step number one, Financial Analysis, step number two, External Business Environment Analysis and step number three, Business and Corporate Strategy Analysis, an external analyst perspective will be drawn based on past , present and future trends that will be used to give recommendations of investments to potential investors. The Personal Computer Industry From its inception the computer industry was mainly composed of large corporations such as IBM and DEC and unaffordable, heavy hardware such as mainframe computers.

Having a personal computer at home was a mere aspiration those days. Between 1975 and 1981 many discoveries occurred that gained popularity with electronic hobbyists, when pre-assembled personal computers entered the market. These computers were pioneered by firms such as Apple Computers, MITS and smaller ones such as Tandy/RadioShack and Commodore. Almost immediately, other major electronic firms entered the market of personal computers. These companies focused their business on other electronic industries before this.

The pioneer of the first personal computer was IBM in 1981 and its success translated to a market share of 42% of the market two years later. Although, IBM produced most of the components for its mainframes computers, for PCs it purchased from others the required parts and then assembled the machines. The operating software for IBM’s first PC was custom-made by Microsoft, which was then just a start-up software firm. The microprocessor for the operating system (OS) was designed by Intel, another corporation that benefited from the partnership with IBM.

Microsoft’s first operating system to IBM is the backbone structure for all the current versions of operating systems (OS) implemented by Microsoft. A proprietary system developed by Apple, held 20% of the market by 1983. In 1982, another firm named Compaq entered the market with a low-priced portable clone and had $100 million in revenues during its first year, which turned out to be the fastest growing company in American history. By 1984, Dell Computer Corporation entered the market and transformed the way PCs were assembled and distributed.

Historically, what has really revolutionized the PC industry was the establishment by IBM of an open architecture for their first PC, making its operating system and other proprietary information available to encourage software developers to write programs for the IBM PC and to motivate other firms to make compatible peripherals. Moreover, the unforeseen business strategy at IBM caused the company to become vulnerable to other market entrants and lost their sustainable competitive advantage, since many other IBM clones were manufactured. This cased the company to lose market share to competitors.

Step One – Financial Analysis Financial Position Dell’s financial history, like most company’s, changes over different periods. These changes can be attributed to changes in the demand of the product, technological advancements, manufacturing costs, competition, and economic conditions. In 1999, the approximate cost of manufacturing a basic personal computer was between $800 and $900 (Kwak & Yoffie 1999). Dell sold computers directly, and through retail distributors.

In 1994, Dell actually lost money on retail sales. When comparing Dell’s direct sales to the retail channel it shows that there was a 5. % operating income through the direct sales, and a -3. 0% operating income in retail sales. Dell’s market share increases from 1. 0 in 1990 to 13. 2 in 1998. Direct sales of Dell’ personal computers through telephone, mail, and internet helped increase their market share. The total market size for the personal computer industry is $74. 6 million. Exhibit 4: Portion of Sales Through Each Channel by Region from the Matching Dell Case shows the highest channels in which personal computers are distributed in different geographic areas.

In the Americas, the most popular channel is distributor/reseller which accounts for 41. 2% of sales, second is the direct channel which accounts for 29. 7% of sales, and third is the retail channel which accounts for 21. 7% of the sales. These three channels are the top channels world wide, and distributor/reseller is the channel with the highest percentage of sales across the board. Income Statements Dell and its competitors Compaq, Gateway, and HP all have had their revenues increase over the period between 1991 and 1998.

The companies differ when the net income is compared from the same time period. In the Appendix, Table 4: Profit as a Percentage of Sales shows a comparison between 1991 and 1998. Profit as a percentage of sales is a note worthy calculation because it shows a ratio of profits to sales. If a company has high sales it does not necessarily mean that it will have high profits. In Table 4, you see that in 1998 Dell has the highest profit as a percentage of sales. Since Compaq has a negative net income in this year, its data is skewed. Dell percentage of sale has grown by 2. % in this seven year period.

Using the calculation (This Year)/Base Year x 100 and data from 1991, to 1998 Dell sales increased 20. 5% and net income increased 28. 63%. This shows that profits increased more than sales in the same time period. This means that Dell became more efficient in production which yielded greater profits. Net income increasing more than sales shows Dell’s efficiency in production and distribution. It cut costs of making and selling its computers to have a greater profit. In the appendix, Table 1 shows the year on year percent changes for Dell’s sales.

This table shows that Dell’s sales continue to grow each year. Price Comparison Exhibit 9 in the Matching Dell Case shows Ratings of High-end Desktop PCs by Consumer Reports(1998). It is shown on the table that Dell’s product sells for $2400, HP’s product sells for $2200, Gateway’s product sells for $2647, and Compaq’s product sells for $2950. Data on the same table rates these computers on price, speed, quality, and other things customers value in computers with a scale of 1 being excellent and 5 being poor.

When the customer ratings are averaged Gateway has a rating of 1. , Dell and HP have a rating of 2. 4, and Compaq has a rating of 2. 7. Dell is the lowest in price and second highest in rating. This shows that customers are satisfied with the dell computer, more so than some of the more expensive brands. Company Profitability Exhibit 11 from the case compares Major PC Manufactures and their financial data. Return on Equity(ROE) is calculated in this table and the major players can be compared. The ROE shows the profitability of a corporation because it shows how much profit is generated from the money the shareholders have invested.

Dell has a ROE of 62. %, Gateway has a ROE of 25. 7%, HP has a ROE of 17. 4%, and Compaq has a ROE of -24. 2%. HP and Compaq have substantially more revenue than Dell. Compaq does not have a higher net income, but HP does. At first glance you would think that HP is a better company in regards to personal computers but when you look at the ROE you notice a difference. Out of all the major competitors in the personal computer industry Dell has the highest ROE. Therefore it is the most successful company in this market. It would be recommended that investors invest in Dell to achieve the most out of their investment. Revenues

Dell’s company became more successful when it withdrew from retail in 1994. It was losing money by distributing its computers in this channel and learned from its mistakes. In 1996 it started its website which provided another opportunity for customers to order from them directly. Exhibit 11 also shows that Dell keeps its cost structure lower than its competitors. When something is not benefiting the company, Dell does not wait, it acts on it and tries to continue to make Dell a successful corporation. Compaq has very, very high revenues but there are obviously major problems with the company.

Its net income and ROE are negative numbers, which shows that the company is not profitable in 1998. Compaq only has 4. 4% of sales from direct sales, where Dell has 86. 6%. This is a major advantage to Dell because there is no middle man and Dell can obtain all profits. In ratings of PC Vendors by Corporate Managers with PC buying Responsibility (Exhibit 8), Dell Ranks high in user satisfaction, extremely high in raw technology, second highest in pricing, and moderately high in service and support. Compaq ranks high in pricing but low in user satisfaction, raw technology, and all customer relations.

Having quality customer services gives Dell an advantage over Compaq. Financial Conclusion The financial performance of Dell, Compaq, HP, Gateway and other companies in the PC industry we see that high revenues do not always translate into a profitable company. Shareholders and investors are looking for high returns on the amount they invest in their respected companies. Dell is the most profitable company as of 1998 with the highest return on investment. The most valued aspect of Dell’s company at this time is the use of the direct sales channel.

Also, Dell sells its computers at a cheaper price than its competitors but still ranks high in customer satisfaction surveys. Dell can offer a lower price by keeping its manufacturing and selling costs down. This way it can still make a profit and keep and attract customers. Dell started out as a small operation in a college dorm room and it continues to grow significantly on a yearly basis. Step Two – External Business Environment Analysis The market for computer systems and services is subject to intense price competition.

In addition to several large branded companies, there are other branded and generic competitors. Dell competes primarily based on its technology, direct customer relationships, value, performance, customer service, quality, and reliability. Its main competitors are Compaq, and Gateway, both business are 90% PC dependent. However, due to Compaq’s low financial performance, HP was Dell’s primary competitor followed by Gateway in 1998. The main stakeholders group are: customers, competitors, suppliers, shareholders, employees and the government.

In Table 6 in the Appendix theTarget [Customer-or-Client] – [Product-or-Service Connections] is shown. The PC competitive environment can be distinguished between its geographic and its customer categories. The geographic market for the PC industry is segmented by worldwide and U. S basis market share, while the customer category is segmented into: Large business, small & midsize business, home and small office, government and educational institutions.

Based on the information from Exhibit 11 in the Matching Dell case, Compaq leads the U. S and the worldwide market with 16. 4% and 16. 6% of PC shares respectively. Dell comes in second place with 10. 4% in the worldwide market share and 15. 1% in the U. S. PC market share. Gateway follows in behind both companies with a 4. 2% worldwide share and 8. 1% in the U. S. By comparing the major players we can see that Compaq is a leader in the market, however these market leadership if compared with the company’s financial information is not translated into profits, since it has a negative profit marking and a negative return on equity (ROE).

ROE is one of the best measures of a corporation’s profitability, since it shows investors and stakeholders how much profit the company generates with the money shareholders have invested and for Compaq a negative ROE could be an indication that even if it has the greater market share amongst the PC industry there are problems with the bottom line net income and management issues. The customer group of Large Business is dominated by Dell Computers with 33. 6% market share followed by Compaq with 27. 5%.

In the case of Small & Midsize business, Dell has a 37% against a 32. % market share held by Compaq. Moreover, in the Home & Small office PC sales customer category, Gateway has the leadership by large from its closest competitor HP with a 58. 2% share against a 33. 3% held by HP and Compaq comes next with a 28. 5% stake of the market. In addition, Gateway also has a leadership in the Education segment of the market, with a 8. 2% market share trailed by Compaq with 5. 3%.

The government sectors is mostly equally divided amongst the PC industry competitors, with shares ranging from 5. 1% to 6. %, leveraging a very close competition. Growth rates and the percentage changes help to analyze and understand the companies being assessed. The overall performance of the PC industry has been assessed from 1989 to 1998 and the results are as follows: (Conclusions from Exhibit 2) Dell’s growth rate on average was 50. 5% for the period 1989 to 1998, while Compaq grew an average of 17. 9%.

If this percentage change had not being analyzed in depth, one could think that Gateway had a greater growth than Dell Computers; from its inception it had an 87. % growth rate. However, if the first two years of operation were removed from the calculations, we can see that the actual growth rate for Gateway’s would only be 19. 5%, which would place it behind Dell. Compaq had and average growth of 17. 9% in the same period. Five forces competitive analysis and industry value chain (Diagram 1). Dell manufactures most of the products it sells and has manufacturing locations worldwide to service its global customer base.

Dell believes that its manufacturing processes and supply-chain management techniques provide it a distinct competitive advantage. Its build-to-order manufacturing process is designed to allow Dell to significantly reduce cost while simultaneously providing customers the ability to customize their product purchases. In addition, Dell purchases some of its products from third-party original equipment manufacturers and resells them under the Dell name. Dell’s manufacturing process consists of assembly, software installation, functional testing, and quality control.

Testing and quality control processes are also applied to components, parts, and subassemblies obtained from third-party suppliers. Quality control is maintained through the testing of components, subassemblies, and systems at various stages in the manufacturing process. Quality control also includes a burn-in period for completed units after assembly, on-going production reliability audits, failure tracking for early identification of production and component problems, and information from Dell’s customers obtained through services and support programs.

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Unix Multiprogramming

The computer allocated in UNIX to every process, whether a system task or user task. The choice of task to be executed when the CPU becomes free is based on a formula that penalizes tasks that have used most CPU cycles in the recent past. The process priority which can be set by super user (root) is an important part of this formula. The CPU scheduling algorithm is simple but allows users some measure of control over their workstation performance. The CPU speed defines the capacity of a mainframe for a given release of the operating system.

All other hardware components are usually configured so that when the system is fully loaded, the CPU which is by far the most expensive resource becomes the bottleneck. In order to give the user the impression of simultaneous execution, the CPU must be allocated alternatively among the individuals processors. This task is managed by scheduler, a special processor that maintains a list of normal processes and sees to it that the processor handles the next process at certain time intervals.

There are various strategies that a scheduler can use to determine which process to handle next, one of these strategies is (round robin) selects the next respective process in the list at regular intervals and puts it at the end of the list after the allocated time if the process is not yet finished. Another strategy assigns each process a priority, whereby processes with higher priority are allocated more CPU time.

UNIX employs nice levels, which allow the user to influence the internal priorities of processes. This allows the user to reduce significantly the encumbering of the system by programs running in the background. Likewise the administrator can also raise the priority of important process to ensure faster execution. UNIX does timesharing as well as multiprogramming. Timesharing creates the illusion that several processes execute simultaneously, even though there maybe only one physical CPU.

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Important Output Computer Devices in Accounting

Considering the input devices required in setting up the office, The major computer gadgets that will be focused on are the Keyboard and Mouse. These input devices are going to play a major in the insertion of data into the office system. The keyboard is the computer input device that enables the user enter data into the computer .

The keys in a keyboard are classified into •Alphanumeric keys-consist of letters and number ,which helps in keying in and calculating data that are inserted into the system. Punctuation keys-consists of the period,comma,semicolon,etc •Special keys-this keys consist of the function keys, control keys, arrow keys, caps lock key etc. Looking at the account office, the accountants needs the type of keyboard that enables them work effectively with ease. As an accountant, normally when entering a data, you type all the data with your right hand and have always have to stop and use your left to hit the tab key which is completely inefficient and discomforting.

In order words in providing a solution for the discomfort, the R-tab Keyboard will be used in the office setup. the R-tab keyboard has the tab key on the right of the number pad, which makes it easier and more efficient for an accountant to use. So instead of having to interrupt the left hand to hit the tab key, the right hand stride wont be breached while typing . This r-tab keyboard will improve the efficiency of the office by 25% higher than the usage of an ordinary keyboard. The longer the accountants use it. The longer their productivity will increase.

Accountants that have used the r-tab keyboard found out that they were able to finish data and numeric entries much faster in a much quicker manner. The mouse is the computer input device to which controls the location of a cursor on a video display that is connected to a computer. Generally in categorizing the computer mouse it is of two types which is the mechanical and optical mouse. Being an input device that pinpoints and sends command into the system it is a major input device that will and always a major vital role in any computer system setup.

In my analysis of the computer mouse, the best mouse that will be in tune to the satisfaction of the accountants is the Logitech Performance Mouse MX. The Logitech Performance Mouse has a general use functionality which is sculpted for the right hand only. It has a number of interesting features, which includes the darkfield tracking, which enables the mouse to work on any surface. It has a unifying technology which connects six devices to computer(this particular feature helps the members of the office access and gain control of a system from wherever they are within the office range).

With the sophisticated features and performance of the mouse MX the user can easily spin into a document and scroll incrementally when navigating images and slides. These are the two major input devices that yield great productivity in an office, without these the employees productivity will become a major waste and any computer gadget that’s supposed to ignite greater yield should be considered carefully before choosen. So in order words the R-tab keyboard and the mouse MX are the best and suitable input devices required for the office setup.

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Antivirus Programs

Today, people rely on computers to create, store, and manage critical information, many times via a home computer network. Information transmitted over networks has a higher degree of security risk than information kept in user’s home or company premises. Thus, it is crucial that they take measures to protect their computer and data from loss, damage, and misuse resulting from computer security risks. Antivirus programs are an effective way to protect a computer against viruses.

An antivirus program protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files.[1] When u purchases a new computer, it often includes antivirus software. Antivirus programs work by scanning for programs that normally are read from but not modified. In addition, many antivirus programs automatically scan files downloaded from the Web, e-mail attachments, opened files, and all types of removable media inserted in the computer (Karanos 201-205).

One technique that antivirus programs use to identify a virus is to look for virus signatures, or virus definitions, which are known specific patterns of virus code. According to Shelly and Cashman (Antivirus Programs), many vendors of antivirus programs allow registered users to update virus signature files automatically from the Web at no cost for a specified time. Updating the antivirus program’s signature files regularly is important, because it will download any new virus definitions that have been added since the last update.

Methods that guarantee a computer or network is safe from computer viruses simply do not exist. Installing, updating, and using an antivirus program, though, is an effective technique to safeguard your computer from loss.

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Negative Effects of Computer Usage on Eye Sight

Although the computer has crucial importance in our lives but still it has some negative effects upon our health. It effects the eyesight of an individual if there is maximum exposure to the computer screen. It might develop the long or the short sightedness if the frquency of the use is high. It may results in headache relatively for the larger time span and in turns effect the brain cells of the human being.

It incorporates a wide variety of the knowledge in itself and when the viewer come across the new phrases and techniques,it definitely demands and requires time and thus in turn result in the stress condition which is not good for the health of the human being. Distance of the screen of the computer from the eye also have the negative symptoms as the particular level being defined by the doctor is not been followed.

In children it is flourishing more day by day as they are more exposed to the entertainment side of the computer and that is games which are being installed in the computer. Eyes of the children gets affected when they put a load on their eyes while focussing on a particular task and it may effect their eye sight. It is necessary not to work constantly on the computer.

It is important to take the short breaks so that the effect of continously looking at the screen could get minimized. It is quite important to preserve the vision by taking different eye exercises. Continous and the frequent use of the computer sometimes results in the vision that is blur and the things doesnot look as they are in real. In short while using the computer it is necessary to follow the instructions of the doctor and have regular check ups of the eyes.

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Computer Role in Entertainment & the Arts

Computer Role in Entertainment & the Arts How will my leisure activities be affected by information technology? Information technology is being used for all kinds of entertainment, ranging from video games to telegambling. It is also being used in the arts, from painting to photography. Let’s consider just two examples, music and film. Computers, the internet, and the World Wide Web are standing the system of music recording and distribution on its head and in the process are changing the financial underpinnings of the music industry.

Because of their high overhead, major record labels typically need a band to sell half a million CDs in order to be profitable, but independent bands, using online marketing, can be reasonably successful selling 20,000 or 30,000 albums. Team Love, a small music label established in 2003, found it could promote its first two bands, Tilly and the Wall and Willy Mason, by offering songs online free for (Dowloading—transferring data from a remote computer to one’s own computer—so that people could listen to them before paying $12 for a CD.

It also puts videos online for sharing and uses quirky websites to reach fans. “There’s something exponential going on,” says one of Team Love’s founders. “The more music that’s downloaded, the more it sells. “‘” Many independent musicians are also using the internet to get their music heard, hoping that giving away songs will help them build audiences/*4 The web also offers sources for instantly downloadable sheet music. One research engineer has devised a computerized scoring system for judging musical competitions that overcomes the traditional human-jury approach, which can he swayed by personalities and. olyphonicHMI and a Spanish company, PolyphonicHMI, has created Hit Song Science software, which they say can analyze the hit potential of new songs by, according to one description, “reference to a finely parsed universe of attributes derived from millions of past songs. ” As for movies, now that blockbuster movies routinely meld live action, and animation, computer artists are in big demand. The 1999 film Star Wars: Episode /, for instance, had fully 1,965 digital shots out of about 2,200 shots.

Even when film was used, it was scanned into computers to be tweaked with animated effects, lighting, and the like. Entire beings were created on computers by artists working on designs developed by producer George Lucas and his chief artist. computers as a source of entertainment as well as amusement Answer The sources of entertainment has evolved down the ages. But human beings search for entertainment and things that could amuse him or her has been existing since time immemorial. One of the latest form of entertainment for the present civilization is computers.

With inbuilt and loaded computer games, availability of softwares which allow you to paint, listen to music, watch videos, movies and also allow you to create music or videos or movies; computer has really become a major source of entertainment for the people who are computer savvy or at least computer literate. Other than this, the obvious source of entertainment on computers is the internet which not just connects you to the rest of the world but also allows you to find your amusement right at home.

Chat rooms allow us to connect with like minded people and discuss with them about our favourite topics. Messengers also allow us to connect to your friends across the world and talk to them. Websites which carry news and other matters related to entertainment become a major source. Online games allow us to play with other people who have access to that game in a virtual world, while we are all seated in our own room in front of our PCs. Innumerable examples of internet as an entertainment source can be quoted.

Now with Microsoft and Google promising to built the complete virtual structures of any city in the world on the internet, people would not have to travel to those people on holidays in order to explore and enjoy the city. They just have to log on to the Google World or the Microsoft site and explore the city online where they can walk down the streets enter buildings and even make purchase while they are gossiping about the prices with the other customers in the shops. Now can there be any doubt that computers are a main source of entertainment and amusement in this generation?

Computer Games & Entertainment The computer games and entertainment business is a fast growing multi-billion dollar worldwide business, with games platforms ranging from Playstation 3, Xbox 360, Nintendo Wii, mobile and handhelds including iPhone, iPad and Android phones, PC-based, and massively multiplayer online games (MMOG) involving tens of thousands of people. With ongoing strong demand for graduate computer games programmers from the UK and abroad, this MSc will produce graduates who are well positioned to get a job in this exciting worldwide industry.

Potential employers include EA, Ubisoft, Sony, Activision, Microsoft, Cinesite, Framestore, and many more. In a wider sense, the influence of computer games programming is spreading to other digital media industries outside games, as seen in products such as Second Life, Habbo Hotel and Bebo, or as seen in other entertainment industries such as special effects for television, videos and movies. Computer games are starting to fundamentally change the way people interact with computerised systems.

Computers isn’t limited to the areas where we most expect to find it such as business and industry. It’s also being widely used in entertainment and arts world. These are almost as Sports: If there is a perfect way to pitch a ball, execute a spin on the ice, or take off from a ski jump, computers can find it. By analyzing the motions of the best athletes, sports trainers and kinetic specialists establish profiles. Other athletes can compare themselves to those profiles and try to improve their own styles and moves. Thus computer can be taken as a crucial element now in entertainment ndustry, with more and more multimedia content being planned, and built many applications as there are entertainers and artists. People look forward to the entertainment for recreation, so that they can reduce their stress and strains of their complex machine like schedules. All our traditional entertainment utilities like music, movies, sports, games, etc. are now affected by IT, one can have all these services, sitting at home and enjoying themselves. Computers are used in entertainment to create or enhance a production or performance.

The tools have become so sophisticated that it’s becoming almost impossible to distinguish between the real and the artificial in the film and the photography. Movies: If you have seen Titanic, matrix, Jurassic Park or cartoons on any TV channel, can you question the importance of Computers in the film industry? With the aid of sophisticated graphics and animation packages the special effect technicians can create any illusion. Computers help in improving productivity by automating time consuming, repetitive and monotonous processes.

They give the movie makers a lot by giving them the power to create the kind of special effects they want. Computers are widely used to create special effects in Big Budget movies. They are also extensively used behind the scenes to edit film during the production process. Scanners are generally used to help create complex twisting motions. New movies are developed using computer graphics, animations etc. which resemble real life events, thus reducing cost as well as time involved in the making of such movies. Music: The use of technology in the world of music is an unavoidable fact.

Any musical composition that we hear today goes through a technological process at some point. Music allows you to edit recorded music or even create your own. With the computer connected to a stereo or synthesizer, you can be your own composer and audience. Both artist and sound engineers are finding novel applications for computer in their work. There are lot of Music Composition languages that provide ways to create music on a computer  some are Music, Symbolic, Composer, Fugue and so on which run on different platforms.

Animations: In earlier days, Bugs and Bunny, the road Runner, were laboriously hand drawn in the hundred of the thousands of frame needed for each cartoon but now computers are doing much of the repetitions work. The computer can create outer space, alien characters, and extinct-animals and so on without the need of creating their physical models. The filmmaker then integrates these backgrounds and characters with  the real characters seamlessly. Example is Jurassic Park. .

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Work-Related Project Analysis

Computer designing is a key effective of learning computers are a good educational design. The computer designing has related learning resources went it comes to guidelines. Computer designing guidelines which meet the learning for different types of groups and which are encourage to active and rich learning. The designing can effective the computer based of learning went it come to its environment. The computer has many branch of technology which has information that is security to the computers network.

There are many objectives to the computer security that protects the information from any theft and natural disaster which allows information into the computer network. The computer technologies have become unwanted computer behavior and security strategies behavior. The computer technology which has security went it comes to logic. The security primary goals are the computer designing, applications programs with the type of security which most have restrictions to different types of program behaviors. The computer software has to be trusted and be able to security the software and be trustworthy for the database to run.

There are some software’s that you cannot trust with a security computer systems software and hardware. Which different types of computer systems that can resulted in many possibility and use it very limited. Because ones approached with computer systems can always lead them to failure. Computer designing which often has hardware techniques are used to effective the security after they are design. The approach of the techniques and using the techniques security systems is having the effective of the design in the computer systems.

The technique is to enforce the computer design principle and provide them with the function they need to attack and gain access to the program then need. Which breaking the computer systems up within smaller components can reduce individual components when using techniques that provide the software better access. With learning different types of knowledge and building strategies when it come to computer designing. The computer design should use and defense that way more than a subsystems needs the knowledge of information. The computer designing should become defense in the security which does not provide very many platforms in information.

The computer security has many vulnerable that has few risk went it comes to computers and their connected to the network. With the computer network has the internet that computer security can expand gone it especially comes to the internet and using the network? The technical went it come to the computer security is that a represented by someone else has to get authentication or availability to use the network. In some computer system different types of areas can be confidentiality which mean very important file are there and you cannot be their unless you got the password to be there.

There could be many confidentiality and privacy and secrecy files that company may not want other people to see. Computer designs to protect their information so hackers can get into personal information. With the computer security database and many other resources and all confidentiality so no one will have access to unauthorized party’s personal information. Many users want to have anything with the registering with the internet site because not very many users trust the internet because people taking their personal information and buying thing with their credit card and debit card.

Many users want to feel safe went using the internet and protect their personal information and make sure that no one gets into their files. Some people will say that a person’s information is very important to them like an individual’s how like to collect things or someone wanting to find someone special. Many people don’t like the computer designing electronic format because you never really know if the information that you’re putting is going somewhere else and it already could be in the wrong hand to begin with.

But there are many programs with the computer designing to where you can have a set password to where no one can access but you and the person you’re talking in person so that way no can get access to your personal information. There are many designing for computers which can be excellent to keep their servers and other computer protected and equipment which can improve their design on computer properly. The computer designing are responsibility is to making sure that all technology is confidence went it come to the projects. The computer out and input information can refer to communication went a machine or human error.

Because the input information and signals which receives by the computer systems. The output which on the other hand can be data or an signal sent by the computer systems. Learning about computers in general encompasses a great deal of information. This information can relate to data input and output and how software and hardware play a specific role, but most can be derived when determining what components go into a computer. A few options exist for converting from a manual to a computer based. The lower end of computer automation would be the use of a general purpose software application package.

One example would be Microsoft Office which is similar to the current package in place. This package includes word processing, spreadsheet, database management presentation graphics, and personal information management. The high end would be application specific programming. Computer information systems perform dynamic and significant roles. Whether the information for personal use, small business, or a conglomerate venue the execution and management of the computer information used must work effectively. Placing into operation an informational system allows for accuracy, convenience, and quality of input and output.

Installing, maintaining, and upgrading hardware and software will ensure that the operational aspect of the system allows for an extensive radius of personnel and equipment necessities. Distinguishing the storage capabilities and speed of the computer system will further warrant the computers resilience and proficiencies. Data input must be accurate and reliable. Depending on the resource and outlet of the data also depends on the method used. People are living in the age of technology. Everything we do involves some sort of computer activity.

Searching for jobs, going to school, communication, games, whatever a person desires they can use a computer to obtain it. Computers use several important components to operate. These components are input and output devices, and storage devices. An input device is a device that allows users to send data or interact with the computer. The most common input devices are keyboard, and mouse. However, in this age of technology other input devices can be game controllers, web and digital cameras, scanner, or a microphone. We use different input devices to conduct our daily lives.

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The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer

I tend to agree that young children can be negatively affected by too much time spent on the computer every day. This is partly because sitting in front of the screen for too long can be damaging to both the eyes and the physical posture of a young child, regardless of what they are using the computer for.

However, the main concern is about the type of computer activities that attract children. These are often electronic games that tend to be very intense and rather violent. The player is usually the hero of the game and too much exposure can encourage children to be self-centered an insensitive to others.

Even when children use a computer for other purposes, such as getting information or emailing friends, it is no substitute for human interaction. Spending time with other children and sharing non- virtual experiences is an important part of a child’s development that can’t be provided by a computer.

In spite of this, the obvious benefits of computer skills for young children cannot be denied. Their adult wold will be changing constantly in terms of technology and the internet is the key to all the knowledge and information available in the wold today. There fore it is important that children learn at an early age to use the equipment enthusiastically and with confidence as they will need these skills throughout their studies and working lives.

I think the main point is to make sure that young children do not overuse computers. Parents must ensure that their children learn to enjoy other kinds of activity and not simply sit at home, learning to live in a virtual word.

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Computer Addiction

Computer addiction, a loosely used term with Internet Addiction, or Video game addiction, is the excessive or compulsive use of computers to the extent that it interferes with daily life. This disorder may affect the following: social interaction, mood, personality, work ethic, relationships, thought process. It may also cause social disorders or possibly sleep deprivation. It is important to note that as of now, psychologists are not sure how to label this disorder. Many refer to it as Internet Addiction Disorder; however, computer addiction originated long before internet use is as common as it is today.

In addition, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has yet to recognize this exact disorder, and are more likely to include a more specific term of addiction, such as Internet Addiction, or Video game addiction. Some people develop bad habits in their computer use that cause them significant problems in their lives. The types of behavior and negative consequences are similar to those of known addictive disorders; therefore, the term Computer or Internet Addiction has come into use.

While anyone who uses a computer could be vulnerable, those people who are lonely, shy, easily bored, or suffering from another addiction or impulse control disorder as especially vulnerable to computer abuse. Computer abuse can result from people using it repeatedly as their main stress reliever, instead of having a variety of ways to cope with negative events and feelings. Other misuses can include procrastination from undesirable responsibilities, distraction from being upset, and attempts to meet needs for companionship and belonging.

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The History of Computer Technology

This report briefly explains the history of modern computers, starting from the year 1936 to present day time. There are many models of computers documented throughout the years, but they only computer models mentioned are ones that I deemed too have had the greatest effect on computer technology back then and now. This report will show how in just forty years, computers have transformed from slow, room-sized machines, to the small and fast computers of today. Computers are a part of important everyday life, but there was a time when computers did not exist.

Computers are one of the few inventions that do not have one specific inventor. Many inventors have contributed to the production and technology of computers. Some of the inventions have been different types of computers, while the others were parts needed for the computer to function effectively. Many people have added their creations to the list required to make computers work, adding to the overall technology of computers today. The term “computer” originally referred to people. It was a job title for those who did repetitive work with math problems.

A computer is define as a programmable machine that receives input, stores and automatically manipulates data, and provides output in a useful format. The most significant date in the history of computers is in the year of 1936. This is the year the first “computer” was developed by a German engineer named Konrad Zuse. He called it the Z1 Computer and it was the first system to be fully programmable. The Z1 Computer had computing power, setting it apart from other electronic devices. Programming early computers became somewhat of a hassle for inventors and in 1953 Grace Hooper invented the first high level computer language.

Her invention helped simplify the binary code used by the computer so that its users could dictate the computer’s actions. Hooper’s invention was called Flowmatic and has evolved into modern day technology. In the same year, the International Business Machines (IBM) was introduced into the computing industry, forever altering the age of computers. Throughout computer history, this company has played a major role in the development of new systems and servers for public and private use. Inventors saw IBM as competition within the computing history, which helped to spur faster and better development of computers.

Their first computer technology contribution was the IBM 701 EDPM Computer. During the three years of production, IBM sold 19 machines to research laboratories, aircraft companies, and the federal government. The first computer physically built in America was the IAS computer. It was developed for Advanced Study at Princeton under the direction of John Von Neumann between1946-1950. (History of Computer Technology, 2011). John von Neumann wrote “First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC; in which he outlined the architecture of a stored-program computer (Computer History Museum – Timeline of Computer History, 2006).

Electronic storage of programming information and data eliminated the need for the more clumsy methods of programming. An example of stored-program data computer is the IAS computer. Many modern computers trace their ancestry to the IAS machine and they are referred to as von Neumann (or Princeton) architecture machines. The IAS computer embodied the concept of a stored-program computer. The main memory contained two main categories of information, instructions and data. The computer had an ability to place different sequences of instructions in the memory which made the computer very useful.

This allowed inventions to build computers to complete different tasks at different times. Such a computer can be reconfigured (reprogrammed) at any time to perform a new or different task. The Hungarian-born von Neumann demonstrated prodigious expertise in hydrodynamics, ballistics, meteorology, game theory, statistics, and the use of mechanical devices for computation contributed to the production of the modern day computer (Computer History Museum – Timeline of Computer History, 2006).

In 1955, Bank of America coupled with Stanford Research Institute and General Electric; saw the creation of the first computers for use in banks. Researchers at the Stanford Research Institute invented “ERMA”, the Electronic Recording Method of Accounting computer processing system. ERMA updated and posted checking accounts and manually processed checks and account management. The MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition) was a part of ERMA and allowed computers to read special numbers at the bottom of the checks.

This technology helped with the tracking and accounting of checks transactions. ERMA was officially demonstrated to the public in September 1955 and first tested on real banking accounts in the fall of 1956. (Blain, 2005). Today, computer technology has transformed the banking industry. One of the most important breakthroughs in computer history occurred in 1958. This was the creation of the integrated circuit, known as the chip. The integrated circuit device is one of the base requirements for the modern computer systems.

On every motherboard and card inside the computer system, are many chips that contain vital information on what the boards and cards do. Without the integrated circuit, the computers known today would not be able to function. The first commercially integrated circuits became available from the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in 1961. All computers then started to be made using chips instead of the individual transistors and their accompanying parts. Texas Instruments first used the chips in Air Force computers and the Minuteman Missile in 1962.

They later used the chips to produce the first electronic portable calculators. The original integrated chip had only one transistor, three resistors and one capacitor and was the size of an adult’s pinkie finger. Today, an integrated chip is smaller than a penny and can hold 125 million transistors (Bellis). The late 1970s saw the popularization of personal computers and the progress continues from then until now. An explosion of personal computers occurred in the 1970s. The Tandy Corporation was one of the leading companies in computer technology.

Their most popular invention was the TRS-80 arriving on the market in the late 1970s. It was immediately popular, selling out at Radio Shack where it was exclusively sold. The TRS-80 was sold for only $600, making it affordable for many individuals to own their own personal computer. Within its first year, over 55,000 consumers bought Tandy TRO-80 to use in their home or office and over 250,000 of them sold in the next few years. Tandy Corporation’s TRS-80 had a keyboard and motherboard all in one. This is a common trend that other companies today use for their personal computer products.

TRS-80 also included office applications, including a word processor, calculator, and early spreadsheet capabilities (The People History – Computers From the 1970s). People during the late 70s embraced personal computers and used them for a variety of reasons, such as, games, office applications, home finances, storing date, and many other necessary usages. In 1975, Apple Computers was founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniac. The Apple II was launched in 1977 and was an immediate success as well. Apple created the “home/personal computer” that could be used by anybody.

The success of the Apple II established Apple Computers as a main competitor in the field of personal computers. Then Dan Bricklin created a spreadsheet program called VisiCalc for the Apple II. It went on sale in 1979 and within four years it sold 700,000 copies at $250 a time (Trueman, 2000). By 1980, there were one million personal computers in the world. Computers have come an enormous way since their initial establishment, as the earliest electronic computers were so large that they would take up the entire area of a room, while today some are so small that they can fit in your hands.

While computers are now an important part of the everyday lives of human beings, there was a time where computers did not exist. Knowing the history of computers and how much progression has been made can help individuals understand just how complicated and innovative the creation of computers really is. The first programmable digital computers invented in the 1940s have dramatically changed in appearance and technology from today. They were as big as living rooms and were about as powerful as modern day calculators. Modern computers are billions of times more capable than early machines and occupy less space.

Simple computers, such as smart phones, are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and can be powered on by a small battery. In today’s world, computers play an incredibly large role in the way the world exists in general, and the majority of tasks could actually not be completed if not for the use of computers. Although there are certainly some areas and jobs that cannot yet be completed solely by computers and which thus still require actual manpower, for the most part, computers have helped to make life significantly easier, productive, and more convenient for us all.

Future computer technology will help solve many medical problems by reinterpreting sensory data and modulating brain activity. Technology will be so advanced that it may allow people who have lost the use of their limbs to use robotics to regain their disabled movements. The future of computer technology is very bright and welcomed indeed. Current trends, research, and development happening at a lightning speed supports this statement. Our children today will see a whole new world of technology with computers within the next decade.

Works Cited

http://inventors.about.com/od/istartinventions/a/intergrated_circuit.htm

http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/?category=cmptr

http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/70scomputers.html

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/personal_computer.htm