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Data mining crime of data


In the society crime issue is very important. It is common knowledge within the society that crime induces vast psychological, human and economical damages to individuals, environment and the economy of a particular society itself. It is very important that a society through its government, judiciary and legislative endeavours to control crime within their environment. Data mining is a brawny technique with expectant potency to help criminal investigators concentrate on the most important information in their crime data [1]. The cognition discovered from existing data goes to reveal a value added of its information. Successful data mining methodology depends intemperately on the peculiar selection of techniques employed by analyst. Their pragmatic applications are, for example, the criminal detectives, market sale forecasting and playing behaviour analysis in sport games. However the more the data and more composite question being treated and maintained, the more potent the system is required. This includes the potentiality of the system to analyze large quantity of data and composite information from various sources. In crime control of the law enforcement, there are many storage data and formats have to be revealed. When its amount has risen, it is hard to analyze and explore some new knowledge from them. Therefore, the data mining is employed to crime control and criminal curtailment by using frequency happening and length method under which these presumptions can be achieved. All these techniques give outcome to benefit detectives in searching behavioural practices of professional criminals. [1] The application in the law enforcement from data analysis can be categorised into two vital component, crime check and criminal curtailment. Crime check tends to use knowledge from the analysed data to control and prevent the happening of crime, while the criminal curtailment tries to arrest criminal by using his/her account records in data mining. Brown [2] has built a software model for mining data in order to arrest professional criminals. They suggested an information system that can be used to apprehend criminals in their own area or regions. The software can be employed to turn data into useful information with two technologies, data fusion and data mining. Data fusion deals fuses and translates information from multiple sources, and it overcomes confusion from conflict reports and cluttered or noisy backgrounds. Data mining is concerned with the automatic discovery of patterns and relationships in large databases. His software is called ReCAP(Regional Crime Analysis Program), which was built to provide crime analysis with both technologies (). When the terrorism was burst by 9/11 attacks, fears about national security has risen significantly and the world has varied forever. The strategy against a terrorist must be more advanced in order to prevent suicide attacks from their stratagem [5]. In the congressional conference, Robert S. Mueller – The Director of investigative department of FBI, suggested that they excessively emphasize to arrest the criminals with slightly attention for crime checks is the main problem of the law enforcement in the world [4]. It is more interesting now in data collection for criminal control plan. Abraham et. al. [1] suggested a method to use computer log register as account data search, some relationship by employing the frequency happening of incidents. Then, they analyze the outcome of produced profiles. The profiles could be employed to comprehend the behaviour of criminal. It should be observe that the types of crime could be exchanged over time determined by the variation of globalization and technology. Therefore, if we want to prevent crime efficiently, the behaviour must be employed with another kind of knowledge. We need to know the crime causes. de Bruin et. al. [3] introduced a new distance standard for comparing all individuals established on their profiles and then clustering them accordingly. This method concedes a visual clustering of criminal career and changes the identification of categories of criminals. They present the applicability of the data mining in the area of criminal career analysis. Four important elements play a role in the analysis of criminal career: crime nature, frequency, duration and severity. They also develop a particular distance standard to combine this profile difference with crime frequency and vary of criminal behaviour over time. The matrix was made that describe the number of variation in criminal careers between all couples of culprits. The data analysis can be employed to determine the trends of criminal careers. Nath[6] suggested a method for data division in order to use them present in the pattern of geographic map. We could decide the data division to be the veer of offend across many fields.


The report of the headline findings represents the 2006 Offending, crime and justice survey (OCJS). This gives description of style and degrees in youth offending anti-social behaviour (ASB) and victimisation amongst youth between the ages of 10-25 residing in a private household in England and Wales. Couple of years now data are obtained from respondent representatives’ interview 4,952 including 4,152 panel members and 799 fresh samples on the frequency consequences and characteristics of offender’s victimization in England and Wales. This survey enables the Offending, crime and justice survey (OCJS) to forecast the probability of specified outcome of victimization by assault, rape, theft, robbery, burglary, sexual assault, vehicle related theft, drug selling, for the population as a whole. The OCJS provides the largest forum in England and Wales for victims and offenders to describe the impact of crime and characteristics of offenders.


This project aim to identify which of the data mining technique best suit the OCJS data.
Identify underlying classes of offenders.


Data mining analysis has the tendency to work from the data up and the best techniques are those developed with a preference for large amount of data, making use of as much of the gathered data as potential to arrive at a reliable decision and conclusion. The analysis procedure starts with a set of data, employs a methodology to develop an optimal delegacy of the structure of the data during which time knowledge is gained. Once knowledge has been gained this can be broadened to large sets of data working on the effrontery that the larger the data set has a structure similar to the sample data. Again this is analogous to a mining process where large numbers of low grade materials are sieved through in order to find something of value.

Target Data

Figure 1.1 Stages/Procedures identified in data mining adapted from [4]


The remainder of this report is as follow: Chapter 2 reviews the approach to data mining and also described the mining techniques. Chapter 3 introduced the basic theory for the algorithm. Chapter 4 described the adopted method. Chapter 5 presented the application and a discussion of the result.



The major reason that data mining has pulled a big deal of attention in information industry in recent years is due to the broad accessibility of vast amount of data and the impending need for turning such data into useful information and knowledge. The information and knowledge acquired can be employed for application ranging from business management, production control, and market analysis, to engineering design and science exploration. [4] Having focused so much attention on the collection of data the problem was what to do with this valuable resourceIt was distinguished that information is at the centre of business operations and that decision makers could make use of the data stored to acquire valuable insight into business. Database management systems gave access to the data stored but this was only a small part of what could be acquired from the data. Traditional online transaction processing systems, OLTPs, are good at putting data into database quickly, safely and efficiently but are not good at delivering meaningful analysis in return. Analyzing data can provide further knowledge about a business by going beyond the data explicitly stored to derive knowledge about the business. This is where data mining or knowledge discovery in database (KDD) has obvious benefit for any enterprise. [7]

2.2 What is Data mining?

Data mining is concerned with extracting or “mining” knowledge from large amount of data. The term is really misnomer. Recall that the mining of gold from rocks and sand is concerned with gold mining rather than sand and rocks mining. Thus “data mining” should have been more suitably named “knowledge mining from data”, which is unfortunately so long. “Knowledge mining” a shorter term might not show the emphasis on mining from large amount of data.[4,6] Nevertheless, mining is a bright term characterising the procedure that discovers a small set of treasured pearl from a large conduct of raw materials (figure 1). Thus, such

Fig.2.1 data mining-searching for knowledge (interesting patterns) in your data. [4]

Misnomer which contains both “data” and “mining” became a big choice. There are many other terms containing a similar or slightly dissimilar meaning to data mining, such as data archaeology, knowledge extraction, data/ pattern analysis, and data dredging knowledge mining from database. Lots of people treat data mining as an equivalent word for another popular used condition, “knowledge discovery in database” or KDD. Alternatively, others regard data mining as just an essential step in the procedure of knowledge discovery in database. [2, 4] Knowledge discovery as a process is described in fig.2 below and comprises of an iterative sequence of the following steps:

Data cleaning (removal of noise or irrelevant data)
Data integration (where product data source may be mixed)
Data selection (where data applicable to the analysis task are recovered from the database)
Data transformation (where data are translated or fused into forms appropriate for mining by doing summary or collection operations, for instance)
Data mining (an essential procedure where intelligent methods are used in other to extract data forms or patterns),
Pattern evaluation (to discover the truly concerning forms or patterns representing knowledge based on interest measure)

Knowledge representation (where visualization and knowledge representation proficiencies are used to deliver the mined knowledge to the user)

Fig.2.2 Data mining as a process of knowledge discovery adapted from [4, 7]

The data mining steps may interact with the user or a knowledge base. The interesting patterns are presented to the user, and may be stored as new knowledge in the knowledge base. It is very important to note that according to this view, data mining is only one step in the entire process, albeit an essential one since it uncovers the hidden patterns for evaluation. Adopting a broad view of data mining functionality, data mining is the process of discovery interesting knowledge from large amount of data stored either in database, data warehouse, or other information repositories. Based on this view, the architecture of a typical data mining system may have the following major components:

(1) Data warehouse, database, or other information repository. This is one or a set of database, data warehouse, spread sheets, or other kind f information repositories. Data cleaning and data integration techniques may be performed on the data.

(2) Database or data warehouse server. The database or data warehouse server is responsible for fetching the relevant data, base on the user’s data mining request.

(3) Knowledge base. This is the domain knowledge that is used to guide the search, or evaluate the interestingness of resulting patterns. Such knowledge can include concept hierarchies, used to organize attributes or attributes values into different level of abstraction. Knowledge such as user beliefs, which can be used to assess a pattern’s interestingness based on its unexpectedness, may also be included. Other examples of domain knowledge are additional interestingness constraints or thresholds, and metadata (e.g., describing data from multiple heterogeneous sources).

(4Data mining engine. This is essential to data mining system and ideally consists of a set of functional module for tasks such as characterisation, association analysis, classification, evaluation and deviation analysis.

(5)Pattern evaluation module. This component typically employs interestingness measure and interacts with the data mining modules so as to focus the search towards interesting patterns. It may access interestingness threshold stored in the knowledge base. Alternatively the pattern evaluation module may be integrated with the mining module, depending on the implementation of the data mining method used. For efficient data mining, it is highly recommended to push evaluation of patterns interestingness as deep as possible into the mining process so as to confine the search to only the interesting patterns.

(6)Graphical user interface. This module communicate between the user and the data mining system, allowing the user to interact with the system by specifying a data mining query or task, providing information to help focus the search, and performing exploratory data mining based on the intermediate data mining results. In evaluate mined patterns, and visualize the pattern in different forms.[4, 6, 7]

The quantity of data continues to increase at a tremendous rate even though the data stores are already huge. The common problem is how to make the database a competitive job advantage by changing apparently meaningless data into useful information. How this challenge is satisfied is vital because institutions are increasingly banking on efficient analysis of the data simply to remain competitive. A variety of new techniques and technology is rising to assist sort through the information and discover useful competitive data. By knowledge discovery in databases, interesting knowledge, regularities, or high-ranking information can be elicited from the applicable set of information in databases and be looked-into from different angles; large databases thereby assist as ample and dependable source for knowledge generation and confirmations. Mining information and knowledge from large database has been recognized by many research workers as a key research subject in database systems and machine learning. Institutions in many industries also take knowledge discovery as an important area with a chance of major revenue. [8] The discovered knowledge can be applied to information management, query processing, decision making, process control, and many other applications.

From data warehouse view, data mining can be considered as an advance stage of on-line analytical processing (OLAP). However, data mining extends far beyond the constrict measure summarization mode analytical processing of data warehousing systems by integrating more advance techniques for information understanding [6, 8]. Many individuals treat data mining as an equivalent word for another popularly applied condition, Knowledge Discovery in Databases, or KDD. Alternatively, others view data mining as simply an indispensable measure in the process of knowledge discovery in databases.

For example, the KDD process as follow:

Learning the application domain
Creating a dataset
Data cleaning and pre-processing
Data reduction and projection
Choosing the function of data mining
Choosing the data mining algorithm(s)
Data mining
Using the discovery knowledge

As the KDD process shows, data mining is the fundamental of knowledge discovering, it needs elaborated data training works. Data cleaning and pre-processing: includes basic operations such as removing noise or outliers, gathering the necessary data to model or account for noise, resolving on strategies for dealing with missing data fields, and accounting for time sequence data and recognised changes, as well as settling DBMS issues, such as mapping of missing and unknown values, information type, and outline. Useful data are selected from the arranged data to increase the potency and focus on the job.

After data preparation, selecting the purpose of data mining determine the aim of the model gained by data mining algorithm (e.g. clustering, classification and summarization). Selecting the data mining algorithm includes choosing method(s) to be used for researching for patterns in the data, such as determining which models and parameters many are captured and corresponding to a particular data mining method with the overall standards of the KDD process. Data mining explores for patterns concern in a particular realistic form set of such representations; including classification rules, or clustering, regression, sequence modelling, trees, dependency and line analysis. The mining outcomes which correspond to the demands will be translated and mobilised, to be taken into process or be introduced to concerned companies in the last step.

For the importance of data mining in KDD process, the term data mining is turning more popular than the longer term of knowledge discovery [3, 8]. Individuals gradually conform a broad opinion of data mining functionality to be the equivalent word of KDD. The concept of data mining holds all actions and techniques using the gathered data to get inexplicit information and studying historical records to acquire valuable knowledge.

2.3 Data mining definitions

Larose [9] stipulated, data mining refers to the process of discovering meaningful new correlations, patterns and trends by sifting through large amount of data stored in repositories, using pattern recognition technologies as well as statistical and mathematical techniques. Hand et. al.[10] stated Data mining the analysis of (often large ) observational data sets to find unexpected relationship and to summarize the data in novel way that are both understandable and useful to the data owner. Peter[11] stipulated Data mining is an interdisciplinary field bringing together techniques from machine learning, pattern recognition, statistics, databases, and visualization to address the issues of information extraction from large data bases. The SAS institute (2000) defines data mining as the “process of selecting, researching and simulating huge amount of data set to reveal antecedent strange data form for business advantage. Data mining refers to as knowledge discovery in databases, meaning a process of little extraction of implicit, previously obscure and potentially useful information (such as knowledge rules, regularities, constraints) from data in databases.[12] From the business view, several data mining techniques are used to better realize user conduct, to improve the service provided, and to enhance business opportunities. Whatever the definition, data mining process differs, from statistical analysis of data. First predictive data is controlled by the need to reveal, in a well timed style, rising courses whereas statistical analysis is associated to historical information and established on observed information. Secondly statistical analysis concentrates on findings and explaining the major origin of variation in the data, in contrast, data mining strives to discover, not the apparent sources of variation, but rather the significant, although presently neglected, information. Therefore statistical analysis and data mining are complementary. Statistical analysis explains and gets rid of the major part of data variation before data mining is employed. This explains why the data warehousing tool not only stores data but also comprises and performs some statistical analysis programs. As to on-line analysis processing (OLAP) its relationship with data mining can be considered as disassociation.[9,12] OLAP is a data summarization/collection tool that assist modify data analysis, while data mining allows the automated discovery of implicit form and interesting knowledge concealed in large amount of data. OLAP tools are directed toward backing and changing interactive data analysis; while data mining tools is to automate as much of the analysis process as possible. Data mining goes one step beyond OLAP.

As noted in the former section, data mining is almost equal to KDD and they have like process. Below are the data mining processes:

Human resource identification
Problem specification
Data prospecting
Domain knowledge elicitation
Methodology identification
Data pre-processing
Pattern discovery
Knowledge post-processing

In stage 1 of data mining process, human resource identification, and the human resource should be required in the plan and their various purpose are identified. In most data mining job the human resources involved are the field experts, the data experts, and the data mining expert. In stage 2 concerned jobs are analyzed and defined. Next, data searching requires in analyzing the available data and selecting the predicting subset of data to mine. The aim of stage 4, field knowledge induction, is to extract the useful knowledge already known about the job from field experts. In stage 5, methodology identification, the most reserve mining prototypes are chosen. In stage 6, data pre-processing is depicted to transform data into the state fit for mining. Pattern discovery stage which includes the computation and knowledge discovery is talked about in section 7. The patterns found in the former stage are filtered to attract the best pattern in the last stage. [8]

Fayed et al. (1996), on the other hand suggested the following steps:

Recovering the data from large database.
Choosing the applicable subset to work with.
Resolving on reserve sampling system, cleaning the data and coping with missing domain records.
Employing applicable transformations, dimensionality simplification and projections.
Equipping models to pre-processed data.

The processes of data mining are elaborate and complicated. Many requirements should be observed on the follow of data mining, so challenges of growing data mining application are one of the crucial matters in this field. Below are the listed of challenges growth:

Dealing with different types of data.
Efficiency and measurability of data mining algorithm.
Usefulness, certainty, and quality of data mining results
Formula of several forms of data mining results.
Synergistic mining knowledge at product abstraction stages.
Mining data from different sources of information.
Security of privacy and data protection.

2.4 Data mining structure

The architecture of a distinctive data mining system may have the following major elements:

Database, data warehouse, or other data deposit
Database or data warehouse server
Knowledge base
Data mining engine
Pattern rating module
Graphical user interface

The information sources of a data mining system can be divergent information deposits like database, data warehouse, or other deposits. The database or data warehouse server is responsible for getting the applicable data to accomplish the data mining postulation. Data mining engine is the heart of data mining system. The operational module of data mining algorithms and patterns are maintained in the engine. Knowledge base stores the field knowledge that is used to lead the data mining process, and provides the data that rules evaluation module motives to formalise the results of data mining. If the mining results has passed the establishment step then they will get to user via the graphical user interface, user can interact with the system by the interface. [4, 8, 11]

2.5 Data mining methods and Techniques

Various techniques have been suggested for resolving a problem of extracting knowledge from volatile data, each of which follow different algorithm. One of the fields where information plays an important part is that of law enforcement. Obviously, the raising amount of criminal data gives rise to various problem including data storage, data warehousing and data analysis. [11] Data mining methods relate to the function cases that data mining tools provides. The abstract definition of each data mining method and the classification basis always disagree for the ease of explanation, the condition of present situation, or researcher’s scope. Association, classification, prediction, clustering are usually the common methods in different works, while the term description, summarization, sequential rules etc. Might not always be used and named in the first place. If some methods are not named it does not refer these methods are not created because the researcher may allot special term to methods to indicate certain significant characters. Progressive specification and jobs sectors can also be a good ground to consider the terminology. For example “REGRESSION” is often used to substitute “PREDICTION” because the major and conventional techniques for prediction are statistical regression. “Link analysis” can be discussed severally outlying “association” in telecommunication industry. Table 1.1 shows the method recognised by scholars:

Data mining methods comprise techniques which develop from artificial intelligence, statistics, machine learning, OLAP and so on. These most often observed methods are classed into five categories according to their work types in business applications, and the five types of data mining methods are clustering, classification, association, prediction and profiling.

Table 1 Data mining classification literatures

Sources: This research

AuthorData Mining Classification
Barry (1997)Prediction, Classification, Estimation, Clustering, Description, Affinity grouping.
Han, et al. (1996)Clustering, Association, Classification, Generalization, Similarity search, Path traversal pattern.
Fayyed, et (1996)Clustering, Regression, Classification, Summarization, Dependency modelling, Link analysis, Sequence analysis.

Association: reveals relationship or dependence between multiple things, such as Link analysis, market basket analysis, and variable dependency. Association is in two levels: quantitative and structured. The structural level of the method assigns (often in graphical form) which things are associated; the quantitative level assigns the strength of the relationship using some numerical scale. Market basket analysis is a well recognized association application; it can be executed on a retail data of customer deal to find out what item are often purchased together (also known as item sets). Apriori is a basic algorithm for finding frequent item sets. The denotation of apriori can further deal with multi-level, multi-dimensional and more composite data structure. [7]

Classification: function (or classifies) a data detail into one of several set of categorical classes. Neural network, Decision tree, and some probability advances are often used to execute this function. There are two steps to carry out classification work. In the first step, classification model is form describing a predetermined set up of classes or concepts. Second step the model is used for categorization. For example, the classification learned in the first step from the analysis of data from existing customers can be used to predict the credit evaluation of new or future customers.

Prediction: admits regression and part of time series analysis. Prediction can be regarded as the structure and use of a model to evaluate the value or value ranges of a property that a given sample is probably to have. This method functions a data item to a real-value prediction variable, and the goal of time series analysis is to model the state of the process generating the sequence or to extract and study deviation and style over time. In our opinion, the major deviation between prediction and classification is that prediction processes with continuous values while classification centres on judgements.

Clustering: functions a data item into one of various categorical classes (or clusters) in which the categories must be determined from the data different assortments in which the classes are determine. Clusters are defined by determinations of natural grouping of data detail based on similarities metrics or probability density models, and the procedure to form these groups is named as unsupervised learning to distinguish from supervised learning of classification.

Data mining techniques and methods render capable extraction of concealed predictive data from huge datasets or databases. It is a very powerful new technology with great potency to assist institutions concentrate on the important information in their database and data warehouse. Data mining instruments forecast future behaviours and trends, allowing businesses to make active, knowledge aimed decision. The automated, potential analyses proposed by data mining go beyond the analyses of previous issues provided by retrospective instruments typically for decision support systems. [2, 4, 12] Data mining instruments can respond to business question that traditionally were times consuming to conclude. They examine databases for hidden patterns, finding predictive information that experts may miss because it lies outside their expectation.

Most institutions already collect and refine large quantities of data. Data mining methods and techniques can be carried out quickly on existing hardware and software program to raise the scope of the existing information resources, and can be merged with new systems and products as they are brought on-line. When enforced on high performance client/server or parallel processing computers, data mining instrument can analyze huge databases to present answers to questions such as, which clients are most likely to answer my next promotional mailing, and why?[10, 12]

Recent progress in data collection, storage and manipulation instruments such as extraordinary storage and computational capability, use of the internet, modern surveillance equipments etc, have widen the range and limit for the same.

Moreover, the increasing dependence on high technology equipment for common man has facilitated the process of data collection. [13]

The data might be in the direct form or may not be in the direct form and might need some interpretation based on former knowledge, experience and most importantly is determined by purpose of data analyses. This job is further augmented by sheer intensity, texture of data and lack of human capabilities to deduce it in ways it is supposed to be. For this reason many computational instruments are used and are broadly named as Data mining tools. [10]

Data mining tools constitutes of basic statistics and Regression methods, Decision trees, ANOVA and rule based techniques and more importantly advanced algorithm that uses neural networks and Artificial Intelligence techniques. The applications of data mining tools are limitless and basically aimed by cost, time constraints, and current demand of the community, business and the government. [14]

2.6 Data mining modelling

Data mining modelling is the critical part in developing business applications. Business application, such as “cross selling”, will be turn into one or more of business problems, and the goal of modelling is to formulate these business problems as a data mining task. For example, in cross selling application, the association in the product area is determine, and then customers will be classified into several clusters to see which product mix can be matched to what customers.

To know which data mining task is most suitable for current problem, the analysis and understanding of data mining task’s characters and steps is needed. Data mining algorithm consists largely of some specific mix of three components.

The model: There are two relevant factors: the function of the model (e.g., clustering and classification) and the representational form of the model (e.g., a linear function of multiple variables and a Gaussian probability density function). A model contains parameters that are to be determined from the data.
The preference criterion: A basis preference of one model or set of parameters over another, depending on given data. The criterion is usually some form of goodness-of-fit function of the model to the data, perhaps tempered by a smoothing term to avoid over fitting, or generating a model with too many degrees of freedom to be constrained by the given data.
The search algorithm: The specification of an algorithm for finding particular models and parameters, given data, a model (or family of models), and a preference criterion.

The choice of what data mining techniques to apply at a given point in the knowledge discovery processes depends on the particular data mining task to be accomplished and on the data available for analysis. The requirement of the task dedicate to the function f data mining, and the detailed characteristics of the tasks influence the feasibility between mining methods and business problems. The so called detail characteristic includes data types, parameter varieties, hybrid approaches and so on. Slightly difference in the model will cause enormous performance change, so modelling stage effects the quality of data mining tools heavily.


[1] T. Abraham and O. de Vel, “Investigative profiling with computer forensic log data and association rules,” in Proceedings of the IEEE

International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM’02), pp. 11 – 18,2006.

[2] D.E. Brown, “The regional crime analysis program (RECAP): A frame work for mining data to catch criminals,” in Proceedings of the

IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics,Vol. 3, pp. 2848-2853, 1998.

[3] J.S. de Bruin, T.K. Cocx, W.A. Kosters, J. Laros and J.N. Kok, “Data mining approaches to criminal career analysis,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM’06), pp.171-177, 2006.

[4] J. Han and M. Kamber, “Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques,”Morgan Kaufmann publications, pp. 1-39, 2006.

[5] J. Mena, “Investigative Data Mining for Security and Criminal Detection”, Butterworth Heinemann Press, pp. 15-16, 2003.

[6] S.V. Nath, “Crime pattern detection using data mining,” in Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology, pp. 41-44,2006.

[7] S. Nagabhushana “Data warehousing OLAP and Data mining”, published by new age international,pp251-350, 2006

[8]Takao Terano, Huan Liu, Arbee L.P. Chen (Eds.) 2000 “knowledge discovery and data mining current issues and application”

[9]Larose, Daniel T. 2005 Discovering Knowledge in data mining. An introduction to data mining (pg.3)

[10]Hand, D. J.Heikki Mannile, padhraic Smyth, 2001 Principle of data mining (pg. 1)

[11] Peter cabena, Pablo Hadjinian, Rolf stadler, Jaap verhees, and alessandro zanasi, 1998 [12]Eric D. Kolaczyk 2009 Statistical analysis of network data, method and models

Discovering data mining: from concept to implementation” (pg. 2)

[13]Trevor Hastic, Robert Tibshirani, Jerome freedman 2001 The Element of Statistical learning, data mining, inference, and Prediction

[14] An Introduction to Data Mining: (Internet site accessed on 27th April 2011.)

[15] Padhye, Manoday Dhananjay “Use of Data Mining for Investigation of Crime Patterns”,

[16]Graham J. williams, simeon J. simmoff (edu).2006 Data mining: Theory, methodology, Techniques, and applications

[17]Hill Kargupta, Jiawei Han, Philip S. Yu, Rajeev Motwani and Vipin Kumar 2009 Next generation of data mining

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[19]Deepayan Sarkar, 2008 Multivariate data Visualization with R.

[20]Luis Torgo2011 data mining with R. learning with case studies

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Free Essays

Youth crime is a moral panic and an exaggerated response based on media representation of news stories about youth


Is youth crime a moral panic or a moral crisis, many people will have different views however what view does the media haveThe media tend to represent youth crime as a moral panic within society to create a stir and gain the public’s attention. I will be addressing how the media show this representation by analysing certain headlines and cases, which caused such controversy involving youth crime. Since the existence of youth crime the media use this particular offence as a catalyst of creating a moral panic within the community. I will look at the words they used and how they layout the news to create this moral panic and how exaggerated a story can become with help from the media.

Moral panic can be defined as the intensity of a feeling expressed in the population about a certain issue that appears to threaten the social order of society (Jones 1999). Youth crime can be defined as “Juvenile delinquency” this refers to children generally under the age of 18 years old who behaves in a way, which is against the law. Majority of legal systems recommend specific actions for dealing with these youths, e.g. young offender’s institutes or detention centres. In the United Kingdom youth crime is generally summarised as young teenagers involved in anti-social behaviour and knife or gun crime. Youth crime has risen drastically in the past years. One major moral panic that occurred from youth crime was the Jamie Bulger case is 1993 which caused a massive uproar in society which resulted in the Criminal Justice and Public order Act 1994, therefore supporting the idea moral panic can be healthy for the society.

What is moral panic?

A moral panic refers to the reaction of the public based on a belief that a group poses danger to the society; they distinguish this particular group as a huge threat to their social values and culture (Encyclopaedia 2011). Stanley Cohen created the term moral panic in 1972 for recounting the media coverage of Mods and Rockers in the UK during the 1960s. Cohen describes moral panic as a “condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests” (Cohen 1973:9). He also states that those who create the moral panic due to having a fear of an threat to prevailing social or cultural values are referred to as “moral entrepreneurs”, where as those who are seen as a threat to the social order are defined as “folk devils” (Cohen 1973:16). Moral panics are seen as incidents that involve arguments and social tension and therefore disagreement is difficult because the problem is represented as taboo (Kuzma 2005). The media are representatives of “moral indignation”, although they are not fully engaged with the controversy, reporting the fact is enough to produce concern, anxiety and panic (Cohen 1973:9). Goode and Ben-Yehuda, voiced theories that moral panic consists of five characteristics. The first one they recognised is the concern that the behaviour of the group e.g. youth crime is most likely to have a negative impact on society. The second characteristic is that if the hostility towards “youths” increases, they will eventually become “folk devils” therefore creating a division (Cohen 1973:16). The third is a form of consensus although concern is not nationwide; there should be global acceptance that the youths pose a threat to society. The fourth characteristic is formed up of disproportionality and the action taken is disproportionate to the actual threat posed by the accused group. The final and fifth characteristic is volatility; moral panics are highly volatile and tend to disappear as quickly due to a lack of public interest or other rising news reports (Goode and Ben-Yehuda 1994:57).

Media representation of youth and youth crime

Different types of media representations include radio, newspaper, magazines, websites and news channels they are all exclusively involved in spreading and broadcasting news directly to the public. How they represent the news is specifically up to them however they have a drastic impact on how the public view it as well as they are the main influence on people’s emotions and opinions. Furedi explains that moral panics tend to begin “at times when society has not been able to adapt to dramatic changes” and such changes lead to those becoming concerned and to express their fear over what they see as a “loss of control” (Furedi 1994:3) The media tend to concentrate on representing youth crime in both a negative and positive way, they show hatred and anger towards the youths who commit the crimes as well as sympathy and condolences on the youths who are victims of youth crime therefore this sways a person’s opinion due to the contexts of the news. An example of this is the case of Stephen Lawrence in 1993; the Daily Mail newspaper issued a cover branding all five suspects as “murderers”, challenging them to sue the newspaper for libel if they were wrong. The headline read “Murderers” and accuses these men of killing, it quoted “If we are wrong, let them sue us” (The daily Mail 1997). The paper’s front page provoked a wide range of different reactions. Many members of the public applauded it for stepping in where the law had deliberately failed; others were alarmed at such an obvious case of “trial by media” and responded by asking what if the five suspects had been black, not whiteMedia representations of youth concentrate mainly on violent crimes and report particular examples of juvenile offenders. The media see it as their duty to remind the public that behind the headlines there is a large number of youths offending in the criminal justice system. When they represent youth crime the media concentrate on how they come across to the public and their main duty is to make the offender apologies and to express remorse for their actions.

Media representation on Moral Panic

The way the media represent moral panic has to be done in a precise way as what they show has to impact people’s views and opinions drastically. Newspapers tend to start with a catchy headline to grab attention and to cause controversy. An example of this is the headline the Daily Mail issued on the murder of teenager Ben Kinsella, they quoted “T.V stars brother stabbed to death as he begged for help”, instantly people are drawn to this by the words T.V star and begged for help and are immediately overcome with compassion and interest. Another example is the Evening standard website headed their article with the title “guilty: Animals who killed Ben Kinsella”, anyone who reads this instantly have the image that these youths are animals and killers and have immediately made up their opinion on the youths involved in the murder. It’s questioned what these examples of newspaper headlines have in common, and what relevance and significance do they create for individuals. Its been said that they are all illustrations of an ‘episode, condition, person or group of persons’ that have, been ‘defined as a threat to societal values and interests’ the term Cohen established as ‘The Moral Panic’ (Cohen 1972: 9).


The main motions of these created moral panics (e.g. Jamie Bulger case) are provided by the media when submitting their representations, they express moral panic as anger rather than fear, these particular panics generally have a variety of outcomes e.g. justice or disappointment. It can be seen that the moral panic the media create can benefit the public in a positive way helping society wake up and create change, as shown from the Ben Kinsella’s murder many members of the public used his story to build youth crime charities preventing knife crime and helping stop young teenagers turning to crime. When examined many moral panics follow Goode and Ben-Yehuda’s five characteristics of how they are showed although they also stated a additional two characteristics with Cohen that state these two developments inform the individual that society is in the control of a moral panic and the creation of ‘folk devils’ and a ‘disaster mentality’ (Cohen 1972:140 in Goode & Ben-Yehuda 1994: 28). This comes with help from the media and they are the main influence in helping spread this moral panic without the media not many members of society can become involved with the creation of a moral panic. This is shown in the Stephan Lawrence case this terrible act was characterised modern British society ignoring the fact figures have shown such murders are extremely rare. Although it was not that this particular murder was a ‘symbol of nineties Britain’ but the media’s reaction to it (Bradley 1994: 1).

Bradley, Ann (1994) ‘A Morality Play For Our Times’ (Living Marxism issue 63).
Cohen, S. (1973). Folk Devils and Moral Panics. St Albans: Paladin.
Furedi, Frank (1994) ‘A Plague of Moral Panics’ (Living Marxism issue 73)
Goode, Erich and Ben-Yehuda, Nachman- Moral Panics: Social Construction of Deviance: Oxford Wiley-Blackwell publishers (1994).
Hough, Mike and Roberts, Julian. “Youth crime and youth justice”: the policy press (2003).
Jones, M, and E. Jones. (1999). Mass Media. London: Macmillan Press.
Kuzma, Cindy. “Rights and Liberties: Sex, Lies, and Moral Panics” (2005).
The Daily Mail- “murderers” (14 February 1997).
The Daily Mail “T.V stars brother stabbed as he begged for help” (June 30, 2008).

Free Essays

How do criminologists define corporate crime?


A standard definition of corporate crime would read as follows: ‘Illegal acts or omissions, punishable by the state… which are the result of deliberate decision- making or culpable negligence within a legitimate formal organisation.’ (McLaughlin & Muncie 2006: 74). With reference to how corporate crime has been defined by criminology, in this essay I will firstly explore how conventional criminology, (that which predates the 1970’s), ignored or marginalized corporate crime (Crawford 1998). I will then discuss the significance of the contribution that Critical criminologies, most notably Marxist Criminology, have made to this debate. I will then go on to consider the seriousness of corporate crime, exploring some of the problems with statistics that attempt to measure the ‘crime problem’. This will be followed by a discussion on criminology post 1970, notably administrative criminology and the implications this has had on crime prevention initiatives in the 1980’s with relevance to corporate crime.

The problem with early ‘criminological’ theories, notably classicism and positivism, was not the inaccurate definition that they gave of corporate crime in so much as they ignored it. Crime was considered an individualistic matter (see Taylor, Walton & Young 1973; Vold et al 2002) with positivists arguing that crime was ‘tangible’ and ‘quantifiable’ (McLaughlin & Muncie 2006: 302), two labels that many contemporary authors would be hesitant to assign to corporate crime (See Slapper & Tombs 1999 & Green 1990). It was Sutherland’s groundbreaking research on white collar crime in the 1940’s that brought corporate crime to the forefront of the criminological agenda (Williams 2008:56) and thus seems to be a sound starting point for discussion. For the sake of argument, we will consider white collar crime a sub category of corporate crime, defined by Sutherland (1940) as a crime committed by a person of high social status and of respectability in the course of his employment. (A standard definition of corporate crime as the one that I have given earlier does not have the pre requisite of social status or respectability). Nevertheless, criticisms of Sutherland’s definiton of white collar crime, most notably by Nelken (see Nelken in Maguire et al 2007: 733-766) would apply to corporate crime, the first of these being that the behaviours that Sutherland regards as crimes are socially contentious e.g. taking long breaks or misusing the telephone at work. Other crimes that are mentioned are wide ranging and have nothing in common e.g. bank embezzlement and fiddling at work (see Nelken in Maguire et al 2007: 738). Nelken quotes Geiss (1968) who states that socially controversial crimes risk blurring the boundaries between what is criminal and what is not criminal (see Nelken in Maguire et al 1997:740). More generally, corporate crime has been said to be difficult to define because it covers a wide range of crimes and is complicated by terminology such as ‘business’ or ‘organisational’ often used in its place (see Slapper and Tombs (1999)). Crawford (1998) argues that definitions of corporate crime cannot be dicussed without recognising that there is a link between corporate crime and organisational crime. In the end, Nelken argues that bearing all this in mind, perhaps we should be asking ourselves whether definitions of white collar crime within criminology should match legal definitions of white collar crime (Nelken in Maguire et al 2007: 742). Perhaps at this stage, before proceeding to look at Marxist criminologies, it is worth mentioning that matching criminological definitions of crime with legal definitions would not resolve the problem of wide ranging crimes as these will only increase with time. The definition of crime changes according to the social and historical context, as social interactionists raised this very point in the 1960’s arguing that crime is a social construction (Taylor, Walton & Young, 1973: ). Here we can see the beginnings of a more critical understanding of crime, moving away from the focus being on the offender to questions being raised, such as ‘who defines what is a crime?’ bringing into discussion the role of power.

We will now move on to a short discussion about the contribution of Marxist criminology, as most work on corporate crime has originated from this school of thought (McLaughlin & Muncie 2006: 75). This is because Marxist criminology raises the importance of ‘power’ and the state, arguing that those in power shape the laws in order to protect their own interests (Vold el al 2002: 256). According to Vold (2002), this explains why the cost of street crime in America is $18 billion per year and why the cost of corporate crime is $1 trillion per year (2002: 255). Vold argues that twice as many people die because of illegal workplace conditions as they do from criminal homicide. In answer to the main question, we can safely assume that these statistics illustrate that corporate crime is a serious problem. It has been argued by others that failure by criminal justice agencies to control street crime serves the interest of the ruling class by diverting the public’s attention away from the people in power (who the public are greater victims of) and keeps the public in constant anxiety about lower class crime (Reiman, 1998 in Vold et al 2002). This may explain as we shall see further on why crime prevention initiatives have ignored corporate crime. Marxist criminology may have been criticised for not offering any realistic solutions to the crime problem (Lea & Young 1984), however with the rights given to corporations to have the right of ownership over genetic materials taken from living organisms (Manning, 2000), we can see some of the potential problems to come. Going back to statistics, no discussion on the seriousness of corporate crime can be complete without mentioning the problems with empirical research in its quest to measure how serious corporate crime is.

One way of looking at the phenomenon of ‘seriousness’ is to measure levels of corporate crime. This however presents quite a challenge as corporate crime is one such crime where they may be no clear victim. Crawford (1998) offers this as one explanation as to why crime prevention initiatives are difficult to implement in addressing corporate crime (1998:166). Although some crime prevention surveys have included commercial and other white collar crimes (Pearce: 1996), Crawford (1998) argues that surveys are still required to use what he terms ‘popularly meaningful’ definitions of crime, which means that this limits the range of crimes that are included in surveys (1998:166). All of this gives more credibility to the notion that there is a ‘dark figure of crime.’ (see Coleman 1996) especially where for example corporate crime is omitted from victim surveys such as the British Crime Survey (Swale 2007: 123). Despite these problems with crime statistics, this does not explain why government crime prevention initiatives that are the result of criminological research ignore corporate crime (Box 1983).

If positivism and classicism ignored corporate crime the same can be said of administrative criminology which emerged in the late 1980’s and which gave birth to situational crime prevention initiatives in the 1980’s (see Hughes 1996). The ideas of administrative criminology were a rehash of classicist notions of the criminal as being rational and calculating. Situational crime prevention was however concerned with manipulating the physical environment for e.g. through using surveillance techniques like CCTV or improving architectural design. However as many have argued situational crime prevention agendas have ignored crimes committed by the powerful such as governments and crimes against human rights aswell as the police (Cohen 1993; McLaughlin 1996). The reason put forward by Hughes as regards the lack of focus on corporate crimes is because situational crime prevention inititiatives agendas have been set by the demands of the government.

This essay has explored how early criminology predating the 1970’s ignored or marginalized corporate crime. The 1960’s saw the beginnings of more critical thinking, notably with the emergence of social interactionism and then in the 1970’s Marxist Criminology which focussed its attention away from the offender and on to the state as the object of study. It was from Marxist Criminology that much research on corporate crime emerged and which had provided some explanation as to why corporate crime is still not considered part of the ‘crime problem’. Marxist criminology is however not without its critics (see Lea & Young, 1984). As we have shown, administrative criminology which paved the way for crime prevention initiatives again ignored corporate crime and reverted back to previous classicist ideas, with a focus on crime as being individualistic (see Hughes, 1996). As regards to how serious a problem corporate crime poses we need to be certain about how much corporate crime there is. However, due to the problems that I have considered with statistics this is tricky. What we can be certain of is that with developments in science and technology and e.g. the commodification of DNA (Nelken in Maguire et al 2007:765) we can only take it as inevitable that as Social Interactionists have suggested, this will result in the creation of newer crimes (see Taylor, Walton & Young 1973), for which reason we should abandon our search in coming to a more comprehensive understanding of corporate crime.


Carrington & Hogg (2002) Critical Criminology: Issues, debates, challenges Devon:Willan Publishing

Crawford, A (1998) Crime prevention and Community Safety Essex: Pearson Education

Hughes, G (1996) Understanding Crime Prevention Buckingham: OUP

Lea & Young (1984) What is to be done about Law & Order London: Pluto Press

Maguire et al (1997) Oxford Handbook of Criminology Oxford: OUP

McLaughlin & The Sage Dictionary of Criminology Muncie (2006) London: Sage

Swale, J (2007) Sociology of Crime and Deviance Oxfordshire: Hodder Education

Taylor, Walton & Young (1973) The New Criminology London: Routledge

Vold et al (2002) Theoretical Criminology Oxford: OUP

Williams, K (2007) Textbook on Criminology Oxford: OUP

Free Essays

Critically analyse the Media’s Focus on young people and Violent Crime


Western society is fascinated with crime and justice. From films, newspapers, everyday conversation, books and magazines, there is a continual rhetoric regarding crime. The mass media plays a crucial part in the construction of criminality and the criminal justice system. The way the public perceive victims, criminals and the members of law enforcement is very much determined by the influences of the mass media (Roberts, Doob, 1990; Surette, 1998). It is therefore essential to take into account the effects that the mass media have on attitudes toward violent crimes, especially those concerning young people.

If we start with television programmes we find that there is a link between viewing crime shows on the television is in fact linked to a fear of crime. Fear of crime may be a natural reaction by viewers to the brutality, violence and sometimes even injustices that are portrayed within these programmes. Crimes on television shows reveal certain patterns; there is an overemphasis on violent crimes and offenders are often sensationalised or stereotyped. Murder and robbery are common themes also yet crimes such as burgurlary are less often seen (Surette, 1998).

Offenders are portrayed as psychopaths that target vulnerable and weak victims or as business people and professionals that are highly intelligent and violent, with victims being portrayed as helpless and weak (Surette, 1998). Many viewers may not understand the justice system and its process and are even less likely to understand (with some exceptions) the causes and motivations of criminal behaviour. The criminal justice system is portrayed largely as ineffective with the exception of selected heroes that provide justice or in some cases vengeance towards offenders (Surette, 1998). These programmes rarely focus on any mitigating circumstances of criminal behaviour and are unlikely to portray offenders in not only a sympathetic light but even a realistic fashion.

On television crime is freely chosen and based on the individual problems of the offender. Analysis of crime drama reveals that greed, revenge and mental illness are the basic motivations for crime and offenders are often portrayed as ‘different’ from the general population (Lichter and Lichter, 1983: Maguire, 1998). This leads to a possible belief by viewers that all offenders are ‘monsters’ to be feared. Consequently heavy viewers may perceive crime as threatening, offenders as violent, brutal or ruthless and victims as helpless. These inaccurate presentations, as well as the portrayal of crime as inevitable or non preventable may lead to an increase in the fear of crime.

The news media focus on violent crime is highly selective. Ferrell (2005:150) points out that news media representations highlight ‘the criminal victimization of strangers rather than the dangerous intimacies of domestic of family conflict’. Stanko and Lee (2003:10) note that ‘the violence in the media is constructed ‘as random’, wanton and the intentional acts of evil folk’. News reporting of crime and furthermore of the particular types of crime on which newspaper journalists disproportionately focus on, is selective and unrepresentative. News reporting of crime victims is equally so. Reiner et al stated that the foregrounding of crime victims in the media is one of the most significant qualitative changes in media representations of crime and control since the Second World War (Reiner et al. 2000a,b, 2003).

Not all crime victims receive equal attention in the news media. Ocassionally intense media coverage may be devoted to victims who can be discredited on the basis of criminal promiscuous or otherwise questionable past. More often, however media resources are dedicated to the representation of those victims who can be portrayed as ideal. Christie (1986:18) describes the ideal victim as ‘a person or category of individuals who-when hit by crime-most readily are given the complete and legitimate status of being a victim’. This group includes young people. These young people attract massive levels of media attention, generate collective mourning on a near global scale, and drive significant change to a social and criminal justice policy and practice (Greer, 2004; Valier, 2004).

In the summer of 2002, two 10 year old girls, Holly Wells and Jessica Chapman went missing from their home in Soham. Their disappearance attracted the biggest ever manhunt in Britain and international media attention. In 1996 two boys of similar age, Patrick Warren and David Spencer, went missing from their homes. Their disappearance failed to register much outside the local press. Shortly after 13 year old Milly Dowler went missing in 2002, the body of a teenage girl was recovered from a disused cement works in Tilbury Docks (Jewkes, 2004). Amongst media speculation that it was another missing teenager, Danielle Jones, who had disappeared almost a year earlier, the body was identified as Hannah Williams, however it was Milly’s story that continued to receive attention whilst Hannah received only a few sentences n the inside pages.

Holly and Jessica were clearly seen as ideal victims. They were described using adjectives such as young, bright and energetic. They were from stable and loving middle class family backgrounds and had both achieved well at school. David and Patrick were working class, they were boys, brought up on a West Midlands council estate, in trouble at school and one of them had previously been caught shoplifting. While Holly and Jessica captured the hearts and minds of the nation, Patrick and David did not gain anywhere near as much interest and few people knew about their disappearance, much in the same way Hannah Williams was unknown. Hannah’s murder generated just over 60 articles in the British national press, mostly after she was found. In its first two weeks alone, the hunt for Holly and Jessica produced nearly 900 (Fracassini, 2002).

Whilst on one hand the media sensationalise when young people are the victims of violent crimes, it also sensationalises when there is a belief that these young people are in fact the perpetrators of violent crimes. A study carried out by Young People Now, (a publication for people working with children and young people) through research firm Mori, looked at tabloids, local papers and broadsheets over the course of a week. Seventy-one percent of articles concerning young people had a negative tone, while 14 percent were positive and 15 percent were neutral. In addition, 48 percent of articles about crime and violence depicted a young person as the perpetrator, whereas only 26 percent of young people admit to committing a crime, and of those only seven percent involved the police and only a minority were violent-the most common committed crime was petty theft. The picture being painted in the media is one of violent young men with nearly 70 percent of violent stories involving boys describing them as the perpetrator and 32 percent as the victim, while girls are described as the victim in 91 percent of cases and the offender in 10 percent (Ipsos Mori). In reality 31 percent of boys in mainstream schools admit to having committed a crime compared with 20 percent of girls and boys are more likely to be victims of violent crime than girls (Young people and the Media, 2004).

Peter McIntyre, a journalist whose 30 year career has included work on the Oxford Times and editing a Unicef book of guidelines for interviewing children states that children in trouble with the law have some legal protection, but in some cases, because journalists are not allowed to name young people, they feel free to misrepresent them, contributing to the monsterisation of young people (2004). If images of violent yobs predominate, there is a risk that policy makers will respond to stereotypes rather than the true diversity of young people’s needs.

The rise of the antisocial behaviour order (ASBO) was seized upon by local and national newspapers as a chance to name and shame young people. From the Sun newspaper’s proposal to hand out ‘SASBO’s (Sun Antisocial Behaviour Orders), to south London paper News’s Shopper’s Shop a Yob Bingo, papers were able to show pictures of these young people, because there were no automatic reporting restrictions on young people sentenced by civil courts, unlike youth courts. All of these reporting’s serve to further fuel media hype and moral panic surrounding young people as violent offenders.


Barille, L. (1984) Television Attitudes about Crime: Do Heavy Views Distort Criminality and Support Retributive JusticeIn Ray Surette (ed.) Justice and the Media Issues and Research Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas

Bryant, J. Garreth, R.A, Brown, D. (1981). Television viewing and anxiety: An Experimental Examination. Journal of Communication 31: 106-119

Christie,N. (1986) The Ideal Victim in Fattah, E. (ed), from Crime Policy to Victim Policy. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Doob, A. MacDonald, G. (1979) Television Viewing and Fear of Victimization: Is The Relationship CasualJournal of Personality and Social Psychology

Ferrell, J. (2005). Crime and Culture in Hale, C. Hayward, K. Wahidin, A. And Wincup, E. (eds), Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fracassini, C. (2002) Missing, Scotland on Sunday. 18 August 2002

Greer, C. (2004). Crime, Media and Community: grief and virtual engagement in late modernity. In Ferrell, J. Hayward, K. Morrison, W. And Presdee (eds). Cultural Criminology Unleashed. London: Cavendish

Jewkes, Y. (2004) Media and Crime. London: Sage

Lichter, L. Lichter, S. (1983) Prime Time Crime Washington DC: Media Institute

Livingstone, S. (1996). On the Continuing Problem of Media Effects. In Curran, J. Gurevitch, M (eds), Mass Media and Society. London: Arnold.

Maguire, B. (1988). Image Versus Reality: An Analysis of Prime-Time Television and Police Programs. Crime and Justice II (1): 165-188

Reiner, R. (2002). Media Made Criminality: the representation of crime in the mass media. In Maguire, M. Morgan, R. Reiner, R (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Surrette, R. (1990). The Media and Criminal Justice Policy: Recent Research and Social Effects. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas

Valier, C. (2005). Making Sense of the Information Age: Sociology and Cultural Studies, Information, Communications and Society, 8 (4): 439-58

Free Essays

The potential impact of the Economic Crime Agency


The economic crisis of recent years has lead to a heightened focus on tackling financial criminality, also known as ‘white collar crime’. According to D.Leigh and R.Evans, “Ministers are publicly committed to merging the Serious Fraud Office, plus part of the Financial Services Agency … into one large economic crime agency that would tackle bribery, fraud and insider trading.” This essay will critically examine that statement; consider the specified forms of financial crime and determine the potential impact of the Economic Crime Agency.


Financial crime is not a recent development; however, it could be argued that it occupied a secondary position in the public’s perception of criminality. That is, more focus and police attention went to crimes against persons which involved violence for example, than corporate crime like Fraud which often went undetected. Even when the latter was identified, prosecutions were few which would have undoubtedly led unscrupulous individuals to believe they could escape punishment.
The advent of the recession and the revelation that financial crime was costing the UK economy over ?30bn a year lead the Tories to unveil plans to combat financial corruption though an Economic Crime Agency (ECA). The proposal was to combine the efforts of the Serious Fraud Office (SFO), The Financial Services Authority (FSA) and the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) into a single agency in a bid to tackle economic crime and reduce the duplicity of work often arising between the agencies.

Financial Crime


There is no clear definition of financial crime; it varies depending on the context of the situation. It includes a number of corrupt activities from relatively ‘simple’ frauds like the over inflation of expense claims by an employee to complex ‘Ponzi’ schemes like that of Bernard Madoff which defrauded investors of billions of dollars.
For the purposes of this essay, the definition in section 6(3) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 will be employed. This states that financial crime includes any offence involving fraud or dishonesty; misconduct in, or misuse of information relating to, a financial market; or handling the proceeds of crime. In recent years, reducing ‘white collar crime’ has become a key priority for regulators, government, corporate bodies and even individuals as it has a number of ramifications for the economy as a whole. A recent report by the National Fraud Agency found that “the public sector was the biggest fraud victim, at ?17.6 billion, followed by the private sector at ?9.3 billion (including ?3.8 billion from the financial services sector alone) and the individual and charity sector at ?3.5 billion.”

At the start of the century the government took a tougher stance on the issue with the establishment of agencies like the Financial Services Authority (FSA) and the Serious Organised Crimes Agency (SOCA). Even still, the UK penalty rates for such crimes are relatively low in comparison to countries like the US with long established anti corruption policies in place . That said, the recession of 2007-2008 and the damaging effect the activities of unscrupulous bankers had on the financial markets led to a revival of financial crime regulations.

Types of Financial Crime

What follows is brief analysis of the crimes specified in the article on which this essay is based.


Again, this is a term not expressly defined in legislation or determined by common law. Prior to the Fraud Act 2006, fraudulent behaviours were those identified by the Theft Acts of 1968 and 1978. The 2006 Act now states that fraud is committed where section 2-4 is breached. Summarily, it occurs where a person makes a representation which he knows is false , dishonestly fails to disclose information which he is under a legal duty to disclose and abuses his position . Succinctly, fraud may be defined as the use of deception to obtain an advantage at the detriment of another.

Insider trading

Insider trading, synonymous with insider dealing, is defined as dealing with securities on the basis of inside information that is not yet publicly known and which would affect the price of the securities if it were made public . It is a criminal offence under the Criminal Justice Act 1993 (CJA) and a civil offence under section 118 of FSMA 2000.
In the context of financial services, the FSA Handbook refers to section 52 of the Criminal Justice Act 1993 which extends the offence to encouraging another to deal in the securities in question, or disclosing the information outside the proper performance of employment or professional duties .


Bribery is the receiving or offering of any undue reward by or to any person whatsoever, in a public office, in order to influence his behaviour in office and incline him to act contrary to the known rules of honesty and integrity . The crime of bribing an official was previously governed by the Public Bodies Corrupt Practices Act 1889, The Prevention of Corruption Act 1906 and the Prevention of Corruption Act 1916. These laws have now been repealed by the Bribery Act 2010 which came into force on 1 July 2011. Sections 1, 2 and 3 clarify the law in relation to bribing another person, offences relating to being bribed and the functions or activities to which bribery relates respectively.


The responsibility for preventing financial crime, including the types listed above is split between the following principal agencies;
Serious Fraud Office (SFO):

The SFO is an independent government body empowered by Section 1(3-5) of the Criminal Justice Act 1987 to investigate and prosecute cases involving serious fraud and corruption. With a budget of over ?43 million, it examines complex frauds which are politically sensitive, could significantly affect the economy and involve a loss of over a million pounds. These include investment fraud, bribery, corruption, corporate fraud and public sector fraud .
In recent years, the agency has been criticised for its low conviction rates as well as its overall failure to reduce the rate of serious fraud in the UK. In a comparison of the SFO with two similar institutions in the US (The US Attorney’s Office for the Southern district of New York (SDNY), and the Manhattan District Attorney’s Office (DANY)), Jessica de Grazia reported the striking differences between the conviction rates of the different bodies . The SFO had only managed to secure a 61% conviction rate in the period of 2003-2007 in a striking difference to its US counterparts who achieved 97% and 92% respectively.
Furthermore, the efficiency of the agency was questioned as it expends far more resources than its US equals while achieving a much lower productivity rate in terms of convictions . In a case which further questions SFO case management, it was found that it took approximately ?40 million, 184 days and more than 1 million documents to charge the directors of Wickes plc with fraudulent trading. In the end, all were acquitted despite admitting knowledge of fraudulent activities in their company .
Financial Services Authority (FSA)

Established under the previous labour government, the FSA is the sole regulator of the UK financial markets. Its powers are derived from the Financial Services and Markets ACT 2000 (FSMA), which also imposes a statutory objective on the organisation to reduce financial crime . In contrast to the SFO whose sole remit is complex fraud, the FSA has more extensive responsibilities. It needs to protect consumers by ensuring that market participants are compliant with the rules in place and do not engage in any activity which might affect the public’s confidence in the financial markets or disrupt the UK monetary system.
Inevitably, the responsibilities of the SFO and FSA overlap as cases on malpractice are rarely restricted to one type of crime. This often leads to longer case management times, as both agencies have to work together to collate evidence and decide the best manner and under which regulation to prosecute.
Several criticisms have been made against the FSA. Similarly to its counterpart the SFO, the FSA has been accused of a light touch approach to prosecuting offenders for economic crime. In another comparison with the US, John Coffee, a leading US academic, found that in 2005/2006, the financial penalties meted out by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) surpassed that of the FSA by a 30 to 1 ratio .
Other enforcement agencies

There are a substantial number of agencies involved in the fight against financial crime. The quote on which this essay is based only mentions the two considered above. However, other agencies include; the Office of Fair Trading (OFT), CPS (Fraud Prosecution Service), CPS Revenue and customs Division, City of London Police Economic Crime Directorate amongst others.
Regulatory Reform –The Economic Crime Agency (ECA)

According to Jonathan Fisher QC, the barrister responsible for shaping the Tories thinking on the corporate crime landscape, the current system for tackling economic crime is “lamentably deficient” . This comment was based on an appraisal of the aforementioned agencies and their failures at identifying and prosecuting perpetrators as identified above. In a report entitled ‘Fighting Fraud and Financial Crime – A new architecture for the investigation and prosecution of serious fraud, corruption and financial market crimes’, Jonathan Fisher suggested a solution. That is, “a single Financial Crimes Enforcement Agency to tackle serious fraud, corruption and financial market crimes, either by consolidating the existing investigative and prosecutorial powers of the disparate agencies (SFO, FSA, CPS, FPS & RCD, OFT) into a new body, or by enlargement of the Serious Fraud Office.”
The former consolidation proposal was chosen by the new coalition government. In its coalition programme , the government announced plans for an Economic Crime Agency which would take over the investigatory work of the Serious Fraud office and the prosecution powers of the Financial Services Authority and the Office of Fair Trading. Furthermore, this strategy was seen as a way to “simplify the confusing and overlapping responsibilities in this area in order to improve detection and enforcement” . Crucially, the ECA would be responsible for “serious economic crime”. This term was not expressly defined but based on the conservatives pre-election document, could reasonably be considered to include “large scale fraud, bribery, corruption and Madoff style pyramid schemes” .
Potential Impact

Enhanced Prosecution Powers – Deferred Prosecution Agreements

Amalgamating the various agencies would pave way for a new method of prosecuting offenders. According to Jonathan Fisher QC, “consolidation of existing powers would enable a unified agency to impose financial penalties in serious fraud and corruption cases as well as financial market crimes in appropriate cases where an alternative to immediate criminal prosecution is preferred”. This could be achieved using US method called Deferred Prosecution Agreements (DPA).
Under these sorts of agreements, prosecutors, in this case the ECA, would be able to file criminal prosecutions against offending companies, with the understanding that they would not “pursue a trail on the charges and eventually drop the charges so long as the corporation involved aids public officials in investigations of the individuals responsible for the offenses charged and the corporation institutes reforms to ensure that similar offenses are not committed in the future” .
This has a number of advantages for both parties. The ultimate aim of prosecuting offenders for financial crime is to punish the companies and individuals involved, deliver a penalty which provides an adequate deterrent for would-be duplicators and gives the public faith that such dishonest behaviour is being managed. The ECA could achieve this through a DPA as financial fines set at an adequate level could achieve the punitive and restrictive goal. DPAs also provide a social benefit as evident in an appraisal of settlements in the US. Siemens for example, was fined in excess of $800 million dollars for bribery and corruption in its global activities . The money received from the fine was used in the further pursuit of financial crime. Were the ECA to be given such powers, money recouped from offenders could be used for the continued maintenance of the body as opposed to funding from the public purse.
Furthermore, a DPA is an admission of culpability by the company involved; settling with conditions attached allows the regulator to avoid a situation where the criminal prosecution fails at trail, meaning a waste of manpower at public expense. A DPA also assures change in the company as the regulator could impose conditions on the defendant which they would need to uphold to prevent the charges being resumed, e.g. getting rid of culpable directors, adequate monitoring procedures and censorship from certain activities. The US experience shows that offenders rarely ever default on a DPA as the threat of the charges being upheld is an adequate disincentive. From the company’s perspective, it avoids the high level of publicity that a criminal trial would invariably entail and the uncertainty about the level of punishment to be meted out if it were found guilty.
Conversely, DPAs are not without risk to the companies involved. The use of Deferred Prosecution Agreements to prosecute corporations is still relatively new, even in the US where it is now commonly used in place of civil and criminal litigation. Therefore, therefore its application lacks uniformity on a case by case basis. Furthermore, evidence revealed or disclosed during the investigation process could incriminate the company and its employees to other offences.
As Jonathan Fisher points out in his report, “Individual company directors or senior employees who caused a company to act unlawfully are frequently not afforded the benefit of a DPA. More often than not, directors or senior employees are prosecuted in a criminal court and following conviction it is not unusual for lengthy sentences of imprisonment to be imposed” . Certainly it would be unacceptable for companies to use their directors as ‘scapegoats’ to avoid prosecution and this is a criticism that is often levied against DPAs.
This concept of unfairness extends to the treatment of individual companies, DPAs are an option which the regulatory body concerned can choose to employ or disregard. Therefore not all companies will be offered the option of an agreement. There is concern as to whether large companies are able to tempt regulators into forgoing a criminal or civil litigation by paying large fines, a luxury which smaller companies might not be given or indeed afford .
Although the power to enter deferred prosecution agreements would be very useful to the ECA in combating financial crime, the process requires thorough consideration and guidelines need to be set before it is employed in the UK.
Economies of scale:

Recently, the Court of Appeal held in R v Rollins & McInerney that the FSA would be able to bring criminal prosecutions for economic crimes like bribery and misrepresentation of financial accounts. This means that the FSA’s work could overlap considerably with that of the SFO, the body currently responsible for the investigation and prosecution of bribery offences. Therefore, combining the efforts of the two bodies under the umbrella of the ECA would increase efficiency and reduce the duplicity which could arise out of cases based on the aforementioned decision.

Currently the FSA is funded by the levy it charges the companies that it regulates. On the other hand, the SFO and other similar agencies are maintained from the public purse. Having a single consolidated agency could have a number of outcomes. Depending on the size and remit of the agency, the government would have to pay out more for the maintenance of the ECA. However, the economies of scale mentioned above could equally translate to cheaper running costs as the concerned agencies would be streamlined with fewer personnel needed for example. Alternatively, the government would need to consider developing a new funding structure to maintain the organisation. It is unlikely that financial institutions would agree to increased fees due to the presence of a single regulator.
Regulatory upheaval:

Most of the agencies concerned operate under different legislative parameters. For example, while the FSA derives its powers from FSMA 2000, the OFT’s anti-money laundering powers is given by the Money Laundering Regulations 2007 . Therefore, the creation of a new agency, albeit an amalgamation of existing organisations, will inevitably require new laws governing its remit.
Impact on affected companies and individuals:

Many organisations and people have structured their businesses to meet with their existing obligations under the current system. For example, the FSA imposes regulatory obligations on some financial services firms to report any trading activity on regulated markets – to identify potential instances of market abuse . If a new arrangement involving the FSA comes into place it will create uncertainty about how to manage the reporting requirements. Furthermore, reporting to a new body could mean increased costs for those companies who have automated reporting facilities.

As expected, the proposal received mixed responses. A number of observers identified the plans as identical to that proposed by Lord Roskill, chair of the Fraud Trails Committee over 25 years ago. Roskill had recognised “the need for a new unified organisation responsible for all the functions of detection, investigation and prosecution of serious fraud cases… ”. The report had lead to the formation of the Serious Fraud Office; however, a truly unified approach to tackling corporate crime has never been achieved. The creation of the ECA was therefore seen as a practical application of a sensible theory. Having a single entity creates clarity, defines the remit of the various regulators, could improve efficiency and avoid situations such the failure of the FSA’s first criminal prosecution for insider trading where the defendants were acquitted due to evidential failures.
The various institutions all have different specialties; therefore, some commentators contend that a unified agency like the ECA would combine the strengths of all the agencies involved and make it easier for successful convictions to be brought. For example, the OFT was blamed for the collapse of a price fixing trail against four British Airways executives amid claims of incompetence. The prosecution had offered no evidence to support its argument of collusion despite having spent four years and millions of pounds preparing the case . Responding to the coalition’s plans to bring the OFT under the umbrella of the ECA, Jon Lawrence of Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer stated that the plan is “ a move in the right direction….it is about making sure prosecutions aren’t brought and cases not pursued that have no merit. It’s better for everyone to have these cases run properly and for prosecutions to be assessed and brought on a consistent basis” .
On the other hand, most of the agencies affected were not in agreement with the proposal. The FSA made it clear that as the body responsible for market protection, it should retain the criminal enforcement powers which currently enable it to prosecute offenders for insider dealing and market abuse. The government has recently proposed that the FSA’s responsibility for market conduct would be taken over in 2012 by a new agency called the Consumer Protection and Markets Authority. Therefore, Margaret Cole, the FSA’s director of enforcement and financial crime argued that as a specialist regulator, CPMA’s ability to prosecute criminals would be essential to “maintain a strong and effective enforcement function” .
It is difficult to disagree with this statement as the knowledge that an organisation has not only the ability to investigate, but to prosecute criminal activity has been proven to be a somewhat effective deterrent . A number of financial commentators align with this view, stating that “if credible deterrence is to work and act as a genuine disincentive to market abuse, then, the joined up use of criminal as well as civil enforcement powers in one body is necessary” .Margaret Cole also pointed out the upswing in successful FSA actions, such as the fine of almost half a million pounds handed out to Malcolm Calvert for market abuse, the extradition of an individual from Mayotte for insider dealing, and the compounding of almost ?35m of suspect property.
Academic commentators also weighed in on the proposal with Professor Ellis Ferran, professor of Companies and Securities Law at Cambridge University saying that “There are strong arguments for leaving responsibility for the prosecution of crimes against the market with the CPMA as the successor markets authority. This would allow for the seamless, close co-operation between supervision, markets and enforcement that has reputedly been crucial to the FSA’s recent successes in enforcement to continue, and minimise the wastage of the expertise that the FSA has built up in making use of the wide range of enforcement tools at its disposal. At a time when at least one senior markets regulator in another country has spoken out in favour of being given authority to bring criminal prosecutions, it would seem perverse for the UK to consider stripping its markets supervisor of that power.’
SFO director Richard Alderman also debated the merits of splitting up the organisation in a bid to integrate it with the proposed ECA. In his view, ‘the prosecution-led approach with integrated teams of lawyers and investigators is needed in this very specialist and complex area. No evidence has been produced to show that separating investigators and prosecutors will improve the approach to complex economic crime. In my view, the effect will be damaging .” The reasoning behind his opinion is apparent when one considers the nature of the SFO’s organisation. It is comprised of a number of lawyers, finance professionals and consultants who have experience in the corporate world and knowledge of the markets. Announcements of a structural overhaul at the SFO lead to the exodus of a number of key personnel from the agency. Therefore, there is no guarantee that the specialist knowledge which lead the agency to increase its conviction rate to a credible 84% in 2011 from a mere 61% would transfer to the ECA.
In light of recent legislative developments, the UK Bribery Act in particular, Richard Alderman also stressed the need for the SFO to remain the prevalent body for fraud and corruption. Companies already have existing channels of communication with the SFO and disbanding the agency at the same time as new laws are introduced risks leaving the companies with little or no guidance. Alderman said that the “SFO would be there to help companies navigate their way through the legislation and said that the new rules, which take effect on July 1, would hopefully create a “ripple” effect through the economy and lead to better corporate behaviour .
Furthermore, the need for a new agency could be questioned where the cost of creating a new agency could be saved by providing existing bodies with enhanced powers. Richard Alderman expressed a desire for the US style deferred prosecution agreements discussed above. According to him, “the US has had about 20 years experience dealing with big corporate cases and the judicial and criminal justice system there has developed greatly over that period…. I am particularly interested in deferred prosecution agreements”. Therefore, rather than giving these powers to the ECA, an alternative would be to expand the powers of the SFO.
Current Position

The coalition government seems to have abandoned its plans for the creation of an Economic Crime agency. Rather, the Home Secretary Theresa May announced that the SFO would remain as it stood, with a new agency called the National Crime Agency to be set up to tackle organised fraud. Perhaps in consideration of the criticisms levied against separating the enforcement powers of the FSA and the OFT, both organisations had managed to be removed from the coalition’s later plans for the ECA. The SFO was the only agency which faced being scrapped until the 2011 announcement. Commentators have observed however that ‘once the NCA is fully up and running, which should take two years, the government will review whether the anti-fraud agency should remain independent. ’

The government’s plan for the ECA was weak in the sense that it lacked detail and certainty. Executed effectively, the agency had the potential to clean up financial crime through streamlined procedures and enhanced powers.
Whether the ECA comes into place or not, financial regulation in the UK is undergoing an overhaul. The conviction rates at the FSA, SFO etc lend credence to their effectiveness at policing the system and any plans by the government to change their organisation structure could ruin future progress. This sentiment is echoed by Elizabeth Robertson, the corporate crime head at Addleshaw Goddard. As she puts it, “There has been a lot of momentum to prosecute white collar crime, the Bribery Act is gaining momentum, and with the credit crunch there is a real appetite to deal with these things, The Government risks damaging effective prosecution of business crime if it introduces too many changes at once.”

Table of cases

Rollins, R. v [2009] EWCA Crim 1941 (09 October 2009)
Table of Legislation

• Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 c.8
• Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 c.29
• The Money Laundering Regulations 2007 (SI 2007/2157)
• Criminal Justice Act 2003 c.44
Secondary Sources

• Change for the better in financial Services, 28 April 2010 , , Accessed 20 July 2011
• Chris Blackhurst, Chasing the White Collar Crooks –(management today) Sunday, 1 May 2011 accessed 25 July 2011
• David Gow, The Guardian, Record US fine ends Siemens bribery scandal, The Guardian, 16 December 2008. accessed 20 July 2011
• Fighting Fraud and Financial Crime, A new architecture for the investigation and prosecution of serious fraud, corruption and financial market crimes, Jonathan Fisher QC, March 2010, accessed 20 July 201
• Financial Services Authority, The Supervision Manual, accessed 24 July 2011
• Fraud Trials Committee, 1986. (Roskill Report) London: HM Stationery Office.
• FSA handbook, Glossary, –, accessed 24 July 2011
• FSA v Andrew King and Michael McFall (2010)
• Gavriel Hollander, Opportunities abound as the FSA makes way for the Economic Crime Agency, The lawyer, 12 July 2010. article accessed 25 July 2011
• Henry N. Pontell, Gilbert Geis, International Handbook of white-collar and corporate crime, (Springer 2007), 701
• HMT: Speech at the Lord Mayor’s Dinner for Bankers & Merchants of the City of London by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, The Rt Hon George Osborne MP, at Mansion House, 16 June 2010, accessed 24 July 2011
• Jessica de Grazia, Review of the Serious Fraud Office, Final Report, 2008. accessed 24 July 2011
• John C. Coffee Jr, ‘Law and the Market: The Impact of Enforcement’, Working Paper No.304, 4th April 2007.
• Margaret Cole, speech to the British Bankers Association on November 9, 2010.
• Michael Herman and Davd Robertson, BA price-fixing trail collapses as new evidence emerges, Timesonline, May 10, 2010, Accessed 24 July 2011
• National Fraud Authority, Annual fraud indicator. London, 2010. accessed 20 July 2011
• Neil Baker, ‘British fraud agency reprieved for now’, (Compliance Week, 10 June 2011) accessed 25 July 2011
• Our performance, Serious Fraud Office, accessed 25 July 2011
• Practical Law Company, Glossary, Accessed 20 July 2010
• Richard Sims, policing the rules: enforcement in the new regulatory structure. Dec 7 2010.
• Serious Fraud Office, , accessed 24 July 2011
• Simon Goodley, ‘Ex – Wickes Trio Cleared of Fraud’ Daily telegraph, 26 November 2002, accessed 20 July 2011
• Sir William Oldnall Russell, Russell on Crime (12th edition), London, Stevens, 1964
• Special Project Group, Fraud Advisory Panel, Roskill Revisited: Is there a case for a unified fraud prosecution officeMarch 2010 Accessed 23 July 2011
• The Breakup of the Financial Services Authority, Oxford J legal Studies (2011)
• The Coalition: our programme for government, 20 May 2010, ,accessed 20 July 2011
• The Complinet Interview: Richard Alderman, director of the Serious Fraud Office, (TrustLaw, 18 April 2011), accessed 25 July 2011

Free Essays



The history of crime in Britain is inevitably dominated by the explosion of criminality in the last 30 years (Donohue, 1998). Research into the prevalence of crime rates in the UK has identified the nature of macroeconomic forces that fuel the crime rate and increase antisocial behavior among the youths (Goldson and Muncie, 2006). Among these forces are a growing number of the underclass, spread of youth gang culture and worklessness (Goldson, and Muncie, 2006). Clearly, there is much concern about the increasing criminalization of activities in the UK such that activities such as civil protest which were considered to be legitimate forms of dissent have been progressively criminalized (Bradford et al, 2009) as evident from the recent protests that resulted into the worst riots in decades.

This analysis will investigate and re-situate the explosion of criminality within the wider British society. In doing so, the analysis will raise, in applied form, critical issues in criminological theory hence contributing to these theoretical debates. Secondary research methodology will be chosen as the main method to investigating the level of crime and social deviance within the wider British society. The study will utilize official crime statistics as the data source. The researcher will analyze the findings obtained from the official statistics with those obtained from the various publications and scholarly journals which will be made available for use with survey and documentation analysis.


Crime and the fear of crime are pervasive and endemic concerns in the modern contemporary society (Baldwin and Bottoms, 1976). Clearly, the criminal justice systems are failing to tackle these sensitive issues as evident in Britain where there is an alarming increase in the level of crime. There is evidence of higher and more sustained levels of youth crime and antisocial behavior (Munice, 2004). Whilst recognizing that the United Kingdom doesn’t significantly experience worse crime than other countries, it appears that UK has suffered more intractable and higher levels of antisocial behavior than most countries in the whole of Western Europe (Munice, 2004). This is evident through increased media and political focus on the anti-social behavior and changes to the policy framework such as reducing the age of criminal responsibility to 10 (Munice, 2004).

Research into the prevalence of crime rates in the UK has identified the nature of macroeconomic forces that fuel the criminal activities and increase antisocial behavior among the youths (Goldson and Muncie, 2006). Among these forces are a growing number of the underclass, spread of youth gang culture and worklessness (Goldson, and Muncie, 2006). The term ‘underclass’ refers to those whose behaviour and attitude represent a threat to the wider society (MacDonald, 1997). Often, the concept of the underclass is related to trends of illegitimacy, unemployment and crime. It refers to a group that encounters multiple factors of social exclusion which often increases their chances of turning to illegal or deviant activities (MacDonald, 1997).


The history of crime in Britain is inevitably dominated by the explosion of criminality in the last 30 years (Donohue, 1998). In the first half of the twentieth century, the crime rate grew at a much more moderate rate, extending a slow pattern of growth since the 1870s. During the 1900 to 1914, the level of crime remained fairly constant. There, however, was an increase by 5% between 1915 and 1930 (Donohue, 1998). The increase was attributed to theft and breaking in-offences, reflecting the growth of larceny in a more affluent society (Donohue, 1998). Over the past few years, there has been an alarming rise in the level of crime in the British society. The yearly figures for indictable /serious crimes recorded in England and Wales rose from 100, 000 in the early 1900 to 300,000 in the late 1930s (Donohue, 1998).

Subsequently, there was a notable increase to half a million in the mid-1950s and two million by the mid-1970s (Bailey, 2011). During the early 1980’s, the upward trend of crime accelerated to a figure of three- and -a- quarter million (Bailey, 2011). Since then, the rate has been on the rise with a vast majority of indictable crimes being offences against property, theft and burglary. Violent and sexual offences, despite receiving most publicity, have generally accounted for only 5% of all crime according to the official statistics (Bailey, 2011).

There is much concern about the increasing criminalization of activities in the UK such that activities such as civil protest which were considered to be legitimate forms of dissent have been progressively criminalized (Bradford et al, 2009). This is evident in Britain, where most recently, London was rocked by the worst riots in decades (Bailey, 2011). The riots that made headlines around the world were sparked by a fatal shooting of a man by the police (Bailey, 2011). From what can be discerned, crime is deeply rooted within the wider British society.

In order to reduce the level of crime, it becomes necessary to investigate and situate criminal activities and to determine the factors influencing the rise in crime and federal underclass in the wider society. This proposal thus seeks to investigate and re-situate the explosion of criminality within the wider British society. In doing so, the analysis will raise, in applied form, critical issues in criminological theory hence contributing to these theoretical debates.


The main purpose of this proposed research is to inquire into the level of crime and the extent of deviance in the British society. As a result the following are the research objectives

To investigate the level of crime and social deviance in the British society
To identify the sections of the British society that are criminal
To determine the causative factors leading to the rise in the level of crime in the British society.


When discussing about crime, different types of deviance come into mind. These include: Conflict or violent crimes, drug taking crime nexus, Burglary, sexual offences and assault, mugging, theft, and human trafficking among others (Flatley et al, 2010). While studying deviance, it is crucial to recognize that significant shifts have been made in the past. The most important change involves the movement of an act from criminal status to non-criminal status.

In the early 1960’s and 1970’s, certain activities were decriminalized, in particular abortion, soft-drug use and homosexuality (Flatley et al, 2010). These changes in law undoubtedly made some differences as abortion is now available in a much wide range of situations than prior to the 1967 Abortion Act (Flatley et al, 2010). Homosexuality is no longer outlawed as it was prior to the 1967 Sexual Offences Act, while the penalties for soft drug possession have been reduced considerably since the mid-1960s (Flatley et al, 2010). Hence, it is important to recognize that not all deviant behaviour is considered criminal. In analyzing crime in Britain, we will consider activities deemed unlawful and that outrage and pose a threat to the general public.

According to a study by Brantingham and Brantingham (1991) on environmental criminology, there are four dimensions to any crime. These are: the law, the offender, the target and the location. The study suggests the use of placed based prevention strategies in combating crime. These strategies focus on the crime site, that is, the crime location and the spatial aspects of the target. Indeed, it is important to recognize that there are “hot spots” and that crime is not randomly distributed. Identifying such “hot spots” is sure way to combating criminality in Britain hence the purpose of this study.


The research design will be based on the following research questions

To what extent is crime prevalent within the wider British society
Are large sections of the British society criminal
What are the factors influencing the rise in crime and Britain’s federal underclass since the 1980s



The primary objective of this analysis is to investigate the level of crime and social deviance within the wider British society. In order to gain a broader depth of analysis on the subject area, secondary data sources will be employed as the main method of data collection and analysis. Secondary sources of information are fast, inexpensive, provide bases for comparison and often yield more accurate data than that obtained through primary research (Shell, 1997).

Given that the data has already been collected, the researcher won’t have to devote resources to this phase of research hence becoming cheaper and saving a huge amount of time. Although secondary data would be costly to purchase, the cost is certainly lower than generally would be the case in the field. Also, the interpretation and analyses of secondary data is much easier as compared to the primary data. Hence acquiring secondary data will be more convenient in this analysis


An important part of the strategy will be to ensure the availability and easy retrieval of the relevant data, given the vast amount of secondary data. This is important because archived secondary data are usually very large and retrieving the relevant information can be time consuming (Shell, 1997). Metasearch programs such as Copernic can be used in obtaining the relevant information. Metasearch programs send a search request to various search engines and then compile the results in one list and sort them on the basis of their estimated relevance (Shell, 1997). This search strategy will be useful in obtaining the particular data to address the specific research questions hence saving a huge amount of time for discussion and analysis section.


This study will utilize official crime statistics derived from two different sources of information. First, from crimes reported to and recorded by the police; and, secondly, from a self-report victimization survey, the British Crime Survey, which is conducted by the Home office annually. In each wave of the British Crime Survey, a representative sample of nearly 40, 000 respondents in Wales and England are questioned with regard to their experiences of crime over the past 12 months (Dodd et al, 2004).

The need for both of these data sources is reflected in the strengths and weaknesses of each set. For example, only 42% of crimes committed in Wales and England are reported to the police and subsequently74% of these reported crimes is recorded (Dodd et al, 2004). It therefore follows that only 31% of all crimes committed in England and Wales are represented in the police recorded crime data (Dodd et al, 2004).

In overcoming the inadequacies and biases derived from police recorded crime data, victimization surveys are used where a sample of the general population is probed about crimes committed against them, (whether or not reported to the police) (Dodd et al, 2004). The BCS certainly provide a much closer reflection to reality than the court statics and statistics of offences recorded by the police (Dodd et al, 2004). It is therefore used partly to provide a more accurate estimate of the level of crime including those that go unreported. On the other hand, the Recorded Crime Data provides a greater level of precision regarding the time and the specific location of crime (Bradford et al, 2009)


The BCS results are often published in a variety of specialized reports and made available online at the Home office website (http://www.homeof? while the complete datasets of primary data can be obtained for secondary analysis from the UK data archive which is based at the University of Sussex ( (Gilling and Pierpoint, 1999). The researcher will analyze the findings obtained from the official statistics with those obtained from the various publications and scholarly journals such as the British Journal of Criminology, Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Journal of Criminal Justice, Police Quarterly, and Internet Journal of Criminology among others. These publications will be made available for use with Survey and Documentation Analysis.


In undertaking this research, it will be necessary to evaluate the quality, legitimacy, accuracy and reliability of the data. Since official statistics are a set of discretionary procedures and institutional practices, the question of validity and reliability comes into focus. (Seddon, 2005) argues that their compilation is dependent on two criteria which may influence their reliability and validity. That is, the format can be influenced by the culture and instruction and later by governmental policies or the police. Hence, in improving on the reliability and validity, I will utilize various publications by other experts in the field of criminology and scholarly journals outlined above.


While our analysis on the level of crime will be derived from the official statistics, the figure will not necessarily give an accurate reflection of the reality. Criticism has been made on grounds of an exaggerated figure. Radical sociologists tend to believe that law is a class law; hence, they argue that it is not surprising to find a disproportionate number of the working class appearing in the crime statistics (Gabriel and Greve, 2003). It therefore follows that the official statics on crime is biased and limited. That is, they over represent the contribution by the lower class to ‘conventional’ crimes and fail to reveal the extent of governmental and corporate crime as well as crimes committed by the agents of social control, especially the police (Gabriel and Greve, 2003). Nevertheless, this study will utilize the findings obtained from the official statistics.


This research will situate the crime zone areas in the British society and identify the factors influencing the rise in crime and Britain’s federal underclass since the 1980s thereby making it easier to stamp out criminality within the UK. Also, this analysis will significantly contribute to theoretical debates on criminology. With the above taken into account, it can be concluded that this research is of paramount importance.


Baldwin, J., and Bottoms, A. E., 1976. The urban criminal. London: Tavistock Publications.

Bradford, B., Jackson, J., Farrall, s., and Hough, M., 2009. Public insecurities about crime: A review of the British research literature. The Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research.

Brantingham, P. and Brantingham, P., 1995. Criminality of Place: Crime Generators and Crime Attractors. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 3(3): 5-26.

Brantingham, P.L. and Brangtingham, P.J., 1991. Environmental Criminology. Sage Publications. Beverly Hills. CA.

Dodd, T., Nicholas, S., Povey, D., and Walker, A., 2004. Crime in England and Wales: 2003/2004. Home Office Statistical Bulletin 10/04. London: Home Office.

Donohue, J. J., 1998. Understanding the time path of crime. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 88, pp.1423-1451.

Flatley, J., Kershaw, C., Smith, K., Chaplin, R., and Moon, D., 2010. Crime in England and

Wales 2009/10. Home Office Statistical Bulletin 12/10 London: Home Office.

Gabriel, U., and Greve, W., 2003. The Psychology of Fear of Crime: Conceptual and Methodological Perspectives. British Journal of Criminology, 43(3): 600-614.

Gilling, D. and Pierpoint, H., 1999. Crime prevention in rural areas. In: G. Dingwall and S. Moody. (Eds.). Crime and Conflict in the Countryside. Cardiff. University of Wales Press

Goldson, B., and Muncie, J., 2006. Youth Crime and Justice. London. Sage publications

(Green & White, 2007).

MacDonald, R., 1997. Youth, The underclass and Social Exclusion. London. Routledge

Jones, M., 2002. Repeat Victimisation: Crime Prevention and Detection. London: Sage

Muncie, J., 2004. Youth & Crime: Second Edition. London. Sage

Seddon, T., 2005. Drugs, crime and social exclusion: social context and social theory in British Drugs-Crime Research. The British Journal of criminology

Shell, L.W., 1997 Secondary Data Sources: Library Search Engines. Nicholls State University.

Smith, D., 1992. Understanding the Underclass. London. Policy Studies Institute

Free Essays

Is the scientification of criminal investigations a help or a hindrance in identifying the truth? Does the role of the Senior Investigating Officer now rely too much on ‘scientific’ methodologies when solving serious crime?


The use of scientific evidence in the process of criminal investigations has become an inseparable part of modern day policing, yet the process of crime investigation has only recently been exposed to academic scrutiny. In light of the recent developments in policing and the shifts towards ‘crime management’, this paper with make an attempt to inquire into the use of forensic evidence and forensic techniques and their impact on resolving criminal cases and whether the role of the Senior Investigative Officers at crime scenes is increasingly relying on the use of scientific methods.


The use of scientific evidence in the process of criminal investigations has become an inseparable part of modern day policing, yet the process of crime investigation has only recently been exposed to academic scrutiny (Newburn, 2012). It is now commonplace to observe that policing is changing markedly just as the world being policed itself is being transformed. A number of important and fairly rapid changes have been affecting the structure and nature of British policing in recent decades (Newburn and Reiner, 2012). Firstly, the bulk of crime has been on the increase since WWII, and even though it has been on the decrease over the past decade, this doesn’t mast the fact that over a longer time period the overall direction of change has been towards much higher levels of crime, affecting all communities (Maguire, 2012). Secondly, the contemporary political landscape not only in the UK, but also in other neoliberal democratic states (Cavadino and Dignan, 2006), can be characterized by the adoption of a ‘law and order’ approach towards tackling the problem of crime.

As a result of these transformations, politicians in general have become more involved in the management of policing structure and resources (Newburn, 2012) and this has resulted in a shift towards ‘crime control’ (Garland, 1996; Garland, 2001), reflected in the establishment of new national-level agencies, such as the SOCA (Serious Organized Crime Agency), the main focus of which is to prevent, detect and contribute to the reduction of crime and mitigate the impact it has on the wider public (see Serious Organized Crime Act, 2005, s.2). The placed emphasis on proactive and intelligence-led policing, as well as crime management (Tilley, 2003), has had a significant impact of the auxiliary forces of the police force, namely the provision of forensic science services to support criminal investigations (Pepper, 2010; Newburn et al. 2012). In light of these developments, this paper with make an attempt to inquire into the use of forensic evidence and forensic techniques and their impact on resolving criminal cases and whether the role of the Senior Investigative Officers at crime scenes is increasingly relying on the use of scientific methods.

Is the scientification of criminal investigations a help or a hindrance in identifying the truth?

Historically, the process of criminal investigations has only always been considered as a part of routine police work, rather the responsibility for identifying the offender initially lay with victims (Stenfox, 2009). In the contemporary era it has been suggested that the State has claimed monopoly over violence, therefore in the process of criminal investigation, the police and criminal justice perspective tends to dominate, with policing priorities seen to be the only priorities (Roberts and Manikis, 2011). As the criminal justice sector has been increasingly bureaucratised (Tilley, 2003), this has significantly affected the ways in which scientific evidence and methods are used in the process of criminal investigations.

One notable example is the collection of forensic evidence in serious cases, where recent research in the USA has suggested that in an examination of assault cases, forensic samples were only collected in 30 per cent of the cases, and of those cases, only 12 percent had the evidence submitted (Baskin and Sommers, 2012). There was found to be a positive correlation with physical evidence collection and arrest (ibid.), but sample collection was not uniform, not necessarily progressed. In cases of robbery, physical evidence was collected in almost a quarter of all cases, however less than half of this evidence was submitted to analysis. Again, there was an indication that those cases with collected evidence had higher arrest rates, but it should also be considered that evidence collection was not always completed prior to the arrest (ibid.) The conclusion was that there was no more likelihood of a conviction in those cases where physical evidence was available than in those cases where it was not, witness and victim statements were of more importance. Despite the existence of studies which suggest that physical evidence and forensic examination increase the effectiveness of criminal investigation (Burrows et al. 2005, in Hekim et al. 2013; Jones and Weatherburn, 2004, in Hekim et al. 2013; Innes, 2003), they are underutilised.

On the other hand, Nicol et al. 2004 in a review of 34 police service murder inquiries identified shortcomings in the ways in which crime scenes were processed and the commissioning of analytical testing of collected evidence (12% of all cases), though the research failed to take notice of the potential impact which the findings could have of the process of criminal investigation in the longer-term. Two further UK studies have come to the contradictory conclusions about the role of forensic science in homicide investigations. Roycroft’s (2007) interviews with 32 Senior Investigative Officers about category A and B homicides found that they reported that ‘forensic material’ contributed to solving the crime in 38% of cases, although no details were provided of how this contribution was achieved.

In contrast, Stelfox’s (2006) study of homicide investigation outcomes in Greater Manchester Police came to the conclusion that forensic evidence played only limited role in criminal investigations, as evidence provided by witnesses or offenders was considered to be of greater value. Even though the abovementioned studies have provided some insight into the use of forensic techniques, they all have a significant shortcoming. Ultimately, these studies fail to grasp the extent to which the social context of criminal investigations has an impact on the use of scientific and forensic methodologies As Williams and Weetman (2013) argue, the use of scientific methods varies from a one criminal investigation to another. Expanding the statement further,, different methods can be utilised at different stages of the investigation, depending on the amount of financial and human resources available. Forensic science priorities, actions and contributions shift according to the stage that inquiries reach, and also that the timing and length of these stages caries accordingly to features lying outside of the control of those providing forensic science support. Research capable of establishing the effectiveness of forensic science support to homicide investigations requires consideration of the necessary, typical and exceptional achievements at each of these stages as well as the practical contingencies to which they are subject (ibid.).

Although there are criminal cases where the mal-use of forensic techniques has resulted in miscarriages of justice (Walker, 2002; Brian, 2004; Tong et al. 2009; Hall et al. 2009; Rossmo 2009) this should be interpreted by taking into account the effects which institutional pressure might have of the investigative process, as well as human agency. For this reason, the use of scientific techniques in itself in criminal investigations is not a hindrance to the establishment of truth (Allsop, 2013, Williams and Johnson, 2008), rather it is the presence of personal bias which could have an adverse effect on criminal investigations (Markey, 2012; Fisher, 2012). Having discussed the problems associated with the reliability of scientific techniques, the next section of this paper with focus its attention on the role of the Senior Investigative Officers and whether they rely too extensively on scientific evidence when solving serious crimes.

Does the role of the Senior Investigating Officer now rely too much on ‘scientific’ methodologies when solving serious crime?

With the increasing improvements in the technical aspects of crime detention and the processing of crime scenes, the comprehensive management and decision-making processes associated with it have become as crucial part of resolving serious crime incidents. In a climate where criminal investigation and the scientific methods associated with have gained wide public attention, even though the common portrayal of forensic personnel is only partially true, this has raised disproportionately the expectations which the lay public has (Robbers, 2008). As a result of that, the role of Senior Investigative Officers (SIO) and their effective management of crime investigative personnel have increasingly been scrutinised (Brookman, 2008). Their role in criminal investigations and their decisions as to the use of particular scientific methodologies at crime scenes should not however be separated from the shift of policing which occurred over the past two decades (Maguire, 2003). The emphasis placed on crime management, as well as accountability in terms of performance have all to a significant extent altered the nature of criminal investigation. As Brookman and Innes (2013) note, in fact it has become increasingly difficult to measure success, because it is multi-dimensional, therefore for SIOs to conduct a successful investigations, they need to strictly adhere not only to procedures, but as well as expenditure, outcomes of cases, crime prevention and reduction. In the cases of serious crimes, these can be perceived as complex social systems in which SIO play only a limited role (Sennett, 2012) and the demands placed on them can vary on a case by case basis (Williams and Weetman, 2013).

This is not to deny the decision-making process which SIOs exercise in terms of deployment of personnel. Rather, the use of discretion itself is linked to the wide culture of ‘crime management’ and efficiency of the services provided. As the forensic sector is closely linked to the law enforcement, the existence of rigorous ethical frameworks also constrains the use of discretion. The lack of objectivity and the presence of bias may deem any forensic evidence and the methods used for it may make it inadmissible during court procedures. The administrative decisions which SIO have to make in line with time constraints and budget allowances may also have a negative impact on the outcome of cases (Brian, 2004). For these reasons, it could be argued that SIO themselves rely on the use of scientific techniques and methods in criminal investigation to an extent that can directly correspond and meet the pre-existing frameworks which guide the operation of the forensic sector.

With the closing of the Forensic Science Service in the UK and the incorporation of forensic personnel into police forces nationwide, the decisions which SIO make will come under increased scrutiny as their performance will be evaluated in terms not only of successful deployment and use of scientific methodology for the recovery of evidence, but also against indicators which are related to law enforcement in general (Brookman and Innes, 2013). To date, however, no research has been conducted into the levels of discretion which SIO exercise whilst making decisions associated with the retrieval of evidence from crime scenes via the use of scientific methodologies. For this reason, any debate on this topic is likely to be speculative and not based on sound empirical evidence. Having provided an overview of the roles of SIOs at crime scenes and the some of the problems associated with crime scene management and the use of scientific methodologies, the last section of this paper will summarise the argument and provide recommendations for future research.


As this essay has demonstrated, the shifts which have taken place in the law-enforcement sector over the past two decades and the placed emphasis on ‘crime management’ and law-enforcement have also had an effect on the provision of forensic services and the use of scientific methodologies at crime scenes. Although the increased scientification of crime investigation has not had a negative impact on the outcome of cases, a potential pitfall which could affect the outcome of cases and result in unsafe convictions is associated with human agency and the distancing of ethical guidelines (Markey, 2012; Fisher, 2012). As it already noted,, at the present time there is a lack of research on the impact which human agency, personal bias and decision-making have on the outcome of criminal cases and this, a problem that is prevalent and applies to all personnel operating within the forensic sector, including Senior Investigative Officers (Williams and Weetman, 2013). In order to address this matter,, future research on the topic could potentially concentrate on the problem of discretion and set this in the context of the legislative changes which have transformed the nature of criminal investigation.


Allsop, C. (2013) Motivations, money and modern policing: accounting for cold case reviews in an age of austerity. Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy, 23(3): 362-375.

Baskin, D., & Sommers, I. (2012) The influence of forensic evidence on the case outcomes of assault and robbery incidents. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 23(2): 186-210.

Brookman, F. (2008) Understanding Homicide. London: Sage.

Brookman, F. & Innes, M. (2013) The problem of success: What is a ‘good’ homicide investigationPolicing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy, 23(3): 292-310.

Brian, F. (2004) Errors of justice, Nature, Sources and Remedies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burrows, J., Tarling, R., Mackie, A., Poole, H., & Hodgson, B. (2005), Forensic science pathfinder project. Evaluating increased forensic activity in two English police forces, Home Office Online Report, Great Britain, Home Office. Cited in Hekim, H., Gul, S. and Akcam, B. (2013) Police Use of Information Technologies in Criminal Investigations. European Scientific Journal, 9(4): 221-240.

Cavadino, M., & Dignan, J. (2006). Penal policy and political economy. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 6(4): 435-456.

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Innes, M. (2003) Investigating murder: Detective work and the police response to criminal homicide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jones, C., & Weatherburn, D. (2004), Evaluating police operations (1): A process and outcome evaluation of operation vendas, New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, Australia. Cited in Hekim, H., Gul, S. and Akcam, B. (2013) Police Use of Information Technologies in Criminal Investigations. European Scientific Journal, 9(4): 221-240.

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Tilley, N. (2003) Community policing, problem-orientated policing, and intelligence-led policing, in Handbook of Policing, Newburn, T. (ed.). Cullumpton: Willan Publishing

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Free Essays

How Globalization Has Contributed To Transnational Crime Including Drug Trafficking And Human Trafficking


Globalization refers to integration internationally through the exchange of world views, products, ideas and other cultural aspects. This is facilitated by advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure enabling openness in trade, finance, travel and communication (Aart Scholte, 2000). These are the major factors that have generated economic and cultural interdependence, creating economic growth and well-being, and unfortunately, also giving rise to significant opportunity for criminal activities and business (Nelken, 2008).

With these developments and economic globalization, global governance has failed to keep pace and has enabled the diversification and internationalization of crime which is presently deemed to have reached macro-economic proportions. Globalized crime includes trafficking and marketing of illegal and counterfeit goods across continents, smuggling of migrants in modern day slavery, organized crime gangs in various urban centers and insurgency, cybercrime and fraud, piracy, and money-laundering, among other vices. Despite the gravity of these threats, there persists a lack of comprehensive information and a global perspective on crime trends and the transnational criminal markets (UNODC, 2010).

This paper explores the ways in which globalization has contributed to transnational crime including the trafficking of drugs and human beings. Transnational organized crime (TOC) refers to crime that is organized and coordinated across national borders of more than one country and which involves groups or networks of individuals planning and executing illegal business ventures utilizing systematic violence and/or corruption. This type of crime has inadvertently been a significant beneficiary of globalization (Sangiovanni, 2005).

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 2000 identified four elementary aspects of globalization: movement of capital and investment, trade and transactions, migration, and the dissemination of knowledge, aspects which lead to the emergence of an international network of social and economic systems (Jones, 2010). Globalization is therefore defined as the intensification of social relations across the globe linking distant localities in such a way that happenings at a local level are shaped by events far and wide and vice versa. The processes of globalization do affect and are affected by the organization of business and work, social and cultural resources, economics, and the natural environment (Kohler and Chaves, 2003).

Human trafficking

Globalization through these effects has contributed to disparities in nations of the globe (increased inequality). This consequently leads to a disruptive effect that drives people into operations in illicit markets and organized crime in attempts to cope with the situations or towards the quest of people for better life. Due to inequalities leading to impoverishment and marginalization and political conflicts in certain parts of the world, as well as socio-cultural change and restrictive policies of immigration in countries that are better endowed economically, many individuals from developing countries hoping to find work and better life are willing to borrow heavily from their communities and to risk their lives for the opportunities desired (UNODC, 2010).

Since this is an illegal venture, these people often seek assistance from organized criminals with knowledge of the system, a trend that increases as nations tighten immigration controls. Being an illegal and clandestine activity, those providing the service have tremendous power over their charges and abuses are known to happen frequently. This particular set of events has led to what is commonly referred to as the trafficking of human beings, sometimes into modern-day slavery (Haken, 2011).

Examples of these are two northward smuggling flows that compose migrant trafficking: from Africa to Europe and from Latin America to North America. In the USA, the large Spanish speaking and Mexican expatriate population exerts a powerful influence on poorer states to the south with immigrants hoping to substantially improve their standard of living. Mexicans compose the largest percentage of illegal immigrants with 90% of them assisted by smugglers given the strict immigration controls and deterrents. Similar to this, the Africa to Europe flow has even stronger push and pull factors. This is however a fraction of the America migration partly due to the difficulty in crossing (hazardous voyages in which migrants are subject to exploitation) and the small size of the African expatriate population. This flow is evidently due to economic factors since the global economic recession has led to significant reductions in migrant trafficking (UNODC, 2010).

The trafficking of women for the purpose of sexual exploitation is also notable though the strong increase at the end of the Cold War appears to have stabilized and a diversity of nationalities have displaced the victims from Eastern Europe that earlier dominated this market (UNODC, 2010).

Drug trafficking

There is present a huge and growing market for drugs in neighborhoods across the globe. Drugs traded and which have significance on the global scale include cocaine and heroin (Sangiovanni, 2005). 90% of global supply of heroin comes from opium poppy cultivated in Afghanistan while a bulk of cocaine flows proceeds from the Andean region. Such drugs flow either in bulk or in small quantities following trade and travel routes to destinations across continents and the globe, as well as countries en route to major markets. Some of the proceeds of this drug trade are used to finance other crimes such as terrorism (UNODC, 2010).

Other forms of crime

Following trade and travel routes and enhanced by the expanded global tourism facilitated by less restrictive visa regimes and cheaper airfares, goods that are trafficked abound including firearms, environmental resources, and counterfeit goods ferried parallel to licit goods. Alongside these, crimes such as cybercrime and maritime piracy are facilitated by enhanced communication and increased movement (UNODC, 2010).

Taking advantage of the forces of globalization, criminals and associated organizations have thrived and grown under the current world environment using the processes outlined below to promote their activities. Institutions of state that should watch and stem these activities have however been hindered by bureaucracy and ‘red-tape’ as well as issues of sovereignty (Nelken, 2008).

Global trade and widespread deregulation

The facilitation of international trade through globalization despite its economic advantages inadvertently leads to difficulty in regulating global trade. This challenge is exploited by smugglers and traffickers in their pursuit of profit enhancing attendant crimes (Nelken, 2008). Also a significant contributor is the widespread deregulation of the global financial system since the 1970s. This has created loopholes which have allowed easy laundry of proceeds of crime by illicit actors with attempts at creating regulations and safeguards for not being very effective. These unchecked illegal activities provide mechanisms to fund terrorists, insurgents, and warlords with criminals adopting myriad distinct structures depending on their circumstances (UNODC, 2010).

Technological advancement

The advancement of technology becomes a double-edged sword providing convenience to end-users in positive uses but it is also harnessed for criminal activities, the coordination, planning, and execution of their operations in widespread locations across the globe (Kohler and Chaves, 2003). Mobile phone and internet technologies have enabled enhanced communication and the conduct of business through digital avenues. Criminal gangs also use these technologies in the conduct of their illicit activities such as soliciting customers for drugs and child pornography and the coordination of these activities. In the case of child pornography, customers pay online to receive sexual images and content of underage children. Legislation used to control and curb some of these online activities may not be applicable when servers are based in other countries hindering effective pursuit and stamping out of such illicit activities (Sangiovanni, 2005).

Mobility of people and goods and social networks

The migration of people across countries is also utilized by trans-national criminal organizations. The obvious activities enabled by this is human trafficking and smuggling but a more serious criminal activity is based on the legal migration of people in order to set up a social network, a significant aspect in criminal organization. Human and commercial flows are too intense to easily distinguish the illicit from the licit (Nelken, 2008; Sangiovanni, 2005).

A trans-national network engaged in criminality can be understood as a series of cross-border nodes connected through communication links and/or resource exchange. The social networks act as intermediaries facilitating the movement of resources mirroring operations of multinational corporations with widespread branches. The social networks facilitate the sharing of information and localized knowledge between the established nodes in a linear and flatter distribution of social nodes that allow maximum efficiency and flexibility in decision-making and initiative. This capability enables their quick reaction and alteration of operations which is particularly useful in evading authorities in pursuit, facilitating their high resilience (Nelken, 2008; Haken, 2011).

Lack of international cooperation

Though there exist many platforms for cooperation with regard to the sharing of information and intelligence aimed at curbing trans-national crime, very little is done to facilitate this information sharing (UNODC, 2010). With international presence of diplomatic missions, very few law-enforcement agencies pursue and are involved in the same objective. Countries such as Lichtenstein and Switzerland have tight secrecy and financial regulation protecting against the divulgence of their clients’ personal wealth to law enforcement agencies and bodies. This secrecy and protection favors organized crime and is thus employed by criminals to evade capture and freezing of assets by authorities (Sangiovanni, 2005).

Legal framework

With differing legal frameworks across various jurisdictions globally, what may be legal or what may require burden of proof varies in different countries. The burden of proof has different weights in various legal jurisdictions, a reality which trans-national criminal groups take advantage of in the globalized world basing and conducting their operations in countries that have lax frameworks or high thresholds for proof of criminality. For instance, drug trafficking in Singapore attracts a charge under the criminal conspiracy act, requiring little evidence of proof. Laws in the United States, on the other hand, require much more evidence or proof of conspiracy (UNODC, 2010).

There have been a number of arrests highlighting the effectiveness of law enforcement agencies and bodies in detecting and pursuing criminal activities. In reality however, many cases still go unnoticed and some un-reported. Figures released, in light of the lack of transparency and too many unknown variables, may not be an accurate reflection of the actual situation on the ground (UNODC, 2010; Kohler and Chaves, 2003).


It is a global concern that forces of globalization that facilitate economic growth, positive social and cultural change and enhances interaction across a shrinking world are also inadvertently being utilized for negative effects and are benefiting perpetrators of crime across boundaries of nations and continents. Transnational crime is taking advantage of the globalization process to enhance the speed and frequency of its conduct of illicit activities, and as well to avoid detection and adverse consequences of law in various jurisdictions. Criminals are increasingly adapting to quick changes and developments in technology, people and goods mobility to cross borders through social networks while exploiting the lack of international cooperation between countries. They also exploit different legal frameworks between countries to successively undermine states efforts in curbing their illicit activities.

Burdened by bureaucracy and red-tape, bounds of sovereignty, and an uncoordinated international system, law enforcement bodies and agencies around the world are ineffective in their endeavor to catch up with the flow and the dynamism employed by criminal organizations. Transnational networks have been utilized by criminal organizations to increase the speed and frequency of their operations and to increase the degree of challenge to the authority of the state with enhanced capacity to plan, direct and organize their criminal operations in countries while based in another.

Aart Scholte, J. (2000). Globalization, Palgrave
Haken, J. (2011). Transnational Crime in the Developing World. Global Financial Integrity. Retrieved 8/11/ 2013 from:
Jones, A. (2010). Globalization. Key Thinkers. Cambridge: Polity Press, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0745643221
Kohler, G. and Chaves E. J. (eds.) (2003). Globalization: Critical Perspectives. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 1-59033-346-2.
Nelken, D. (2008). “Globalization and the growth of transnational crime”, in McCusker, R. (ed.) Transnational Crime: A global perspective, The Marketing & Management Collection, London: Henry Stewart Talks Ltd.
Sangiovanni, E. (2005). Trans National Networks and New Security Threats, Cambridge review of International Affairs, No. 18:1
UNODC, (2010). The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. ISBN: 978-92-1-130295-0

Free Essays

What is the nature of the relationship between cctv and crime prevention?


Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of closed circuit television (CCTV) installations especially at the town centres. Installation of CCTV cameras in public spaces has been driven by the urgency for crime prevention. CCTVs have been installed with the aim of deterring offending, bringing offenders to justice and providing reassurance to the public about their safety.However studies exploring on effectiveness of CCTV on crime prevention have produced mixed results. Some studies have attested to the effectiveness of CCTV in fighting crime while others have pointed out to the minimal or insignificant effect of CCTV on levels of offending. As such, the proposed dissertation seeks to clarify the nature of the relationship between CCTV and crime prevention.

This proposal lays out the approach that would be taken to address the objectives of the proposed dissertation. The proposal provides the theoretical framework, literature review and the methodology used to obtain the data. A multi-method spatial approach will be used to analyze the data collected. The proposal seeks to examine the effectiveness of CCTV in preventing and reducing crime in 3 London boroughs: London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, the Borough of Waverley and the Ipswich Borough Council. A combination of Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and Weighted Displacement Quotient (WDQ) will help in evaluating effectiveness of CCTV surveillance in preventing crimes in the 3 boroughs.


For much of 21st century, crime prevention has relied primarily on police patrol. However, foot patrol has historically been identified to have a small impact on preventing and reducing crime. Research has shown that police patrol and investigative resources of the police are, to a large extend, limited in preventing most of the crimes that have been taking place (Keval & Sasse 2008). Unfocused random patrols and reactive arrests by street patrols have generally had minimal impact on crime prevention.

Because of this, there has been an increasing emphasis on CCTV installations as a way of preventing crime. Many countries have installed CCTV cameras especially in the town centres. The UK leads with the most extensive CCTV coverage in the whole world (Philips 1999). The widespread installation of CCTV in UK has, in part, been the result of proactive initiatives by the central government, with most of the operations funded by the British Home Office (Philips 1999).

CCTV systems in the UK have been deployed in town centres, banks, shopping centres, parking facilities, building societies, industrial estates, schools and colleges, and police custody suites among many other areas. Aside from the central government, the European community, businesses and local authorities have also contributed to the financing of CCTV surveillance systems in the UK (Philips 1999).

Problem statement

Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of closed circuit television (CCTV) installations especially at the town centres (Philips 1999). Gone are the days when street patrols were the only means for fighting crime. CCTV has come up as a management tool for crime-solving and prevention. Installation of CCTV cameras in public spaces has been driven by the urgency for crime prevention. CCTVs have been installed with the aim of deterring offending, bringing offenders to justice and providing reassurance to the public about their safety.

It is estimated that UK economy loses approximately ?50 billion annually in crime (Cjsni 2008). But of course, the ‘true’ cost of crime in terms of the well-being of the general public and the quality of life are incalculable (Cjsni 2008). In what is currently known as an “evidence-led” crime reduction policy, governments have sought to develop scientific research basis for understanding “what works” and “what doesn’t” and “what’s promising” in crime reduction (Cjsni 2008). CCTVs have been identified as such important crime prevention tools.

But whilst CCTV appears to have gained increasing importance in crime prevention, issues of security in public places still remain a major concern, both at the national level and internationally. Despite significant investment in such crime deterrent technologies, risks associated with assault and property crime remains considerable (Wells et al. 2006). Therefore, this proposal seeks to examine the nature of the relationship between CCTV installation and crime prevention. It will examine the effectiveness of CCTV in preventing and reducing crime in 3 London boroughs: London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, the Borough of Waverley and the Ipswich Borough Council.

Research objectives

This proposal seeks to address the following research objectives:

To determine the nature of the relationship between CCTV installation and crime reduction
To examine the extent of CCTV coverage and occurrence of crime by type and frequency in the 3 London
To evaluate the effectiveness of CCTV in preventing or deterring crime
To identify the current knowledge gaps with regard to the impact of CCTV in crime prevention.
Literature review

Alongside the widespread installation of CCTVs in public places, there has been a wealth of information on the impact of CCTV on crime prevention. However, research on the nature of the relationship between CCTV and crime prevention have to date been ambiguous (Greenhalgh 2003). Some studies have attested to the effectiveness of CCTV in fighting crime while others have pointed out to the minimal or insignificant effect of CCTV on levels of offending.

Authors such as Tilley (1997) and Bennett & Gelsthorpe (1996) have suggested that CCTV deter people from committing crime, thereby reducing crime prevalence. These authors argued that CCTV facilitates effective deployment of police officers and security staff to locations of crime, thereby deterring offenders from committing crime. A study by Armitage et al. (1999) on the impact of CCTV installation on the level of crime in Burnley found that recorded crimes had fallen by 25% owing to the presence of CCTV surveillance.

A similar study by Brown (1995) which employed a rigorous methodology based upon the realistic evaluation model suggested by Pawson & Tilley (1994) found that the level of offending in Newcastle Upon Tyne had reduced owing to the introduction of CCTV. But whilst pointing out to the crime prevention effect of CCTV in Newcastle Upon Tyne, Brown cautioned that such gains could be short term and might wear off over time. Brown also cautioned about the possibility of displacement effects undermining the perceived advantages.

But whilst several authors have attested to the effectiveness of CCTV in fighting crime, most of the studies have had little scientific support for such claims. In this regard, Short & Ditton (1995) identified a number of problems with many of these claims. First, they noted that the time periods examined were generally too short to give an adequate account of the effectiveness of CCTV systems. Second, crime was considered as one category, obscuring the increases or reductions in different types of crime (Short & Ditton 1995).

Third, the authors noted that some cases lacked control rooms and as such, assessment of crime patterns was not accurate. Fourth, most of the assessments made did not take into account the seasonal variations in crime. Indeed there seems to be a number of concerns with many of these claims. What is even more surprising is that, most of these conclusions came from those who were responsible for the installation of CCTV systems.

Indeed, as suggested by Bulos & Sarno (1996), very few CCTV systems have been comprehensively evaluated by independent researchers (Bulos & Sarno 1996). Whilst there has been a huge support for the installation of CCTV in urban and town centres, it seems that hype will continue to achieve prominence over key questions that should be asked such as evaluating the usefulness and effectiveness of CCTV in preventing crime (Phillips 1999). It is important to provide evaluative evidence of crime reduction effects so as to justify future investment in CCTV schemes.

Several other authors have identified negative impacts of CCTV on crime prevention. Norris et al (1998) pointed out that CCTV control rooms were rife with prejudice and racism, inferring that the reported incidences were likely to be biased. A study by Brown (1995) on CCTV impact of crime on Birmingham found that the use of CCTV surveillance had failed to produce an overall reduction in the level of crime, with only a small decline in vehicle theft. A similar study conducted by Ditton et al (1999) in Glasgow showed that CCTV installation in the city centre had coincided with an upsurge in crime, with offences of indecency and dishonesty experiencing the most significant increase.

In a recent meta-analysis study by Welsh & Farrington (2002), it was found that out of thirteen evaluations in city centres, five of these showed decrease in offences whereas three showed an undesirable effect (increase in crime). In the other remaining five evaluations, there was no effect of CCTV on crime. In a further criticism, Groombridge & Murji (1994) suggested that CCTV could only be used as a tool and not a panacea.

But whilst Norris et al (1998) pointed out to the bias in CCTV control rooms, they emphasized the importance of CCTV in fighting crime and suggested for an ‘algorithmic’ surveillance to enable CCTV to effectively fight crime. Algorithmic CCTV surveillance matches a person’s gait and facial characteristics to images and footage stored in a database (Phillips 1999). ‘Algorithmic’ surveillance is particularly useful in revealing persons who are hiding from CCTV cameras.

Despite the presence of very few independent rigorous evaluations and despite diverse and differing interests between private, public and statutory agencies; CCTV is almost unanimously backed (Fussey 2004). The ubiquity of CCTV cameras in the town and urban centres is a testament to this. CCTV installation has taken place at a time when there has been improvement in crime analysis both in resolution (both temporal and spatial) (Mackay 2002). This has enabled practitioners focus to become more place-specific as opposed to generalizing crime to the neighbourhood level (Ratcliffe & Taniguchi 2008).

Theoretical framework

Sociological and criminological theory

To understand the concept of CCTV surveillance and its role in the contemporary society, sociological and criminological theory will be useful. In particular, theorizations based around neo-Marxist and Foucauldian perspectives will be used. But, since this is not the primary objectives of this paper, such paradigmatic conceptualizations shall only be briefly discussed in this paper.

Neo-Marxist perspectives

Neo-Marxist approach stress the use of CCTV to police economically marginalized groups (Fussey 2004). The role of CCTV in the contemporary society can be situated within a neo-Marxist framework that stresses the use of CCTV in policing unequal socio-economic divisions and managing the use of public space (Fussey 2004). Aware of the possibility that potential consumers may be deterred from commercial centres by the presence of low level incivilities such as beggars, litter, anti-social behaviours and gangs of youths; those representing commercial interests have sought to use CCTV surveillance to remove such undesirable factors (Fussey 2004: p.255). The ubiquity of CCTV cameras in the town centres is a testament to this.

Foucauldian perspectives

The foucauldian notion takes the view that modernity has yielded a form of ‘disciplinary’ society in which individuals are continuously placed under surveillance to deter antisocial or deviant behaviours (Fussey 2004). The Foucauldian approach criticizes utopian Enlightement objectives, arguing that in the present modern society, power has become ubiquitous and subtle (Fussey 2004). This power which has developed via institutions such as prisons, schools and asylums, is now manifest in the entire society. CCTV is thus an example of the various disciplinary mechanisms. According to Foucault, the increasing use of surveillance marks a shift in emphasis from punishment (a feature of pre-enlightment penal technique) to regulation of the self (Fussey 2004).

But whilst Foucault’s perspective may provide a useful account of CCTV, this approach should be taken with caution. As suggested by Norris et al (1999), CCTV cameras have generally been used to selectively target particular sub-groups especially the ethnic minority groups. The use of CCTV to target selective groups and the application of actuarial techniques against the ‘underclass’ is indicative that CCTV is only ‘ubiquitous’ for certain groups and not the wider society as suggested by Foucault (Fussey 2004: p.257).

Research questions

The scope of this analysis will be confined to the following research questions:

What is the nature of the relationship between CCTV installation and crime reduction
What current knowledge gaps exist with regard to the impact of CCTV in fighting crime
To what extent have CCTV systems been deployed in London
Has there been a huge difference in crime in terms of frequency of occurrence between the pre-camera and post-camera period
Can any observed reductions and deterrence of crime in London be attributed to CCTV surveillance

Research approach

A mixed method approach will be used to obtain data for analysis. The mixed approach will comprise of interviews with various stakeholders in London borough and a survey of secondary information that is available for review. This will include a review of the Home Office web site and past reports about crime reduction effects of CCTV. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with key informants in 3 London boroughs including the Cambridge City Council CCTV operator (London Borough of Richmond upon Thames), Farnham CCTV operator in the Borough of Waverley and the Ipswich Borough Council CCTV operator. The researcher will also review research publications from the British Home Office and past reports that explore on the nature of relationship between CCTV and crime prevention. Online crime mapping tool will be used to locate crime to specific locations.

Validity and reliability of findings

The mixed method approach will not only provide more in-depth analysis, but will also increase reliability and validity of information collected. The primary data collected from semi-structured interviews with key informants will be supplemented by secondary information collected from a survey of Home Office data and other relevant past reports.

Data collection

The dataset obtained from British Home Office will comprise of information about the type of crime, date of occurrence and the specific location where the crime took place. An online crime mapping tool which was launched in the UK in 2008 to help with geocoding accuracy of crime data will be used to pinpoint the exact location where crime took place (Griffith 2011). The crime evaluated will be limited only to those influenced by CCTV cameras. The crime data will then be aggregated into three main categories: disorder crime, serious crime and all crime.

Data analysis

In analyzing the impact CCTV on localized crime, the proposed dissertation will utilize a multi-method spatial approach. A combination of Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and Weighted Displacement Quotient (WDQ) will help provide more in-depth data analysis. HLM is a type of statistical analysis that allows for rigorous evaluation of the impact of CCTV on crime prevention (Ratcliffe et al. 2009). This analysis tool takes into account factors such as seasonality and ongoing trends. The analysis tool is also useful where there are repeated incidences of crime.

HLM is associated with a number of practical benefits. First, it takes account of the seasonality factor. Seasonal effects have particular relevance in that people would tend to spend more time outside during the warm seasons than cold seasons. Secondly, the analysis takes control of pre-camera implementation trends (Ratcliffe et al. 2009). An example of a pre-existing temporal trend is the possibility of regeneration taking place at a camera location (Ratcliffe et al. 2009). Failure to control such trends could result in overestimation or underestimation of CCTV’s crime reduction effects (Ratcliffe et al. 2009).

However, HLM statistical analysis tool is limited in its ability to disaggregate the effectiveness of each camera type (Ratcliffe et al. 2009). It is practically impossible to investigate each specific camera. Given the inability of HLM to disaggregate the effectiveness of each camera type, conducting a robust statistical analysis using this method becomes difficult. Perhaps, this is an area worthy of future investigation.

To address this limitation, the researcher will also utilize a Weighted Displacement Quotient (WDQ) analysis method. This method is also useful in determining the displacement effect of CCTV. This will require the researcher to first identify three operational areas:

target area – this is the area where crime reduction strategy is already in place
Buffer area – the buffer area is where crime is most likely to be displaced to.
Control area – this is area will act as a check on general crime trends (Ratcliffe & Taniguchi 2008)

The Weighted Displacement Quotient (WDQ) analysis tool will be used to determine whether the differences in the levels of crime in target and buffer areas are a result of displacement effect of CCTVs or diffusion of benefits of CCTV surveillance in target area (Ratcliffe & Taniguchi 2008).

Ethical considerations

The main ethical concern that is likely to arise is that involving invasion of privacy in public spaces. Whilst this technology has been implemented as a benevolent means of fighting crime, there are concerns about personal liberty and invasion of privacy (Hempel & Topfer 2004). Given the sheer volume of CCTV cameras installed in the UK, it calls into question the freedom and privacy of the public. Have CCTV cameras been installed to protect the public from crime or are we living in ‘Big brother’ Surveillance society (Fletcher 2011)?

Perhaps to address this ethical concern, the researcher will recommend the use of regular crime analysis such as that used in CompStat to identify places of greatest risk of crimes (Welsh & Farrington 2010). Such information can be used as a guide for implementation of CCTV surveillance in areas of high risk crime, thereby reducing the threat of invasion of public’s privacy (Welsh & Farrington 2010).

But whilst CCTV systems have been criticized for invasion of privacy, there appear to be some sought of regulations adhered to by organizations when installing them. There is currently no regulation regarding installation of CCTV in private household. CCTVs can be installed in private households without the need of registering with regulatory body or adhering to any regulations. But for organizations seeking to install CCTV, they are required to follow the regulations dictated in the DPA98 such as the visibility of appropriate signage which should make the public aware that they are in an area of CCTV surveillance (Fletcher 2011).

Anticipated problems

Whilst the proposal is of paramount importance, the researcher is likely to encounter some limitations when conducting the research. These include:

Budgetary constraints – Gathering of data can be expensive. As such, conducting extensive survey may be difficult owing to the budgetary constraints
Time constraints – The task of exploring on the nature of the relationship between CCTV and crime prevention may be limited by time constraints. The researcher may be forced to make quick decisions rather than building a detailed picture due to time constraints.
Additionally, the participants may not be willing to participate in the interviews

Nonetheless, the researcher will make efforts to address these limitations.


This proposal has clearly laid out the approach that would be taken to address the objectives of the proposed dissertation. A mixed method approach would be used to obtain critical information about the nature of relationship between CCTV installation and crime prevention. A multi-method spatial approach will be used to analyze the data collected. A combination of Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and Weighted Displacement Quotient (WDQ) will help in evaluating effectiveness of CCTV surveillance in preventing crimes.

The main ethical concern that is likely to arise is that of personal liberty and invasion of privacy. But the researcher has suggested the use of regular crime analysis such as that used in CompStat, as a guide for implementation of CCTV in areas of high risk crime. This is expected to reduce the threat of invasion of privacy in public places.


Armitage, R., Smyth, G., and Pease, K., 1999. Burnley CCTV evaluation. In: Painter, K. and Tilley N., (eds.), ‘Surveillance of public space: CCTV, street lighting and crime prevention’. Crime Prevention Studies, volume 10, pp 225-250.

Bennett, T. and L. Gelsthorpe, 1996. “Public attitudes towards CCTV in public places.” Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention 5 (l): pp.72-90.

Brown, B., 1995. CCTV in town centres: three case studies. Crime Detection and

Bulos, M. and Sarno, C., 1996. Codes of practice and public closed circuit television systems. London, UK: Local Government Information Unit.

Criminal Justice System Northern Ireland (Cjsni), 2008. Reducing offending: a critical review of the international research evidence. NIO Research and Statistical Series: Report No. 18

Fletcher, P., 2011. ‘Is CCTV effective in reducing anti-social behaviour?’ Internet Journal of Criminology.

Fussey, P., 2004. ‘New labour and new surveillance: theoretical and political ramifications of CCTV implementation in the UK’, Surveillance & Society

Greenhalgh, S., 2003. Literature review on issues of privacy and surveillance affecting social behaviour. Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner

Griffiths, M., Town centre CCTV: an examination of crime reduction in Gillingham, Kent.

Groombridge, N. and Murji, K., 1994. “Obscured by Cameras?” Criminal Justice Matters 17

Hempel, L. and E. Topfer, 2004. On the threshold to urban panopticonAnalyzing the employment of CCTV in European cities and assessing its social and political impacts. Urbaneye

Inter-departmental Committee on Closed Circuit Television (IDCCCTV) 2000. NSW Government Policy Statement and Guidelines for the Establishment and Implementation of closed circuit television (cctv) in public places, NSW Attorney General’s Department

Keval, H. and Sasse, M.A., 2008. ‘Not the usual suspects: a study of factors reducing the effectiveness of CCTV’. Security Journal, p. 1-21

Mackay, D., 2002. Self interest: the true reasons for supporting town centre CCTV systems: a case study. University of Leicester Scarman Centre.

Norris, C, Moran, J. and Armstrong, G., 1998. “Algorithmic surveillance: the future of automated visual surveillance.” In: C. Norris, J. Moran and G. Armstrong (eds.), Surveillance, closed circuit television and social control. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

Pawson, R. and Tilley, N., 1994. “What works in evaluation research?” British Journal of Criminology 34(3):291-306.

Phillips, C.,1999. ‘A review of CCTV evaluations: crime reduction effects and attitudes towards its use’. Crime Prevention Studies, volume 10, pp. 123-155

Ratcliffe, J. and T. Taniguchi, 2008. CCTV camera evaluation: the crime reduction effects of public CCTV cameras in the City of Philadelphia, PA installed during 2006. Department of Criminal Justice

Ratcliffe, J.H., Taniguchi, T. and Taylor, R.B., 2009. ‘The crime reduction effects of public CCTV cameras: a multi-method spatial approach’. Justice Quarterly, vol. 26 (4)

Short, E. and Ditton, J., 1995. “Does CCTV affect crime?” CCTV Today 2 (2): pp.10-12.

Stutzer, A. and Zehnder, M., 2010. Camera surveillance as a measure of counterterrorismEconomics of Security Working Paper 34. Berlin: Economics of Security.

Tiliey, N., 1993. The prevention of crime against small businesses: the safer cities experience. Home Office Crime Prevention Unit Series Paper, London, UK: Home Office

Wells, H., Allard, T. and P. Wilson, 2006. Crime and CCTV in Australia: understanding the relationship. Centre for Applied Psychology and Criminology Bond University

Welsh, B.C. and Farrington, D.P., 2010. The future of crime prevention: developmental and situational strategies. National Institute of Justice

Wilson, D. and Sutton, A., 2003. Open-street CCTV in Australia: a comparative study of establishment and operation. Criminology Research Council Prevention series paper 68. London: Home Office Police Department.

Free Essays

Stephen Lawrence Case – Crime and Disorder Act 1998

Crime and Disorder Act 1998

Racism, according to the United Nations is on decline globally. The government participation in advocating and promoting racial equality within the last ten years has substantially contributed to this decline. Despite the emergence of dangerous street gangs in the UK streets, resurfacing of anti-immigrant politics in addition to media engineered hostility towards Muslims; racism on the whole is declining.

Stephen Lawrence Case

Examining the Stephen Lawrence case, if the incidence had taken place today, due to the emerging social issues within the domain of criminal justice system, the case would be differently handled. Within the growing realm of social media networks, it is becoming evident racist and religious crimes are exceedingly hurtful since they tend to injure individual identity (Thurlow 1998). Due to the increased awareness, the case could have ignited unprecedented folly across various social mediums. Since such cases take place randomly, for instance, at hotels, nightclubs, football matches or on public transport, the government has time and again attempted to implement measures which can thwart racism correlated crimes (Schuster 2003).

Due to such instances the UK government through its legislative arms passed key legislation aimed at tackling the issue of racism. Since the elements of racism are more linked to where the culprit is driven by hostility or as well hatred towards any member of the society. Hence, one of these legislations enacted to curb racism includes the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 (amended) (Thurlow 1998).

Racism on Decline in UK

Today numerous measures have been implemented which would have made the scope of policing more effective (Scott 2007). In regard to the nature of investigation carried out on the case, the latest legal provisions would have made the whole process more inclusive. For instance, Crime and Disorder Act 1998 was also amended by Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, and this came into effect as early as 25th November 2012. The act has identified new definite crimes such as stalking and equally generated racially or religiously motivated versions of these crimes.

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To demonstrate that the Stephen Lawrence case would be policed differently if it had occurred today, it would be imperative to link the happenings to a similar scenario in R v Rogers (2007) W.L.R.280, the defendant was involved in racial verbal attack on the plaintiffs, the court upheld that even if the defendant was a product of xenophobia, he had no constitutional obligation to attack others racially.

The UK government asserts that it embraces an environment where free, tolerant and democratic populace thrives. However, the balancing act of integrating individual freedom with the duty of the state must be observed, this has given rise to a more vibrant and informed society which is equally assisting the authorities to fight crimes (Schuster 2003).

In this way, it would be important to note that the issue of incompetence could not have surfaced if the case had taken place today. The problem with the previous police involvement was marred by lack of adequate skills, poor understanding of racism effects on the society, institutional racism as well as a failure of headship by leading police officers. However, today these accusations cannot be tolerated since the populace is more informed and the governments have incorporated effective measures of empowering the police force (Roediger 2010).

It would be prudent to note that the element of institutional racism including professional incompetence are no longer accepted or tolerated within the current UK police force. Today, racial essentialism is no longer accepted, with the gradual police reforms the case would be handled in a way that reflects a reformed criminal justice system as well as an inclusive investigation (Roediger 2010). The modern UK police force is surrounded by citizens who knows and understands their rights.

The influence of societal pressure which is propelling the police force to work effectively would equally compel the police to handle the case in a transparent manner. Other factors which could contribute to better policing of the case would entail the modern scientific approach to crime scene as well as procedures of conducting investigations. Likewise, the scope of police reforms which were initiated after MacPherson enquiry have contributed to better handling of the case so as to avoid public outcry in addition to negative media coverage (Schuster 2003; Scott 2007).

However, currently the police have better recording and surveillance tools which they can employ to react to such instance as Stephen Lawrence case in gathering and conducting credible investigations. On the other hand the structure as well as organization and the management of all crime investigations have been reformed and equipped with adequate facilities to match the expected degree of competence in handling racism associated cases.

The other aspect entails liaison with the affected family so as to have a deeper analysis of the affected person, regular and updated consultation with locals, and overall excision of racist language from the entire police force. Such measures would see that the case is positively and adequately handled without instances of negligence and professional ignorance (Rattansi 2007).

Another instrumental factor which could have helped the case to be policed adequately today lies in that the scope of culture, religion and racism is well understood by current British populace, and thus implementing measures which could avoid future instances of racial associated crimes. It is paramount to argue that an informed populace, reformed police force as well as government willingness to stem the vice would have played a central role in ascertaining the case was adequately handled.

Thus, if the Stephen Lawrence case had taken place today various factors could have ascertained that nothing was left for chance. Such aspects would have included: open and honest investigations, unbiased interrogation, and a dedicated police force. Such issues coupled with a knowledgeable society and media would have facilitated for a proper handling of the case.

References List

Rattansi, A., 2007. Racism: A Very Short Introduction .Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Roediger, D., 2010. The Wages of Whiteness.NY: Verso.

Schuster, L., 2003, The Use and Abuse of Political Asylum in Britain and Germany .Berlin: Frank Cass.

Scott, J W, 2007., The Politics of the Veil .NY: Princeton University Press.

Thurlow, R., 1998. Fascism in Britain: from Oswald Mosley’s Blackshirts. Oxford: IB Tauris

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Free Essays

How effective is community policing in dealing with and preventing crime? A review of literature comparing, contrasting and analyzing approaches from Europe and ASEAN countries.


This research paper will firstly approach the problematic nature of offering a fixed definition of community policing before analyzing specific country experiences from Europe and ASEAN member states. The research paper will then attempt to demonstrate the complexities of conducting comparative studies vis-a-vis community policing in order to highlight the significance of context. Context is extremely important in any understanding of community policing, as a one-sized fits all approach is inappropriate and sheds little light on the effectiveness of community policing initiatives.

It is primarily important to offer some definitions to aid an understanding of what some of the merits and/or limitations of community policing could be. Tilley has noted that fundamentally ‘community policing stresses policing with and for the community rather than policing of the community. It aspires to improve the quality of life in communities. In improving the quality of life it aims to solve community problems alongside the community and as defined by the community’ (Tilley 2008: 376-377). However, it must be acknowledged that community policing is an extremely broad fitting term, which subsequently makes any absolute definition problematic. At the crux of community policing is the concept of decentralization, which plays exceptionally well at the rhetorical level. This could give some indication as to how the discussion of community policing has spread so far and has such wide reaching appeal.

The lack of an unambiguous and incontestable definition from a social scientific perspective means that there is no benchmark from which to test the effectiveness of community policing. This is problematic because the notion of a community is not a fixed term, but is a social construction that changes depending on historical, social and cultural contexts. This is without mentioning the different relationships between the state and its citizens around the world, as well as the different judicial and policing systems within different countries themselves.

It has been suggested that community policing is ‘simply too amorphous a concept to submit to empirical evaluation’ (National Research Council Committee to Review Research on Police Policy and Practices 2004; Lombardo and Lough 2007). It is not that community policing produces no tangible outcomes, as there are effective and ineffective consequences. The problem is that community policing has become a sort of popularized buzz word that has been overused. This has diluted its meaning to a large extent, but some clarity must be afforded if an understanding of what the merits and limitations of community policing are to be achieved.

The contestable definition of community policing has been acknowledged. However, it still remains to state that like a community itself; community policing is a social construction that must be understood contextually. Brogden has noted that ‘the development of community policing in different national and local contexts reflects the tensions between the legal, cultural and organizational structures of policing’ (Brogden 1999: 167). It is therefore very difficult for the community policing model to be easily transplanted from one community to another. Local context and conditions ultimately dictate the perceived appropriateness of the community policing model.

Goldstein has argued the importance of a clear definition. ‘Critically, a clear definition enables both the community and police to be informed about the parameters of this policing model. In the past community policing has been oversold as a panacea for crime problems to the police and to the community’ (Goldstein 1994: VIII). This is problematic, but again at the rhetorical level seems to fit with public consensus regarding decentralization and autonomy, as people want to be able to control their own destiny and create solutions to problems which seem appropriate and logical to them. Edwards has also suggested that ‘almost anything that is not a reactive strategy to deal with a particular issue has been claimed as a community policing initiative’ (Edwards 1999: 76). This is also problematic because it has diluted the definition of community policing even further still.

The discussion above has focussed on the problematic nature of having no absolute definition of community policing. This comprises much of the literature on the subject and is reflective of its ability to stimulate debate internationally. The problem, as already acknowledged, is that community policing is not easily transferable to other communities. Compounded by fluid conceptualizations, it has meant that it is challenging to measure how effective community policing initiatives have been; because they are not the same within European countries let alone between Europe and ASEAN countries.

There are methodological challenges that need to be addressed because some of the existing literature has focussed analysis on post-conflict and transitional societies, for example, Northern Ireland and Poland. These case studies present significant operational as well as methodological challenges. The problem of conducting a thorough literature review in the space afforded in this research paper is apparent, as the literature on the subject is exhaustive. The need for definitional clarity in Scotland has facilitated seven principles being identified. These principles have accounted for the diverse communities that exist and are policed in Scotland. There is no need to list them here, but simply to acknowledge that any comparative study must account for the specific context of a community.

The cost of poor policing is apparent in Indonesia where ‘some 40 attacks on police stations and personnel since August are clear evidence that community policing, the centre-point of the police reform agenda, is not working; police are too quick to shoot, usually with live ammunition; and little progress has been made toward police accountability’ (Asia Report No. 218). It is therefore important to note that community policing is not a panacea for ending all criminality, but is dependent on other deep-rooted societal factors.

Angell and Miller have argued that many people, including academics ‘do not understand community policing for what it is – a significant crime prevention, community problem-solving, structural and operational alternative to the traditional bureaucratic criminal apprehension arrangements used in urban policing’ (Angell and Miller 1993). This is fine, so long as community policing is not fixed, but is constantly evolving in order to put the beneficiaries at the heart of policing initiatives. To truly put the community at the heart of policing initiatives requires the reassessment of the needs of a specific community. Again, this is problematic because this defines community policing too broadly to measure empirically.

After analyzing European and ASEAN approaches to community policing, it is apparent that these approaches are far from homogenous. This research paper has stressed that what is relevant, and how the problem is perceived and solved varies from country to country. If the definition of community policing is reduced to a broad conceptualization of policing ‘for the community’ and not ‘policing of the community’, then it could be argued that community policing is effective. What remains crucial regarding community policing is ownership, and that those who benefit are able to shape and define it. However, the problems of measuring the effectiveness of community policing within countries and conducting comparative studies between countries have been explored.

This research paper has concluded that there are tangible outcomes, which deal with and prevent crime, but these outcomes are dependent on identifying what is important to a particular community and that is dependent on context. In Scotland, for example, seven principles were identified to give definitional clarity to community policing. Another problem is, what should the criteria to measure effectiveness beClearly this would change depending on the needs of the community. To conclude that community policing is effective or ineffective in dealing with and preventing crime would be inappropriate because the social scientist is ill equipped to make such a declaration. It is equally inappropriate to compare countries, which have very different historical; social and cultural contexts and police structures.


Angell, John and Miller, Roger (1993). Community Policing. Alaska Justice Forum. 9 (4), 3-5.

Asia Report No. 218 (16 February 2012). “Indonesia: The Deadly Cost of Poor Policing”. (11 December 2012).

Brogden, Mike (1999). Community Policing as Cherry Pie. In Mawby, Rob (Ed.), Policing Across the World: Issues for the Twenty-First Century (pp. 167-186). Abingdon: Routledge.

Edwards, Charles (1999). Changing Police Theories for 21st Century Societies. Sydney: Federation Press.

Goldstein, Herman (1994). Forward. In Rosenbaum, Dennis (Ed.) The Challenge of Community Policing: Testing the Premises (pp. VIII-X ). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Lombardo, Robert and Lough, Todd (2007). Community Policing: Broken Windows, Community Building, and Satisfaction with the Police. Police Journal. 80 (2), 117-140.

National Research Council Committee to Review Research on Police Policy and Practices (2004). Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: the Evidence. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.

Tilley, Nick (2008). Modern Approaches to Policing: Community, Problem-Oriented and Intelligence-Led. In Newburn, Tim (Ed.), The Handbook of Policing (pp. 373-403). Cullompton: Willan.

Free Essays

Youth Justice in 2011 is tougher on crime than on the causes of crime.


The aim behind this essay is to ascertain the stance adopted by the UK in terms of how governmental and judiciary authorities deal with the problem of juvenile crime. In order to gain a fuller understanding of this it would be of interest to compare the perspectives of two different political leaders and how they affected the way that juvenile crime was dealt with by authorities.

On one particular weekend in August 2011 thousands of rioters took to the street and ransacked high streets in London, Manchester, Croydon and Nottingham. The original cause of the rioting was due to a shooting in Tottenham by police but it seemed to spread over the capital and on to other major cities. Shops were looted and others were burnt down over the course of a week. As a result of this, David Cameron was quick to ascertain what the causes of these riots could be. In a press conference, he suggested that:

Social problems that have been festering for decades have exploded in our face….Our security fightback must be matched by a social fightback (Cameron: 2011)

Such was the stance eventually taken by the Coalition government as a response to the riots. A similar statement had been famously stated by Tony Blair fourteen years earlier where he specified in his election speech that Labour believed:

‘in personal responsibility and in punishing crime, but also its underlying causes – so toughon crime, tough on the causes of crime’ (Blair: 1997).

However, the question remains as to whether these two politically differing views really are so different from each other. The rhetoric seems to be the same. That is, in order to be tough on the crime that it would be necessary to discover the root cause of the crime committed. The question has to be asked as to how far the existing legislation go in achieving that.

According to a recent governmental report on the Youth Justice Service, ?800 million was spent on dealing with young people over the previous twelve years. Also, while 10% of that figure was spent on prevention, approximately 90% was spent on actually dealing with the offending behaviour (Soloman and Garside: 2008). Critics had seen this as a symptom of what had been wrong with Labour’s policy regarding the Youth Justice system.

Indeed, the same criticism can and has been levelled at the Coalition government judging by their initial reaction to the 2011 London riots. David Cameron famously condemned the riots as being caused by pure criminality and nothing else. It was only after the initial reaction that the Government had stated that a ‘social fightback’ (Cameron: 2011) was needed as much as the ‘security fightback’ was. However, the Government’s initial reaction was soon mirrored by other members of the public and there was seen to be a lack of analytical reaction from anybody apart from a few. According to Ohana and Otten (2011):

Except among a few youth experts and political commentators on the so-called ‘left’ there was little mention of or analysis involving the racist shooting that triggered the violence in the first place, or the desperate condition of the neighbourhoods in which many of the young people who rioted live….Most importantly of all, there was next to no mention of the fact that whole generations of young people have simply been abandoned to the elements by an uncaring state, unwilling to see its own responsibility in creating the conditions that have made such events possible (Ohana and Otten: 2011: 244).

This view corresponds with other views which also specify that it ought to be no surprise that the media and public reaction to the riots were non-analytical in their scope: Hughes (2011) specifies that:

It is of little surprise that the perceptions of the public appear to resemble those presented by the media and politicians. Rather than the official crime figures, it is the stereotyping and emotive headlines that seem to have the greatest influence.’ (Hughes: 2011: 190)

On the surface, this may appear to be an obvious statement to make. After all, it could be argued that the public’s reaction to the riots were understandably affected by the media coverage both during and after the riots took place.However, critics were also understandably concerned that the Government had employed a kneejerk reaction but then delayed in deciding exactly what was to be done about it (LSE and The Guardian: 2011: ‘Reading the Riots’)

There was a similar response to crime in general by the Labour opposition before they took power in 1997. Blair’s Labour had responded to a resurgence in crime on the streets at the time. According to Raine and Keasey (2009), they had attempted to address the problem of crime on the streets by attempting to get at what they perceived to be the source. Numerous programs were suggested and installed once they got into power, including Surestart centres and the New Deal for the unemployed. Raine and Keasey (2009) suggested, however, that these measures only went so far in addressing the issue (Doolin: 2009: 126-127) of youth crime. It would seem that this also backs up the figures quoted earlier regarding the percentage of money spent on prevention (10%) as opposed to the money spent on catching, trying and detaining criminals (90%). It could be argued that the amount of money spent on each reflects on either the priority given to prevention of crime of respective governments or on an increased criminality in the general populace. Again, this is a stance that is maintained by Sanders (2011) who suggested that because New Labour were essentially ‘governing through ASB (anti-social behaviour)’ that there was:

An ever-increasing share of a decreasing government budget being spent on criminal justice, prison and police in particular (Silvestri: 2011: 12)

This could be argued to show that New Labour at the time were more willing to spend money on surveillance of crime and criminals but they were not always willing to pay for maintenance of prisons, supply of police officers and the infrastructure of the criminal justice system.

However, there was much emphasis from the New Labour government on focussing upon the youth which, according to Coles (2012), had only been a focus for different governmental departments pre-1997.Coles (2012) states that the Blair administration was the first to have a Ministry and department (Social Exclusion Unit) specifically for young people to address the NEET problem (Alcock et al: 394) and thereby address the problem of anti-social behaviour. It was for this reason that the Connexions service was set up

Furthermore, the same could be said for the Coalition’s policies regarding criminal justice. Austerity measures were talked up as being the reasons behind the cuts before the riots. However, it could be argued that some of the cuts regarding youth justice and its appendages were made too harshly. Those things that matter to individuals such as education and health are being cut back and this in turn has triggered off the mentality that was inherent in the riots. According to Will Hutton, as quoted in Ohana and Otten(2011),:

We are arriving at a major turning point in our national life. It is not enough to talk about being tough on crime and the causes of crime. We need an entire root and branch reshaping of our economy and society – where both rewards and punishment are judicious proportional and deserved, and all within a revived and larger understanding of fairness….We need good capitalism and the good society that accompanies it (Ohana and Otten: 2011: 245)

It remains to be seen whether this present Coalition government is going to do anything about the ‘root and branch’ causes behind youth crime in general and last year’s riots in particular.The mixed messages given out by the Government seems to indicate that they will be just as tough on the causes of criminality as they will be on criminality itself. Given the track record of the previous government regarding equality of expenditure between the punishment of crime and the prevention of it, this Coalition government may have a job on their hands in balancing the two.

Reference List

Blair, T (1997), ‘New Labour because Britain deserves better’, The 1997 New Labour Manifesto, Available at

Cameron, D, (2011), ‘PM’s Speech on the fightback after the riots’, Monday 15th August 2011, Available at

Coles, B (2012), ‘Young People’, IN: Alcock, P, May, M, Wright, S, (2012), ‘The Student’s Companion to Social Policy’, 4th Edition, London


Ohana, Y and Otten, H, (2012), ‘Where do you stand?: Intercultural Learning and Political Education in Contemporary Europe, Wiesbaden, Springer Fachmedien, Germany

Raine, J and Keasey, P (2010), ‘Introduction: The Changing Politics of Law and Order’, IN: Doolin, K et al (ed.) (2010.), ‘Whose Criminal Justice?: State or Community?’, Waterside Press, Hook, Hampshire, England

Rusbridger, A, (2011), (ed.), ‘Reading the Riots: Investigating England’s summer of disorder’, The Guardian, The London School of Economics and Political Science, Accessed at

Sanders, A (2011), ‘What was New Labour thinkingNew Labour’s approach to Criminal Justice’, IN: Silvestri, A (ed.), (2011), ‘Lessons for the Coalition: an end of term report on New Labour and criminal justice.’ Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, The Hadley Trust, London

Soloman E, and Garside, R, (2008), ‘ Ten Years of Labour’s youth and justice reforms: an Independent audit, Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, The Hadley Trust, London Available at

Free Essays

The Evolution and Potential Eradication of Cyber-crime in the Nigerian Banking Industry, using GTB as a case study.

Background to Project

Over the years, the use of information communication technology has had a dramatic impact on almost all areas of human operation including, in particular, the banking and finance sector. To a certain extent, ICT can be seen to have simplified many of the business processes; however, it has also created a new breed of criminal activity, many aspects of which are aimed at the banking sector, for example, credit card fraud, identity theft and ATM fraud, as well as other related information technology issues (Singhal & Padhmanabhan, (2008).

The proliferation of e-banking has offered opportunities in countries such as Nigeria to become much more global in its operation and yet it has also opened up the jurisdiction to a broad range of cyber-crimes, which will be the focus of the analysis in this research. E-banking is not limited to the more developed countries and, arguably, can be seen to transcend many of the jurisdictional borders, with countries which are developing, such as Nigeria, being able to trade internationally in a way that was not possible, previously. However, this opportunity also presents challenges, particularly when it comes to establishing systems that will prevent or limit cyber-crime.

Problem Specification

E-banking in Nigeria is still largely seen to be in its infancy, with the majority of banks using information technology as a means of providing information, rather than creating an interactive banking arrangement (Howard et al 2008). To a certain extent, it could be argued that this relatively low level of take-up for e-banking in Nigeria may be attributed to the insecurity and the failure of the technology to keep pace with the needs of the public, if they are to fully engage with internet banking and all its ramifications (Chiemeke, Evwiekpaefe, & Chete, 2006).

Crime and corruption within the banking sectors have created a particular concern for businesses across Nigeria, which indicates that dealing with the area of cyber-crime is critically important and needs to be tackled, if Nigeria is to be able to develop as a strong international economic jurisdiction capable of attracting investment and stability.

Research Aims and Objectives

The overall aim of this research is to look at the evolution of cyber-crime in Nigeria and to explore ways in which it can potentially be managed, or even eradicated. In order to achieve this over-riding aim, several smaller research objectives have been identified.

Firstly, it is necessary to gain an historical understanding of the Nigerian banking industry and to ascertain the ways in which the industry has operated, prior to the use of information technology, and how information technology has impacted upon the banking sector, to date. Secondly, an analysis of the current cyber-crime control processes will be undertaken, looking at a range of different banks and how they look towards managing and controlling cyber-crime (Computer Crime Research Center 2009). The research will then move on to compare banks in other regions, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, with a view to establishing whether there are additional ways in which cyber-crime could be managed more efficiently, by looking at the various different means whereby cyber-crime is managed in these other jurisdictions. The findings can then be looked at in the context of the problems being faced in Nigeria, and potential options explored. A specific case study of GTB will be used, in order to explore the issues raised above, before ultimately suggesting how the Nigerian banking sector can improve its position and reduce the level of cyber-crime, to such an extent that it is likely to improve the stability and trust within the banking sector. GTB in particular has been the subject of much discussion due to several high profile fraudulent activities that have raised the issue of managing cybercrime in Nigeria (Shittu, 2010). Offering this guidance is a critical element of the research as it will offer guidance on how to manage the difficulties being raised by the Nigerian banking industry.

Research Methodology

The research approach will be inductive in nature in that it will look at a wide variety of ideas and observations with the view to ultimately establishing a theory and a framework that can be relied upon to develop the future of the Nigerian banking industry. In order to achieve this, both quantitative and qualitative analysis will be undertaken. However, this will primarily involve looking at the data associated with cyber-crime, in the region, as part of the secondary research and then going on to undertake a case study, to improve the understanding of where the data has originated from, and in order to bridge between the theory and practical reality of cyber-crime, in the region.


Resources will primarily be derived from journals and reports dealing with the area of cyber-crime, in Nigeria, although it will also be necessary to undertake primary research with the employees of the case study bank, i.e. GTB. Suggested references to be used as a starting point are listed at the end of the proposal.


Potential issues may emerge when it comes to collecting accurate data, as issues related to cyber-crime rates can be commercially sensitive, thus making it harder to ensure that the data and the subsequent analysis are accurate. It is also necessary to recognise that issues relating to cyber-crime are likely to change, very rapidly, making the research quite time-specific, in terms of its value. Gaining detailed primary research by interviewing employees may also present a problem, as employees are unlikely to be prepared to speak openly, for fear of any comeback from their employer.

Projected Schedule

The research will take place over one academic year, which actually spans a total of nine months. It is anticipated that monitoring the case study bank will take the longest period of time and therefore this is central to the timing and is recognised as such in the chart below.

Background Research
Literature Review
Case Study
Analysis and Write-up
Proofread and Presentation


Adeloye LA (2008). E-banking as new frontiers for banks. Sunday Punch, September 14, P. 25.

Chiemeke, S. C., Evwiekpaefe, A. and Chete, F.(2006) The Adoption of Internet Banking in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation, Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, Vol. 11, No.3,

Computer Crime Research Center 2009. Preventive Measures for ATM frauds. measures-ATMFraud,

Howard, R., Thomas, R., Burstein, J., & Bradescu, R. (2008). Cyber Fraud Trends and Mitigation, 9–24.

Litan, A. (2004). Phising attack victims likely targets for identity theft. Available:

Longe, O.B.& Chiemeke, S.C. (2008): Cybercrime and Criminality in Nigeria-

What roles are internet Access Points in Playing. European Journal of Social

Sciences, Volume 6 No 4

Ogunsemor AO (1992.) Banking services: The emergence and impact of electronic banking. The Nigerian Banker, January – March, 1992.

Omankhanlen O. (2009). ATM fraud rises: Nigerians groan in Nigeria. Daily News, Sunday, June 21, pp.8-10.

Shittu, O., Submitted, P., The, T. O., Of, F., Akintola, L., State, O. Y. O., Fulfilment, I. N. P., et al. (2010). The Impact of Electronic Banking in Nigeria Banking System (Critical Appraisal Of Unity Bank Plc ), 1–62.

Singhal, D., & Padhmanabhan, V. (2008). A Study on Customer Perception Towards Internet Banking : Identifying Major Contributing Factors, 5(1), pp. 101–111.

Free Essays

Neighborhoods and Crime

This article, which consists of an examination of data gathered from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, is aimed at gaining a complete picture of the neighborhood in Chicago. It is based on the spatial definition of neighborhood as “a collection of people and institutions occupying a subsection of a larger community.” The data gathered and the analysis based on such data are used to test the hypothesis that collective efficacy has a connection with reduced violence in neighborhoods. Collective efficacy refers to the social cohesion among people belonging to a neighborhood that is influenced by the willingness to act to promote the common good.

The hypothesis was formulated based on the premise that crime rates vary in different neighborhoods, and such variation may be attributed to social and organizational characteristics extant in such social groupings. Moreover, it is assumed that there are factors at play other than those attributed to demographic characteristics of individuals. The article also makes use of two concepts of efficacy, namely, individual efficacy and neighborhood efficacy. It suggests that these two constructs are related in their similar means of activating processes such as social control, which encourage people to act in protection of the neighborhood’s well being.

The question sought to be answered by the article revolves around the factors that influence collective efficacy. Again, this question has an assumption, which is that collective efficacy does not exist in a vacuum and is affected by various factors such as political economy and various contexts.

Using a five-item Likert-type scale, subjects of the study were asked various questions about the social interaction observed within the neighborhood, such as whether there is a general feeling of trust in favor of neighbors or whether there is a likelihood of intervention in certain circumstances. On the other hand, violence was measured through questions about the frequency of occurrence of violent behavior and personal experience of violent incidents. Moreover, the survey measures were juxtaposed with independent records of violent incidents.

After extensive analysis and presentation of data, the article concludes that collective efficacy may be measured at the neighborhood stage, mainly through the conduct of surveys. Moreover, neighborhood variation in collective efficacy is largely explained by three factors, namely, immigration concentration, concentrated disadvantage, and immigration concentration.

In sum, the article was able to find data to prove its hypothesis that factors other than demographic characteristics of the individual residents of a neighborhood affect collective efficacy. Nevertheless, the article is quick to note that the study has inherent weaknesses, and suggests that further studies be conducted to explore other possibilities.

Free Essays

Journal Citation for “Hate Crime”

Journal Citation List Hull, H. G. (2009). THE NOT-SO-GOLDEN YEARS: WHY HATE CRIME LEGISLATION IS FAILING A VULNERABLE AGING POPULATION. Mich. St. L. Rev. 387. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Wang, L. (2000). RECOGNIZING OPPORTUNISTIC BIAS CRIMES. 80 B. U. L. Rev. 1399. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Taslitz, A. E. (2000). HATE CRIMES, FREE SPEECH, AND THE CONTRACT OF MUTUAL INDIFFERENCE. 80 B. U. L. Rev. 1283. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Ginsberg, A. (2011).

Hate Is Enough HOW NEW YORK’S BIAS CRIMES STATUTE HAS EXCEEDED ITS INTENDED SCOPE. 76 Brooklyn L. Rev. 1599. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Schafer, J. R. ; Navarro, J. (2000). HATE UNMASKED: A PRACTICAL MODEL FOR UNDERSTANDING AND DEALING WITH HATE GROUPS. 21 Chicano-Latino L. Rev. 5. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Martin II, S. R. (1994). ESTABLISHING THE CONSTITUTIONAL USE OF BIAS-INSPIRED BELIEFS AND EXPRESSIONS IN PENALTY ENHANCEMENT FOR HATE CRIMES: WISCONSIN v. MITCHELL. 27 Creighton L. Rev. 503. Retrieved from www. exisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Jacobs, J. B. ; Potter, K. A. (1997). Hate Crimes: A Critical Perspective. 22 Crime ; Just. 1. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Ainsworth, K. N. (1993). TARGETING CONDUCT: A CONSTITUTIONAL METHOD OF PENALIZING HATE CRIMES. 20 Fordham Urb. L. J. 669. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Han, E. (2006). CONSTITUTIONAL LAW CHAPTER: B. HATE CRIMES AND HATE SPEECH. 7 Geo. J. Gender ; L. 679. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Kalam, M. (2000). Hate Crime Prevention. 37 Harv.

J. on Legis. 593. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Gratett, R. ; Jenness, V. (2001). EXAMINING THE BOUNDARIES OF HATE CRIME LAW: DISABILITIES AND THE “DILEMMA OF DIFFERENCE. 91 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 653. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Scotting,T. A. (2001). Hate Crimes and the Need for Stronger Federal Legislation. 34 Akron L. Rev. 853. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic MacNamara, B. S. (2003). NEW YORK’S HATE CRIMES ACT OF 2000: PROBLEMATIC AND REDUNDANT LEGISLATION AIMED AT SUBJECTIVE MOTIVATION. 6 Alb. L. Rev. 519. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Taslitz, A. E. (1999). Condemning the Racist Personality: Why the Critics of Hate Crimes Legislation Are Wrong. 40 B. C. L. Rev 739. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Sampson, M. H. (2000). Federal Hate Crimes Legislation PRO: The problem of hate crimes demands federal intervention, bringing with it increased expertise and resources. 26 San Francisco Att’y 24. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Wang, L. (1997).

THE TRANSFORMING POWER OF “HATE”: SOCIAL COGNITION THEORY AND THE HARMS OF BIAS-RELATED CRIME. 71 S. Cal. L. Rev. 47. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic O’Keefe, K. B. (2010). PROTECTING THE HOMELESS UNDER VULNERABLE VICTIM SENTENCING GUIDELINES: AN ALTERNATIVE TO INCLUSION IN HATE CRIME LAWS. 52 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 301. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Agyemang, T. (2006). RECONCEPTUALIZING CHILD SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AS A BIAS CRIME UNDER THE PROTECT ACT. 12 Cardozo J. L. & Gender 937. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Lawrence, F.

M. (2003). THE NEW DATA: OVER-REPRESENTATION OF MINORITIES IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM ARTICLE: ENFORCING BIAS-CRIME LAWS WITHOUT BIAS: EVALUATING THE DISPROPORTIONATE-ENFORCEMENT CRITIQUE. 66 Law & Contemp. Prob. 49. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic Grattet, R. & Jenness, V. (2005). THANKING OUR REVIEWER: ARTICLE OF GENERAL INTEREST: The Reconstitution of Law in Local Settings: Agency Discretion, Ambiguity, and a Surplus of Law in the Policing of Hate Crime. 39 Law & Soc’y Rev. 893. Retrieved from www. lexisnexis. com/hottopics/lnacademic

Free Essays

Cyber Crime Law

On March of 1994, Internet connection was brought to the Philippines. Only few people were familiar with the world wide web and was use only for basic communication such as email. Years have past and for the past 18 years almost all Filipinos are familiar with the internet. Using it not only for communication but also for video streaming, research, news, gaming and etch. It is now part of the lifestyle of 30% of the population of Filipinos. Our country even made it to top 20 nation using the internet, along with China, United States of America and United Kingdom.

The internet has been very useful and its occurrence is seen as one of the most wonderful invention of all time. But as it widens, it’s usage also became more useful to some opportunist, thefts and other criminals. Cyber bullying, identity theft, cyber harassment, violation of rights and many more offenses is now happening because of the availability of the internet. Now The Cyber Crime Prevention Act of 2012 or simply known as Cyber Crime Law had been pushed to legalization.

However, the Cyber Crime Prevention Act gathered many criticisms and issues. Pouring comments about the topic were seen in many social media networks in the Philippines on the day of the act’s effectivity. Some were in favor but many protests. Internet users also known as netizens criticizes the law. Cyber crime law was a good idea although some of the content is a redundancy such a the Child Pornography which was already implemented since the year 1975 and the revise in year 2009 in addition with the use of computer while committing the crime.

Another issue that broke was when online libel was added. The said part of the law will be able to criminalize social media comments and post, blogs or news article uploaded on the web whenever you found it offensive. The penalty for the said crime was doubled from the original libel laws and this is scary for many politician might use this to silent their critics. What about our freedom of speech?

On the Philippine Constitution of 1987 Article III Section 4 states that “No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. ” It is clear that that in our constitution, freedom of speech is part of our democracy. It is just right that our Supreme Court releases a temporary restraining order against the cyber crime law. It needs revision and a whole new study regarding every atter of its content. Cyber Crime Law is not bad, it’s just not so precise nor accurate. The law apparently has great intentions of preventing violations of human rights within the cyber world. However, preservation of human rights with this system violates a very important rights which is freedom of speech. World Wide Web might be another world, but it is still part of our reality. Law is needed to protect the users, but a more definite and justifiable kind of law.

Free Essays

Music and Crime

Music and crime are two very distinctly different but related things. Music has effects other than providing pleasure to listeners. On one hand, music may affect emotions in such a way that it may trigger a person to justify a criminal act. On the other hand, it can also help suppress a potential criminal’s emotions, which may possibly prevent crime from happening. For most people, classical music is that which usually has a positive effect. It may calm the violent instinct that is deep within a person, especially those who have no other means to release these instincts.  Thus, classical music may have a negative effect on crime.

Music and crime can be correlated through an individual’s mood. The mood that music inherently suggests is usually reflected in one’s thoughts. To clarify, crime may be usually driven by a person’s mentality, while music can influence one’s thinking.  In some forms of music, there are seemingly subliminal messages that may cause a variety of effects for different personalities. The subliminal messages that could influence a person can be a contributing factor in crimes (Cooper).

However, other forms of music, like classical music, are popularly believed to have positive effect that can prevent potential criminals from committing crimes. For instance, some studies also show that classical music has the effect of keeping the violent instinct down.  This can be attributed to the kind of slow, meditative and soothing quality that classical music has in trying to deal with certain elements, such as brute force and violence.

It can bring back gentle and tender memories of a person, which would most likely result in bringing out the gentle emotions that a person might have hidden deep inside of him (Partenheimer).This can have the unexpected effect of eliminating the kind of violent instinct that leads to crime.  For instance, in West Palm Beach, Florida, authorities found that playing classical music in the streets have lessened the criminal incidents in the said street (USA Today).

Everyone is subjected to music with embedded messages.  There are kinds of music that seems harmless and innocent that may actually influence one to commit crimes if it has an embedded negative message.  This occurs because people have different levels of comprehension; these negative messages may unconsciously encourage them to commit crimes.

If a person was exposed to music with a positive message, like that of classical music, the person that might have been previously inclined to commit crimes will be persuaded to gently stop committing crimes.  Moreover, a person’s mood can also be influenced by music.  Basically, it works in the same way subliminal messages do. However, it only targets more of the emotional side of a person (Wilson).

People who might have been in the mood for violent acts or criminally prosecutable actions will be very reluctant to engage in these kinds of acts if there is a big emotional weight pressing their feelings. This is the power that classical music has; it is capable of influencing the kind of mood that a person has. Classical music may help encourage resistance for criminal thoughts that will prove to be beneficial to one’s psychological state.

Classical music has the kind of ephemeral quality that the human mind cannot possibly comprehend in all its subtleties.  For this reason, the mind cannot actively stop the kind of influence that music exerts. The human mind unconsciously follows the lead made by the kind of music it is exposed to since the sounds are not hindered by simple syntax of human language. The kind of wordless but emotionally tangible quality that is inherent in classical music takes it straight to the inner workings of the human emotion.

There is nothing but the defenseless inner self or ego that bears to receive the kind of message that the music has.  Since classical music transcends the usual human emotional barriers through its capability to affect emotions, the person’s thoughts and mood is usually affected as well.  In turn, it also strongly influences the actions of the person. Classical music is powerful because it targets the basic emotions that can influence a person’s intention to commit crimes.

In addition, classical music can influence a person in a relatively peaceful or positive way.  Even if there are various reasons behind criminal or deviant acts coming in many forms, all of them are at least connected to some emotions as part of the underlying reasons hidden deep in the part of the human psyche. Classical music, which has an unfathomable effect on the human psyche, can highly influence a person’s decision to commit a crime.

In conclusion, classical music is conducive to positive emotions; therefore, it has a negative effect on crime because it triggers a positive effect on one’s emotions and thinking.  The effect of such musical forms and the mood it represents has the capacity to diminish a person’s violent instinct, as well as to keep criminal thought at bay.  In this way, classical music can be instrumental in preventing crimes.

Works Cited

“Classical Music on West Palm Corner Deters Crime.”  USA Today. 8 July 2001. The Associated Press. 22 March 2008  <>

Cooper, Candy. “Subliminal Messages, Heavy Metal Music and Teen-age Suicide.” San

Francisco Examiner. 29 September 1989. 5 March 2008 <>

“What are subliminal effects?” World of Mouth Experiment. 2007. 5 March 2008


Wilson, Stephanie. “The effects of Music on Perceived Atmosphere and Purchase Notions in

Restaurant.”(Abstract). Psychology of Music 31.1 (2003): 93-112. 5 March 2008 <>

Partenheimer, David. “Violent Music Lyrics Increase Agreesive Thoughts and Feelings,

According to New Study.” APA. 2003. 5 March 2008 <>

“Classical Music on West Palm Corner Deters Crime.”  USA Today. 8 July 2001. The Associated Press. 22 March 2008 <>



Free Essays

The Only Crime Is Pride

“The only crime is pride” is a true statement. Multitudes of people take much pride in numerous things some being: their job, family, political views, hometowns even in their favorite sports team. In the play Antigone by Sophocles, the protagonist, Antigone, wants to give her brother Polynecies the same honorable burial given to her other brother Eteocles. Creon, The ruler of Thebes, makes it very obvious to all the citizens that they are not to attempt to bury his nephew or they will be stoned to death.

Antigone deliberately defies her uncle Creon to get her wish and receives punishment as she should for breaking the laws. Subsequent to the sentry bringing Antigone in for her illegal actions, Creon’s niece does not deny anything saying that she had to do it. The ruler of Thebes was appalled that she would ever commit such a crime. This discovery prompts the Choragos to say, “Like father, like daughter: both headstrong, deaf to reason! She has never learned to yield. ” Showing that pride clouds her judgment and directly goes against her uncle and his laws to give Polynecies the honorable burial he deserved.

Antigone knew that this crime was punishable by death but her pride would not let her oversee leaving her dead brother unburied like many of the other soldiers and open for the birds and dogs to eat. Oedipus’ daughter was so involved in doing the right thing that she to take her own life in the process. She says, “If I had left my brother lying in death unburied, I should have suffered. Now I do not. ” This further exemplifies that she cares more about the pride of her family rather than her own life.

Had Antigone obeyed the laws put in place by her uncle, she would not have been forced to die. Instead she could have gone on living a noble life in the city of Thebes. Creon’s pride effects many of the decisions that he makes as a ruler. His dignity makes all the decisions very biased, including in scene 3 when he is arguing with his son Haimon. His son tells him that, “In flood time you can see how some trees bend and because they bend, even their twigs are safe, while stubborn trees are town up roots, and all. He, is telling Creon if he insists with being so stubborn with sticking to what his pride tells him to do; he will corrupt himself and many other who are in his life. Although Creon’s son is much younger he is wiser than his father even if Creon would never admit it. The king of Thebes was told many times that since Antigone is his family that he should not punish his niece, another reason people tell him he should release her is that she is a female. Despite these reasons Creon says that he would look weak to the citizens of Thebes if a girl was able to get away with such a felony.

His level of self-esteem would also diminish if he had let Antigone get away with this illegal act. Haimon is not the only one who tells Creon he needs to change his way. The blind prophet Teiresias tells Creon, “Think: all men make mistakes, But a good man yields when he knows his course is wrong, And repairs the evil: The only Crime is pride. ” Creon’s pride made Antigone’s punishment for doing what she believed was right much more severe than necessary. He had to follow through with his decree so he would not look weak in front of the people he governed.

Tragically, because of his pride, both Antigone and his own son, Haimon, died needlessly. Is one’s pride more important than human life? In society today pride corrupts people in every country and over every: gender, race, religion. Most crimes are committed because people take too much pride for things; and because of this take fierce actions. In Libya angered civilians took matters into their own hands after a movie was made mocking their god Mohammed. They were very proud of their religion and to see it mocked in a movie upset them.

Aggressors attacked and killed 4 Libyan ambassadors for the United States. Another example is the 2011 Vancouver Stanley Cup riot. It was a public disturbance that broke out in downtown Vancouver, British Colombia Canada on Wednesday, June 15, 2011. The riots happened immediately after the conclusion of the Boston Bruins’ win over the Vancouver Canucks in game seven of the Stanley Cup. The Vancouver fans were outraged since they had a lot of pride in their team. They were so upset that they stormed the streets flipping over cars, setting stores on fire, and vandalizing property.

The prideful fans minds were clouded and made rash decisions; not thinking about what they were doing and acting out of instinct. Harper Lee’s book To Kill a Mockingbird also exemplifies people making decisions with clouded minds. Once word gets out that Atticus will be representing Tom Robinson in court people begin to bully Jem and Scout. Since Jem is older he understands that he must not let his pride get in the way and keeps composure until finally he snaps, terrorizing Mrs.

Duboses’ garden ripping out all the flowers. Scout’s self-worth also clouds her mind, beating up many classmates that even thought to bring up that her dad was a bad man. “The only crime is pride. ” Accurately displays that pride makes humans act with clouded judgment making them do things they would not normally do; the same way Antigone and Creon acted throughout Sophocles play, Antigone, and the same way it effects millions of people in today’s world.

Free Essays

Most criminologists use a legal definition of crime

Crime is an action or an instance of negligence that is deemed injurious to the public welfare or morals or to the interests of the state and that is legally prohibited. It is a criminal activity that engaged in fights and riots. These definitions connote negative impact to crime and as what it always does to human minds. Stereotyping will always apply every time people encounter the word crime as dangerous, harmful and destructive to humankind and the state. Sociologists define it as deviant act, non-conforming to society’s standard and violating all the rules that the state set up. Thus every act that does not conforms or follows the society’s standards are all considered crime and doers are criminals.

Simple violations like way walking, loitering, over speeding, and making noise that disturbs the public are all considered crimes because it violates the society’s rules. To the extent that simple offender will easily be judge as criminal, thus given sanction and punished before the law, no matter how big or small the case was, as long as he/she committed violations punishment, is still given to him/her. Human law or society set standard are said to be righteous thus to be tag on and respected by all. All human kinds are abided to conform the said rules and standard. Acts, which are not set as correct by the state standards, are all crime and sin according to society’s laws. Violators of such are therefore tagged as criminal and thus sin committers. Every rules have corresponding sanctions, thus violators are subject to punishment base on how destructive and offensive the crime may be to people and to the state.

Not all people in a state or society are all aware the rules to abide in their respective society. Many were punished without knowing what offenses they are committing or what violation they do. In addition, many are not conscious to policy and sanctions to the said laws. Thus, offenders effortlessly surrender their selves to avoid any possible trouble of non-conformance. With these, Australia New Zealand Policing Support Agency (ANZPSA) was established to give policy support, strategic advice, research, knowledge management and information giving out capacity across jurisdictions.

This represents a momentous change in approach that involves the union of functions. An implementation team has been established too to commence the practical arrangements for the creation of the new organization. This agency was created to investigate possible causes of offenses, and possibly give massive information on how to avoid and handle crimes that may occur. This includes, thorough analysis of a certain case, its implications and root cause why such crime/offenses arise.

There are many crimes reported everyday throughout the country. Each one needs a kin and careful investigation because authority cannot easily accuse the suspect as guilty without proper jurisdiction. Cases are being study, offenders are questioned; his/her family background, his/her status and the reason behind his offenses are also investigated. If suspect is proven guilty before the law, sanctions and punishments are given. This punishment varies from case to case bases, which are also set together with the rules and standard of a certain community. There are also violations that need not to punish right away. Offenders are usually given warnings or let be pay for a certain amount. Mostly are jaywalkers and loiterers.

Crimes may vary from country to country, depending on how such country set its norm. According to National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) U.S most common committed crimes are gang crime, hate crime, organized crime, property crime, trafficking in persons, public offenses and drug crime, ( Drug crime as the most common offenses committed anywhere; cause so much damage that resulted to other related crimes. Drug and alcohol crime are offenses that involve many related crime doers. These include the user and the pusher. User may led to addiction which may caused him/her to do acts which are not set as standards to the society as a whole, like theft, rape, and robbery that resulted to public disturbance and destructions.

Crime involving drugs is most rampant violation that every one encounters, because drugs is present anywhere people go. Most people have access to it; even young ones can afford to hand it due to simple and easy to have resources. The Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program (ADAM) deals the level of drug and alcohol use in risky population of people. They are designed to investigate on how do arrestees use the drugs, how frequent they use how they obtain it and what push them to do so.

These data’s are collected either thru personal interview with the arrestees and careful observations. Dosage of offenders’ intake is also measured thru test and urinalysis. Investigations always occur during the arrest and not later than 48 hours to make documentation for proper reporting and study to come up a correct and accurate report on what alcohol and drugs are commonly abused and the effect it cause to the user and to the public.

Crime as a deviant behavior said to violate a prevailing norms especially cultural standard that dictates people on how to behave well and what someone should avoid to do, (Berger, 1963). This view consider the complicated facts surrounding the definition of crime and seeks to understand how changing social political, psychological and economic conditions may affect the current definition of crime and the form of legal law enforcement. Crime perception may change from time to time.

This changes depends on the cultural shift of one society also, which affects the criminal statistics rates of the state as well. Socio-economic status of one place plays a role in crime rate also. For example, in a drastically losing its resources country/society may affect the attitude of the people to crave for food for living especially if there is scarcity of its supply in their respective community. Scarcity of jobs will also affect criminal rate of a certain place.

Absence may lead people to commit some expected job-less related crime like theft and robbery. If one place is in famine or less job opportunities, it is expected that crime will also rise. On the other hand, if the state is in good economic standing, crime rate will also lessen. Economic change and cultural shift determines the allocation of resources for the enforcement of law, and influences public opinion. In addition, changes in criminal rate will also affect on how the public think and perceived crime.

Such adjustments, allied with the experience of people in their everyday lives, shape attitude to the extent to which the law should be used to enforce any particular social norms. There are many ways that behavior can control without having to resort criminal justice system, in those cases where there were no clear consensus on the given norm. The use of the criminal law by the group of authority to prohibit a particular action maybe considered improper for the others.

Crime as called deviant act will also have a corresponding punishments attach to it. Every person involve is given an equivalent sanction to the crime committed. In such a way that the said criminal be stop and further damage to the public and to the state can then be avoided, because the state or the authority believes that allowing any crime to occur without doing any action is just like letting harms to spread without any preventing or stopping device to control it. This process involves criminalisation, with the involvement of the state as the authority to control the said crimes.

It is a crime reduction device restricting individual liberty to minimize harm to others. Though every citizen has the right to liberty but not all liberty is harm-free to others. Because hat maybe considered crime to the others may not be crime for the other party. Criminalisation may provide future harm reduction even after the occurrence of crime, assuming that those act are more likely to cause further damage in the future.

Criminalisation is intended for the crime doers to pay their crime offenses to stop the act at the early stage to prevent and minimize criminals. In this case criminalisation is a way to set the reward that criminals must have after committing certain evil action that are considered threat to the peacefulness of the society as a whole. In addition; criminalisation can be viewed as a state sanctioned to the crime doers.

Because I personally believed that once a person is not aware of his deeds, whether he/she already caused damage to the others will continuously patronage his/her action if not being reprimanded of his wrong doings. In this sense, sanctions must be something that could make evildoers awake then, if not he/she more likely to repeat the said action again and again.

Crime rate is measured to determine the number or crime incidence happen in that particular place. In order to compare on what specific year and month that crime rate rise and fall, so that the public has the idea when to be more careful and not as well as to be more familiar with the places where crime rate is high. Countries and societies have different methods in measuring crime rate. Some used survey, personal interviews and sample sampling. In Australia, they use fact and figures to gather and determine the occurrence of crime, which come from a variety of sources.

They use two types of collection data. Namely, administrative and survey method. Both types of information needed to help our comprehension of the level and effects of crime to the people and in the community. The sources they use with these issues are listed in the reference for future retrieval and comparison. Administrative collection for criminal justice agencies keep record of their work process and progress related to crime in different stages.

Criminal cases are being divided into different agencies to handle with in order for it to be carefully tackle. In addition, public has the idea on what agency to look for in looking for a particular crime. For example police keep incidents record, court record the details of cases and their disposition and correction agencies have details of the offenders and their corresponding charges.

Most crime information come from administrative collections which tackle the whole population that come into contact with the criminal justice system and remain stable in terms of data collection and sources for the long period of time. There are limitations on spreading of the said data, including comparison across agencies and jurisdictions.

For example police record details about offenses, courts record cases and correction agencies for the information about individuals’ prisoners. Although improvement arises in workflow of the said data sources, data definitions and collecting method used are not always the same across jurisdiction and recording quality maybe vary. It takes time to come up with an agreement at a national level on the key issue including definitions of new and arising violations. More detailed and close likely to accurate information about crime and justice is often available at the jurisdictional level, even when it is not possible to come up with national statistics. Not all crime is reported to police.

Thus not all crimes were record and collected information then. Unreported crimes usually occur at rural areas where people do not have enough access to authority. Minor crimes like theft, sexual assaults, and minor incidence are the usual crime that is most commonly unreported. Twenty percent of crime related to sexual assaults is believed to be unreported and almost ninety five percent for motor vehicle thefts incidence. This is the reason why other sources of data collection use the method of asking questions to the public in order to come up with the highest and lowest common answers.

These answers are then recorded in a similarly uniform way so that the information they provide is reliable and comparable. Crime surveys are believed to produce more accurate vision of actual crime rate in a particular society. Although survey is said to be more accurate than the others there is still possibilities of error with regard of its percentage, due to small sample population involved. But percentage of errors is also being recorded in order to determine the error.

Crime brought negative connotation to individuals’ perception and thinking, based on how the state or society label it as such also. The imposed and practice rules and regulation culturally embraced society, because society has its norms and standard to follow. Doing the opposite to the said norms is therefore considered deviant. Thus doers are labeled as shame to the family where she/he belongs and to the community as a whole. These are labeled as such because the society set it as such also, and the people therefore are obliged to observe and follow the norms being an occupant of the society. Therefore, people committing such deviant acts are subject to face and suffer before the law.

The consistent problem has been to justify the society’s use of force to coerce with its law. Natural law theory posits that the standard of morality are derived from or constructed by the nature of the world or of human beings. Thomas Aquinas said: “ the law and measure of human acts is the reason which is the first principle of human acts.”( Since people are by nature rational beings, it is morally appropriate that they should behave in a way that conforms to their rational being. Thus any law must conform to natural law and coercing people to conform to that law is morally acceptable. Every human actions deal always with morality.

The problem may arise if ones moral act which is set his/her nature may not be moral to the others, which probably came from other society whose moral value are not the same. Thus crime may also result to. But in dealing with these issues both parties involve must understand and know each others moral value to compromise to possibly eradicate the arising trouble, as well as the authority who have the power to weigh and decide it all.

Majority of natural law theorist accepts that the primary function of the law is to enforce the prevailing morality. The problem with this is that it makes any moral criticism, if conformity with natural law is necessary conditions for legal validity. It s always necessary for the existing law to be just and fair to all individuals in a society. Equal treatment and punishment must be given to offenders regardless of their ethnicity, status and socio-economic standing. The law may be acceptable but the use of state power to citizens to comply with that law is not morally justified. Crime may be characterized as the violation of individual rights. Since right are considered as natural and crime as a man-made labeling.

Therefore crime is also natural. Perfect example for this is that man’s nature is to look for food for survival, and he must take some actions on how to get his/her basic needs. In remote areas for example most people get their food anywhere they want and with any method they knew. Some cultivate food in their own, using the land they found regardless of the ownership of the said land. Whether it owns by the state or by other people. With this scenario, in natural moral aspect the act is right and legal because the nature dictates man to have food to survive.

On the other hand, human implemented law states that it is illegal and criminal because of using the land which is own by the other people. It is invasion of property if the society law calls it. In this case, the man, which is just doing things that is for him legal, will be hold and question by the state before the law. Natural theory therefore distinguishes between criminality, which is derived from human nature, and illegality, which is derived from the interest of those in power. This view leads to a seemingly paradox that an act can be illegal that is no crime, while criminal act could be perfectly legal.



Berger, Peter. (1963). Introduction to Sociology, Doubleday and Co., Inc. New York.

Dostoevsky, Fryodor. (1981). Crime and Punishment, Bantam Books. New York.

Feinberg, Joel. (1973). Social Philosophy, Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey.

Halt, William. (1973). Social Control, Rinehart and Winston Inc. Forth Worth.

Hess, Beth. (1976). Sociology, Prentice Hall. New York.

Hudson, Helen. (1985). Criminal Trespass, G.P. Putnam’s sons. New York.

Lerry G. Lao-Valdez. (2005). Introduction to Literature: A Book Of Reading”,

Julbert Press. Department of English, College OF Arts & Social Sciences, MSU,  IIT, Iligan  City.

Sanchez, Custodiosa. (1997). Contemporary Social Problems and Issues,

National Bookstores. Manila.



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Truth-in-Sentencing Laws Do Not Deter Crime

Truth-in-Sentencing Laws Do Not Deter Crimes Nain Lizette Ritchey CJA/204 November 12, 2012 University of Phoenix Truth-in-Sentencing Laws Do Not Deter Crimes In the process of knowing whether or not sentencing laws deter crime, that fact in the United States (U. S. ), in the last 20 years, shows that longer sentences do not deter crime. After years of increased sentences and drain on the state’s treasury, we need to acknowledge this fact. In New York and many other states, the “tough” policies have produced a combination of large-scale prison overcrowding without meaningful reductions in our crime rate.

The U. S. now has the highest rate of incarceration of any technologically advanced country in the world except the Soviet Union and South Africa, and except for the extremely poor countries such as the Caribbean, Latin America and Africa, we also have the highest violent-crime rate. This does not prove that high rates of incarceration cause high crime rates, but it surely indicates that high rates of incarceration do not cause low crime rates.

We need to acknowledge that the kind of treatment criminals receive from the state can affect their subsequent conduct. Some rehabilitation programs do work. Some individuals clearly need to be removed from society. Alternatives to incarceration are less expensive and they provide critical opportunities for those who can be reformed. Corrections systems in some of the most conservative states in the country have begun to move away from policies based on the promise that “tougher” sentences reduce crime.

Though many are moving away from this belief, that fact still remains to show that the overcrowding of the jails and prisons is becoming an issue worldwide. The crimes are not being reduced nor are they becoming of lesser status. The age range is becoming younger, within the age of 18-25. A lot of these criminals are returning and are labeled as returned offenders without consequences. The state of North Carolina is one of the few states that are using the three strikes rule, meaning that no matter what the offenses are, the criminal will receive a life sentence.

Has this deterred those in this state to reduce crime? Or do we all need to use this system to help them be deterred? Whatever the issue at hand may be, we all need to come to a common ground as to what will help reduce our crime rates and reduce the overcrowding of prisons and jails. This is a very costly matter and the funds can be used for programs to help those that want to be helped. Reference www. NYTimes. com. (September 2010). Longer Sentences Do Not Deter Crime. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes. com

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The Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012: Reflection Paper

A few weeks ago, the country was shocked due to the sudden implementation of RA 1015 or the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012. I seldom watch the news but I found out about the law after my mom warned me to be careful of what I post online. I was surprised because my mom has never told me that before. I figured it wasn’t much of a big deal so I shrugged off my mom’s warning. However, as the news about the bill began to spread, a lot of people started to express their opposition to the newly-implemented law. I began to realize that this act was actually a really big deal.

I was astounded after reading some explanations as to why the bill shouldn’t be implemented. Why would the government pass a law that hampers democracy? How come only one senator noticed the flaws and loopholes of the bill? I saw a post as to why Senator TG Guingona opposed the said law. First of all, the provisions in the law are vague and unclear. Virtually anyone can be liable and be charged with crime. Second, the punishment is too grave and unfair. A 12-year sentence? That’s too much. Third, it’s oppressive. You can be charged with two counts of libel, one under the Revised Penal Code and the second under the Cybercrime Prevention Act.

As a student, this law gravely affects me. We all know that many adolescents are very active on the internet. I’m an active netizen as well and because some of the provisions on the law are vague and unclear, I could be charged with crime, even if I just retweet, like or share posts containing criticisms. Second, isn’t a basic human right to be able to express one’s self freely? The Philippines is a democratic country and this law simply curtails freedom of expression. However, the Cybercrime Prevention Act is not all that bad. It’s actually good that we finally have a law that aims to prevent cyber crime in the country.

After several cases of unsolved internet crimes (resulting to online criminals not being penalized for their crimes), it’s about time that we have a law for this issue. Its objective is to protect netizens from becoming victims of online crimes but because of certain provisions, the bill becomes an obstacle for freedom of speech. Another good thing about the bill is the establishment of a Cybercrime Investigation and Coordination Center. It will enable qualified officials to go after people who commit online crimes and file a case against them. The opposing views of the act are those against it and those who are in favor of the bill.

There are also those who believe that we need this law but don’t agree on certain provisions stated in the law. Yes, we do need a Cybercrime Prevention Law but the problem with this bill is that it lacks or is obscure in certain areas. It’s not perfect and it needs to be improved. It may even be subject to misunderstanding and abuse due to the vagueness of the provisions. If I had the power to reconcile these opposing views, I would first hear out everyone’s perspective regarding this bill. This would allow me to know what necessary changes should be made to the law.

The bottom line is, the bill needs to be revised. A law has to be clear and specific before it is passed and implemented. The only way to fix this issue is to improve and make the law better. Certain areas need to be changed and the changes to be made must be acceptable for all, especially the citizens. We cannot deny that the internet has had a huge impact on our daily lives. It is a symbol of humankind’s advancement and development. It is a vast source of data and information. It has allowed people to communicate with individuals who are far away from them.

It empowers people because it is an outlet and platform for us to speak our minds and express our opinions. In more ways than one, it has improved our lives and made it easier. Although it is a valuable research and learning tool, we also cannot contradict that there are individuals who exploit the freedom they have on the internet. There is a need for a Cybercrime Prevention Law because the internet can also be used to commit crimes. However, individuals should also practice being responsible of what they say and do online. Like what my professor said, it’s a matter of personal responsibility. Think before you post.

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Media-Based Anticrime Efforts

Today’s prevalent technological innovations contribute to the growing incidents of crime in the United States. This alarming fact has already been brought into the awareness of the National Citizens’ Crime Prevention Campaign and that which the agency has been addressing these days. Majority of NCPC’s campaigns are engaged in preventing crimes that involve the internet crime, bullying, and theft. (“Current Campaigns”)

In addition, Court TV’s Choices and Consequences also wishes to help the American society become aware of its ability to prevent crime. Empowering the youth – as its main targeted audience – with the wisdom that they can help prevent crime by being aware that the decisions that they make as adolescents have significant lifetime consequences is what this award-winning program do. (“Mission”)

In my opinion, these crime-fighting organizations are effective with their mission of preventing crimes in the society. Through their programs, the community is provided with sufficient information that strips them off from being ignorant about the most recent crime trends in the society. This information will serve as their weapon in fighting against particular crimes when they encounter them. The use of the various forms of media leaves no man ignorant about serious social issues that directly affect him.

Consequently, sometimes, excessive use of media in order to deter crime does not necessarily mean that it initiates fear among the members of the society to commit crime. There are even instances when people are influenced otherwise. Too much information also leads to curiosity – curiosity to do what and how it feels like to do what the law tries hard to prevent from happening. Moreover, though broadcast companies hate to admit it, media sensationalize crime incidents that results to adverse psychological effects among some members of the society.

There is moreover a conflicting interest issues in the media’s concern regarding its ability to report and deter crime. The federal government, in its hope to secure the society and prevent crimes from happening utilizes the media in order to popularize its campaigns against crime. Major organizations who are advocates of deterring crime also provides television networks with a large sum of money just to make sure people are aware of the criminal issues that are happening in the society so they can avoid it when in the situation. These huge amounts of money that is at stake here leaves us into doubt whether the media companies are earnest in helping deter crime in the community.


Current Campaigns. Retrieved from on Oct. 25, 2007.

Mission. Retrieved  on Oct. 25, 2007.


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Shame Is Worth a Try

Dan M. Kahan argues in his article “Shame Is Worth a Try” that people who understand the potential of shaming know that it is “cheap, efficient, and an appropriate alternative to short jail sentences” (571).

Any crime that is committed must have a punishment linked to it to avoid a repeat of the offense. Serious crimes, for example, those that involve a murder obviously need the jail sentence that comes along with them. Nonviolent crimes, such as theft or littering could receive cheap and personal punishments with the implementation of shaming.

Those against shaming are mostly those that view it as a worse and demeaning punishment compared to imprisonment. They would typically support a punishment that would seem more discrete to those the offender knows but shaming is a more personal punishment. Instead of a short sentence in custody, the offender would be required to announce their crime to the public in some manner.

Shaming in some cases “doesn’t seem to hurt as much as imprisonment” (573); imprisonment not only makes the offender feel the shame of the crime they committed, but it also takes away their ability to continue supporting their family. Living in a prison cell won’t allow the offender to continue on in their life. With a jail sentence, a criminal must change their entire life. They must find someone willing to pay their bills, and take care of their children while they are locked up. This not only hurts the offender but it makes it very difficult to continue their life afterwards.

Shaming, like any other punishment, is just as susceptible to overuse in some cases. Using shaming in a way that is outrageous as in public flogging or putting an offender in stocks does not help the offender at all. This only hurts the individual and does not provide any shame for the crime. Also, using shaming alongside a jail sentence is not only more harmful to the offender but it also decreases the cost efficiency of the punishment. In “Shame Is Worth a Try”, Dan M. Kahan provides well executed examples of how using shame instead of a short prison sentence is cheaper and just as efficient but not the views of the opposition. Kahan first shows how shaming is currently used in the American judiciary system.

Kahan’s first example is from Wisconsin, where a person caught stealing from their employer will be required to wear a sign around them stating their offense (571). Another example Kahan uses is the fact that drunk drivers in both Texas and Florida and required to place a bumper stick on their car, for a period of time, stating their DUI to the public (571). And finally Kahan states, “Refusing to pay child-support in Virginia will get you a boot on your car, pink for an abandoned girl and blue for a boy” (572). The examples show just how shaming is picking up in some states in America. Kahan also addresses the violent crimes and their punishments. He reassures the reader that all violent crimes will continue with the same long term imprisonment as they do now.

Kahan, along with the examples of shaming, provides statistics that support his cause. Studies performed at the University of Oklahoma state that shaming provides a greater pressure for the general public to comply with the law (573). The threat that one’s neighbors would find out of his or hers offense will keep most offenders from committing the act they planned to do.

On the negative side, Kahan seems to be fairly one sided with his examples in this article. He only provides the fact that shaming can be overdone if used alongside imprisonment. I also believe that he could have shown more examples of the “pointlessly degrading” tactics that could have been used as a shaming device (573).

Even though Kahan’s article is very one sided, I would still recommend this article to other college students. I wouldn’t recommend it as a source for alternatives to imprisonment but I might offer it as an example of how to prove one’s point with limited examples. This article is a prime model of how an author can use examples to prove one’s point and persuade their reader. Again, it lacks the full view of the opposition but it is still very convincing.

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Crime Causation and Diversion Paper

Crime Causation and Diversion Paper University of Phoenix Online Juvenile Justice Systems and Processes CJA/473 LeDetra Jones October 01, 2012 Crime Causation and Diversion Paper Today the public became more concern about youth crime rising within the community. The public also believes that some of juvenile delinquents do not belong behind bars whereas others do. In the concern of the juveniles who do not belong behind bars the public started creating community outreach programs, intervention, and prevention programs.

These programs create an environment for the youth to understand the consequences of their actions, responsibility, and help. This paper will be examining two juvenile diversions, interventions, and prevention programs, which are Island Girl Power and Inafa’ Maolek. The following will be addressed in the paper: How do they work to reduce juvenile crime (Based on analysis). Programs major goals, objectives, and core beliefs? Who are the key participants? Services provided?

Which program is most effective at reducing crime and why? How programs reduce juvenile crime and major goal, objectives, and core beliefs The Inafa’Maolek is Guam’s only organization that dedicates exclusively to peacemaking, especially in settling disputes such as mediation, restorative justice, and conflict resolution training of all ages (Inafa’Maolek, 2010). The trainings conducted by Inafa’Maolek helps establish peer mediation programs in more than 30 public schools ranging from elementary to high schools.

These special programs currently in schools include Date Rape Workshops, Bullying Workshops, and Hate Crimes Workshops. The organization provides programs to all sectors in the community, including senior citizens (Manamko) as well as DYA families. The heart and souls of its work focuses on mediating conflicts, many referred by Superior Court Judges (Inafa’Maolek). Island Girl Power is a program on Guam that works to Empower, Encourage, and Inspire young ladies to make positive lifestyle choices. This program believes that if the island works together to empower, ncourage, and inspire the young ladies of Guam to make a positive lifestyle choice by promoting positive male and female role models it helps to prevent the abuse and neglect in the families for generations to come (Blaz, 2009). Island Girl Power is a local program, taken, and expanded from a national program Girl Power. Its prevention program focuses on offering young ladies a variety of classes, activities in hopes of expanding their goals. It is a safe place where people can volunteer at their leisure and is expanding into the community through volunteers and center willing to offer classes (Blas, 2009).

This program is a clubhouse more like and located in Dededo, GU. Their hours of operations are from Monday through Friday 8a. m. -5p. m. , and Saturdays 9a. m. -3p. m. This clubhouse offers many activities such as dancing, self-defense, and big sister club, etc. The reason this club focuses on young ladies is that it helps them to gain self pride, become wiser, and make smarter choices in life. Young ladies are usually self conscious about themselves and rebellious than males. They are more vulnerable to the outside world once they step into it.

While the two organizations/clubs works in many ways of preventing and interventions juvenile delinquency, here are the clubs/organizations major goals, objectives, and core beliefs of what it can provide for the community as well as juveniles. The mission statement for the Inafa’Maolek is a conflict resolution organization dedicated to reducing violence related litigations and foster peace and harmony in schools, Workplaces, and communities (Inafa’Maolek, 2009). The vision statement for the Inafa’Maolek is that it will enhance peacemaking and reduce violence related litigation through advocacy, mediation, and education (Inafa’Maolek, 2009).

The mission statement for the Island Girl power is that we want the girls to know just how special they are here at Island Girl Power! We believe that each girl can create a positive change in her life. If every girl makes it her goal to do her best, how can go wrong? We want to give girls ages seven to 14 a safe and enjoyable place to learn and play (Blas, 2010). By making the girls wiser to the world around them girls will make smarter choices in life- and maybe even help a friend. By accepting all girls, regardless of the income or status, we help bridge the gap between the haves and the have-nots (Blas, 2010).

When a girl joins a club it means so much to them, the acceptance, and the pride they feel when they are part of a group is irreplaceable. We as an organization help girls understand the importance of community service by showing them the example of the wonderful people who volunteer to create a place just for them (Blas, 2010). The clubhouse goal is to decrease the incidence of teenage pregnancy, suicide, sexual, and substance abuse. These problems are the most serious challenges facing our girls today. We know that we cannot change the island overnight, but we can make it better -One girl at a time! Blas, 2010). The two organizations help juvenile delinquents/youths in the community to improve themselves to make wiser decisions and to give a sense of direction to where they should be in the future. Knowing that the organizations/clubs are do their best to provide the community with the proper services to help the children to become better helps the people to get over that there are other outlets for their teens. With major goals, objectives, and core beliefs here are the key participants of the programs and the services the programs provide.

The key participants of these programs and services provided The key participants of these programs are teens in intervention, juvenile delinquents, teens in prevention (joining so they do not commit the crime), and teen volunteers. These key participants help the organizations to better understand teens nowadays. Juvenile delinquents in the early days probably have committed more serious crimes than teens today. There was not enough services provided to the teen besides, juvenile correction facilities. The community is very limited on the help needed for their children, and some are forced to look elsewhere that type of help.

Because the key participants are teens whether trouble or just interested in the program, there are services that the programs for them. The services that Inafa’Maolek provides are one, peace theater- where teens perform a situation and how to bring instead of conflict. Second, mediation- where two parties meet privately to work out a solution. Third, restorative justice- RJ sessions provide a context within which people can take responsibility for their actions, restitution are made to victims, offenders are reintegrated, and harmony are restored to a community. Fourth, conflict coaching (Inafa’Maolek, 2009).

These are the main services that this program provides, other services include; volunteering in schools, socializing with other teens, restore the community, and helping others who need help. The services that Island Girl Power provides are encouraging girls on their personalities, social skills, looks, and abilities to please other rather than develop their own interests and aspirations. Island style dance classes so that they can learn about who they are and where they come from. Self-defense classes so that young ladies have that skill to protect themselves or another against harm.

Occasional classes in Gef Pago as well as the big sister service where an older girl will help guide the younger ones. Of the services provided by the two programs the most effective program to reduce juvenile crime would be Inafa’Maolek. Most effective program The reason for this decision is the Inafa’Maolek provides services and outcomes used to for schools and became very popular to teens, the government, other programs. It also provides more services than other treatment programs or organizations on the island. There are no other program that provides these services than Inafa’Maolek.

It has shown that when teens take these sessions it guides them into becoming better person not only them but for his or her families. Conclusion In conclusion, as the community starts to see more troubled teens/delinquents these organizations/programs are ready to fight these behaviors to make them a better person. These programs were created to help the children because they are the future leaders and so forth. By understanding what drives them to commit these crimes is a mystery and why these programs try to bring all teens and their families to help one another.

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Models of Organized Crimeexecutive Summary

Models of Organized Crime Executive Summary Jennifer Peel CJA/384 November 26, 2012 Marco Faggione Models of Organized Crime Executive Summary Within the criminal justice field there are two different types of organizations and those organizations are bureaucratic and patron-client organizations. This paper will discuss the several assorted reasons why and how the bureaucratic and patron-client organizations are different. The patron-client organization chooses to break the law. On the other hand, the bureaucratic organizations are those that are there to enforce it.

Although there are many differences between these two organizations, they also have commonalities. This paper will address so many more ways that make these two unique types of organizations different. The Patron-client Organization A patron-client organization is an assembly of criminal individuals who swapped data and assembled a successful system between the main bosses and important political figures. The patron-client organization is typically organized using a hierarchy system which consists of one boss, an underboss, an advisor, captains, and members.

The main boss hands down commands to the underboss. The underboss relates the information to captains, who also has lackeys to do the dirty work. All members of a patron-client organization must go through prior initiation. Moreover, patron-client organizations are similar to a very close family in the top tier. The patron-client appears to recruit solely within their group. They tend to identify members with a common factor for recruitment. All members may be of the same ethnic group, family or other common factor.

When it comes to the lower level, with the members, that tightness spreads out some. With this allowance of a somewhat spider web manner, there is a better chance of elusiveness when it come to the head figures. This way, the main bosses are able to evade apprehension as well as initial detection form the justice system. The organization is then able to continue daily operations with no issues (Lyman, 2007). When it comes to the patron-client organization control is a special problem ecause of the amount of people in the organization and the length of communication of commands have to travel. So the inability to establish command oversight with the leaders in management with the members in the lower tiers is a large problem (“Florida International University”, 2007). Something that this group provides is economic aid and protection from outside influences that their clients may be facing. While the group is providing this service, the client will repay the organization with such things like intangible items like loyalty to the organization in the future and esteem.

The patrons of the organization will act as power brokers for their clients and the rest of society. The Bureaucratic Organization Bureaucratic organizations are more official consisting of hard guidelines, protocols, practices, and procedures. This is unlike the patron-client organization because without administrative approval, the low ranked members may not make any decisions. Called the red tape rule, administration must process the formal documentation before processing all major decisions.

Unlike the patron-client organization, which the lower level members can make small decisions without any approval as long as it benefits the organization. If there are no benefits to the organization, the member will receive some sort of punishment. A bureaucratic organization, blames financial troubles solely on the administrations whereas in a patron-client organization, holding everyone financially responsible and involving all members in the success or failure of the organization (WeeKoh, 2009). The Similarities

All criminal organization models consist of comparisons and contrasts but the main purpose is to benefit law enforcement, researchers, society, and professionals with a better understanding of how criminal organizations develop domestically and internationally. Professional psychologists, sociologists, and criminologist’s base models on corroborating studies, data, facts, and creditable arguments collected. The information that presented focuses on organizational structure, function and reason, participants, and clients.

In addition, each model incorporates detail specific unique features. The models presented are tools that provide answers to questions, offer an explanation to why individuals engage in illegal activity, how criminal organizations develop, and why most criminal organizations are successful. These are just a few of the similarities that exist (Lyman, 2007). Although it appears there are more similarities in both the bureaucratic and patron-client organizations such as their involvement in both legitimate and illegitimate means of business.

Both parties hide behind legitimate businesses to cover alternative means of business opportunities, and both parties follow a structured and strictly regulated organization with various levels of power. The Differences The main difference between the two organizations is the shared opportunities and contributions to the organization. The patron-client appears to welcome the input and contributions of each member which gives each member the sense of pride and empowerment as a group that is lacking with the bureaucratic organization.

Failure in the bureaucratic organization is blamed on the negligence of those in charge, not in the failure as a group which would be the perception of the patron-client organization. The differences between bureaucratic and patron-client organizations are visible as bureaucratic deals with offices that do things by the law. They do not take extensive training in customer service and do not concentrate on being nice. The offices that are being referred to are government offices such as Welfare, DMV, and Section 8.

In contrast, patron-client facilities are offices or places that focus upon pleasing their clients because if they don’t, the patron will go to another facility to get their needs met. This brings us to the similarities and differences of the models of organized crime. These types of models are exceedingly important to understanding organized crime as each provides a wide-range of valuable information. Models just like theories can present what environmental locations are more likely to show signs of developmental progress of criminal organizations than other sites.

This in return can be extremely useful in many ways as it allows law enforcement the ability to implement methods that will deter, prevent, detect, and apprehend individuals involved with illegal organizations and operations. Furthermore, law enforcement can educate society on crime prevention methods, and establish numerous anti-crime and awareness programs, such as neighborhood watch (Lyman, 2007). After carefully researching the patron-client and bureaucratic organization, one clearly can see that legal and illegal organizations have one main purpose to profit.

Each organization has numerous similarities and differences, but structuring both in such a fashion that there is always someone who is in charge of maintaining the organizations success. Models just like theories provide useful information to law enforcement, society, and professionals. Consider these models as tools that allow law enforcement and society an opportunity to protect assets while detecting, preventing, apprehending, and deterring the individual wrongdoer or a highly developed criminal organization.

References Florida International University. (2007). Retrieved from http://chua2. fiu. edu/faculty/byrnesj/organizedweek1-1. htm Lyman, M. D. , & Potter, G. W. (2007). Organized crime (4th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. WeeKoh. (2009). Bureaucratic organization. Retrieved from http://weekoh. wordpress. com/2009/02/28/briefly-identify-the-main-features-of-bureaucratic-organizations-why-has-bureaucracy-been-accused-of-wiping-out-the-individual-responsibility-of-the-employee/

Free Essays

International Crime

Throughout the term we have encompassed an array of information pertaining to international criminal justice practices. The examination of past, present, and future trends facing global justice systems has led us to embark on research and topics for many different countries. This paper will cover the topics of social phenomenon, social behavior, legal traditions of contemporary society, Interpol and Europol, and what is forthcoming for future trends in international criminal justice practices.The difference in studying crime as a social phenomenon and in studying crime as a social behavior is that crime as a social phenomenon deals with the crime itself and crime as a social behavior deals with the person committing the crime. The person committing the crime tells the social behavior of the individual as well as the environmental status. The phenomenon deals with the crime itself not who committees it. “Comparative criminological thoughts do affect social phenomenon through social behavior individuals place on others” (Reichel, 2008).

The comparative criminological ideas help with the study of different criminal element through domestic, international, and transnational crime. These concepts, theories, and ideologies help researchers to come up with different methods to help for resolving the issue of social disorder. Criminal behavior helps contrive summaries on the issue of social phenomenon on transnational to international crime; furthermore, “crime as a form through social behavior does as a social phenomenon through different identities through patterns and summaries in countries worldwide” (Reichel, 2008).

A great example of a social phenomenon would be the twitter phenomenon The recent announcement that social-networking phenomenon Twitter “has agreed to settle FTC charges that Twitter engaged in inadequate privacy and information-security practices illustrates some simple mistakes social media and other online companies can make” (ftc. gov). The crime that was committed by twitter was the releasing of information pertaining to an individual’s sense of privacy. In order to understand the magnitude of the social phenomenon on a more global scale we can look at myspace, twitter, linkedin, and facebook as resources.

These social networks gather information from clients in order for individual companies to keep track of their consumers and are also used as informational portals for blogging, networking, and file sharing. With young people being able to watch satellite television or the Internet to see the pro-democracy uprisings in other countries, and could communicate with activists across social networks that the secret police have difficulty controlling, governments across the region have reason to fear of contagion.

One recent example of the power of social phenomenon was the revolution that began in Egypt on the 25th of January 2011. “The protest consisted of street demonstrations, acts of civil disobedience, riots, marches, rallies, acts of civil disobedience, riots, labor strikes, and violent clashes throughout Egypt as part of a longer-term campaign of civil resistance” (law. com). Millions of protesters from a variety of social economic backgrounds and religions demanded the overthrow of the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, along with an end to corruption and police repression, and democratic reforms of the political system.

On the 11th of February, Mubarak resigned from office as a result of determined popular protest. These spiraling events were the end result of a facebook group who attracted 80,000 attendees. This goes to show how powerful social phenomenon’s were, can be, and will be in the future. Nigeria utilizes these social phenomenons for criminal purposes to gain access to important information like American birthdates, social security numbers and other vital information. The majority of the information gathered from these countries usually is gathered from social networks.

Because lately Nigeria has been one of the top countries that has been listed in the forefront of the news for scams that have cost many individuals across the world money a closer look have been taken to prohibit these types of cybercrimes. Crimes people place among others throughout any organizations and society does affect the social and psychological motives on the person. The issues of international crimes help to explain the social and psychological motives throughout the globe.

The images of social behavior help improve both theoretical and psychological motives that created individuals organizations to help to prevent violence throughout society. According to Reichel the comparative criminology does focus through social and psychological behaviors through community. The future of these cybercrimes is uncertain; furthermore, the more technology seems to increase the more technical and savvy criminals become. When considering the legal traditions of contemporary society a person would have to take into consideration many different attributes to determine the legal traditions.

With reference to my personal opinion the three primary legal traditions are Common law, Religious law, and Contemporary law. “An argument can be made that a fourth tradition, socialist, exists on its own right but can also be considered and argued to be a part of civil law” (Reichel, 2008). Common law had its basis formed in Western Europe whereas civil law had its foundation in Roman times (Reichel, 2008). An apparent difference between civil and common law was the existence of common law in its relation to civil law. Common law was based on religious decisions from the Christian Church (Reichel, 2008).

Islamic law has its foundation in a divine source but also incorporates the use of reasoning as well as “reasoning by analogy” (Reichel, 2008). Religious laws would be considered are religious law these are laws with that hold ethical, and moral standing. A great example is Hindu, Islamic, and etc. which rule by the basis on religion and old law. In simple religion and custom are laws. Contemporary law means the present and prevailing law. This states that laws will be referred to laws that are already in place in order to obtain a mutual consensus throughout the court system.

The difference between legal systems and legal traditions is that legal systems are comprised of “legal institutions, procedures and rules” (Reichel, 2008). Legal traditions deal with the culture and historical attitudes of a society regarding law and how it should be applied (Reichel, 2008). “Common law had its basis formed in Western Europe whereas civil law had its foundation in Roman times” (Reichel, 2008). An apparent difference that I read between civil and common law was the existence of canon law in its relation to civil law. “Common law was based on religious decisions from the Christian Church” (Reichel, 2008).

Islamic law has its foundation in a divine source but also incorporates the use of reasoning as well as “reasoning by analogy” (Reichel, 2008). In lament terminology common laws help to develop a better democratic form of governments; that helps prevent any acts of individual’s violation of his or her rights. Therefore, traditional laws help to develop a stronger republic to help protect an individual’s rights and liberties throughout modern world. Religious laws help to determine the action that came from the churches and how their ideological approach does help to improve society.

Interpol in short stands for International Criminal Policing Organization. Its sole purpose is to oversee internationally crime trends and crack down international wrong doing. Interpol plays a major roll on the international scene in regards to policing because it’s the world’s largest international police organization. It encompasses approximately 188 countries globally and was created in 1923. “Interpol aims to facilitate international police co-operation even where diplomatic relations do not exist between particular countries.

Action is taken within the limits of existing laws in different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Interpol’s constitution prohibits any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character” (inter. int). Europol in short stands for “European Law Enforcement Agency which aims at improving the effectiveness and co–operation of the competent authorities in the Member States in preventing and combating terrorism, unlawful drug trafficking and other serious forms of organized crime” (euro. ur).

Europol is the law enforcement agency of the European Union. Our aim is to help achieve a safer Europe by supporting the law enforcement agencies of European Union member states in their fight against international serious crime and terrorism. More than 620 staff at Europol headquarters in The Hague, the Netherlands work closely with law enforcement agencies in the 27 European Union member states and in other non-EU partner states such as Australia, Canada, the USA and Norway” (euro. eur).

These two different but very similar methods of trying to police in an effort to prevent and stop crime I feel is very beneficial globally. These two organizations contribute very greatly with regards to international policing. One focuses on European countries while the other focuses on international countries. Sharing vital statistics, crime trends, and data is the Achilles heel for both organizations. They both rely on information sharing with local agencies to produce productive results. For the prevention of international crimes both play major and important rolls with information and data sharing.

This is a great system in place because now there isn’t really any criminal that can abscond from justice. Interpol /Europol concentrate on three broad categories of international criminal activity. “Both contributes to providing information terrorism and crimes against people and property, including crimes against children, trafficking in human beings, illegal immigration, automobile theft, and art theft; economic, financial, and computer crimes, including banking fraud, money laundering, corruption, and counterfeiting; and illegal drugs and criminal organizations, including organized crime” (inter. nt). Interpol’s everyday operations are managed by a General Secretariat under the direction of a secretary general, who is appointed for a five-year term by the General Assembly. Interpol was reorganized in 2001 following the September 11 attacks on the United States. The new post of executive director for police services was created to oversee several directorates, including those for regional and national police services, specialized crimes, and operational police support.

In conclusion, the international criminal system does have its ups and downs. Based on the readings and discussions up to this point, it becomes very apparent that the futures of international criminal activities are uncertain. “There’s no question that terrorism, the growth of multicultural populations, massive migration, upheavals in age-composition demographics, technological developments, and globalization over the next three or more decades will affect the world’s criminal justice systems” (ojp. gov).

The research predicts that global trends will play a significant role in how criminal justice is delivered throughout the world. This can be because of the dramatic growth in the number of foreign born Americans and suggests that increasing diversity in populations will have a significant impact not only in the United States but worldwide. Such growth has the potential for disharmony; furthermore, in South Africa, for example, the court system now recognizes eleven official languages. “As a result, lawyers may speak one language, the judge another, and the defendant, a third.

Often, the only two people in the courtroom speaking the same language are the victim and defendant with the judge, prosecutor, and defense lawyer relying on interpreters” (ojp. gov). The lack of similarities extends beyond language to social norms and expectations can prove a huge problem for the future of international criminal justice. Ultimately, the priority over the next couple of decades should be to develop policies and technologies that will help policymakers, decision makers, and citizens establish a criminal justice system that is fair, equitable, and respectful.


Free Essays

Criminal Justice Ethics

After reviewing the tutorial on criminal justice ethics, my answer on the case would have to be Report the incident to your supervisor. I choose this answer for the following reasons: 1. Partner did not use prudence when making the decision to interview the minors alone, with no parental contact and choosing not to videotape the interview/confession. Ethical decisions were not made while conducting the interview. 2. Honesty and justice for the teens were not being considered in the decision of my partner. 3. My job as a criminal investigator is to protect the community, respect the rights of others and serve justice to the victims.

When the investigator decided to take actions into his own hands and interview the minors with no parent or guardian present and no video for evidence it not only jeopardized the case, the department as well as the community. Although the minors do have a criminal history they have the right to be treated fair and by the laws set in place to protect them until proven guilty by a judge.

These rights were taken from them when the investigator did not follow department policies. Although it may be clear that these teens were guilty of this crime it is now going to be very hard to prosecute them in court because the other investigator has broken rules and been dishonest. Since it is not mandatory for the parents to be present the investigator should have at least made sure to record the interview, insuring there was enough evidence to stand up in court. If there is not enough evidence when this trial goes to court it the case may be thrown out.

I now feel like it is my duty to report my partner actions to the supervisor so there will at least be record of the incident should it be brought up in the future. This will protect me as well as the department should any circumstances come up as a result of his actions. My main goal is to make sure that if these teens are guilty they are not released back into the community where they may harm others. There are rules set in place within the department to prevent these situations from occurring for this very reason.

In conclusion I feel that making the choice to Report the incident to my supervisor is the most beneficial to everyone involved. The victim should have some closure and sense of security knowing these criminals are off the streets. The teen suspects are now in custody and given the rights they deserve as well as possible after the poor judgment of the other investigator. We have two potentially violent criminals off the streets and out of the community preventing them from harming more innocent people. Last we have record of the incident to help protect both investigators and the department if needed.

Free Essays

National Crime Survey

Would you answer honestly if participating in a national crime survey asking about your criminal behavior, including any drinking and drug use? Yes I would participate in the survey. I would be honest because I have nothing to hide and no reason to lie. But for some they don’t want people to know what crimes they have committed or they lie about the extent of the crimes. But I think it’s because they want to be seen in a “good light”.

A good term for this is called “Social Desirability Bias” which means that you reply in a manner that is socially acceptable and desirable. [1] The main purpose of this study is to allow the participants to describe the crimes in their own words instead of implying from observing participants. [2] Honesty in these self-report studies help many different groups to better understand crime and criminal behavior. They use these reports to gather information to put them into statistics.

The reports that are used are collected from the NIBRS (National Incident-Based Reporting System) and NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey) and published by FBI in their yearly UCR ( Uniform Crime Report. ) In some forms of deviance self-report studies have been proven better than police reports (ex: minor offenses among adolescents. ) In a variety of social-psychological studies these reports have been proven very useful (ex: monitoring of subjective feelings or states is at issue) [3] Dishonesty in these repo

Free Essays

Correctional System and the Rehabilitating Offenders

The correctional system has a way of punishing offenders in this country unlike in different countries where you might get a harsher punishment for a crime that might seem more, petty and a lesser punishment for a crime that one would consider more of a harsher crime. In our system however not only are you innocent until proven guilty but you are also allowed to have a trial that can prove otherwise. The system might not always work out how we want it to, or expect it to but it is definitely a fair way of going about it.

Offenders in this country get punished on the basis of how horrible the prosecutors think that your crime was and they are the ones that for the most part dictate the form of punishment you will receive. Now in this process the family may also have a say that is considered in all of this, then a jury listens to a trial and decide for themselves the extremity of the crime and what the punishment should be. There are also different levels of correctional facilities that you can wind up in you have the local, state, federal levels.

The local level is for more of your petty crimes such as DUI, shop lifting, etc. The state level is for felony level offenders and the federal level is for big time and repeat offenders for crimes like bank robbery and arson. In some cases I personally think that some of the punishments could be a little harsher, it seems like a lot of these offenders get off a little easier than they should. There are definitely times though where someone does get screwed and they get a harsh punishment for something that should’ve been a case of self defense or some other form of defense.

For the most part I think that if you believe in our system that it actually really can work to your benefit. If you are in the right than the majority of the time it will prove that. If you are in the wrong than it will eventually prove that as well. Our corrections system tries to rehabilitate offenders by several different means you have imprisonment which most of the serious crimes or repeat offenders get this. The length of imprisonment is decided by a judge and the length of the sentence is decided by the nature of the crime.

There is also supervised probation. Which only about twenty-five percent of offenders are sentenced to some form of probation. This punishment means that you are under specific rules by a judge to be under direct supervision while maintain a somewhat normal lifestyle. The offender is also assigned to a probation officer where they required to meet with, to make sure that they are maintaining the standards set forth by the judge. Any violation of the rules and guidelines may send the offender back to jail without a second chance of probation.

The next form of rehabilitation is house arrest, which allows you to live in your own house without going to prison but it enables the police to ensure that you are in your house because they administer an electronic bracelet that you must wear around your ankle until the completion of you r sentence. With the electronic bracelet you are only able to go a certain distance away from the box that they put inside your house which links to the police system.

Parole, which is the smallest of the rehabilitation system and is very similar to probation where if you don’t follow the exact guidelines set forth by the judge and the court system then you are going to end up back in jail. One of the best ways that we can help offenders rehabilitate is by severe counseling. If we can send these offenders through extreme physciatric counseling and get them to let someone know why they are the way they are I think that could make a huge difference.

Another way of helping offenders to rehabilitate is by letting them further their education, a lot of these offenders probably don’t have a great education at all and if we let them continue with higher learning then maybe it well give them a better sense of belonging to society or a sense of right and wrong. From there they might be able to help in programs that talk to other people such as youth or other offenders and help them to straighten their lives out.

Although both punishment and rehabilitation can be effective in reducing crime, I think that punishment is the more effective route in reducing crime, and the reason I say this is because rehabilitating isn’t always going to work with certain offenders and then you have just wasted even more money by not only housing them but also treating them. I am a firm believer that if we had harsher punishments for things in this country than we would have less offenders.

If we started handing out the death penalty a little more, and when we did if we didn’t let offenders sit in a cell for ten years before they got executed then I think more people would see that we were making an example out of these offenders and they would be more likely to do it. I also think that if we brought back some of the punishments they used in the older days, that they say are cruel and unusual that we wouldn’t have as big of a problem.

I think that if we stoned people, or cut off a limb when they commit a crime of greater statute than some of these people would wake up and see that this is not a form of punishment that they would like. If we keep giving offenders three meals a day and we keep giving them a place to sleep they are not going to care and they are not going to stop committing crimes. If we go back to the days of the chain gang and put offenders on the side of the road to clean up trash.

What I have been saying all along is that we need to send them through a certain training course and then send them overseas to fight for our country. Obviously what they want is to fight and hurt people so let them do it where it needs to be done and that is on the battlefield. If we did that I think that there is a lot of these hardened criminals that would curl up in the fetal position and cry for their moms.

Free Essays

Crime Statistics Comparison

Crime statistics endeavour to provide statistical measures of crime in societies. They provide a point of analysis and comparison, allow countries to form long-term patterns and trends and can help to develop and reform criminal justice policies as well as being more meaningful than raw numbers.

Using the countries of Bahrain and the United States as a comparison point for the following issues which surround crime statistics such as biases, agendas and general influences like education and religion; this essay will be focused around analysing the statistical factors and wider influences which can allow a country to have low or high crime rates. Crime Definitions Definitions of what exactly constitutes being a crime differ not only across countries but even across states.

This can be an issue with statistics as in order to measure and compare crime consistently crimes need to be classified and placed into groups of similar offences. While murder is a crime recognized and agreed upon by most nations, what makes up a homicide may be more challenging and then even simply just a ‘crime against the person’ can vary widely. This often means that what makes up a crime for many offences can vary throughout jurisdictions. This is a problem when categorizing offences for international statistical comparison.

An example of this is the way that laws differ state to state within the United States, while ‘offences known to police’ is a statistic seen as quite a high representative figure of the offences, a lot of researches see that no official measure can ever come close to the actual amount of criminality that exists in any form in society (Archer, 1984) Definitional problems are concerned with whether or not crimes have equivalent meanings between nations, which in most cases a lot of crimes seem not to have.

Countries most often vary in behaviours which can sometimes be seen as coming within the space of the law. So for any kind of comparison of crime rates to work at all, it is crucial that the definitions of crimes and the categories they are placed in are similar. The next issue with definitions is that even the different organizations that compile crime statistics differ within their own definitions.

Interpol for example defines murder as: Any act performed with the purpose of taking human life, excluding abortion but including infanticide (and including attempts). Kalish, 1988) While the World Health Organization (WHO) does not distinguish between intentional or unintentional homicides but does not include attempts under this organization attempts fall under a separate legal distinction(Kalish, 1988). And again, the United Nations have a different definition for homicide: Death purposely inflicted by another person, including infanticide. (Kalish, 1988) Due to major issues with the above topics across all countries, due to definitional and categorical differences, crime statistics can differ significantly.

In Bahrain, crimes against the individual are ranked in relation to the seriousness of the offence, murder, attempted murder, murder by error, assault, threatening and others. In the United States, offences are not classed separately, but into broad categories which are homicides, robberies and assaults. Bahrain does not report rape as a single category and in response, no reports of rape have been sent to their criminal investigation unit (Ministry of Information, 1985). Reporting Issues

The quality of the way crime is reported is likely to be influenced by a wide range of practices and techniques in different jurisdictions. For example in Bahrain, individual police departments participation in reporting crime rates is compulsory, but neither the numbers of convictions or the final outcome of cases are reported, whereas, local police departments in the United States are under no obligation to report back crime rates from their areas as participation is voluntary (Newman, 1993).

Honesty or dishonesty of police who are involved in the collection and compilation process of statistics (Adler, 1983) and the manipulation of the data compiled for political reasons – which will be discussed later – are some other examples of things than can influence the quality of the crime that is reported. In the United States for example, every case involving multiple offences by the same person that are compiled by police, the statistic noted down is only in relation to the most serious offence that has occurred (Reichel, 1994).

Underreporting is an influence on the reporting of crime as it affects basically every area and any data that is compiled by police. In many occasions and for many different reasons people do not report offenses they are victims of or that they witness. There is a ‘dark-figure’ of crime in both Bahrain and the United States, there have been no victimisation studies conducted in Bahrain to date, but on the opposite side, the victimisation surveys that have been conducted in the United States show higher crime rates than the Uniform Crime Reporting System shows (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1981-1987).

Another reason there are issues with extremely low or quite high crime rates is the issue of political influences. Police may exaggerate statistics in their areas to draw funding to their area for upgrades and to gain more police numbers, or even down the crime statistics to reflect success of their force, to show the people of the country and the world that they are doing their job correctly and well.

The government can also do the above, by altering the statistics, they can create a sense of fear in there people to gain votes through public advertising that they will combat the high rates of crime in certain areas, or downgrade the rates to adhere to international requirements, to attempt to get the country placed on the ‘best of’ lists within international media as a way to gain tourism by showing they are a safe place to visit. Wider Influences: Bahrain is a country which operates on all levels in relation to the teachings of the Qur’an.

This makes up the fabric of life for the Bahraini people, the influence of the Islamic religion can be seen in the economic, political and social pathways of life within the culture of the country. In Bahrain, religion is the most important structure. The Islamic religion opposes wrongdoing in all its forms and that any wrongdoing can lead to the downfall of society. The teachings of the Prophet attempt to get rid of all forms of crime before it happens by influencing the individuals who follow the religion.

Acts against the law therefore is not only a crime against society in the eyes of Bahraini people it is also a violation of the principles of God. In Bahrain there are even ‘moral police officers’ who regulate the dress and public behaviour of citizens (Helal, 1991). As the Qur’an provides the basis for society, it also provides the base for which laws are made. All laws however have major influence from the Western cultures, apart from marriage, divorce and succession which all fall under the Shari’ah. Souryal, 1988)Therefore religion is a major influence in relation to everything, right down to helping explain the low crime rate in Bahrain. Citizens are able to speak directly to the ruler of Bahrain for a few days each month this allows the people to feel that they are in touch with their government as they are able to voice their concerns directly (Helal, 1991). Therefore crimes against the state are less likely to be committed as people feel as if they play a greater role than just an individual in a wider community.

Souryal (1988) has noted in his studies that since firearms, drugs and alcohol are all banned, the opportunity for violence is reduced. Ontop of this, the way the law is applied to Muslim offenders acts as a deterrent to the Bahraini citizens. The penalty for committing a crime is harsher if the offender is Muslim and has committed an offence against a Muslim, the Islamic penal code is also enforced against non-Muslims in the country. Some punishments that can be given out include amputation, stoning, flogging and death which can be executed in public (Moore, 1987).

The influence of education within Bahrain is a major factor that can be related back to the low crime rate of the country. Islam religion is tied tightly into the education at all levels in Bahrain, and education is compulsory for all children living in the country also (Helal, 1991). The United States however has a separation between church and state, which is not the case in Bahrain. Within the United States, there is a separation of powers, it is a multicultural society which also makes it multi-faith, to base all laws on just the one religion within the United States would most likely cause more crime rather than decrease the rate.

Within the United States alcohol and firearms are legal once of a certain age, therefore the high crime rate within the country can be related back to the availability to things that aid criminal acts and violence. Education within the United States changes in relation to the age of compulsory education, it ranges from between 14 to 18 (State Compulsory Attendance Laws, 2007). Religion is not taught within all schools due to the adversity of religions within each state and the country as a whole.

There are schools which focus on specific religions, these however are private schools and advertise that they do these teachings (Religion in Schools, 2004). The major difference between the two countries, other than the rate of crime, Bahrain’s crime rate being quite low compared to the United States, is the issue of religion within not just the country, but as the basis for all the laws and the way the entire community of Bahrain lives their life. In conclusion, there are so many reasons by which crime statistics can be altered due to not only issues with reporting and recording, but definitional issues and wider societal influences.

It is not until recently that any one organization has attempted to compile and compare cross-national crime statistics, for this to be done however, organizations need to find a way to combat the above issues outlined. The United Nations have pushed for a standard level of classification of offences and the collection of statistics across continents which would set out minimum standards for the collection, analysis and presentation of the statistics. (Vetere, 1977). This is just one way we can start to remove bias and definitional errors.

The true rate of crime is impossible to compare or even start to determine. The amounts of crime reported demonstrate that there is a major difference between the two countries in terms of crime rates. The Islamic religion within Bahrain lays the foundations for life and can be seen woven into critical social areas within the community, all in which can create the basis for crime to become a realty; within Bahrain however, due to the tight influence religion has on one’s conscience, it has the opposite impact (Helal, 1991).

The United States has the separation of church and state, therefore fewer values are shared throughout the country, which allows for breaks within society and these can be seen as the basis for crime to be committed, therefore raising the crime rate rather than lowering it. It would be simply ridiculous to implement the way Bahraini society is run into the United States(Helal, 1991). But the influence that the combination of church and state within a country like Bahrain has on the Bahraini people is simply just one way in which can be shown to keep crime rates low.