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The Role that Family plays in the development, maintenance and treatment of adolescents with eating disorders.

Abstract

This essay aims to assess the role that family members play in the development, maintenance and treatment of an adolescent with an eating disorder. It looks at the effects of family contribution on the behaviour of the adolescent and methods that could be used to improve his/her ailment. Studies indicate that family play a very important role in influencing the eating behaviours of most adolescents.

Introduction

Eating disorders are one of the most common disorders affecting 1 in 4 teenage girls worldwide (Maine, 2001). They are generally characterised by disturbances in eating behaviour. This implies eating too much, not eating enough, or eating in an extremely unhealthy manner (such as bingeing or stuffing oneself repeatedly). The two most common eating disorders include, Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa. According to the DSM-IV, Anorexia Nervosa can be described as “A refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight or becoming fat even though underweight” (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Some signs and symptoms include repeatedly avoiding food, reduction in amount and types of food eaten, feeling extremely restless and guilty after having a meal.

In contrast to Anorexia, Bulimia is characterised as “Eating in a discrete period of time (e.g. within any 2 hour period) and amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances” (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). The general symptoms include dramatic fluctuation in weight, low self-esteem, feeling extremely anxious after completing a meal and feeling the need to vomit (French, 1987).

There is no single cause for eating disorders; however concerns about weight and body shape play a role in all eating disorders, the actual cause of these disorders appear to result from many factors, including cultural and family pressures, emotional and personality disorders. Genetic and biologic factors also contribute towards the development of eating disorders. Eating disorders are more prevalent during adolescence. The effects range from growth retardation, lack of bone mass development during adolescence.

The relationships an adolescent has with family and peers have been shown to predict strongly adjustment in later life (Vernberg, 1990). In relation to these findings, researchers have sought to investigate whether family and peers also contribute to either clinical eating disorders or less severe forms of eating problems (Oliver and Thelen, 1996). Much research has been completed on this disorder and results indicate a strong familial involvement. Many individuals with Anorexia come from over controlling families where nurturance is lacking family history of alcoholism, eating disorders or preoccupation with food and appearance (Bulik, 1994). Some studies indicate that fathers played a salient role in the expression of more severe forms of eating products (Vincent, 2000).

In a early study carried out by Johnson & Flach (1983) bulimics perceived their families as low in cohesiveness and high in conflict, yet also very low in independence and highly achievement-oriented (Johnson & Flach, 1983). Mukai (1996) also found that almost 50% of adolescent girls reported being encouraged to lose weight by their mothers. In addition, teasing and criticism about body weight or shape by family members has been found to predict ideal body internalisation, body dissatisfaction and eating problems among girls (Levine, Smolak and Hayden, 1994).

The main treatment for eating disorders include restoring normal weight for Anorexia, reduce and hopefully stop binge eating and purging for Bulimia. The encouragement of proper nutritional habits and how to develop healthy eating patterns and meal plans have been proven to be effective (American Psychiatric Association, 2006). Family-based treatments such as the Maudsley Approach, assist parents in their efforts to help their adolescent in his/her recovery of AN and to return their to their normal eating habits (Eisler et al., 2000). More interventions like this should be encouraged to help adolescents overcome eating disorders.

References

American Psychiatric Association (2006). Treatment of patients with eating disorders, 3rd edition, Am J Psychiatry, 163, 4 – 54.

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Ed.).USA.

Bulik, C (1994). Eating Disorders: Detection and Treatment.New Zealand. Durmere Press Limited.

Eisler, I., Dare, C., Hodes, M., Russell, G., Dodge, E., and D. Le Grange. (2000). Family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa: the results of a controlled comparison of two family interventions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 727-736.

French, B (1987). Coping with Bulimia: The Binge Purge Syndrome.United Kingdom. Thorsons.

Johnson, C and Flach, A (1985). Family characteristics of 105 patients with bulimia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142 (11), 1321-1324.

Levine, M.P., Smolak, L.,& Hayden, H. (1994). The relation of socio-cultural factors to eating attitudes and behaviours among middle school girls. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14(4), 471-490.

Maine, M (2001). Altering women’s relationship with food: A Relational, Developmental Approach. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57, 1301-1310.

Mukai, T (1996). Predictors for relapse and chronicity in eating disorders: A review of follow up studies. Japanese Psychological Research, Vol.38, (2), 07-105.

Oliver, K.K and Thelen, M.H (1996). Children’s perceptions of peer influence on eating concerns. Behaviour Therapy, 27, 25-39.

Vernberg, E.M (1990) Psychological adjustment and experiences with peers during early adolescent: Reciprocal, incidemtal or unindirectional. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 187-198.

Vincent, M.A and McCabe, M. P (2000) Gender Differences Among Adolescent in Family, and peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction, Weight Loss, and Binge eating behaviours. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 29.

Categories
Free Essays

Human Resource Planning and Development

Introduction:

Tesco is largest present day British retailer. Started by Mr. jack Cohen from small grocery stall in east London in 1919. The Tesco brand appeared five years later in 1924 as a result of Mr. T. E. Stockwell brought consignment of tea. Tesco name designed by combining the initial letters Te- s- co in 1929 to open first Tesco store in Burnt oak , North London.(source: www.thetimes100.co.uk)

Since then Tesco expanding by getting hold to the market by understanding customers need in the right way. In the United Kingdom Today Tesco have more than 2200 stores (source:www.thetimes100.co.uk). From large hyper market Tesco Direct to small Tesco Express. By maintaining the variety product range from grocery to general merchandise. Tesco diversified their business in sectors like electrical good, telephone equipment, banking , airtime, insurance services and now a day Tesco providing electronic shoppingservice via their web site to attract their customers, achieving their primary aim ‘to serve customers’

(Source:www.thetimes100.co.uk)

As the company grown up and spread worldwide from one man and one stall. Its efficient work force also amplified.

(sourse:www.thetimes100.co.uk).

Task 1 :

Human Resource management

Personnel management is old style name of HR management. HRM is particularly focused to develop peoples and nurture to achieve organisational goal.

Traditional view of HR have mainly four objectives.

Staffing objective: Staffing make sure that make right staff available for right work at the correct time. By means of that identifying feature of the job and executing recruitment process, select to assure correct match and retaining the same.

Performance objective: once staff is at right position they need to encourage to perform. This is achieved by development process, giving target and appraisal system. .

Change management objective: These needs if organisation are in constantly developing in modern competitive world .

Administrative objectives: These need to fulfil for organisation to run smoothly. These include paying the employee regularly, Employment legislation needs. Maintainproper and accurate records. Administration also deals with the legislation, equal opportunity, managing diversity, and also with recruitment, retaliation , training and rewards.

(Blosi,W,2007)

Human resource activities:

Strategic HR management, following the equal opportunity employment, fulfil the staffing need of the organisation, human resource development,

Dealing with the compensation and benefits to the staff. Dealing with health, safety and security aspects, performance management.

General goals of HR are enhancing productivity and quality, complying with legal and social obligations, promoting individual growth and development and make progress in organisational effectiveness.

Personnel Management: Personnel management is term which describe the policies of the organisation, and process to manage people at work . It is old fashion name of the human resource management. It works in same fashion to HRM strategy and the business strategy. It state that line manager is responsible for managing peoples. personnel management is activity aimed primarily at non managers .it influenced line management.

Legge (1989)

Difference between Human resource management and personnel management

Human resource models:

Number of models are available for human resource management.

Matching Model:

Fombrun et al.’s(1984) focus on the resource feature of HRM.

and use peoples towards objectives.

HR should be get cheaply and use to the fullest.

(source: Fombrun et al.’s(1984))

HR should be managed according to organisational strategy.

The matching model say’s that human resource cycle consists of standard functions.

(Fombrun et al.’s(1984))

That is selection of most appropriate resource. Proper Appraisal depending on performance, Rewards for achievement to encourage future performance and fourth is development developing high quality employee through training.

Fombrun et al.’s(1984)

Harvard frame work model:

Depend on view point , how organisation want to see employees and their development. It underline the human aspect. related to organisation-employee relationship. It also consider the interest of shareholders related to objectives of organisation

Ref: Beer et.al (1984)

Model based on the four policies:

Human resource flow in the organisation,

reward system fallowed by management, influence of the employee and

work system in the organisation.

Ref: Beer et.al (1984)

The result that HR policies need to attain are commitment, competence, equivalence and cost effectiveness to maintain mutual trust and improve performance. Line managers set HR policies.

Ref: Beer et.al (1984)

It is extended through four policies first is setting goal.

Integration of strategies, highly commitment to the goal,

And giving high quality.

Ref: Beer et.al (1984)

Task 2 :

A) Recruitment selection and retention:

For new store I need to ensure the exact number of staff at right work at perticular time.

For the new store staff will be required for different activities. As the store is in the small village I should select the staff from same locality, considering their availability for job and cost.

For Recruitment first step is to understand the job requirement. Nature of the job. Then the method to recruit them.

Internal recruitment : process in which current employees looking to move to the new store either at same position or on promotion. Internal recruitment helps to motivate for promotion and to improve performance. I first look for the employees internally from the database of the Tesco.

(Source: www.thetimes100.co.uk)

External recruitment: It is fulfil the position by recruiting the staff .Once decided to recruit selection of appropriate candidate and following cost effective method is important.

(Source : www.thetimes100.co.uk )

For a new store I require line managers, Sales assistant, Check out staff, stock handlers, supervisors, warehouse employees, security, cleaner.

Line managers :(05)

Sales assistant :(25)

Check out staff: (15)

Warehouse employees: (15)

Stock handlers:(20)

Security: (10)

Cleaner:(10)

Job description:

1) Sales assistance:

Job Title: sales assistance

Responsible to: shop manager

Hours : 45 per week

Typical work activities include

Customer handling in all areas of sales

Should match and sets sales targets in busy and pressured environment.

Giving suggestion to the customers

Handling customer complaints.

Arranging delivery dates .

awareness of particular retail area may be required for some roles. Successful sales assistant should have good negotiation skill.

(Sourse lorriaine, 2009)

(Source: www.prospects.ac.uk)

Person Specification: Sales Assistant

Essential

Should have Experience of working within a sales field.

To be honest, dealing of cash and card handling.

Should have excellent communication skills

Should have understanding of customer care.

Desirable:

Experience in working witha similar shop.

Experience in working as volunteer.

Knowledge of Health and Safety issues.

(www.greenandaway.org)

2) Job description security guard:

Job Title: security guard

Reporting to : line manager

Hours : full time

Patrolling of premises to insure security of doors, windows and gates

Monitoring and authorization of entrance and departure of employees.

Reporting of daily activities and irregularities.

Call police or fire department in case of emergency

Inspectingand adjust the functions of security systems, equipments, and machinery.

(Sourece:www.careerplanner.com)

Personnel specification for security guard:

Recruitment process involves Advertisement of the job, Inviting applications, screening of application, Interview, Selection of the appropriate candidate.

Advertisement: Advertisement of the job vacancy is crucial to attract the right candidate. Advertise the vacancy through internet, News papers, TV, radio, educational institutions , Public employment agencies, labour union.

For new Tesco store I will advertise the vacancy on the Tesco carrier website and in local news papers, and putting the advertise on the site location as well as in the central place in that village. As peoples of that village are not well familiar with the use of modern technology like internet. Considering these facts I decided to put advertise in the village.

Application forms : from the advertisement peoples will apply for the suitable post. After dead line of submitting the applications I will collect all the applications for further process.

Screening of the applications ; from the all applicants CV I will scrutinise the appropriate applications and send letters to the selected candidates inviting them for interview.

Interview: It is the most important stage of recruitment. For interview planning some issues must be considered like schedule of interview, Panel for interview, setting the room for interview. number of candidates etc.

Assessment of candidate can be made by tests and interview

Employment tests used to judge a person’s knowledge, skills and other characteristics.

Different tests are ability tests like aptitude tests, Physical ability tests, Job knowledge test and Work sampler test

Interview : After the tests the number of candidates short listed is relatively low as they can be easily interviewed and easy to judge right candidate. At the time of interview candidates is first time face to face. you can assess by asking the set of questions to candidate. We can gather more information about them. Questions about their qualification, experience, skills, hobbies interests, and personnel and family background etc.

After interview we get clear idea about the applicants. From them appropriate candidates are selected.

Then successful candidates are offered a job.

B) Retention:

Once the successful candidates are appointed it is very important to keep staff turn over very low to keep the cost down. As recruitment process is very costly.

Retention is process by which staff is maintained within the organisation. As a long term policy of HR. Technical and talented staff is asset for organisation. Furthermore organisation have invested money on recruitment , training and development .

Pay : Rising pay level reduce staff turnover. Payment is first aspect responsible for staff turnover .so it is important to give right pay level and increment to staff.

(Sturges and guest 1999,p.19)

Managing expectations: As organisation expect performance from the employee. Employee also expect from the organisation certain things like work environment, job satisfaction, and other facilities. We should understand their expectations and manage them timely.

(Jenner and Tayler 2000,p.155)

Appraisal: appraisal is process when you discuss the performance of employee. What is performance during the last year or specific time. Whether it is satisfactory or not. Then giving the pay rise or benefits for doing well and motivates them for future tasks.

Induction: Effective timely induction to staff is necessary. So that staff can learn new things new roles in various sections and know more which can give him job satisfaction.

Family friendly HR practise must be fallowed.

Training and development: Training to the staff must be given time to time regarding their job. So they can improve their knowledge and get opportunity to develop and learn new things and skills.

(Green et al.2000,pp 267-72)

Improvement in the quality of the line management

C )Legal and ethical issues considered during the recruitment:

Employment protection act 1978:

According to employment protection act 1978 after selection procedure offer of employment will be made at that time it is up to the applicant whether to accept it or reject it. Terms and contracts of employment must be clearly defined. also it must contain job title and date of commencement. Terms of payment is clearly mentioned. It also must contain details about working hours , Number of holidays given, Pay of the sick leaves , and pension. It must provide details of termination. It should also contain disciplinary procedures.

(source:www.opsi.gov.uk)

Sex discrimination act 1975:

It is against law to discriminate by gender.

men and women should be considered equally in all conditions of employment.

Organisation must provide equal terms and conditions of employment. This act applies to all sectors. Law applies for both direct or indirect discrimination.

(source:www.opsi.gov.uk)

Race relation Act1976:

According to race relation act 1976 one cannot discriminate on racial grounds and racial groups related to colour ,race ,religion ,nationality ,ethnic origin.

(source:www.opsi.gov.uk)

Equal pay act 1970:

The act says to stop discrimination in terms of payment. Men and women employed should paid equally in the same work.

(Source:www.opsi.gov.uk)

Disability discrimination act:

This act is in forced to protect disabled peoples. Disabled peoples should not be discriminated when they apply for job.

Law state that they should get chance to give interview. Place where they doing job must be made accessible to them.

(Source:www.opsi.gov.uk)

Rehabilitation of offenders Act1974:

This act is made to rehabilitation of convicted peoples. Law says that conviction of imprisonment for more than 30 months may be erased. if the offender does not commit further serious offence during rehabilitation he is eligible and we cannot discriminate him.

(Source:www.opsi.gov.uk)

Task 3:

a)

Paul is 44 year old supervisor. It has been reported that recently he is coming late to the work and living early. He is working for Tesco since last 22 years but now days he is not disciplinary in his work. This has happen to him recently living early and coming late to work regularly specially on the Monday.

When the complaint comes to me I call Mr.Paul in office and discuss the problem with him I enquire about his irregularities in work and whether he have any problem. He did not give any specific reason. So I give him first verbal warning and ask him to be regular.

After first warning I observe him for next three months. I gave him chance to overcome. But within these next three months he didn’t improve. So I call him again and give him second verbal warningtold him that if you don’t improve this time I will take action. This time I told him that if he wants to bring a friend with him he can bring or if he wants to come with any union representative. Gave him another chance for next three months for improvement

But within these three months his improvement was not satisfactory so this is the time for me to give him written warning. So I call him and told him to bring one witness with him friend, relative or a union person. He came with union person. I discuss his problem in front of union person and give written warning that it is his last chance for improvement if didn’t improve I will take action against him. The union representative try to cover him and told me that give him chance this time he will improve. He also told that he had some personal and family problems that’swhy he is not regular and unable to concentrate in his work. The union representative assure me that this time he will improve. So I again keep him under observation.

Till this time I document all that had happened and collect the evidences recorded like his in time and out time to the job. So that it is useful for me to take further action. And observe him for next three months.

This time I recognise improvement in his behaviour, he is coming in time and also going on time. Also his awareness of job is improved.

So there is no need to take the case to the next level.

b)

Sheena is 28 years of old and she is a machine operator in a packaging department. Security staff reported me that he found her stealing some finished products and partly finished products. She is working for company since last 3 years. She has been told to report me next morning at 9.00 am.

I took this complaint seriously when she came to my office I ask her about the incident and the explanation regarding to case. But as she has caught red handed she does not have any explanation. As it is first time I gave her strict verbal warning. I told security staff to keep close watch on her.

For a few days her behaviour is normal but one day I again got complaint against her about stealing ofpartly finished goods. So this time I called her and told to bring any friend or relative or union representative with her. She came with union representative. I discuss the case with them. As case is very serious but union representative wants me to give her another chance and he is strongly defending her. So this time I gave her a written warning in front of union representative. And also tell them that she is not going to work in the same department. I transferred her to another department where only raw material is processed. So that she has nothing to steal there. And also warn her that it is her last chance.

I document all the events and evidence to support the case and told security to keep watch on her.

I gave her another chance to improve. But she does not improved after one month I got complaint against her this time I decided to take the case to next level. I collect all evidence and write a notice to her.

The notice must be given by hand or by recorded post. So I called her to collect the notice and told her if she wants come with someone with her. She came with union representative.

As a evidence one person must be there and it must be recorded. I told union representative that it is very serious matter and we have given her chance to improve but she did not. So there is no other alternative. I have to terminate her. But union representative is arguing with me but she does not have any strong point to defend her. So now the time to give her letter and sack.

But union representative request me not to sack her otherwise her carrier may be in dark as she is young and no one will take to her for next job. So consider about her future.

Then I told her to resign and she resigned from the job.

Conclusion:

Setting of work force is most important part for any business. To fulfil the demand of the staff. It consists of recruitment of new staff, selecting the appropriate staff. Train the existing staff. Motivate to work to achieve organisational target. And retain the staff.

Tesco have many job opportunities. Always need people with correct skills to maintain the development. Tesco has very good organisational configuration for carry out job.

Tesco have clear, easy and well defined procedure of recruitment and selection. So can manage its changing demand for the staff.

Recommendation:

As Tesco is developing very fast they must manage and maintain the work force. Tesco is spreading their wings in rural areas and villages to different countries. It must require additional work force so they should maintain the present staff. Train them to develop.

Most important is to attract new innovative talent to their organisation. Specially recruit young staff management students. They should search from different colleges and also the trainee graduates. Understand the different needs of the different locality.

And Tesco should enter in many other new fields of retailing to fulfil the customers all needs.

Bibliography:

1. Blosi,W.(2007),”An introduction to human resource management”,

Berkshire,McGraw-Hill Education.

2. Sission,K.(1989).”Personnel management in Britain”, basil Blackwell Ltd.

3. Trorrington,D.(2008 7th ed),“Human resource management”, England, Pearson.

4 .Yeung,R.(2008),”Successful Interviewing and recruitment”, Kogan page

limited.

5.The Times 100 website: www.thetimes100.co.uk

6. http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/case-study–recruitment-selection–132–323–1.php

7.http://www.prospects.ac.uk/p/types_of_job/retail_sales_assistant_job_description.jsp

8. http://www.careerplanner.com/Job-Descriptions/Security-Guards.cfm

9. www.greenandaway.org/objects/sust/SalesAssistPersonSpec.pdf

10. www.devonjobs.gov.uk/attachments/1263/TBE7141PS.doc

11.http://www.opsi.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/ukpga/1978/cukpga_19780044_en1

12.http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1975/pdf/ukpga_19750065_en.pdf

13.http://www.opsi.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/ukpga/1976/cukpga_19760074_en1

14. www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1970/pdf/ukpga_19700041_en.pdf

15.http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1995/ukpga_19950050_en_1

16.http://www.opsi.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/ukpga/1974/cukpga_19740053_en1

Categories
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Does the Internet have the potential to accelerate development in poor nations?

1. INTRODUCTION

The Internet and information technology (IT) represent a revolution that may well have an economic impact corresponding to the wave of innovations that made up the core of the industrial revolution two centuries ago. The industrial revolution dramatically increased global economic inequalities, which in the 19th and 20th centuries produced discrepancies in political power among nations that led to imperialism and warfare. After a discussion of earlier technological breakthroughs, this paper presents data that show a significant gap between wealthy and poor countries in the rate of diffusion of the Internet. The evidence suggests that poor countries are being left further behind as a result of the ongoing technological revolution elsewhere in the world. We consider proposals for helping developing countries participate in the “new economy” by improving their communications infrastructures and transferring technology from technological leaders to poorer countries, as well as whether it might be in the interest of leading nations to sponsor such efforts.

The last half of the 20th century has witnessed a revolution in information technology, capped off at century’s end by the Internet. Numerous popular and academic articles describe the “new economy” and new business models stimulated by IT. Computers, databases and communications networks are pervasive in post-industrial countries. The Internet provides standards for worldwide connectivity, and its impact on business and commerce has been dramatic. The impact of IT on economy-wide measures of productivity is also increasingly evident, particularly but not exclusively in the United States, the leader in applying information technology.

The Internet allows global market access for a vendor; over 150 million people can access the web site of someone with a product or service to sell on the Net. Many organizations are developing electronic customer/supplier relationships, resulting in a dramatic increase in efficiency. There is a movement toward purchasing “hubs” in which a web site joins together buyers and sellers, for example, shippers with trucking companies. Led by Detroit automakers, a number of industries are establishing purchasing sites to reduce the cost of dealing with suppliers. Companies are integrating their supply chains and providing suppliers with access to their production plans.

The Internet has given rise to new business models. Companies such as Dell Computer and Cisco Systems integrate technology into all of their operations. Cisco processes almost all of its orders on the Web, and handles approximately 85% of its customer service on the Internet. Companies adopting the Internet are substituting technology for physical assets. In addition to developing commerce, the Internet offers the potential for new forms of distance-education and learning, and for improving the quality of medical care.

The Internet needs a robust telecommunications infrastructure to function well. In the United States, there are a number of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) that connect individuals to the Internet backbone. Companies like UUNet provide high-speed fiber backbone communications to carry Internet traffic. In 1999 UUNet was reportedly expanding its capacity 10 times a year to keep up with demand.

Individual organizations connect to the Internet through leased lines to a service provider, generally at a much higher speed than the 56Kb of a typical modem. Many home users only have the option of a modem, but increasingly high-speed home service is available through cable TV companies, DSL lines from the Phone Company, or satellite TV providers. A communications infrastructure is a prerequisite for obtaining maximum benefits from the Net.

The Internet in 1999 connected 58,000 separate networks with an estimated 150 million users world-wide .A UN Human Development Report (1999) noted that the lead of the US in Internet development has resulted in 80 percent of web sites being in English and 26 percent of Americans using the web, whereas only 3 percent of Russians, 0.04 percent of South Asians, and 0.02 percent of people in Arab states do so. The US has more computers (potential web access) than the rest of the world combined. Moreover, while an American can buy a computer with a month’s salary, a Bangladeshi would need 8 year’s income to buy one. Nearly half of U.S. homes have Internet access in 2000. By implication, the reduction in worldwide economic inequality that occurred in the last half of the twentieth century is being reversed, contrary to the rosier scenarios of some economists who argue that the recent reductions in inequality are likely to continue in the twenty-first century.

An optimistic scenario has developing countries adopting the Internet to stimulate economic growth. There are many stories of artisans in poor countries marketing their products world-wide through a web site. The Internet is promoted as a technology that will enhance education and expand commerce, allowing developing countries to make rapid advances.

The Internet is a kind of technological infrastructure, however, and developing countries are notoriously short of infrastructure. The Internet also requires a level of education and training to use, and educational opportunities in poorer countries are generally inferior to those in wealthy countries. Unfortunately, our data analysis shows that poor countries are almost “off the screen” as far as Internet capabilities. The data suggest that what appear to be key determinants of the Internet’s penetration in more developed country settings have almost no explanatory power for developing countries. If this situation persists most of the continued diffusion of Internet technologies will occur in wealthy countries, and the likelihood increase based on the historical impacts of earlier network technologies that economic inequality and political and social instability will increase in the world.

The consensus of economic historians is that roughly two centuries ago there was far less economic inequality among the world’s major regions and societies than there is today. From then to the present, the gap in average incomes between rich and poor societies became much wider. Two hundred years ago it is estimated that the was on the order of 2 to 1; today it is more like 30 to 1.

Consider the three most populous nations in the world today, China, India, and the United States of America. Together the three have about 40 percent of the world’s people. The succinct phrase economic historians have used in response to this question is “the industrial revolution.” The initial industrial revolution, England’s, began with late 18th-century technological breakthroughs in the production of textiles, coal, and iron, and the innovation of steam engines. Economic historians use these specific or “core” examples of innovative change to develop general principles underlying industrialization.

Spinning and weaving breakthroughs in textiles represent the general principle of substituting power-driven machines for human labor. Technological developments in iron (and coal) processing illustrate the substitution of abundant mineral substances for scarcer animal and vegetable materials. Steam engines generalize to the substitution of inanimate converters of energy for traditional animate (human, plant and animal) converters. Each specific technological breakthrough represented a quantum leap forward in production and the productivity of human labor. As the general principles involved were extended to other industries, economic growth—production per person–increased and became self-sustaining. From textiles, machine production spread to other industries.

Iron led directly to steel, and as the chemical technologies involved were increasingly understood, a host of new materials were developed and used across a range of modern industries. Steam engines were forerunners of internal combustion engines and nuclear reactors. With these epochal developments, living standards rose. But not everywhere, or at the same rate in different societies. England, which by the mid-nineteenth century.

Among this group of industrializes, the followers or late-comers tended to grow faster than the pioneers, so that eventually the differences in income levels among all of them became much less than between them and the non-industrial rest of the

World. Well into the twentieth century, that “rest of the world” lagged well behind

Europe, North America, and Japan. But in the second half of the twentieth century, it too

Began to industrialize.

This traditional economic-historical account of the industrial revolution helps to explain the dramatic increases in economic inequality among nations that developed during the past two centuries. It also indicates how that inequality eventually tends to be reduced. The latecomers grow faster than the pioneers, reducing the income gaps that the industrial revolution initially engendered among them. In a recent article, Robert Lucas, a prominent economic theorist and Nobel laureate, utilized these stylized facts of economic history to develop a model predicting that economic inequality in the world would be far lower a hundred years from now than it is today.

Suppose, however, that the Internet and related IT, as some argue, are really epochal innovations such those of the British industrial revolution two centuries ago, or the railroad technologies that came along in the middle decades of the nineteenth century, or the electrical and automotive technologies that were developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s. If so, these new technologies, like the older ones just mentioned, might well increase inequality in the world for decades, with political and social consequences that do not differ from those that came with inequalities brought by industrialization after 1800

A newer interpretation of the past two to three centuries from the one above puts this possibility in historical perspective. This new interpretation of economic history, while not denying the importance of the great inventions and innovations of the industrial era, gives more emphasis to the importance of network innovations and network externalities in shaping the modern economic world.

In the new view, the Internet and IT technologies in general are the latest ofseveral major breakthroughs in network technologies that were fundamental in promoting and sustaining industrialization where it took place. The earlier network technologies, in order of their appearance, were modern financial systems in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries early transportation networks from the late eighteenth to the late nineteenth centuries, and, finally modern transportation (highway, airway), communication (telegraph, telephone) and electrical networks which began in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s.

Each of these historical network breakthroughs can be associated with the industrialization of the modern world and the income gaps among nations and world regions to which “selective” industrialization led. In the first (and least recognized) of the great network technologies of the modern world, finance, which adopted and added to British financial techniques in late 18th and early 19th centuries.

All of these countries early in their modern histories had what some have termed “financial revolutions.” In all three, financial networks—banking systems and securities markets, for example—were in place to mobilize and allocate capital before the Industrial Revolution, so that the revolution could advance rapidly without capital-supply

2. The Internet and Prescriptions for Economic Growth

Landes (1998) has proposed the following factors for stimulating economic growth in developing nations:

1. Manage and build instruments of production; master the technological frontier

2. Impart knowledge to the young

3. Hire and promote based on competence and relative merit

4. Encourage initiative, competition and emulation

5. Allow people to benefit from their labor and enterprise

6. Practice gender equality

7. Have a political system that:

a. Secures the rights of private property

b. Secures the rights of personal liberty

c. Enforces the rights of contracts

d. Stable government of laws rather than men (not necessarily democratic)

e. Provides responsive and honest government

f. Moderate, efficient and non-corrupt government keeping taxes down

8. An ideal society would be honest

To successfully integrate the Internet into an economy, a country’s leaders will have to follow many of Landes’s suggestions. The instrument of production for the Internet is a telecommunications infrastructure, something that is expensive and competes with other infrastructure projects such as roads. While a developing country may be able to use wireless technology for phone connections, high-speed Internet access demands either fiber optic lines or satellite communications.1 The rich countries have the capital and know-how to develop such new infrastructures and are doing so. The poor countries likely do not.

3.THE GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE INTERNET

Which countries are using the Internet todayWhat is the extent of Internet use among developing countriesWhat factors predict the intensity of Internet use in a particular countryThe answers to these questions are important in formulating policies to assist developing countries take advantage of technology.

3.1 Research Design

To address the questions above, we collected data from the World Bank on 1998 economic development indicators. We added to these data information about the number of Internet hosts in each country from the Network Wizards Web site: http://www.isc.org/ds/. Hosts are the computers on the Internet that contain content; they respond to requests from client computers. A PC in one’s office running a browser like Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer is a client computer. It requests information from a variety of servers using a URL or Universal Resource Locator. As an example, the URL for the Stern School of Business at New York University server is http://www.stern.nyu.edu. A country with a large number of hosts or servers is indicative of more Internet penetration and activity than a country with fewer hosts.

3.2 Internet Hosts

The Data

We obtained development-indicator and Internet-host data from the World Bank and from a survey of Internet Domain names by the Internet Software Consortium .There are some problems with the data. First, the World Bank data for different countries may not be for the same year due to different practices on collecting and reporting information in various countries. The Internet host data are based on high-level domain names. For example, a domain name that ends in “com” generally is from the United States, while one that ends in “sg” is from Singapore, “ca” from Canada and so on. However, there is no law that says domain names have to reflect the physical location of the server. The Taliban government in Afghanistan has a Web server, but the host data showed no hosts in Afghanistan in 1998 or 1999.

However, none of the countries with less than a 100 hosts in the Network Wizards survey has 100 or more hosts in the MMQ data. The largest discrepancy is for Canada where MMQ estimates almost 600,000 more hosts than the Network Wizards data show. MMQ also estimates a quarter of a million more hosts in Taiwan than Network Wizards. In the analysis below, we estimate our basic model with combined data from both surveys. We use the MMQ data when it exists for a country, and the Network Wizards estimate where it does not.

4. CONCLUSIONS

The UN Development Report data and the results above suggest a wide gap between countries that have adopted the Internet extensively and those that have not. The major factors associated with Net adoption are GDP and telecommunications infrastructure as measured by the number of phones per 1000 people. For the countries with the lowest adoption in the analysis, these variables are only modestly associated with the number of Internet hosts, and the model explains little variance. The conclusion is inescapable that less developed countries are significantly behind on Internet technology compared to those with more resources. If we assume that the Internet and associated technologies are important for economic growth, then what are the policy implications of these findingsWhat factors inhibit the adoption of the Internet, and what can be done to mitigate them???

5.REFERENCES

Adams, Henry, History of the United States of America during the First Administration of

Thomas Jefferson, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1939 [first ed., 1889].

Burkhart, G., S. Goodman, A. Mehta, L Press, “The Internet in India: Better Times

Ahead?” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 41, No. 11 (November 1998), pp. 21-26.

Daly, J., and R. Miller, “Corporations’ Use of the Internet in Developing Countries,” IFD

Discussion Paper Number 35, (www.ifc.org/DEPTS/OPS/ECON/PUBS/DP35/Dp35.htm),

Gibson, R., “Informatics Diffusion in South American Developing Economies,” Journal

Of Global Information Management, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 35-42, 1998

Kedia, B., and R. Bhagat, “Cultural Constraints on Transfer of Technology Across

nations: Implications for Research in International and Comparative Management,”

Academy of Management Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp.559-571

Landes, D., The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why some Are so Rich and Some so

Poor, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1998.

Lucas, Robert E., Jr., “Some Macroeconomics for the 21st Century,” Journal of Economic

Perspectives 14 (Winter 2000). Pp.159-168.

Montealgre, R., “A Temporal Model of Institutional Interventions for Information

Technology Adoption in Less-Developed Countries, JMIS, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 207-232.

Petrazzini, B. and M. Kibati, “The Internet in Developing Countries,” Communications of

the ACM, Vol. 42, No. 6 (June 1999), pp. 31-36.

Press, L., “The Role of Computer networks in Development, ” Communications of the

ACM, Vol. 39, No. 2 (February 1996), pp. 23-30.

Press, L., “Tracking the Global Diffusion of the Internet,” Communications of the ACM,

Vol. 40, No. 11 (November 1997), pp. 11-17.

Pomeranz, Kenneth, the Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the

Modern World, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Sylla, Richard, “U.S. Securities Markets and the Banking System, 1790-1840,” Federal

Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review 50 (May/June 1998), pp. 83-98.

10/17/00 2:48 PM 27

Sylla, Richard, “Emerging Market in History: The United States, Japan, and Argentina,”

in Ryuzo Sato et al., eds., Global Competition and Integration, Boston: Kluwer

Academic Publishers, 1999, pp. 427-446.

World Bank, Knowledge for Development, Washington: World Development Report,1999.
UNDP, Human Development Report, 1998, New York, Oxford University Press, 1998.
UNDP, Human Development Report, 1999, New York, Oxford University Press, 1999.

Categories
Free Essays

IHRM Policies and Practices: Global Talent Management and Development

INTRODUCTION:

Talent as described by the Oxford English Dictionary is among other things, (i) ‘a natural aptitude or skill’’ (ii) ‘people possessing such aptitude or skill’’.

Talent management is the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement/retention and deployment of employees with high potential who are of value to an organisation (CIPD/HR INFORM: (2011) Talent Management)

One of the principal goals of the Human Resource Management unit of any organisation will be the effective management of the talents embodied in the personnel of the organisation. In fact, the success and effectiveness of the Human Resource Management Policy of an organisation can be measured by its success in this core sector amongst others. This is driven by the simple truth that “people make the organisation”. Consequently, the “right” people with the right skills and orientation will drive progress and growth in the organisation while the “wrong” people may lead to collapse.

With the advent of globalisation, a phenomenon that has integrated formerly independent and distinct national societies and economies, including the various organisations operating in them, across the world through trade and technology. Globalization means liberalization and global integration of markets, it is primarily an economic phenomenon; It is inevitable and benefits everyone, as it spreads progress and democracy throughout the world (Steger (2005) and Fairclough (2006)).

Despite the obvious advantages of global integration such as a wider market reach and larger talent pools to pick from, the fact remains that societies, norms, values and business principles vary widely from region to region.

A good example of this difference can be seen in the advertising campaign launched in 2002 by the international banking group HSBC as a result of a worldwide customer survey.

One of the adverts include a set of three different numbers, each considered to be unlucky in three different countries; 888 is an unlucky number in China, 4 is an unlucky number in Japan while 13 is an unlucky number in the United Kingdom. While readers living in the United Kingdom may be familiar with the number 13 being an unlucky number, it is assumed few people will know that 4 and 888 are also considered unlucky in some other countries.

(http://www.hsbc.com/1/2/newsroom/news/2002/new-campaign-for-the-worlds-local-bank)

Although Human Resource Management may be at different stages of development in different countries, there is a gradual shift towards convergence- at least across developed nations. This happens for a variety of reasons but principally because it is assumed there is ‘one best way’ of managing Human Resourses and its associated practices, such as job design, work organisation and quality control which is permeating throughout the developed world (Marchington and Wilkinson, 2006, p.26).

Managing people globally is an increasing challenge for Human Resource practitioners. Research conducted by the CIPD (Chartered Institute of Personnel Development) in 2009 with 4,000 HR professionals indicates that 30% of respondents see themselves as having international responsibilities (CIPD Research international membership Internal , 2009). Eighty-seven per cent said that ‘keeping up with global developments’ is important to them. This suggests that even if an individual’s role is focused in one country, they cannot ignore the wider world of global Human Resource Management.

The challenge for Human Resource Management operating globally is to understand varied markets for both products and people. To assess this global talent challenge we need to understand the drivers of learning and talent development in all of the countries we seek to operate in and from. This has implications for firms competing globally, those with operations abroad and those seeking to exploit these alluring but difficult new markets. In addition, much of our domestic skills debate in the UK is fuelled by a preoccupation with the skills the UK needs to develop to compete with these emerging nations. Much of the hype about emerging economies omits the talent, culture and human capital dimension, which is crucial to really understanding how business operates.

This article aims at identifying the current differences in policies and practices across the world, the various options being employed to remove these differences as well as to critically evaluate the changing landscape of Global Talent Management and Development.

TALENT MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE WORLD

Each country or region faces a unique context in managing and developing talent. The factors that shape each country’s context are wide ranging and may include government laws, market forces such as supply and demand, geography, religious and ideological belief systems, level of technological advancement etc. In the following paragraphs, snapshots talent management practises in selected countries and regions will be examined.

THE WEST (EUROPE AND AMERICA)

Western countries have always been at the forefront development in Human Resource Management. Over the years, there has been a gradual evolution in the European Talent Management and Development system fuelled by the understanding that the right skills must be identified and cultivated to maintain an organisations’s competitiveness and to drive growth and development in the organisation.

One of the new pioneering moves of managing talent is that organisations are now tending towards taking ownership of the training programs for their staff. This gives the advantage of having training programs developed to match the specific needs of the organizations. They also go further to partner with various government institutions to ensure these programs meet the relevant academic standards of the country. For instance, it was revealed in the magazine of the Chartered Institute of Personnel And Management (CIPD 27 January 2011) that the supermarket chain Sainsbury’s has put in place a strategy for developing talent to match its business expansion ambitions. As part of this strategy, it has been recently announced that six food colleges will be created. As many as 10,000 staff, more than 6 percent of the workforce, will attend the colleges each year to train and improve skills ranging from knife handling to customer service.

Another phenomenon related to that discussed in the preceding paragraph is the development of industry-wide as well as globally-accepted standardised training and examination techniques which result in the award of internationally-recognised professional certification by leading organisations. This hugely successful initiative has fast-tracked the development of large numbers of professionals to take up many vacant job places especially in the Information technology industry. Examples of such programs include the Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) by the software company Microsoft. Other companies running a similar program include CISCO and Oracle,

Learning and development teams within the Human Resource management departments of organisations have been the standard driving force for training and development of personnel. They are usually taxed with the burden of identifying training needs and organising how these needs are met. They still have very important roles to play in talent management especially in smaller organisations where the cost-effectiveness of specialist talent management resources may not be justifiable.

A move by large organisations in Europe is the establishment of dedicated “Skillpool Management and Succession Management” planning teams within the wider Human Resource Management Team.

Succession Planning according to an article in People Management magazine of the CIPD is; “a process by which one or more successors are identified for key posts (or groups of similar key posts), and career moves and/or development activities are planned for these successors”.

The business case for succession planning is very sound considering the fact that it is very difficult to get people of the right skills especially at top management or specialist functions in the organisation. The cost implication of contracting out the recruitment process or handling it in-house as the case may be can be substantial without any guarantees of success. Even when the recruitment process is successful, the new employee may require upwards of six months to start performing at full capacity. On the other hand, identified potential successors within the organisation already have most of the relevant business-related information and will require much less runup times in their new roles. Business-critical functions are also at risk if succession planning is not put in place. In the event of loss of staff in these roles for any reason, an organisation may easily be brought to its knees if a successor is not identified on time.

A good example of this situation is the case surrounding the founder and CEO of Apple – Steve Jobs who had been hospitalised repeatedly. Because a successor has not been formally identified, investor confidence in the company has been wavering with shareholders demanding a rectification of the situation.

The succession planning team will usually perform some of the following duties;

• identify the key roles that would require succession

identify all possible successors to these roles including both short and long term successors• develop succession plans by genuine engagement of all concerned parties.
• develop job (or job group) successors and development plans for individuals• analysis of the gaps/training needs revealed by the planning process and development of mechanisms to fill the gaps

• regular review of the process.

It is worth noting that the whole succession planning process has to be carried out as an intrinsic part of the HR policy of the organisation with full support of the organisation’s management.

Coaching and Mentoring is also an effective talent management technique applied in organisations across Europe. In this case, senior personnel pair up with younger colleagues and pass on their knowledge to them over time. This is a very effective tool and is used intrinsically in succession planning. For this to be effective however, it will need the support and commitment of both the mentor and the mentored.

Recruitment agencies and so called “head hunters” are also widely used across Europe to attract talented employees, often from rival organisations. As previously defined, talent management involves the identification, attraction as well as retention of suitably skilled personnel into an organisation.

INDIA

Due to the long-term economic and socio-political relationship between India and the West (especially the United Kingdom), India has absorbed some of the afore-mentioned talent management systems, at the same time other underlying cultural and socio-political issues cannot be ignored.

On one hand, elite talent of the type turned out by the top universities is highly attractive and highly mobile, with Indian engineers and specialists beating a well-trodden path to better prospects in areas such as the Gulf countries, the USA and Europe. Indian companies look increasingly to the global talent market to source key people from abroad. The other main challenge in India that is linked to talent is leadership development. For Indian companies and those with operations in India, the challenge is for managers who depend too much on technical skills to acquire the critical people skills that will make them effective leaders. Talent retention is a major issue in India because there are many opportunities for the cream of Indian employees to exploit (CIPD, Talent Development in The Bric Countries).

On the other hand, despite the popular notion of India being dominated by high-level IT skills, its talent pool is much patchier and there are major issues in developing the skills that expanding business requires. As a result, key talent is scarce and most HR activity is based on rapid recruitment. A talent-focused approach will help companies develop their business in the sub-continent. India has been one of the most dynamic high-growth economies. It’s easy, however, for the recurring picture of high-tech back-office functions, staffed by high-tech graduates, to be seen as typical of India. In fact, high-tech employment accounts for a small overall proportion of the service sector, which itself counts for about a quarter of employment. The sector includes employment in all areas of the service economy, from high-tech, low-cost airlines to the grinding bureaucracy of the Indian railways. These industries occupy the most qualified layer of people. More typical of India is agricultural employment, which constitutes 60% of employment, while manufacturing accounts for less than 15% of the workforce. Most of India’s 510 million labour force has poor levels of general education and there is widespread illiteracy. A minority of wealthy individuals have access to the best education at both secondary and university levels.

The rest of the ‘tertiary’ education sector has been assessed by the OECD as mediocre (OECD 2007). There is also a growing deficiency in soft/employability skills, with the focus on the technical skills India is renowned for in the public imagination. Most graduates have poor ‘non-technical’ skills, which impedes their effectiveness as workers and reduces their productivity (Rao and Varghese 2009). This also reduces the effectiveness

of management, especially when coupled with some of the cultural issues

The persistence of informal employment is also a barrier to productivity and growth. Indeed, a recent OECD report indicates that employment in firms of ten or more employees accounts for less than 4% of total employment, while formal structured employment of the type necessary to developing employee commitment and skills accounts for only 15% of total employment. According to Indian HR experts, India’s problem is not a labour shortage but a talent shortage (Rao and Varghese 2009). This talent shortage effectively drives up wages and exacerbates shortages in growth sectors. That is why the issues of managing talent, improving leadership development and managing work–life balance top the HR Agenda in India (CPA 2008).

CHINA

China faces talent problems from top to bottom. First, it faces a huge and ever expanding rural population drawn in from subsistence agriculture, which needs to be re-skilled to enter the nation’s factories. Many of these labourers are still put to work in primitive, low-productivity factories managed in a distinctly authoritarian manner. As a result, their skill and therefore productivity is impaired, and the value and quality of Chinese manufacturing suffers. As in India, labour costs are increasing because cheaper labour costs are offset by low productivity. Many of the workforce are not just unskilled but illiterate.

This trend is set to continue as many more move from the rural interior to the industrial east.

In the middle of the labour market things are more positive but, like the cliche of Bangalore in India, not all Chinese industry is manufacturing high-tech games and 3G phones. Skilled technicians, managers and sales people account for only 4% of the Chinese workforce, when the nation requires nearly a fifth to be equipped in these areas. Many Chinese people with technical skills, such as engineering, computing and the sciences, emigrate, and the country needs to import graduates in the key business skills such as accountancy, marketing and commerce. However, arguably, graduates are orientated too much towards the technical side of business and need to be grown and developed as managers and leaders (Yang and Wang 2009).

All nations have what management specialists refer to as ‘institutional factors’ in how people are managed. In China these issues loom large. State-owned enterprises are still beset by the residual suspicion of enterprise and individualism. The standard Western view of people as the most important asset is portrayed as callous and instrumental.

Conversely, in the private business sector, especially the home-grown factories, the perceived indulgence and inefficiency of communism is turned on its head with workers quite literally ‘sweated’. Many SMEs adopt a’ clan management ‘ style, often using harsh supervision that leaves little room for engagement, involvement and strategic people management practices.

To comply with international labour standards and a highly restrictive state employment regulations, many entrepreneurs set up ‘shadow’ factories, with one operation for inspection and audit and another for production. Often these have separate workforces which –though labour costs are low – is ultimately, unsustainable (Harney 2008).

BRIDGING THE GAP

How then can international organisations having business interests across some or all of these vastly different geographical and socio-political landscapes function effectively.

This is the million-dollar questions that International Human Resource professionals across the globe have been grappling with. The truth is that there is no easy answer and there are varied schools of thought on the issue.

Multinational companies have navigated these difficult terrains over the years, learning from mistakes and evolving with time.

Most countries have strict regulations with respect to employment of citizens and non-citizens and the first rule for any responsible corporate citizen will be to work within the legal framework of the host nation. However, employment is only the initial phase of the talent management portfolio with other phases such as deployment and career development requiring attention.

A thorny issue that also arise for Human Resource practitioners is that of diversity.

Step into any high-street bank, chain store or other customer-facing business and the chances are that the people who serve you will reflect all the rich diversity of 21st century Britain. But enter these same companies’ headquarters and take the lift up to their executive suites and you are likely to find yourself in a mid-20th century time warp. The people here will be overwhelmingly white, male, able-bodied and of a certain age – a photo of their wife and kids will doubtless be on their desk.

It isn’t so much that large organisations actively discriminate against people who don’t fall into this narrow category. A minority no doubt do discriminate, but prompted by legislation, skills shortages and demographic change, most employers are recruiting from an ever-widening base and take the diversity agenda seriously. The trouble is that there is often little joined-up thinking between activities that come under this agenda and what employers are doing to nurture top talent. As one HR director quoted in a recent report on the management of executive talent, put it: “Ideally talent and diversity should happen together but in reality we are terrible at it. On average, our senior managers are right-wing, white and middle-aged.”

According to Jonathan Smilansky, the author of the report, The Systematic Management of Executive Talent, diversity in this context is often seen as being about political correctness rather than something that can have an impact on the bottom line.

(CIPD: People Management Magazine 07/2005)

“The real turning point for a number of businesses is when they realise that if your managerial population does not reflect your client base, you can’t understand your consumers and therefore you can’t provide them with the kind of service that you want to,” says Smilansky, a partner in the executive assessment and development consultancy Hydrogen.

A representative employee base from top to bottom is essential for a company’s development and success and the challenge for Human Resource practitioners is to proactively identify and nurture diverse talents across board in every organisation. Organisations need to have proactive, concise, measurable and achievable mission goals for equal opportunities for all employees.

Another effective means of bridging the gap across countries in terms of talent development is the development of a uniform approach across the whole organisation. The organisation develops a standard company policy that guides the talent management practices across all its spheres of operation. Words of caution though, for this “policy” to be effective, it must take into account the various factors that operate in the individual nations and communities where the policy will be used. It may not be very successful if it attempts to enforce standards of one particular geo-political area onto other. Compromise may be the best way forward.

The concept of Cross-posting and work exchange is also a tool for bridging gaps across socio-political divides in organisations. The idea is that a worker recruited in the United Kingdom for example who has been identified as a potential for a position that would require familiarity with customs in Hong Kong is transferred to the Hong Kong branch of the organisation for a number of years so as to gain firsthand knowledge of the practices in Hong Kong to prepare him for the future position.

Cross posting within an organization is not only beneficial for preparing individuals for future roles but also helps integration within the organisation with employees gaining better insight into how other cultures and people work.

EMERGING TRENDS

From the foregoing, organisations have gradually moved towards various styles of managing global talent development. Intense competition and harsh economic climates have shaped this key aspect of human resource management in diverse ways. HRM practitioners are innovating and experimenting with new ideas on how to tackle growing talent shortages and have come up with various ideas. Below are critiques of some of these new trends:

Imported Talent:

Many organisations especially in Europe are now increasingly looking to sourcing workforce from eastern countries like China and India as well as African countries. They are ready source of cheap and reasonably equipped skill pool that organizations can tap into. The professionals themselves are willing to relocate to Europe on the promise of a better life.

This provides a solution to the issue of aging populations across Europe by supplying a ready working class to support the young as well as the old and retired.

Everybody wins except the countries where these expatriates are coming from who end up training a manpower pool for other countries without benefitting from the ideas and innovations of the people that they had invested so much in. The “brain drain” syndrome is a well-flogged issue.

On the other hand, there is the argument that these expatriates remit money back to their home countries to families and relatives left behind, running up to millions of pounds annually.

The better of these two rewards to the home countries of these professionals is left for the reader to decide; financial remittance or intellectual contribution to the building up of their home nations.

Offshore Jobs/Outsourcing:

Another radical approach to the international talent management conundrum is the outsourcing of total companies, production plants, departments or operations to other countries where talents are readily available and cheap, thus helping to bring down the overheads of organisations and improve profits. Typically, this outsourcing is from western nations to the east.

There are heated arguments for and against this idea. The argument in favour is obvious; lower operating costs and higher profits. The argument against takes a more holistic and long term look at the issue to arrive at the conclusion that moving jobs and talents to other nations will impoverish the local community/nation at the long run.

Head-Hunting:

This is a short-term solution to the talent deficiency problem. It usually involves poaching identified potentially beneficial personnel from other organisations with the lure of better compensation packages and or promotion. The advantage is that it promotes healthy competition amongst organisations in the area of compensation packages and salaries for employees. However, it does not address the underlying problem of inadequate number of qualified personnel in any given industry.

CONCLUSION

Global Talent management is a dynamic and critical aspect of Human Resource management and indeed the total management of the organisation. Organisations that ignore this fact do so at their own peril.

It is the opinion of this writer that in order for organisations to remain competitive both in the short and long term, they will have to develop and implement a Global Talent Management Policy that takes into account all aspects of their operations, the surrounding socio-cultural factors in the host countries where they operate as well as equal opportunities for all employees. It may not always be the most cost-effective approach in the short term, but investments made now will definitely yield positive long term results.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CIPD (2011) People management Magazine,p.20, (27 January 2011)
CIPD/HR INFORM: (2011) Talent Management
CIPD (Chartered Institute of Personnel Development) 2009
CIPD: People Management Magazine 07/2005
CIPD, People Management Magazine(2011)Talent Development in The Bric Countries
CIPD Research international membership Internal , 2009
Fairclough, N. (2006) Language and Globalization. London and New York: Routledge.
HARNEY, A. (2008) The China price: the true cost of Chinese competitive advantage. London: Penguin Books.
Marchington and Wilkinson(2006) Human Resource Management at Work p.26
OECD Country and Labour Market Reports 2007, 2008, 2009 and PISA test

scores for similar years.

RAO, T.V. and VARGHESE, S. (2009) Trends and challenges of developing human capital in India. Human Resource Development International. Vol 12, No 1. pp15–34.
RAO, T.V. and VARGHESE, S. (2009) Trends and challenges of developing human capital in India. Human Resource Development International. Vol 12, No 1. pp15–34.
Steger (2005) Steger, M. (2005) Globalism: Market Ideology Meets Terrorism, 2nd edn. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield and) Fairclough (2006
Yang and Wang 2009 YANG, B. and WANG, X. (2009) Successes

and challenges of developing human capital in the People’s Republic of China. Human Resource Development International. Vol 12, No 1. pp3–14.

http://www.hsbc.com/1/2/newsroom/news/2002/new-campaign-for-the-worlds-local-bank

Categories
Free Essays

Design and Development for a Charity Website

1. Specification of requirements for the web-site

1.1. Introduction

The charity organization has asked the manager to project-manage the design, development, and launch procedures of the web-site, specialists for which are going to be outsourced taking into account the fact that the charity doesn’t have web-specialists in-house. In short, it becomes the sole responsibility of the project manager to specify the functionality of the web-site in order to fulfil the requirements of the charity organization, event organizers, and donators; moreover, the manager will have to draft a process schedule or plan of work lifecycle, demonstrating critical points in time when charity organizers will have to be involved into web-development process.Further, the project-manager is responsible for ensuring that a viable back-up solution is put in place for recovery of the financial and other data in case of information loss or damage. In simpler terms, the task is to plan initial stages in the project prior to any technical implementations, so that issues or potential problems associated with that will be foreseen early on and recovered or mitigated with minimal losses and expenditures.

1.2. Research on identical web-projects

The project manager has researched the web-space on similar or more or less identical charity web-sites and the following strengths and useful features for all of them have been emphasized:

All charity websites must be visually engaging, however stay moderately interactive, so that people with visual, hearing impairments and learning challenges can easily access and enjoy the contents. Therefore, some overly sophisticated and distracting features, like sound, must be omitted.
Homepage design is a highly substantial part of the whole web-site, whereby the single page can persuade a single user or the entire funding organization to donate to the cause, allow for fast and speedy navigation, and introduce to the objective of the current web-project. Therefore, it is clear from the outset that the precise range of target users must be identified first so that the web-site homepage is oriented towards those users.
Support for social media must be leveraged properly by means of seamless integration between the website and social media channels so that the user shares his experience on social networks and forums (Facebook, LinkedIn); it might be feasible to implement forum directly on the website, but technically it will involve extra financial and time costs.
The content management system might be adjusted to the needs of volunteers/supporters/beneficiaries through Intranet, for example, by allowing logins and personal profiles to the volunteers for sharing comments. The additional feature would be to allow volunteers to take part in creating, updating, and complementing the web-site content by making suggestions and recommendations as well as telling different stories: this feature helps attract more volunteers and members.
Clients will also have to be cared for: clients might even take parts in forum discussions and idea-sharing regarding some acute topic, like orphan children or homeless; users of the website can be allowed to publish their own works of art, drawing, or essays on the website, which, although time and budget-consuming, may facilitate more user engagement and participation in the charity cause.
The website must follow the rule of cost-effectiveness: in other words, the website design and implementation investment will have to be paid off by the returns in the form of donations.
There must be option for online donations and online fund-raising through the usage of direct mails or special appeals
Properly constructed funding application especially for medium and large donators is present in most sites
Some websites even offer subscription membership options for money; moreover, sites can allow all members, including users/volunteers/donators to purchase the charity’s own merchandize and book trainings for fees (related to the charity causes of course)
Search engine optimization is concerned with adjusting site content to search engine or Google indexation, so that the content must be of a good quality and easily searched by relevancy.
Some charities are advertised on Google platforms for free: those charity web-sites gain Google grants by submitting properly constructed grant applications to Google Corporation.
Content of the website must be unheavy and precisely communicating the objective of the web-site; moreover, it must be periodically updated with news and other novices.

Almost all of these features are considered important for a charity web-site and therefore can be implemented in the current project.

1.3. Identifying stakeholders

Web-project stakeholders are identified as follows:

Charity organization-the primary customer and stakeholder; the final decision is made by the charity management
Event organizers-volunteers and members of the web-site that will arrange events for fundraising and post the events on the web-site
Donors- users that will donate money either online or by filling out the application form
Web-designer and developer- the parties responsible for implementing the web-site

1.4. Setting up web-site requirements

Taking into account all stakeholders in the process of web-site build-up and the commonest features of existing charity web-sites, the following requirements for the particular web-site have been set up:

v Purpose

The primary purpose of the web-site is to communicate the importance of helping fellow humans who suffer from various insufficiencies to all potential users of the website; this can be done through collaboration of the charity organization with event organizers and posting different events on the site’s homepage.

v Look and feel

The homepage design must be visually engaging but clean and neat without any extra distractions: it is possible to include one reach Flash movie at the top of the page for adding dynamics to the page and greater interactivity. The homepage structure might be organized into 4 sections, including banner with logo, navigation bar, login, sign up, and search options; dynamic main content section with updatable content and news; side-bar section for advertisements of membership and merchandize, new and up-coming events; footer with the information about the charity, contact details, and site map.

v Performance

For large funding institutions it will most likely be essential to be able to fill a properly constructed funding application form and submitting it online by uploading it back on the website or send by post. In the navigation bar there will be option for donors to donate either online, using PayPal or credit/debit card services, or by submitting application form. Single donors are likely to pay straightaway online. However, the site is mostly oriented towards large funding institutions
Some event organizers will be able to post their ads and offer trainings or charity cause-related merchandize to donors on the side-bar of the pages through CMS and personal logins
Users should be able to navigate easily through the website and in case they wish to donate online, they should be able to specify on their own the sum that they donate
Charity organization can update or make amendments to the website content through CMS, with their own administrator login

v Functionality

The web project should have a content management system for administrator or charity organization itself to constantly make updates and amendments to the content of existing pages, rearrange the site structure and reassemble menu, monitor commenting in forums, control user registration, and administer online shop: this can be done by means of Extranet/Intranet and administrator login.
Extranet will also allow members (basic membership for free, premium membership- for some amount of fees) to login to their personal profiles and make comments, take part in forum, or post their own works of art or writing to the website for a public use or for small fees; the money from premium membership will go to charity causes.
All users that want to take part in the charity’s active social live or organize events for charity causes will first have to register with the website, submit their details as follows:
Full name
Country of residence
Date of birth
Current address/post code
E-mail and telephone number
A particular charity cause they are interested in
Password

v This volunteer-type access will ensure that volunteers can also make minor amendments to their posted ads and events, and will be constantly sent newsletters or alerts from the web-master.

v Security

Security issues are related to web-site hacking and vicious malware that may block the content of the website from showing up, may trigger alerts popping up to the user trying to access the web-site, may suddenly decrease the traffic, make malicious modifications to the web-site files, code, and root folder and compromise the web-site content, down to disabling the administrator from accessing the content and damaging or deleting the business data, thereby leading to the loss of business and reputation of the site. Besides, web-sites featuring embedded blogs, forums, CMS or image galleries are particularly vulnerable to injections of hidden illicit content that is not always noticed from the first sight. For ensuring against such accidents on websites and blogs there are different Website Security monitoring systems, such as WebDefender. However, currently many web-design and development agencies offer hosting services which also include technical support packages and security features already embedded into the system. In principle, security is going to be implemented through the use of appropriate software that hosting organization can provide alongside with preventive measures that the web-administrator takes to monitor the content flow and the files being uploaded by means of CMS.


2. Web-project lifecycle

2.1. Specifying the project execution phases

The web-site project was determined to be oriented towards iterative lifecycle, depicted in the figure 2.1. The advantages of iterative lifecycle include greater interactivity and process control by the customers, which will allow completing one full cycle first and then deciding if the complete product of the cycle satisfies the requirements; if the charity management is dissatisfied with the finished product of one lifecycle, the entire lifecycle starts again until the web-site complies with all wishes and requirements of the committee.

1. First meeting and analysis of the prerequisites: discussion of the site requirements and purpose with both charity management as well as with web-designer and developer; arrangement of kick-off meetings or the communication means throughout the project.

2. Preparing the proposal: specify the site requirements together with costs involved in the project proposal, which is presented first to the managers and after having obtained their agreement, goes off to the web-designer and developer.

3. Design: web-designer comes up with a template(s) front-end for the web-project in collaboration with prototype functionality of the website generated by developer.

4. Content: the content is developed in collaboration with web-designers, managers, and interested event-organizers.

5.Design and content approval: combined design and content are presented to the charity management/committee and passed on to the next stage in case of approval.

6. Coding/developing phase: once the design and content are approved by the charity management and several important event-organizers, the developer builds design-consistent back-end of the site, using appropriate platform and commercially-viable framework. As a result the coding phase produces the dynamic content of the web-project.

7. Heavy web-application testing: different types of testing should take place after the completion of the design-coding processes as to ensure the user-compatibility and loading/traffic resilience. Testing will most probably be done by software testing specialists who will generate a report and sign off the web-site if it contains no bugs and complies with the above-mentioned requirements.

8. Final web-site approval meeting and presentation: charity organizers will have to approve of the final product and sign off the actual web-site completion phase.

9. Web-site promotion: official web-site domain and host service registration together with engine injection; applying for advertisement space-grant on Google.

Maintenance and updating: rather continuous process and will have to be systematically utilized for web-site technical support and content management.

2.2. Gantt chart and schedule

For the convenience, the project manager can construct the schedule and Gantt chart of his own contributions to the project. Basically, his schedule will not include project execution details and technical implementations, but very broad picture of basic project stages. Both his schedule and Gantt chart are shown in the table and figure consecutively. The ongoing assumption is that the project inception started on March 1 and proceeds till 20 of April of the next year, thus taking roughly 9 months of time. Table 2.2 and figure 2.2. show the visual representation of the time allocated to the web-project.

1.3. Approximate cost of the project

The costs presumably involved into the process can be described in the following table (some unpredicted costs or contingency expenditures are not taken into account):

3.Web-site back-up systems

3.1. Introduction

It is inevitable that the web-site project should be backed-up by not only hard drive on the computer, which will be prone to sudden damages, but also on other reliable media as well as somewhere in the remote location, so that if one location happens to experience flood, fire, or other emergencies, the data is still secure and kept safe. As the website contents are going to be dynamic, the updated contents should be backed up regularly as well.

3.2. Backing up online

There are different ways to back up the system, not least of them resorting to external parties to back up your data online, so-called application cloud services or remote back-up services. Cloud servers are best to exploit when there is little computing resource in-house to maintain the site regularly; the companies like Backup Technologies, Mozy, Safesync Trend Micro, Norton, M4 systems utilize special software on their remote servers for recovery and back-up of files, e-mails, and databases. However, there are security concerns related to online backing up as, although slightest, there is a chance of hacking the servers on the network and damaging the data.

1.3. Physical onsite backup measures

Another option would be to exploit physical back-up such as tape drives. The only concern about the tape-back-up is its costliness: tape drives are the most reliable media for backing up large chunks of data and therefore can cost up to ? 700 for a drive.

Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) is another popular option for storing and backing up the web-site in-house, on internal servers. RAID systems nowadays can come already embedded into end-user interfaces, although the possibility of purchasing RAID externally for a charity office server will allow for wider and more relevant choice to be made. RAID systems have three most substantial advantages over other back-up systems in terms of redundancy (if one drive of the whole bunch of hard drives on RAID gets damaged, it can be easily replaced without affecting other disks, usually using mirroring technique), increased performance (dependent on versions of RAID used and the number of drives, usually RAID 0+1 version), and lower costs as compared to tape drives (for the charity the RAID used is one with 4 TB of storing capacity with the moderate cost up to ?500.

1.4. Recommendation

For the current web-project it is decided to use RAID backup system, which will cost ? 500 together with online back-up for ?30 a year. This solution is the most viable as it ensures against data damage and loss both online and offline, thus creating double fortification of the invaluable business content.

Sources

Anon, Practical Guide to Dealing With Google’s Malware Warnings. Available at: http://www.unmaskparasites.com/malware-warning-guide/ [Accessed April 1, 2011].

Anon, What is RAIDAvailable at: http://compreviews.about.com/od/storage/l/aaRAIDPage1.htm [Accessed April 1, 2011].

Anon, Web site development process – The processes and steps. Available at: http://www.macronimous.com/resources/web_development_life_cycle.asp#link7 [Accessed April, 2, 2011].

Anon, Online Backup Software | Carbonite. Available at: http://www.carbonite.com/ [Accessed April 3, 2011].

Anon, UNICEF UK: Children’s Appeal. Available at: http://www.unicef.org.uk/landing-pages/Childrens-Appeal/?gclid=CPXlmv7XzqgCFQRqfAodd0AAig [Accessed April 3, 2011].

Anon, Sponsor a Child | Child Sponsorship | Children’s Charity | Sponsor Children : World Vision UK. Available at: http://www.worldvision.org.uk/server.php?show=nav.29&rw.cm=ENGINE,PPC,&gclid=CIDu2ZXYzqgCFcRtfAodkBM9jg [Accessed April 3, 2011].

Anon, Action for Sick Children – Welcome :: Available at: http://www.actionforsickchildren.org/ [Accessed April 3, 2011].

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Free Essays

Critical Analysis on Nuclear Energy Development

Introduction

Radiation is a form of energy and different types of radiation have different amounts of energy. If radioactive waste gets out of its safe container and in to the environment it could contaminate the wildlife and people. A type of radiation is nuclear energy. Nuclear energy was discovered by lots of different people but it all started out in 1895, when Wilhelm Rontgen began passing an electric current through an evacuated glass tube and producing continuous X-rays. Nuclear energy is said to be safe compared to other energy sources.

The three safety issues with nuclear energy is controlling the rate of the reaction if the reactions is uncontrolled it could cause a meltdown and radiation could seep outside of the power plant. The next safety issue is managing the radioactive materials used in the reactors. The third and final safety issue is the security of the material, because if it gets in to the wrong hands it could cause a nuclear war. A nuclear reactor produces and controls the release of energy from splitting the atom. The electricity released is used to create heat which is then used to create steam which in the very end you end up with electricity. Amounts of radiation released into the environment are measured in units called curies and the dose that a person receives is measured in units called rem.

When it comes to nuclear energy there are a lot of regulations. The first regulation is that the nuclear power plant must be licensed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and while the reactors are being built they will be supervised at all time and there has to be a final inspection as soon as the reactor is finished. They do inspections quite often to check the condition of the plant and to make sure they are following the laws. The second regulation is storage containers. After a while the uranium will not be able to be used anymore but it is still very radioactive so they have to put it in safe containers and store it either at the plant or shipped to a storage facility. The third safety regulation is transportation. Trains, trucks, airplanes, and boats all transport radioactive materials. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the department of transportation have made rules about how much radioactive waste can be transported at one time. They do this because if there was a spill they want to keep the amount spilled to a minimum. The forth regulation is fire safety. Fire detection is so important that they have adequate fire monitoring systems. They also have a group of people that there only job is to watch for fires and if there is one to report it right away. Nuclear power plants are required to have one control station protected against fire in which workers can safely shut down the reactor if necessary. The fifth and final regulation is reports. The plant must report if they are shut down for any reason, any event that can negatively affect the plant even if it is out of their control, and they must report any airborne or liquid release of radioactive materials must be reported to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission if it exceeds the predetermined amount.

The waste that comes from these plants if they choose to send it somewhere goes to a remote location in southeastern Washington State called Hanford. In this desert about 2 million curies of radioactivity and thousands of tons of chemicals are stored there. There are many weapons and medical needs. The amount of nuclear energy out there right now poses the biggest threat to public health in human history. Medical planning and defense preparations for nuclear war have increased. There is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. Security seems to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law if there is any sign of weapons of mass destruction. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate and try to prevent the start of a nuclear war.

In 2008 there were some big changes made to the final FY funding bill which was then submitted to the Department of Energy’s office of Nuclear energy. Some of the programs received more than they had requested for while significant cuts were made to the budgets for other programs. The administration had requested for $801.7 million for the Office of Nuclear Energy’s. The Consolidated Appropriations Act provided $961.7 million which is $160 million over the requested amount.

Preparing uranium for a reactor is a long drawn out process it goes through the steps. The steps are mining, milling, conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication. These steps make up the first part of the nuclear fuel cycle. Uranium will spend about three years in the reactor before it goes through the second part of the nuclear cycle. The second part of the cycle includes temporary storage, reprocessing, and recycling before eventually disposing as waste. With a financial push from President Obama and even Bill Gates Nuclear energy is out in front of all the rest as an alternative to generating electricity with fossil fuels.

Radioactive decay is the spontaneous breakdown of an atomic nucleus resulting in the release of energy and matter from the nucleus. Fission is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus splits, or fissions, into fragments, usually two fragments of comparable mass, with the release of large amounts of energy in the form of heat and radiation. Fusion energy can also be produced by combining light nuclei in a process is called nuclear fusion.

The things that have gone on in Japan have been absolutely terrible. On March 11th is when the earthquake and tsunami hit Japan. The nuclear power plant had emergency procedures in place for an earthquake in Japan. The nuclear power plant has fuel in the reactors that gets very hot and continuous stream of water that runs by the heated fuel and carries the heat away. This fuel is designed to work in such a way that it will cool on its own if there are no continuing chain reactions. When the earthquake hit, the plant shut down as it was designed to do and emergency power went on. However, then the tsunami hit as well, and power was completely knocked out. Of the eight reactors, they were having problems with three. The combination of two natural disasters is what caused this issue.

Every nuclear power plant has to prepare for emergencies just like the one in Japan. Some of the rules you are supposed to follow when a power plant has an emergency are to listen to the specific warnings because you may be able to take care of the problem before it would get outside the power plant. Review your emergency handbook and be sure to tune your radio to the emergency alert systems channel to keep updated on what’s going on. Finally, evacuate to a designated reception center. Now there are different things you have to do when the emergency has already happened. If you are told to evacuate do not return home until officials say its okay, if you are told to stay inside and not come out do it and seek medical treatment if you have any unusual symptoms such as nausea which could be related to the radiation exposure.

My personal opinion on developing nuclear energy is that it is a good thing to have around because it produces energy and jobs. The bad thing about it is that it is very dangerous to have around. If there was ever an accident it could leak toxic radioactive waste everywhere. I think that we should not produce nuclear energy in the United States because it is too dangerous. I would be against it if the United States ever decided to put a nuclear power plant in Delaware Ohio. If something were to go wrong all the people and businesses around there could be hurt and the people could die. If we had a power plant in Delaware Ohio there would be no way they could store the radioactive waste here they would have to send it somewhere else which would cause more of a danger because then a spill could happen on their way to the new site.That is to close for comfort. If they decide to put more nuclear power plants in the United States they should put it out in the middle of nowhere. I think that would be the safest place for them to be.

References

Black, R. (2011, March 15). Japan quake: Radiation rises at fukushima nuclear plant. Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://www.bbc.co.uk//

Hanes, A., & Gleisner, J. (2009, October 24). Nuclear weapons and medicine: Some ethical dilemmas. Retrieved from National institutes of Health website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov//?

Nuclear fuel cycle. (2011, February). Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://www.world-nuclear.org//.htm

Nuclear power plants. (2011). Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://www.mass.gov/??pageID=eopsterminal&L=4&L0=Home&L1=Homeland+Security+%26+Emergency+Response&L2=Planning+%26+Preparedness&L3=Family&sid=Eeops&b=terminalcontent&f=mema_nuclear_power_plants_info&csid=Eeops

Pros and cons of nuclear energy. (2011). Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://timeforchange.org/and-cons-of-nuclear-power-and-sustainability

Safety regulations of nuclear power plants. (2011, February). Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/_5042817_safety-regulations-nuclear-power-plants.html

Sloter, K. (2011, March 17). What really happened– japan nuclear power plant crisis. Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://umichsph.wordpress.com/?/?/?/really-happened-japan-nuclear-power-plant-crisis/

Staedter, T. (2010, March 17). Is nuclear energy safeRetrieved May 16, 2010, from http://news.discovery.com//nuclear-energy-safe.html

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Free Essays

Chose an aspect of your clinical practice and reflect and critically analyse your professional development by drawing on supportive evidence from your portfolio.

Introduction

The purpose of this essay is to critically analyse an aspect of professional development and by using relevant reflection techniques to evaluate the development of this skill. The area of clinical practice which will be examined is wound management and the role in which reflection can be used to emphasize the progression of the skills required, improving knowledge base and fundamentally the techniques used to promote safe and evidence based practice. Wound management is an essential part of nursing practice (Gray & Cooper 2001). Additionally, Cutting (2010) states that nurse should have a sound knowledge base when assessing and carrying out the management techniques required. Reflection is a crucial skill and a development technique nurses should utilize to enable them to learn from their past experiences and put what’s been learned into practice to strengthen their clinical approach in future (Jasper 2006). Moreover, by using reflection this essay will deliver further evidence for the need to reflect and enhance skills in this area of practice. By using the chosen reflection tool the essay will provide a logical breakdown of how the skill has been developed and the personal progress within wound management. I will discuss how over my time in university and by combining theories and practical skills has allowed me to build on an essential skill. In conclusion it will be evident the way in which by reflecting on events can enable improved and increase of evidence based knowledge base.

Reflection is a human quality we actively integrate into everyday living and as Johns (2009) explains it allows us to appreciate experiences and how we apply any desired changes. With consideration to implementing this into education and learning, a significant figure was an American philosopher John Dewey (Bulman & Schutz 2004, Brown & Libberton 2007). He provided regulations to enable the understanding of the significance of reflection within study and personal development. Many healthcare policies and frameworks have promoted the development of this work with the focus on delivering safe practice for service users and reflection therefore, plays a fundamental part of nursing education (Timmins 2006). The Department of Health (DOH 1999) developed integrated frameworks for the enhancement of knowledge and development for their staff with a section dedicated to nurses. The framework expects nurses to build on previous understanding, skills and experience within their nursing performance. This framework is further developed within the Nursing and Midwifery Code of Professional Conduct (NMC 2008) who provide guidelines for nursing practice. They state that nurses have a responsibility to take part in suitable learning events which enable them to advance and sustain safe practice. Rycroft-Malone et al (2002) and Priest (2007) support the effectiveness for a nurse in actively applying techniques such a reflection to identify gaps in their knowledge to ensure evidence based practice is put into practice. In contrast Pearsons (2004) earlier work argues that the approaches being used to progress and implement evidence based practice were not successful. In agreement Tagney & Haines (2009) state that nurses are not fully prepared to successfully integrate theory into their clinical practice. Developed therefore over a period of time, were reflective models which Jasper (2003) states allowed nurses to easily clarify their experiences and subsequently understand and explore their actions.

For the objective of this essay the model that will be used is the Gibbs Model of Reflection (1988) (Appendix 1). This model was chosen due to its ability to simply identify a chosen skill and methodically distinguish the learning opportunities and offers a link between the transferring of theory into practice (Hull et al 2005). McCabe & Timmins (2006) argue that the Gibbs cycle of reflection induces the user to concentrate on negative aspects of their practice rather than understanding the positive support of all development. In contrast Bulman & Schutz (2004) and Wilding (2008) describe that the model has the capability to adapt simply to any circumstances and allows the user to clearly translate the knowledge in which they are reflecting. Other models of reflection were studied to ensure the strength of the selected one for the area of development. John’s model (1998) was structured within a clinical environment and promotes the user to supply valid account for the development of clinical skills. Jasper (2003) explains the model comprised of a series of questions similar to Gibbs cycle, but seizes to offer a clear link between theory and practice. A second model which was also taken into account was Bortons (1970). This model is predominantly proposed for students as it allows novice reflectors to suitably recognise their thoughts and feelings within their chosen area (Hull et al 2005). This model was ruled out due to the required level of depth of writing essential for this essay. Gibbs cycle (Appendix 1) consists of six stages that guide the user through the stages of the reflective cycle by asking a chain of questions, this allows the user to structure and easy interpreter guidelines. The model uses a basic approach to reflection and assists the user to provide initially a clear report of the situation or skills being considered and an analysis of feelings connected with the area of development are given. The skills or situation is then evaluated to highlight their existing level of skills, to the skills the user needs or wants to develop. After the main part is finalised the user concludes what they could have done to better the situation and therefore an analysis is then offered on how the situation has enabled development of skills (Bulman & Schutz 2008). Gibbs (1988) then encourages the user to develop an action plan to enable additional development of the area of interest or skill, this further promotes the NMC Code of Conduct (2008) for life long learning. For the following main body of this essay, Gibbs model (1988) will be used to analyse how I have advanced my skills and knowledge base in wound management.

My basic introduction to wound management was within the clinical stimulation laboratories which took place within our first semester in first year at university. Before this point I had no knowledge base or previous experience of wound dressings, management or assessment. Within these classes we were given the chance to practice bandaging, cleansing and assessment skills that would be used within our clinical placements. In conjunction with these practical skills, we received academic lectures from tissue viability nurses which concentrated on standards of care management required and the importance of accurate assessment. One assessment tool explained was abbreviated as TIME. TIME presents a logical and systematic method to the assessment (Young 1997). It was at this stage I appreciated how my poor knowledge base would begin to improve as my first placement was given to me, care of the elderly.

In first year of university my lack of knowledge was a main issue for me. With this in mind I developed an action plan (Appendix 2) which enabled me to examine my areas for development and allow me to recognise the exact learning outcomes I wished to attain and the resources I required to utilise. With the support and aid of my mentor within placement I was given tasks to deliver basic wound care to patients within the clinical area. These learning opportunities interconnected with my action plan enabling the development of my understanding and skills within wound management. Throughout various other clinical placements I have had many chances to advance on my skills, however in my second year community placement I was participating in the care of a patient with a complex wound. The key issue which I felt arose from this opportunity was the ability for me to start connecting theory to practice when selecting suitable dressings and assessment tools. Due to the care being provided on a daily basis until required it allowed my skills to develop and I was able monitor the progression of the wound and the success of the interventions specific to this patient. Following this placement I worked on a personal reflection (Appendix 3) to enable me to identify my strengths and weaknesses so I could transfer my evolving skills into all aspects of my future practice. My management placement in third year has been the revolving point in my three years of developing my wound management abilities. It took place in a surgical orthopaedic ward with high levels of wound management skills being vastly important to the patient’s recovery process. The main subject which arose within this placement was my capability to provide rationale for my care with regards to assessment and treatment of wounds. This clinical environment also offered me a new method to wound care. This approach was providing a holistic approach to my care delivery which included ensuring that accurate hydration of patients skin care was carried out for patients. After this placement I commenced a personal reflection (Appendix 4) to allow me to acknowledge the skills I had developed and highlight areas for development.

Over the last three years my response and feelings related to wound management has changed significantly. When originally being taught wound management within university I felt hesitant in my ability, astonished at the degree of some wounds and concerned my lack of knowledge within this area of nursing care would interfere with me within placement. Having the chance to construct an action plan and work closely with my mentor in first year consequently allowed me to increase my confidence in this area and gave me the basis to identify evidence based practice.In second year my feelings had changed to becoming more assertive in my ability and understanding of wound management. I still remained hesitant in caring for some wounds however; I had the ability to accurately recognise the resources needed to correctly provide wound management gave me assurance. My feelings connected with my practice in third year were entirely different. From using the reflection from second year I developed and became more aware of the role I played in effective wound management. I also was enhancing my ability to holistically care for patients with wounds. One significant lecture in first year by the tissue viability nurse specified we had to care for the patient as a whole and not just the wound a person has; this statement strengthened my practice in third year. This new method gave me confidence in providing rationale for care I was providing; I felt that I was finally achieving the skills required by a registered nurse.

Through the use of reflection over my three years of study it has allowed me to identify strengthens and weaknesses within my clinical practice. My action plan from first year highlighted my poor knowledge base. This allowed me to develop ways in which my I could expand my knowledge being taught in university, by integrating policies and guidelines such as Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 50 (SIGN 2008) into my studies. This guideline delivers promotion of national guidelines and local protocols which can assist practitioners to ensure their practice is evidence-based and their poor knowledge can be upgraded (Finnie 2000). Within second year it was clear my lack of confidence primarily in caring for complex wound could have made caring for the patient in the precise way impracticable. Through using a holistic and patient cantered method when carrying out care and building a professional relationship with them made this possible. Sources in this subject states that a mixture of evidence based and patient centred approach discussed by Cutting (2008) who describes that the nurse must determine if the technique they are using is of the best importance to the patient and cover all aspects of patient needs. This topic is further studied by Toy (2005) and Solowiej et al (2010) who supported that nurses should fully implement all areas of a holistic approach when planning and caring for wounds. In third year my area for development which became noticeable was taking control and being self confident in my practice. In the beginning this was complex due to the specialised area of wound care and necessary requirements of nurses within the area to be highly experienced. I was fortunate to have a very experienced and skilled mentor to pass on her understanding and perception into practice in this region. Closely working with my mentor allowed me to subdue the areas of limitation and weakness within my nursing practice. Literature within this area reveals a qualitative study carried out by Roberts (2008) explored how students learned from one another, a large portion was devoted to the early skills developed by students came from working directly with their clinical mentors. This study strengthened the need for me to work closely with my mentor to develop vital skills.

As the above reflection highlights, a main issue to evolve in my experience of wound management in first year was my poor knowledge. I had never encountered complex or even basic wound care so having the competence to develop the teachings from university into my clinical practice was of great benefit. University teachings had offered us with a basis of knowledge; it was then the student’s responsibility to further develop all features of this skill. Through the use of applicable learning materials such as developing action plans was of great advantage to me as it helped highlight areas that required strengthened and development. This is reiterated in work by Hackney (2008). He explains that by use of reflection and developing action plans will improve care and initiate professional and self development. Nursing education emphasises heavily on using this area of development which is further discussed by Bulman & Schutz (2004) who state that reflective education allows the student to rationalise their actions and identify areas for development. Further into my practice it became clear that that linking theory to practice was an important skill which guarantees practice is evidence based. Literature within evidence based practice allowed me to make this fundamental skill clearer to me with Tagney & Haines (2009) clarifying that if nurses recognise with the recourses which are accessible the care of patients will be of the greatest level and nurses can be assured in the care they provide. Assessment formed a crucial area within second year that helped to further develop my ability to make use of evidence based practice. In order to make sense of the experience in second year a older yet significant piece of work by Young (1997) provided outstanding basis for me on assessment and documentation highlighting that this skill is vital for nurses to accurately plan and implement the care required. In relation to assessment, second year gave me an insight into how nurses are deskilling themselves by relying on tissue viability nurses. In some clinical environments I came across nurses relying too heavily on the information and suggestions from specialised nurses rather than utilising recourses which were available and using their own skill and knowledge. A recent study by Huynh & Forget-Falcicchio (2005) suggested that nurses are not using their full ability, skills and knowledge when it comes to wound care and that their approach should be part of the holistic care they provide. Finnie (2000) emphasises the requirement for nurses to incorporate clinical guidelines into their practice. By examining this area of literature whilst on placement and applying it within my practice has allowed me to recognise the importance of guidelines and policies. With help from my theoretical teachings and clinical placements I know the care I provide will always be up to the standard necessary. With my final placement and the main issue discussed being the ability to provide rationale for my practice, relevant literature has allowed me to simply translate and understand this area of development. Timmins (2006) and Wilding (2008) further made it possible for me to identify that the development of this skill was a vital part of my educational training. Towards the end of my placement my mentor gave me the opportunity to discuss the need for me to work autonomously in my practice. My mentor was invaluable in allowing me and explaining to me the importance of holistic care. Since this was explained to me I have been enthusiastic in applying this in my clinical practice and also relating it to my part-time job within a care home.

In conclusion it has become apparent that by the use of Gibbs model of reflection (1988) has allowed me to accurately investigate and explore how over my last three years of study my skills in wound management have developed. I discovered that by researching the evidence based practice guidelines and recommendations within my early experiences of wound management, my skills enhanced. By following the Gibbs model recommendations in developing action plans enabled me to highlight my weaknesses and allowed me to develop in these areas. My concerns of my lack of confidence soon began to settle by using techniques promoted within the model. Concluding what I have learned in my second year and the development of the skill it became evident that linking the teachings from university and from clinical practice made an impact in the way I carried out these procedures as my confidence increased. From the process of recognising a knowledge shortage, action planning and reflecting on practice began a process of self learning that will only further my professional development. The first reflection specified the role in which I was starting to play in wound management. Within third year practice is aimed at working autonomously and having the ability to provide rationale for my approaches and care, using reflection was of great benefit to me. Furthermore, by completing this assignment it has given me further understanding into the importance of reflection. Johns (2002) recognises reflection as a valuable and life long tool in developing healthcare practice, in agreement Jasper (2003) further explains that by using reflection nurses can provide high quality of care and be confident in their actions.

Reflection

Barton, T. 1970, “Reach, Touch and Teach. London: Hutchinson”, Cited in Jasper, M. (2003), “Beginning Reflective Practice Foundations in Nursing and Health Care”, London: Nelson Thornes.

Brown, J. & Libberton, P. 2007, Principles of Professional Studies in Nursing. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bulman, C. & Schutz, S. 2004, Reflective Practice in Nursing: The Growth of the Professional Practitioner. (3rd Ed.) Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Bulman, C. & Schutz, S. 2008, Reflective Practice in Nursing. (4th Ed.) Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Cutting, K.F. 2008, “Should evidence dictate clinical practice or support it?”, Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 216.

Cutting, K.F. 2010, “Addressing the challenge of wound cleansing in the modern era”, British Journal of Nursing, Vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 24-29.

Department of Health. 1999, Continuing Professional Development Quality in the new NHS. London: DOH.

Finch, M. 2003, “Assessment of skin in older people”, Nursing Older People, Vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 29-30.

Finnie, A. 2000, “The SIGN guideline on the care of chronic leg ulcers: an aid to improve practice”, Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 365-367.

Gibbs, G. 1988, Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Oxford: Further Education. Cited in Jasper, M. (2003), Beginning Reflective Practice Foundations in Nursing and Health Care. London: Nelson Thornes.

Gray, D. & Cooper, P. 2001, “Modern wound management: theory and product selection”, Nursing and Residential Care, Vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 335-344.

Hackney, S. 2008, “Advancing practice through reflection”, British Journal of School Nursing, Vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 297-300.

Hull, C., Redfern, L., & Shuttleworth, A. 2005, Profiles & Portfolios. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Huynh, T. & Forget-Falcicchio. 2005, “Assessing the primary nurse role in the wound healing process”, Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 407-409.

Jasper, M. 2003, Beginning Reflective Practice Foundations in Nursing and Health Care. London: Nelson Thornes.

Jasper, M. 2006, Professional Development, Reflection and Decision-making. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Johns, C. 1998, Transforming Nursing Through Reflective Practice. Oxford: Blackwell Science. Cited in: Jasper, M. 2003, Beginning Reflective Practice Foundations in Nursing and Health Care. London: Nelson Thornes.

Johns, C. 2002, Guided Reflection Advancing Practice. Oxford: Blackwell.

Johns, C. 2009, Becoming a reflective practitioner. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

McCabe, C. & Timmins, F. 2006, Communication skills for nursing practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

Nursing and Midwifery Council. 2008, The Code: Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics for Nurses and Midwives. NMC: London.

Pearson, A. 2009, “Building research capacity in nursing”, International Journal of Nursing Practice, Vol. 10, pp. 247.

Priest, H. 2007, “Novice researchers”, Nurse Researcher, Vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 4-6.

Roberts, D. 2008, “Learning in clinical practice: the importance of peers”, Nursing Standard, Vo.l 23, no. 12, pp. 35-41.

Rycroft-Malone, J., Harvey, G., Kitson, A., McCormack, B., Seers, K., & Titchen, A. 2002, “Getting evidence into practice: ingredients for change”, Nursing Standard. Vol. 16, no. 37, pp 38–43.

Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network. 2008, An Introduction to SIGN Methodology for the Development of Evidence-based Clinical Guidelines. Edinburgh: SIGN

Solowiej, K., Mason, V,. & Upton D. 2010, “Psychological stress and pain in wound care, part 2: a review of pain and stress assessment tools”, Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 110-115.

Tagney, J., & Haines, C. 2009, “Using evidence-based practice to address gaps in nursing knowledge”, British Journal of Nursing, Vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 484-389.

Timmins, F. 2006, “Critical practice in nursing care: analysis, action and reflexivity”, Nursing Standard. Vol. 20, no. 39, pp. 49-54.

Toy, L.W. 2005, “How much do we understand about the effect of ageing on healing?”, Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 472-476.

Voegeli, D. 2007, “The role of emollients in the care of patients with dry skin”, Nursing Standard, Vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 62-68.

Wilding, P.M. 2008, “Reflective practice: a learning tool for student nurses”, British Journal of Nursing, Vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 720-724.

Young, T. 1997, “Wound assessment and documentation”, Practice Nursing, Vol. 8, no. 13, pp. 27-30.

Categories
Free Essays

Importance and Development of Heritage Tourism in City of Bath (U.K)

Abstract:

This document of dissertation is focused on accessing and analyzing impacts of heritage tourism on inhabitants of an historic city. It gives a brief note on importance of Historic tourism which is otherwise called as heritage tourism. The report initially gives a brief description about the tourism industry and its types. Latter further intensifying the area of focus, it describes the importance of heritage tourism in tourism industry. It explains about the economical and environmental benefits of heritage tourism industry. Few points about potential of heritage tourism in Great Britain were also discussed. Adequate focus is given to broadly classify the industry variables and in what way they shall affect the local resident’s socio-economic life.

Considering the theory of sustainable tourism a primary data samples are collected from local residents of a historic location. This survey is subjective to understand what factors are being responsible for affecting the local residents. After collecting data these factors are classified with respective to the sustainable tourism and are allocated with priority levels that would need attention very immediately.

These factors which are recognized to be a cause of negative impact on local residents are individually studied in reality and analyzed for designing a implementation level strategy which does govern according to sustainable tourism. Practical implementations that are being carried out and strategic concepts that are designed to bring out idealistic environment in the industry are simultaneously discussed. This gives clear picture of reality.

Chapter 1

Introduction:

The United Kingdom is a united sovereign state, where tourism plays a very imperative division in the economic life of the state. Tourism is one of the most important and counted industry among few top industries in the world. Ever since the start of globalization tourism has kept leaping to heights, despite of many setbacks by factors like terrorist attacks. This industry has become most competitive and dynamic industry in rapid growing countries. Likewise U.K does also occupy large grounds on tourism. A report published by team tourism group in 2006 state that the average approximate spent by visitor in U. K. was ? 80 billion. This includes both national and international visitors. In particular the revenue generated by international visitors accounted for about 20% which is approximately ?16 billion.

Here the study is to understand the attitude or the opinion of the residents on the Bath city about the city being a heritage tourist place.

As per the sources of Heritage Lottery fund publishing, heritage tourism industry in U. K. contributes ?20 billion to U. K. economy.(18) This success also states that heritage is a major motivation behind the tourism expenditure of both overseas and domestic visitors. This industry supports an estimated employment opportunity of 195,000 full time equivalent jobs. The historic monuments which are well preserved in U. K. are fixed assets and are identifiable because of their past history and national, regional or religious significance. [18]. Uk is highly rated as a nation brand in view of 6 major measures for tourism which are people, culture, heritage, exports, governance, investments and immigration. Research consistently projects that history, heritage and culture which includes cultural heritage as key strengths. Heritage tourism is a successful way and means for encouraging local people to spend more money on local areas. A successful implementation of heritage tourism can pave way to sustainable development.

Motivation for the Study: 1.1
Why tourism?

Many industries of different scale are widely built purposely following globalization which involves huge inputs in different means. But whereas tourism industry is the only means that has potential of generating huge revenues not requiring major inputs following globalization.(1) Tourism is means of being global extent. It is one of the most important reliable industries that many developing countries are dependent on for their stable economy. It serves as the major purpose for several different segments of industries like logistics and Air travel.

Importance of heritage tourism in U.K.

United Kingdom is one such countries of the world that has been capable of retaining its cultural heritage over since long period of time from 18th centuries. Despite of rapid development in the social life style Britain has always been capable to restoring its cultural and historic integrity. This asset of Britain was capable of generating revenue of ?20 billion/annum approximately (3). This potential made heritage tourism to be one of the key areas to attract my focus.

Problems caused in tourism industry

Though tourism has a major play as huge revenue generating industry it certainly does have few drawbacks which is a setback for itself. Despite of several implementations being carried out to develop tourism on broad scale, in reality this is leading to evolvement of problems associated with social, cultural, economical well being of public residing at tourist place. Some most commonly associated problems that were recorded on study are (4)

1) Economic Problems.

2) Environmental Problems.

3) National Security Problems.

4) Unemployment Problems.

5) Traditional Problems.

These factors which are negative effects of tourism should also be concerned in order to bring out a strategically implementable solution that shall enhance the industry much further and above all it shall ensure the safety and convenience of both tourists as well as the local people residing in historic places. All of these observations have become my primary reasons to choose this particular topic of investigating on problems of tourism.

Hypothesis: 1.2

On the basis of our literature and primary research, we believe that through the development of the heritage tourism industry is there any negative impact on the residents of the city. And will it harm to be the sustainable tourist place in United Kingdom. Sustainability of beach tourism is a facilitator for the growth of the Indian tourism industry as it:

Differentiation.
Attracts high spending tourists
Kindle enabling industries
Stimulates residential tourism
Promotes sustainability of Indian tourism
Will relocate the Indian tourism industry
Research Objectives 1.3

The main focus of this dissertation will be to evaluate the feeling of the local people of Bath about the arrival of tourists, it is concerned to identify the major problems faced by the people due to tourism and to rationalize the changes of growth along with the sustainable development.

Objective of the Research:

1) To bring out an understanding how historic tourism is important.

2) To understand U. K. tourism and it’s potential.

3) To understand the most significant places by means of factors governing them.

4) To finalize a place that is highly prone to be susceptible to have impact of tourism.

5) Impacts of tourism on local areas of historic places.

6) How local residents are affected and how do they feel about tourists

7) To understand and analyze the structure of sustainable tourism.

8) To understand relevance of sustainable tourism to historic places.

9) Economic importance of sustainable tourism.

10) Implementation of Sustainable tourism on local areas of historic tourist places.

11) To design measures that could be taken to enhance the situations better for mutual comfort of both tourists as well as local residents.

12) Predicted outcomes of measures and new strategies designed.

Scope of Study: 1.4

The study relates to the analysis about tourists visiting the city ofBathand ideas about local people living in and around the historic city ofBath. As discussed earlier, The City of Bath was chosen because it is one of the cities that had highest visitor population and more over is one of the places that have been capable of retaining the cultural and historical integrity of different traditions and several buildings. The study concentrates on the sustainable development of the city and the opinion about the people residing in Bath city and the problems faced by them due to the tourism.

Limitation of the Study: 1.5

The study precincts to the understanding of the opinion or the feeling of the people of bath city in concern to tourism, and the problems faced by them being in that city. The study is limited to some major problems faced by the residing public for being residing in the heritage tourist place, as it is in relation to social, cultural and of economical well being of the residents of Bath city. With respect to tourism industry, the country’s government plays a chief role and their offerings and power or of any other private organizations have not been analysed in detail.

Methodology of the Study: 1.6

The overall research consist analysis about tourists visiting the city of Bath and ideas about local people living in and around the historic city ofBath. As discussed earlier, The City of Bath was chosen because it is one of the cities that had highest visitor population and more over is one of the places that have been capable of retaining the cultural and historical integrity of different traditions and several buildings. The research methodology is implemented by means of a Statistical survey method. This method collects data from few samples and the overall majority is found out for each factor that is supposed to be investigated. The implementation of survey is done by means of either of the methods

1) Online survey.

2) In personal Survey.

Online survey is done by subscribing to few web service providers who render facilities to conduct and organize online research and survey. These vendors also provide tools to validate each samples report to get finalize an output differentiated category wise. In personal survey is carried by preparing paper based questionnaire forms and approaching each individual or sample in person and requesting them to fill in the questionnaire form. Other alternative methods can be implemented by distributing the survey questionnaire forms at the counter of each tourist location so that each visitor can be given a form when he or she purchases the tickets. Tools like Quantitative content analysis can be implemented to obtain the final outcome of the survey.

Collection of Data:

Primary Data:

The primary source of data for this report is taken by an individual survey method. The data collected is conclusive statistics that is generated from ranking of parameters done by both tourist and local residents of bath city.

Secondary Data:

Several documentary data was reviewed in order to understand and examine about sustainability frame work. Few research statistics data was taken from survey reports which are conducted previously by standard organizations. The entire data which is necessary to support the survey and back ground reading was taken from sources of books, journals, statistical survey reports from standard organizations, Author’s referencing, Online web forms, magazines and various publication from tourist consultancies and organizations, marketing and promotional web sites. In point of making the process portable all of the mentioned sources are electronic based sources collected from World Wide Web.

Scheme of Chapterisation: 1.7

The study of “sustainable tourism in marina beach” consist of ten chapters

The first chapter deals with the introduction of the tourism, the motivation of the study, hypothesis, research objectives, scope of the study, limitation of the study, methodology, collection of data and the scheme of Chapterisation.

The second chapter deals with the background of the heritage tourism, its significance, the distribution of the heritage places and the overview of bath city

The third chapter deals with the background information of the study, repositioning strategies, the Porter’s generic strategies and Poon’s framework.

The fourth chapter deals with the sustainability of tourism, history and culture of bath, the attractions ofBath.

The fifth chapter narrates about the importance of heritage tourism, key issues of sustainability and its impact of the heritage tourism on the society or community.

The sixth chapter focuses on the sustainable tourism development.

The seventh chapter chooses to be the case study on the heritage tourism ofBathcity.

The eighth chapter tells us about Sustainable Tourism of theBathcity and its findings.

The ninth chapter describes the conclusion of the study.

Finally the tenth chapter on the recommendation of improvements and conclusion

CHAPTER 2

Background information about United Kingdom Heritage Tourism

The primary types of tourism in U. K. are

1) Domestic Tourism

2) Inbound Tourism

3) Outbound Tourism

Domestic tourism:

Domestic tourism is also called internal tourism. In this particular type of tourism visitors are residents of within country. As per data domestic tourism had remained broadly static with respective to number of trips made. Total number or trips have become shorter comparatively where as the overall spend has increased. In UK most of the domestic tourism is captured by four zones London, South East, South west and Scotland. This accounted for 61% of spend in uk. Relatively domestic tourism has increased in importance in the last decade. (53)

Inbound Tourism:

In bound tourism UK ranks 6th in the world tourism with respective of international tourist arrivals. Top 10 countries account for 60% of inbound spend. Of these U. S. A occupies significant margin in inbound tourism which is followed by Germany and France. In last decade most of the inbound tourism came from very limited countries counting from Europe,America. Whereas looking forward towards 2011 it is expected that most inbound trips will be from mature economic countries like India,Poland in terms of new visits.[53]

Outbound Tourism:

United Kingdom ranks 3rd as the largest generator of international tourism expenditure. Most of the trips which are out bound from UK are to Mediterranean countries and European countries. In recent years of decade a significant rise in outbound tourism is seen to Australia and New Zealand. The growth in outbound trips is twice the growth of inbound trips with a ratios of 53% of trips and the average spend is of 59%.

U. K. is one of the highest ranking countries in the world for its rich heritage that has been preserved since decades and has earned huge reputation which attracts many tourists from different parts of the world. Heritage can often be referred to as anything that has been transmitted from the past. Especially like [4]

Original Culture and natural material
A built Environment
The archaeological resource
Intangible heritage
The natural heritage.

The awareness of heritage is sustained by multicultural society has been capable of maintaining significance or quality. This significance or quality is preserved for appreciation of current by future generations. U. K. is once such major contributor to the countries tourism industry. [4]

Central role of heritage:

Heritage acts as an important motivator for tourism within the U. K. by means of natural or cultural heritage. Eg. When we consider snowy mountains, it is an intrinsic part of snowboarding trip to cairngorms. When clubs are considered club scene from Manchester that have existed from very long periods attract weekend tourist mainly from London. This is a representation of cultural heritage. [4]

Economic Significance of heritage tourism:

As per the sources of Heritage Lottery fund publishing, heritage tourism industry in U. K. contributes ?20 billion to U. K. economy.(18) This success also states that heritage is a major motivation behind the tourism expenditure of both overseas and domestic visitors. This industry supports an estimated employment opportunity of 195,000 full time equivalent jobs. The historic monuments which are well preserved in U. K. are fixed assets and are identifiable because of their past history and national, regional or religious significance. [18]. UK is highly rated as a nation brand in view of 6 major measures for tourism which are people, culture, heritage, exports, governance, investments and immigration. Research consistently projects that history, heritage and culture which includes cultural heritage as key strengths. Heritage tourism is a successful way and means for encouraging local people to spend more money on local areas. A successful implementation of heritage tourism can pave way to sustainable development.[17]

NUMBER OF VISITOR ATTRACTIONS IN THE U. K.(Source: Heritage & Tourism locum Destination Review 2:2000)
ATTRACTION CATEGORYENGLANDSCOTLANDWALESN. IRELANDTOTAL
HISTORIC HOUSES AND MONUMENTS448101388595
CATHEDRALS & CHURCHES1851144204
GARDENS1291825154
MUSEUMS & GALLERIES563107399718
WILDLIFE ATTRACTIONS1262094159
COUNTRY PARKS128281327196
FARMS105743119
LEISURE PARKS5712061
STEAM RAILWAYS48211061
VISITOR CENTERS109821912222
WORKPLACES613195106
MISCELLANEOUS ATTRACTIONS171182612227
TOTALS2130426176892821
% OF ATRACTIONS761563

Distribution of heritage tourist places:

From the previous study it is quite transparent that the total potential volume of tourism is measured in terms of the number of arrivals to particular place and the total spend. These factors help to distinguish the regional share of UK tourism spend. Thought there are few discrepancies in allocating the absolute regional share of tourism spend statistics project that North Ireland and North east account for only 1% and 2% respectively. Where as London has 27% share. Among all regions, four regions London, South West, South East and Scotland contribute to 61% of spend by visitors in UK. The figure below shows the regional distribution of tourism. [53] It is quite evident that London, south east and south west of U. K. are the primary areas that are prone to most tourist attraction.

Courtesy: U. K State of Tourism Final Report.

REGIONAL SHARE (2006)

(SOURCES: UK STATE OF TOURISM FINAL REPORT 2008, TEAM TOURISM)PLACETRIPS (% OF U. K. TOTAL)SPEND (% OF U. K. TOTAL)DOMESTICINBOUNDTOTALDOMESTICINBOUNDTOTALLONDON94817114927SOUTH WEST141314121011SOUTH EAST1671418512EAST OFENGLAND868656WEST MIDLANDS756535EAST MIDLANDS736524YORKSHIRE847735NORTH WEST118101169NORTH EAST323322WALES837825SCOTLAND1081013911NORTHERN IRELAND212211

Overview about most popular historic towns in U. K.

A survey conducted by North West development agency commissioned to ask 35,000 people to rank among 1000 places as their preferred category for tourism. This study concluded places with many number of historic buildings and which is capable of preserving heritage on top rank. The York was ranked as first and bath as second close to oxford. The figure below describes the popularity indication reported through survey conducted.

Source: Research for theNorth Westvisitor Research program 2009 -10

(Locum Consulting and Arkenford Ltd)

Selection of Location for Implementing Research & Analysis:

With respective to the study made from above it is understood that the primary factors that decide the potential of a historic tourist place by

1) Number of tourists visiting a historic place. (Inbound visits of a place)

2) Popularity rank of a historic place.

Looking for both factors said above we summarize the area of implementation of research. Londonstays the top priority of the regional share list with domestic share of 9% and inbound share of 48% of trips made in U. K. It has total spend value of 27% in total of both domestic and inbound. South west is 2nd on the list with trips share of 14% in domestic and 13% in inbound where as its total spends percentage is 11 in total.

On the other hand when we compare statistics of total number of historic buildings found in one placeYorkstands on top of the list with 1050 listed buildings and bath stands next in second place with 850 building. With respective to these two statistics it can be concluded that South west which is standing second on number of visits and revenue generation and Bath which located in south west having second most number of listed historic sites to be best place to pursue research on finding the impact of heritage tourism. Bath is not only well noted for its historic sites but is also well renowned for its roman structure of natural bath pools built on natural hot glaciers that exists even till date.

Overview about City of Bath:

City of bath is located in ceremonial county of Somersetin South west of England. It is 97 miles from west of London and 13 miles away from south east of Bristol. In the year of 1889 it was made the county borough. It later became part of Avon when Avon was created in 1974 and it became completely independent in the year of 1996 when Avon was abolished and became the unitary authority of Bath and North east Somerset. Bath was recognized as part of world heritage in the year of 1987 by UNESCO. It is predominantly known for its blend of roman architecture. Most of the historic structures in bath show archaeological evidence of Celtic, roman and Saxon. The City has a wide variety of theatres, sporting venues, historic museums and cultural venues. Site of roman baths which are built on natural glaciers are the predominant attraction in bath. Tourism is one of the principle industries of Bath. It records with more than one million staying and 3.8 millions of day visitors.

Chapter 3

LITERATURE REVIEW

Tourism is defined as a practice or act of travelling to places of particular interest either for recreational, promotional, business or entertainment purposes (Merriam Webster Dictionary). Tourists are the people who travel to a place or stay at a place away from their normal environment of living. (U. N. W. T. O united world tourism barometer; U. N. W. T. O World Tourism). Tourism is regarded as the most efficient means of contributing to national income despite of its minimal number of inputs and investments (The importance of tourism; W. T. O reports 2009). Tourism industry has become one of the most popular activities for global leisure. The overall international tourists grew about 1.9% in the year of 2008 compared to the year of 2007, which is very drought and dry situation for world business call Credit Crunch or World Recession. This indicates the scale of potential levels for tourism industry (The importance of tourism; W. T. O reports 2005). A net revenue of $944 billion US dollars is generated through international tourism in the year 2008 ( UNWTO World Tourism Barometer January 2010; World Tourism Organization. January 2010). It is estimated that there shall be an average growth of about 4% every year in the world.

Among the various industries in the world, tourism is one of the largest industries. The tourism industry has become one of the huge income generation areas in developed and developing countries. And though it is producing huge income from the industry, there is also has its impact on the local communities and its environment if the things are not properly managed. Today tourism is growing in an unbelievable extent. There are various factors which have lead to the growth in the increase in tourism activities. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) have found that tourism and other travel concerned activities have contributed of about 12% of the world’s Gross domestic product in the year 2010. The ecotourism is one thing we need to more concentrate about. According to World Trade Organization has pinioned to make the entire tourism and travelling more sustainable, though attaining this objective is not an easy task, and it is even risky of maintaining Ecotourism. It is in need to be enforced of acclimatize the natural and cultural activities and the resources conservation in most of the nations. The Heritage ecotourism is an evident in the form of nature preserves and ecology programs.

According to David Lowenthal 1996, “the history explores and explains pasts grown even more opaque over time; heritage clarifies pasts so as to infuse them with present purposes….But heritage, no less than history, is essential to knowing and acting. Its many faults are inseparable from heritage’s essential role in husbanding community, identity, continuity, indeed history itself.” (The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History,London&New York). The paper hunts for to analyze the mobilization approach, organizational structure and the process of adaption in the case of heritage tourism. This is to resolve the level headed heritage tourism mission which optimizes the economic benefit on a sustainable manner. Some of the major negotiations and the spat of various instigators on examining and analyzing the heritage tourism and its significance are discussed beneath to append quintessence for the study.

Repositioning Strategies: 3.1

This segment will weigh up an assortment of tourism stratagem mould which demonstrates the recompense of discriminating United Kingdom tourism product against developing sustainable heritage tourism in Bath city. Budding of sustainable tourism market in United Kingdom is an integral step towards the creation of a more differentiated tourism industry. Heritage tourism has got the prospective power to develop the economic vivacity of copious society. The models are to save and improve the alertness, admiration and even the maintenance of the United Kingdom’s corporal and insubstantial heritage. The subsequent models demonstrate about the tourism strategies.

Porter’s three generic strategies 3.2

At fore most the model of Porter has been considered; that it advocates that spirited policy “It is the search for a favourable competitive position in an industry” (Porter 1985). Competitiveness in an exacting field which concentrates on the sustainability of extensive term efficiency. The author Porter has demonstrated that competitive pro be able to be documented all the way through the selection of a basic strategy that best frenzy the industries aggressive atmosphere. Differentiation, cost leadership and market focus are the basic strategies of Porter.[1] The first two that is differentiation and cost leadership are applicable to the whole industry but if is considered to be doing in particular segment analysis then its good and optimal to go for focus through differentiation or through cost leadership.

Differentiation:

Porter’s first generic strategy is differentiation. This differentiation strategy includes of improving the number of customers and their value by allowing the premium to be included in the price of the product or service. There are various government policies revealed to increase the number of customers as of tourists and also in relation to helping the residents by managing the tourists, the tourism in United Kingdom can also be increased by providing the tour offers in special attractive fare or it can be unique in price premium. The United Kingdom has got the having best history and culture it is also in need of sustainability of the heritage tourism but for any country, the sustainability is very much in need to protect the tourism industry in meaningful manner for both overseas people and also for the resident. It can be used as a diagram of an industry-wide differentiation strategy to make up the tourist place somewhat unique. But along with these some of the inherited or followed up values need to be added to give more quality. Porter has demonstrated that when there exists the competition in the prices of tourism and if it becomes cost effective then there he has mentioned that favouritism alleviate struggle since price struggle is ferocious when merchandise are perceived to be close up substitutes. As of by making or bringing out differentiation in the United Kingdom tourism there will be in the prices of the tourism among the competitors, and even reduces the cut off prices.

To enjoin the United Kingdom tourism to achieve a good sustainable growth for more duration, the industry need to face many important situations it may be as of the price competition, or quality competition and even there will be market up gradation and revolution as of to attract the tourists who are the customers here in the industry to accept the offers of the industry to have the sustainable growth in the industry for over a long period of time.

One of the important things is of in case to accomplish the growth in the industry in a sustainable manner the industry need to face many important challenges in the market to attract customers. This can be achieved by the method of diversification process in the tourism industry. The requirement for a Heritage Tourism Strategy has by no means been additional apparent.

The above said concept can be achieved by the process of diversification in the tourism product of theUnited Kingdomby providing the best quality. And we know that the quality can be achieved by bri8nging out development in the process of providing services, the facilities as of spa, infrastructure, the placement of seaports and airports in the city. The convenience facility provided for the tourists and it also add values as of by adding ancillary products and services along with the particular in need things. There is need to develop the ecotourism in a manner to be eco friendly. It needs to be helpful and leading to the sustainable growth of the tourism sector especially the heritage tourism of the country.

Cost Leadership:

By applying the strategy of cost leadership it helps to earn higher profits in the way of charging the same price as the competitors or even below than the competitors within the tourism industry. The cost leadership strategy can also acts as an obstacle for further new entrants in to the industry, which may harm the sustainable growth of the heritage tourism in the country. It also helps to increase the number of tourists and also the increase in profits. The strategy even also helps to gain in the business the leadership by entering the market with the reduced prices of the offering services to the customers and it helps to attract the customers and reduce the cost. It increases the economies of scale.

Differentiation strategy:

This is one of the strategy which leads to attract the customers by means of providing the differentiated products with the premium features included. It will be less price elastic as of compared to the competitors products and services. In this strategy average amount of profits will be earned.

Focus:

And the other strategy is of including any one of the cost leadership process or the differentiation strategy as of need to concentrate on one particular and in need to serve the specific needs. There are two kinds; first one is to focus on to achieve the lower costs as of more than the competitors. It focuses on the unique tourism product as of either the cost related factors or differentiation factors. It would be best effective move towards sustainability of the heritage tourism in United Kingdom.

Poon’s framework:
Poon has postulated that for the travel and tourisms has given four principles to develop competitive strategies.

CHAPTER 4:

Tourism and Sustainability

To develop the sustainable tourism has become the most important factor of any place. Sustainable tourism is one which tries to restrict the causes to the surroundings or the environment, does not affect the culture of the place and increase the economy of the country. Sustainable tourism is to be established with the objective of improving the good experience in the mean time of the tourism both for the local people and also for the visitors. There will not be any particular increase or decrease in the growth of the profit that can be made from the tourism, as of in making the profit activities from the tours and travels, there may be some specific places which will be visited only in certain seasons and even the economy will be high during those seasons.

To have the sustainable growth of the tourism there need to be eco friendly that is said to be ecotourism; it is actually totally concentrating on the wild life and the culture of the community of the region. But one more factor is that such communities may not be able go for any other sources of income, they may totally depend on the tourist activities as their mean source of income in the cultured countries. But still sustainable tourism is not such an easy task as we say but it is an optimistic objective and it is in need to achieve the ecotourism. This kind is in total concentrating on the protection of the wild life, environment and the heritage cultures brought up. Due to the visit of extensive tourists the environment will be disturbed to the maximum extent so it will be difficult to achieve the sustainability, so it will be complicated to get benefit out of such improvements. It is such an attempt to develop all kinds of tourism whether it is nature based or city based or of heritage.

Ecotourism can be called as a type of tourism that spotlights completely on natural world, environment, or “from abroad” cultures.

Heritage is something that has been transferred from past including especially the original culture, the built in environment, tangible and intangible heritage, the archeological resource and even the natural heritage. That ‘heritage’ is professed by means of our multicultural humanity as include a eminence or consequence that formulate it significance safeguard for its be in possession of sake and for the

Pleasure of modern and outlook generations. The UK’s inheritance as such is a most important supplier to the country’s tourism industry. All over again, ‘tourism’ requirements some essential.

A tourist visit is more often than not defined as a journey away from the traveler’s standard put of dwelling eternal at least a day or an all night. In attendance can be a lot of motive or inspiration for the visit. These are by and large categorized as:

• Industry purpose;

• Local holiday complete (A packaged trip);

•Holidaysovereign;

• Visiting friends and relatives;

• Higher Study;

• Other purposes (including checkup visits, pilgrimages, etc).

These are some of the main reasons of visit. It is understood that the business purpose visited person does these categories are the ‘main purpose of visit’. There is nothing to preclude a Business visitor spending part of a visit indulging in heritage-related activities, so all categories are relevant to the heritage. A day visit is defined as a trip away from the place of normal residence for a minimum of three hours, excluding regular trips such as to one’s place of work. Extended shopping expeditions count as day visits – especially where shopping is a leisure activity rather than just a means of acquiring necessary goods. As with tourist visits, day visits may have multiple motivations.

The terms “Heritage” and “civilization” have turn out to be identical and elastic. In the background of the art for instance, the use of the word “culture” relates to a society’s the past, attitude, principles, civilization and picture as apparent in an artistic format. Society will often hold in your arms original and natural heritage, depending ahead the outlook of the advocate. For the principle of this Strategy, the following operational definitions are engaged:

• Heritage Tourism:

Sustainable tourism goings-on with the purpose of are, or can be, associated to material or intangible heritage.

• Physical Heritage:

Counting but not imperfect to build organization and surrounds; enlightening landscapes; momentous sites, neighborhood and confines; carcass, archaeological and marine sites; sites connected with mining, business, scientific and agricultural heritage; sites of significant proceedings and memorial; collection that house or cooperatively uphold objects of legacy significance (eg general Trust attractions, museums, go round, shadow and festivals) and fashioned setting (eg botanic and communal precincts).

The History & culture of bath

The city of bath is one of the most renowned city in the world. It is famously knows for its Roman structures. Some of them are Hadrian’s Wall in the north of theEngland, Roman built baths spa’s. The city is built around the hot spring waters with variety of roman and medieval structures. The historic footsteps of bath start from past dating back 8000BC which was then treated as shrine for many years. This belief started when the banished celtic prince was cured of leprosy after taking bath in the pools ofhot springsand was declared as heir prince again. He latter built a shrine and dedicated it to the goddess Aquae sulis.

This was soon recognized by roman’s latter after 800 years and they built theBathhouse in 43AD. This latter expanded in to series of bath spas at many places where ever a natural spring was found. These were dedicated to the roman goddess Minerva latter on.

Latter after many hundreds of generations the roman baths turned out in to ruins on lack of maintenance and builders. This was again invaded by Saxons Gloucester and cirencester in 6th century along with roman settlers of bath. In 973 AD a mint was built in bath by the first king ofEngland king Edgar. Latter on bath passed in to hands of English.

Since the ruling of bath passed in to many hands of civilizationsBathdoes have a blend of mixed cultures. It consists of Roman, Celtic, Saxon and medieval culture as well. In recent yearsBathbecame the leading focus for fashion life inEngland. Several theaters were established in bath. Currently bath has 5 most renowned theater which are globally recognized and several filming companies and directors have been visitingBathever since then. The city organizes an international music festival every year which is very long tradition sourcing about 20 concerts. Apart from this bath organizes several other festivals likeBathfringe festival,Bathbeer festival in an interval of every two and half years.

Geography & Location:

Bath is located in south west of England. It lies to the outskirts of Somerset County. Its geographical location is 97 miles from west of London and 13 miles from south east of Bristol. Bath is at the south side of the Avon valley on the edges of Cotswolds. Bath was formed range of limestone hills on lansdown plateau at an altitude of 238 meters. The steep hills of bath give it a beautiful look as the buildings of residence appears to climb up the hill. The flood streams of the river Avonrun amid of the city center. This flood streams have kept damaging the city building at some parts till a massive construction works to control the flood streams were built in the year 1970.

The natural Geo thermal springs from the mendip hill covers as showers over the limestone sediments and percolates to a depth of about 2700 to 4300 meters. Here the geothermal energy which is generated due to high pressure and temperatures below the earth’s crust raises the water temperature to 40 to 90 degrees. The high pressure that is created by heated water pushes the water to surface through small fissures. These formed in to natural hot spring spas of bath.

Attractions of Bath:

Roman Bath:

One of the current day attractions that still exist are the Roman baths. These are still preserved and many development programs are being done to take care of these heritage assets. The roman bath complex has the sacred spring, the roman temple, the roman bath house, Findings and remains of the roman bath.

The sacred Spring:

The sacred spring is the hot waters naturally occurring from earth, this is the heart of the roman bath complex. This natural action which happens due to lime sediments present in the hill of Mendip. The spring water comes out at a temperature of 46 degrees. This was treated to be a gift from god in ancient roman ruling. Several objects and remains like large collection of coins were found on the bed which was thrown in to the bath as offerings. People who are considered cursed used to write on sheet of lead and roll them up and throw in to the spring.

The Roman Bath House:
The pool which is converted in to place of bath house is enclosed in a large hall which now turned in to ruins except for the walk way and the huge columns around the bath. The pool is lined with lead all around that contains the spring. Part of walk around used to have benches for the roman’s to relax which do currently not exist.

Left: The Roman Bath Spa, Right: The head of Romano- Celtic Gorgon’s Head in museum

Source: Roman Bath Discovered Barry Conifer

The Roman Findings:

The huge collection that was found on bed of spring included coins, valuables gift items etc these were placed in the museum. Several other large artifacts which were collected from the bath complex were also displayed in this museum. The artefacts included altar corner stones, jewellery, fragments of roman priest’s heads, Plates, bowels and dishes. The art and structure of these items simply boast about the blend of roman art and craft.

The Pump House:

A pump house was built in 18th century slightly above the roman baths which is part of the bath complex. The pump house and the assembly rooms became the centers of bath society in beau nashs time. People were permitted to purchase a glass of water to drink and to prepare tea. Although most of the people did not liked the taste due to high content of minerals they still afforded to purchase believing the legend of holiness.

The New Modern Thermae Bath Spa:

The ancient bath house was closed in the year of 1979 on an account of death of a girl who had swimming in roman bath. On research it was found that the girl was infected with amoebic meningitis caused by a species of amoeba called Naegleria Fowlerii. This was revealed when the waters of bath was tested. This led to a permanent close of bath. But on the demand of the city to have functioning of the Roman Bath funds were raised from the millennium fund. New Baths were opened in the year of august 2006 after postponement from year of 2002 and 2003 with a cost of ?45 million a staggering raise in cost from initial projected cost of ?13 millions.

This new modernBathis called “Thermae Bath Spa”. These are housed and surrounded by modern glass building with a range of facilities and most importantly still having natural thermal waters. The new Thermae included The Royal Bath, Hot and cross baths, spa visitor centers. It won several awards for its design. It was listed and awarded the Best Spa 2007 award after a survey was conducted by the daily telegraph. This was also given a Silver award for the Best tourism Experience – 2007.

Bath Abbey:

Initially a church was constructed very close to the roman bath house in mid of 8th century which was demolished by the invasion of Normans. A big church replacing the earlier was built by Normans in 1090. Since the church is very large enough maintenance had become difficult to upkeep the church. Latter during dissolution of monasteries lead, iron and glass were removed and left to ruins.

The current abbey was built on the land area of these two churches after a national fund being raised by Queen Elizabeth- I. Bits and pieces of construction is still going on till date. During this process the organ has been restored and beautiful bath stone was cleaned which is worshiped since Roman period. This church is officially now called as The AbbeychurchofSaint Peter. This is also commonly called as Bath Abbey. The interior of the church is filled with light coming from 52 windows that occupies about 80% of space of the wall area. This yielded the name “The Lantern of the West”. The blazed glasses lying on one side of the church illustrates about story of Jesus Christ.

This church has been listed as a Grade 1listed building and turned out to be an active place of worship and now turned out to be a huge tourist spot.

Museums:

Bathhouses many number of museum of varied collections. Each of baths museums display a particular genre of items as listed below.

The American museum in Britain: This museum displays decorative arts, furniture, paintings, glass work, textiles, folk art etc belonging to period of 17th century to 19th century. This museum is famous for display of American patch work and quilts.

Bath Postal museum: This museum displays huge collection and history of postal services inBritain. It houses several videos, pictures, visual display models and audio tapes about the postal department ofBritain.

Beckford’s Tower: this is a neoclassical tower built by William Beckford and by architect Henry Edmund in 1827. It stands 120 feet high that helps to have view of the surroundings of the country side. It is just like a watch tower and is very quiet place for study.

The Building of Bath Museum: This displays how town grew from 18th century. It also displays tools, pattern books and architectural fragments.

The fashion Museum: it is located in the assembly room of bath house. It displays collections of both men and women from 18th century to the present day.

Herschel Museum of astronomy: this museum is devoted to William Herschel and his family who are called family of astronomers. William Herschel is the one who discovered planet Uranus in 1781. All work done by family is demonstrated in it.

The Holburne Museum of Art: this museum is located in classic Georgian Townhouse that belongs to sir William holburn. This displays Sir Williams collection of silver, paintings and several other art and decorative. Late after sir Williams more number of art collections dating from roman period to 1900 was added to this museum.

The Museum of bath at work: this museum was founded by J.B. Bowler a Victorian brass founder, engineer and mineral water manufacturer. This museum displays various settings with different machines and some of them with working machinery. Additionally this museum displays work done on bath, a 2000 years of earning, living and mining bath stone.

The museum of East Asian Art: this museum display collectables of ceramic works, jades, bronzes any many craft works carried from chinaJapan,Korea, and south east Asia.

The Royal Crescent: The royal crescent is one of the most fabulous buildings ofBritain. It is marked as Grade 1 building and it is also registered under scheme of developments for 200 year age buildings list. Royal Crescent is currently a residential road of 30 houses. It was built during the period of 1767 and 1774. The royal crescent was designed by the architect John Wood the younger. It is one of the greatest standing buildings of Georgian architecture found inEngland. The royal crescent is symbolism of massiveness which was particular interest for both John Wood the elder and John wood the younger. The residential flats of royal crescent served several notable people for more than 200 years; most predominant and distinguished of them was Frederick Duke the Duke of York who lived in 1 and 16. It is then the crescent foundation was given the adjective ‘The Royal’.

The design done by wood appears to be a great curve of 30 houses of three storeys with similar columns on a ground. Each of these columns is 30 inches wide in diameter and 47 feet in height. The houses were designed and built by different architects hired by purchaser of each facade.

TheRoyal Crescentnow has a hotel and museum with some of the residential flats converted in to office flats. Though many changes were made to the interiors of the crescent building the outer look remained the same as it was initially built. The front ofRoyal Crescentis ‘Ha-Ha’ a trench with the inners vertical and faced with stone. This gives an effect that the fence was sunken.

The Royal Crescent with it is stone engravings and architecture has gained a lot of attraction by several notified people and tourist across. The center garden of crescent is a place for launch of hot air balloons. This added much to its attraction. The royal crescent was chosen as famous venue for many film making and shootings. Some of the movies that were extensively taken at the royal crescent are Catch us if you can (1965), the wrong box (1966), Oliver (1968), who will buy sequence etc.

Sources: The Royal Crescent Society

The King Circus:

The Circus was designed by John wood the elder an architect who is also a son of bath builder. The very first start of construction of Circus added an attractive commentary. When Wood was in his teens he had a passion and vision for bath along with his modern architectural ideas. He came back fromLondonwhile working as an architect to transform his native place. The architecture of bath was primarily inspired from the roman architecture. The whole design of the circus exactly is like a mirror image of the massive colosseum. The tiers of columns exactly depicted the colosseum. He was also fascinated by prehistoric stone circles. But implementing in reality the massive structure of colosseum was reduced to fit in the place of bath. The parapet walls of the circus are designed with acorns which resembled the ancient wonder creations of Druids.

The circus is a circular rim of terrace with houses on top and surrounded by large town houses around. In mid of the circular rim of terrace it was divided in to three segments called facades. It exactly looks like a three lines intersecting in mid of the circle with its other ends forming the triangle around the circle. These straight lines are the Main entrances for the circus. The three are divided such that in whichever way a visitor may enter the circus he sees a Classic facade in front of him. Finally the circus remained only as a vision of John Wood the elder’s vision except for laying out the foundation stone till it started. It was his son John Woods the younger who took over the design and completed its construction in the year of 1768.

In construction of the circus three orders of style were used the Greek, Roman and Corinthian were used one above the other in each facade. The inner set of the circus is decorated with triglyphs and 525 pictorial emblems. These emblems include serpents, nautical symbols, devices representing the arts and sciences and various Masonic symbols.

The Circus, Sources: The circus English heritage

Pulteney Bridge:
Pulteney Bridge is one of the most significant among four bridges having shops in the world. This bridge lies across the river Avon from bath to bathwick. This bridge is named after frances Pultney of bathwick estate. Initially the bridge started with a plan for a new small town latter when adam started designing the bridge these elegant structures lined with shops came in to design and then latter in to life. The bridge latter took many forms of design when it was renovated for extension and latter for floods. The fancy beautiful look of bridge came out when the shopkeepers extended their shops by cantilevering. Gradually the beauty of bridge became of national fame and was considered as national monument. It is one of the best known for its Georgian architecture.

The Pulteney Bridge, Sources: The English heritage.

CHAPTER 5

Importance of Heritage Tourism

The heritage tourism section corresponds to one of the uppermost give up tourism collection, to the front of both customary accumulation market and other location tourism spectators such as arts. Heritage tourists pay out 38% additional per day, and stay 34% longer than customary tourists and expend 20% more and stay 22% longer than fine art oriented tourists.

• As an effect, far above the ground yields and growing numbers produce Employment as of about 10 new jobs for each among the 1000 tourists, and this course even stimulates the selling activities. And the study says that the heritage tourists purchases is more compared to other nature visitors and this in turn leads increase the tax amount and also improves the property values.

• Management venture curriculum has extensively leveraged supplementary endowment starting administration, confidential and humanitarian sources. (E.g. 20 percent return to a state’s financial system for every dollar the situation invests)

• Heritage sightseeing stimulates both profundity and wideness in tourism, creates new-fangled market for local and borough arts and craft, make longer visiting the attraction time of year, and support revision of existing products (i.e. somewhere to live; tours).

• Tradition and momentous visiting the hold is globally gorgeous to management because it has confirmed a capability to make a payment to the reconstruction of provincial and municipal urban areas.

• Contrasting many tourism stuffs, remarkable and inheritance tourism can broaden profitable benefits transversely superior environmental vicinity through themed pursue and motivating routes, rather than fixed in single locations.

• In attendance is a predisposition for heritage tourists to stay and spend on somewhere to stay provided within villages, towns and cities, unlike nature-based tourists who take a trip with larger levels of independence.

• Heritage tourism assets are sustainable from side to side restoration or adaptation processes, usually at noticeably a smaller amount disbursement than compulsory for completely new facilities (i.e. theme parks, galleries, and museums), and keep hold of greater legitimacy.

Significance of activities in decision to come to Britain on a leisure visit:
Visiting ‘heritage’ sites/castles/monuments/churches/etc 37%
Exploring historic/interesting towns/cities 29%
Visiting artistic/heritage exhibits 29%
Attending performing arts, etc (theatre/cinema/opera/ballet)18%
Visiting gardens 16%
Hiking/walking/rambling/orienteering 8%
Pleasure motoring 4%

Source: Overseas Visitor Survey 1996

There are major four key issues for the purpose sustainability of the heritage tourism:

According to Locum’s analysis has provided four key issues in front of heritage tourism development: access and inclusion, sustainability, competitiveness is called as catalysis.

• Access

Access has become one of the very important issues until the central government has some concentration on the tourism sector. The access refers to all the concepts as of in the manner of broader, more enjoyable and all in detail in all concerns of the heritage factors. Including both natural and even the cultural heritage. The accessibility for all the concerned people even including the disabled people will be the great thing. And even in the manner to help the handicapped ones in the service and helpful for other culture background people helpful to understand the language and culture in deep and in detail.

• Inclusion have common characteristics with access as of providing due attention to social cluster that strength not normally advantage from a tradition program, not slightest minority cultural groups.

• Teaching refers and includes the schools and colleges plus all additional characteristic of prescribed learning. Learning and enduring knowledge refer

to all portion of relaxed education and education for oneself, at all ages. Information and communications technology is of growing

significance in providing wider, deeper and wealthier right of entry to many

portion of the heritage and permit it to be seen in wider and

supplementary wide-ranging contexts.

Sustainability

Sustainable tourism can be achieved by including both the natural as well as the heritage tourism and we need to concentrate on the possible negative impacts that may affect by the tourism activities for the local residents or the visitors. It is not such an easy task as we say. According to International

Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) has given up in detail the seven principles for the process of sustainable tourism, especially the heritage tourism in the country. And in deed need to be considering both in the long term as well as in the short term and in the case of economic development and by the case of environmental conservation.

According to him the two principles are as follows:

Two of the principles read:

•There is needed to be managing the proper relationship between the tourism and the environment to get the sustainability access for the long term. The relationship between tourism and the environment must be in need to be maintained for the long duration, without allowing the environment to get harmed.

• In any location, agreement must be required sandwiched between the needs of

The visitor, the position and the congregation community. These principles Conceptualized sustainability in tourism in terms of balance stuck between visiting the attractions and the natural environment, harmony between tenant and guest. Such philosophies are priceless, but target managers need a more tactically and commercially focused come within reach of to the difficulty of sustainability, as shown in the diagram:

• Regeneration: ‘heritage’ be imaginary to not be painstaking in loneliness, but

in the larger social and economic context.

• Conservation: fortification of the supply against dreadful conditions, worsening and injure.

• Manufactured goods regeneration and augmentation, in the case of much tradition based magnetism, to make certain that (at a least amount) they stay behind nice-looking and easy to get to, and if at all probable that admission (of all variety) recover over time. The notion apply not barely to sole Hold, but in adding together to wider target such as country parks and town midpoint.

• Take-home pay torrent are needed to cover the long-lasting costs of Management and renewal to give surety the long-term future of the

resource.

• Manifold use of a heritage resource and/or its associated facilities help in cooperation to bind the supply into a support network and to Generate supplementary returns streams.

• Reproduction visits – expectant by manifold uses and brawny product Restitution – are essential to numerous tradition objectives. Smooth destinations that reach maximum capacity on many days can benefit beginning additional replicate stopover at non-peak times.

Positive impact

1. Financial contributions.

2. Alternate employment.

3. Increasing the environmental awareness.

4. Improving environmental planning and management

Negative impact

Negative impact of tourism occurs when the level of visitors’ use is greater than the environmental ability to cope with the situation within the acceptable limits of change.

Uncontrolled tourism poses potential threats to the natural areas including

1. Depletion of resources

2. Pressure on land and resources

3. Land degradation (owing to natural world trails and other facilities to the tourists)

4. Pollution

Tourism development can put pressure on natural resources when it increases consumption in areas where resources are already scarce.

Water Resources

The tourism industry generally overuses water resources for hotels, swimming pools, golf courses and personal use of water by tourists. This can result in water shortages and degradation of water supplies, as well as generating a greater volume of waste water. In drier regions like the Mediterranean, the issue of water scarcity is of particular concern. Because of the hot climate and the tendency of tourists to consume more water when on holiday than they do at home, the amount used can run up to 440 litres a day. This is almost double what the inhabitants of an average Spanish city use.

Beach tourism maintenance can also deplete fresh water resources. In recent years beach tourism has increased in popularity and the number of resorts has also grown rapidly. Beach Tourism requires an enormous amount of water every day and this also is a source of natural sources depletion. If the water comes from wells, over-pumping can cause saline intrusion into groundwater.

Local resources

Tourism can create great pressure on local resources like energy, food, and other raw materials that may already be in short supply. Greater extraction and transport of these resources exacerbates the physical impacts associated with their exploitation. Because of the seasonal character of the industry, many destinations have ten times more inhabitants in the high season as in the low season. A high demand is placed upon these resources to meet the high expectations tourists often have (proper heating, hot water, etc.)

Land degradation

Important land resources include fertile soil, forests, wetlands and wildlife. Increased construction of tourism facilities has increased the pressure on these resources and on scenic landscapes. Direct impact on natural resources in the provision of tourist facilities can be caused by the use of land for accommodation and other infrastructure provision, and the use of building materials. Forests often suffer negative impacts of tourism in the form of deforestation caused by fuel wood collection and land clearing.

Pollution:

Tourism can cause the same forms of pollution as any other industry:

Air emissions
Noise
Solid waste and littering
Releases of sewage
Oil and chemicals
Even architectural/visual pollution
Air pollution and noise

Transport by air, road, and rail is continuously increasing in response to the rising number of tourists and their greater mobility. Tourism now accounts for more than 60% of air travel.

One study estimated that a single transatlantic return flight emits almost half the CO2 emissions produced by all other sources (lighting, heating, car use, etc.) consumed by an average person yearly. Air pollution from tourist transportation has impacts on the global level, especially from CO2 emissions related to transportation energy use. And it can contribute to severe local air pollution., cars, buses, (+ snowmobiles and jet skis) In addition to causing annoyance, stress, and even hearing loss for humans, it causes distress to wildlife and can cause animals to alter their natural activity patterns.

Solid waste and littering

In areas with high concentrations of tourist activities and appealing natural attractions, waste disposal is a serious problem and improper disposal can be a major despoiler of the natural environment – rivers, scenic areas, and roadsides. For example, cruise ships in theCaribbeanare estimated to produce more than 70,000 tons of waste each year. Solid waste and littering can degrade the physical appearance of the water and shoreline and cause the death of marine animals. In mountain areas, trekking tourists generate a great deal of waste. Tourists on expedition leave behind their garbage, oxygen cylinders and even camping equipment. Such practices degrade the environment with all the detritus typical of the developed world, in remote areas that have few garbage collection or disposal facilities.

Sewage

Construction of hotels, recreation and other facilities often leads to increased sewage pollution. Wastewater has polluted seas and lakes surrounding tourist attractions, damaging the flora and fauna. Sewage runoff causes serious damage to coral reefs because it stimulates the growth of algae, which cover the filter-feeding corals, hindering their ability to survive. Sewage pollution threatens the health of humans and animals.

Aesthetic Pollution

Often tourism fails to integrate its structures with the natural features and indigenous architectural of the destination. Large, dominating resorts of disparate design can look out of place in any natural environment and may clash with the indigenous structural design. A lack of land-use planning and building regulations in many destinations has facilitated sprawling developments along coastlines, valleys and scenic routes. The sprawl includes tourism facilities themselves and supporting infrastructure such as roads, employee housing, parking, service areas, and waste disposal.

CHAPTER 6

Sustainable tourism development

Sustainable tourism development should be seen as an adaptive paradigm which is part of the parental concepts of development and sustainable development. As a result sustainable tourism development should aim at contributing to the objectives of sustainable development and development. The concept of sustainable development has become a ‘buzzword’ within the international development community (Ahn et al., 2002). The concept developed as a result of a global concern over the degradation of the world’s natural resource base due to economic development. Sustainable development aims at maintaining a balance between environmental quality and economic development. Sustainable development is defined by the World Commission on Environment WCED (1987: 43) as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’ The basic principle of sustainable development is inter generational equity: development is sustainable only to the extent that needs, today, can be fulfilled without prejudice to those of future generations (WCED, 1987). This means that the present generation should leave for the next generation a stock of quality-of-life assets no less than those we have inherited (Pearce et al., 1989). Sustainable development promotes development that maintains environmental quality and increased productivity. This suggests a development approach that takes into consideration environmental impacts instead of being controlled purely by market forces.

In relation to tourism development, the meaning of sustainable development has been broadened into a concept that implies long-term viability of good quality natural and human resources (Ahn et al., 2002; Bramwell & Lane, 1993). Sustainable development includes the improvement in the quality of life for host communities, visitor satisfaction, and conservative use of natural and social resources (Ahn et al., 2002; Hunter & Green, 1995; WTO, 1996). Sustainable development is therefore an important concept as far as tourism development is concerned. This is because tourism places additional pressures on the environmental resources upon which it is based and can compromise the future prospects of the local population, and indeed, the expectations of the tourists themselves (Cater, 1991). Tourism as an economic activity is often in danger of destroying the resource base upon which it depends. Plog (1974) states that tourism ‘contains the seeds of its own destruction. Tourism can kill tourism, destroying the environmental attractions which visitors come to a location to experience. Sustainable nature-based tourism should be planned so that both present and future generations should benefit from the same environmental resources.

Sustainable tourism development embodies the interdependence between environmental, social and economic issues (Mybrugh & Saayman, 1999). This means that sustainable tourism should be considered as part of a planning process that integrates tourism with other economic development initiatives in attempting to achieve sustainability. The destruction of tourism resources for short-term gain will deny the benefits to be gained from the mobilisation of the same resources in future (Cater, 1991). Cater notes that both hosts and guests will lose or have no benefits when tourism has destroyed resources that tourists come to see. Host populations will lose in that they will be faced with environmental degradation which will affect their immediate prospects and will also be denied the tourism development potential that the environment offered for the future Cater (1991). Future generations of tourists will be denied the opportunity of experiencing environments very different to those of home (Cater, 1991). Cater (1991), quotes that sustainable tourism should meet the three prime requirements, namely: the needs of host populations in terms of improved standards of living both in the short and long term: the demands of the growing number of tourists; and, that tourism should safeguard the environment. Tosun (2001) acknowledges these prime requirements by stating that sustainable tourism development should achieve the following: contribute to the satisfaction of basic and felt needs in local tourist, destination; reduce inequality and absolute poverty in local tourist destinations; promote self-esteem in local people; accelerate national, regional and local economic growth which is shared fairly across the social spectrum; and, should promote all the mentioned objectives or requirements or objectives renders the industry unsustainable.[1]

World Tourism Organisation and Sustainable tourism – eliminating poverty 6.1

World Tourism Organisation has a mandate from the United Nations to promote and develop tourism on behalf of its 138 government tourist board members and 350 affiliate members (tourism associations, airlines, and hotel groups): it has not explicit interest in reflecting critically on tourism. As noted by Gosling et al. (2004: 145), ‘The WTO currently seeks to establish a positive image of tourism by promoting the industry’s vast job and income generating potential, and by emphasising its pro-environmental and pro poor effects’. Thus the green agenda and the pro-poor agenda have led to new initiatives with the World Tourism Organisation in recent years such as ST-EP but their main motivation is still to promote economic growth through tourism (Regina, 2007).The World Tourism Organisation has identified seven different ways of addressing poverty through tourism which it suggests can be applied in almost every country:

Employment of the poor in tourism enterprises.
Supply of goods and services to tourism enterprises by the poor or by enterprises employing the poor.
Direct sales of goods and services to visitors by the poor (informal economy).
Establishment and running of tourism enterprises by the poor – for example micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs), or community based enterprises (formal economy).
Tax or levy on tourism income or profits with proceeds benefiting the poor.
Voluntary giving / support by tourism enterprises and tourists.
Investment in infrastructure stimulated by tourism also benefiting the poor in the locality, directly or through support to other sectors.

The World Tourism Organisation also refers to how tourism can be used in the ‘war on poverty’ (WTO, 2005). This is interesting language which obviously reflects the ‘war on terror’ waged by the United States government on certain Middle Eastern countries. The two ‘wars are not unrelated (WTO, 2005). Democratic governance and security are seen as key components of a neo liberal poverty agenda. Thus is part the interest of organisations like the World Tourism Organisation in using tourism for poverty alleviation is motivated by the 11th September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, which some analysts interpreted as evidence that ‘endemic poverty underlies instability in many parts of the world’ .Specifically, pro-poor initiatives are attempt to overcome some of the inequalities which are seen since 9/11 as contributing to global insecurity

There is some ‘R word’ which is basically dedicated to suitability of tourism that plays a major part in sustainable tourism

Recognize
Refuse
Replace
Reduce
Re- use
Recycle
Re- engineer
Retrain
Reward
Re- educate

These R’s means the complete meaning in sustainability and a successful sustainable tourism follows these R factors.[3] These are said to be the ten R’s criteria for environmental good practice in tourism business operations[4].

CHAPTER 7

Case Study

Bath is one of the marvellous centres for the purpose of spa work even from the period of the Romans. It is one of the popular historic places from the time of 17th to 18 centuries in the world. It is one of the towns which have been covered by the wall and it has got the narrow streets. It has become one of the heritage place from about 18th century and it is said to be as classical place. The designers of bath were very much influenced by the designers of the Romans and Greeks. Bath is considered to be the little lines of the heritage monumental London in those times itself as of about 18th century. It was in no better state than any other English towns. It was one of the developing recognition of the spa resort that has developed and has got great recognition and has even gone the historic places. And at present bath has the population of more than 85000. And the city has go the biggest employers as of in relation to the health Authority, the ministry of defence and the bath and North east Somerset council.

The study is to take the research steps in relation to the residents of the city and their positive and negative opinions or the perceptions in relation to the tourism activities in the Bath city. Now the study is going to concern about the relationship between the positive and the negative opinions of the residents and the specific policies for the tourism activities.

To understand the perceptions of the activities of tourism of the residents opinion to the residents. The use of the statistical techniques to evaluate the perception data of the residents of the residents. Evaluating the perception of the residents is very complex task. The studies of the local or regional basis would look like the opportunities so as to demonstrate the perceptions of the residents of the city. The study is in relation to provide the clear picture of the methodology by the means of reliability and feasibility of the information accessed about the residents of the city. The statistical analysis is in need to analyse the perception of the local residents of the city in relation to the heritage tourism of the Bath city. The statistical techniques help to evaluate the opinions of the residents clearly. Beyond the economy and the activities of tourism, in the community residents play an important role and they also influence the gain or loss of economy and for the success or failure of the industry. The residents are also acting as one of the major factor affecting the tourism industry. Their participation in activities, their planning and development, their involvement in the tourism industry also influences a lot. They are the stakeholders of their heritage tourist place. They must get a proper balance of the costs and benefits of the tourism industry as of being the resident in such a heritage place. There is in need of the management strategies to say that their willingness to live or not to live in such a heritage tourist place. So as to analyse these attitudes of the residents statistical investigation analysis is in need.

The Georgian city of Bath, built on the cleansing properties of its spa waters, is not quite as healthy as it seems. The air around its main roads is among the most polluted in the UK.

Council monitoring stations across the city’s major road network reveal the stark truth: levels of pollution in the city are at a worrying high. The nitrogen dioxide released in car fumes – as well as cigarettes – is one of the most harmful air

Pollutants around.

Health threat

Government guidelines put safe levels at 40 mg per cubic meter. But this is regularly exceeded around Georgian Bath and in some cases even reaching double the safe level. “We believe that these levels of pollution represent a serious long-term threat to the health of residents,” says Patrick Rotheram of the Federation of Bath Residents’ Associations. “The limit of 40 mg is exceeded all over the city. Bath has a particular problem of geography – it’s surrounded by hills and a lot of traffic comes through,” he continues.

Dangerous fumes

Various surveys over the years have highlighted Bath’s problems. One, in 2004, likened 24-hours on the notorious traffic-hotspot London Roadto smoking 20 cigarettes. Another put Bath in second place in the UK for most polluted city.

“You do notice the exhaust fumes,” says Tony Farrelly, a resident who goes everywhere by bicycle.

“But you do not expect a town likeBathto be that polluted, especially when you get to the edges and you can smell the beautiful fresh air.”

Pressuring the government

Bath City Council has now decided to designate all of its main roads as Air Quality Management Areas. It will not improve the air overnight, but could bring the city the money it needs to find alternative routes for through traffic. “There will not be immediate changes,” says Councilor Charles Gerrish. “Because of the immense cost of coming up with a solution the sort of money required isn’t available from the council in isolation.”Therefore we need to use this as a way to add weight to the bids we have to central government,” he insists.

In the meantime though, residents and visitors alike will have to cope with levels of nitrogen dioxide well above the recommended safe guideline.

Meeting the standards

The government says all cities must comply with this guideline by 2010.

Here for the study, in the process of the quantitative methodological manner, the questionnaire in the form of random has been sent the mail of the questionnaire to the bath residents in random. By considering that the mail survey is one of the quick and also the low cost manner of collecting information from the residents of the Bath city. The limitation of choosing this mail survey method is that the candidate is not in present, there may be some chances of misrepresentation of any confusion may arise while understanding the question of the questionnaires. So a simple mail survey questions has been considered in the study to avoid the confusions for the respondents. The questionnaire has been designed to know about historic cities instrument and also in relation to the socio economic and the demographic characteristics were often significant. The Likert scale has also been applied as of agree, strongly agree, strongly disagree. Each and every part of the questionnaire has been designed for the tourism development.

While selecting the sample of the population the each and every challenges has been considered among the various populations across the various populations of the city.

Bath and North East Somerset is home to some of the most impressive Roman and Georgian architecture in Europe. Bath owes its existence to it shot springs. The remains of the Roman Baths fed by the springs are among the best preserved in the world and a major international tourist destination. Heritage Services is a business unit within the Council which operates at no cost to the local taxpayer. The Service has a staff of 104 full-time equivalent posts and returns a net surplus of ?3 million per annum to the Council. Through its rolling 5-year business plan, the Service maximises the commercial opportunities offered by the Council’s world-class heritage assets. The vision of Bath and North East Somerset Library Service is “to enrich and empower every individual and community throughout their lives by offering access to resources for information, learning and enjoyment”.

Libraries support lifelong learning for all ages from early years activity such as baby rhyme times, story times and Book start, to computer training for adults and a loan service to over 62 elderly people’s homes and over 300 housebound individuals. More than 4,700 children up to the age of 3 have received Bookstart Packs this year and 1,600 children in their first term at school received books distributed in co-operation with the School Improvement Service through the Book time scheme. Over 3,500 children and their carers have attended pre-school activities in libraries during the year. Additionally, in partnership with Children’s Services, library provision to under-fives and their families has been extended by creating mini-libraries in Children’s Centres in Twerton and atSt Martin’s Garden.

The partnership has

increased annual usage of leisure centers and golf courses by 13%
improved overall levels of customer satisfaction across a range of targets, including cleanliness and customer service
improved accessibility by expanding the range of people entitled to concessionary prices
raised membership in concessionary categories from 15% to 51% over three years

Bath Festivals Ltd achieved the following

total attendance for the Bath International Music Festival and Bath Literature Festival was 35,849
more than 3,600 children and young people from over 24 schools inBathand North East Somerset participated in more than 70 festival events and activities
the organization attracted ?922,000 of additional investment, adding an additional ?2 to every ?1 of Council investment

Services provided by Bath Tourism Plus include

? co-ordinating a Tourist Information Centre and retail shop generating over ?160,000 of revenue

? organizing promotional events and co-ordinating public relations and media activity

providing a conference and venues booking service

Visitor survey data has shown the following

In its first full year of operation Thermae Bath Spa welcomed over 130,000 visitors
18% of visitors were local residents, and 20% of these made repeat visits
91% of visitors surveyed were very pleased with their Spa experience
the Spa facilities are used regularly by disabled visitors

There are no surprises about what draws people to Bath. The architecture and beauty of the city score highest mentioned by 34 percent of respondents; next comes the relaxed and romantic atmosphere (19 percent); followed by attractions such as the Roman Baths and sightseeing (8 percent). The choice of shopping, all weather activities and compactness of the city were other positive factors.

In the study it is the 24 item questionnaire with the 120 respondents of the city has been considered. By considering the two factor solution the results of the sample as of specified by the residents. The two factor solution have specified

Results indicate that the domains within sample data signified residents where the first factor of the Eigen value is 6.2 and where as the second factor is the 1.9.

CHAPTER 8
Findings:
Sl.NoParticularsYES NO
1.
Is tourist activity increased by years5763
2.
Born in the city3387
3.
Employed in the tourism industry4179
4.
Do the benefits outweigh the negative consequences8931
5.
Do the tourism improves the appearance of the city7149
6.
Do the increase in tourist numbers improves the economy6456
7.
Is there any increase in the recreational opportunities8436
8.
Do you like your city to become more of a tourist destination3387
9.
Is there any improvement in the quality of life4575
10.
Does tourism provides good job for residents2298
11.
Here the tourism businesses are very much influenced politically4179
12.
Local government should restrict tourism4872
13.
Local government should control tourism6555
14.
There is negative effect on the environment8733
15.
Increases the tax of council9129
16.
Tourism leads to more litter on the streets1155
17.
Need to pay more attractions9624
18.
Increases the amount of crime7446
19.
Increases unfairly the property prices9822
20.
Quality of my outdoor recreation is good7743
21.
Increases the traffic in the city1119

(1) Age of the residents:

AGENumber of Residents
18-257

26-3524

36-4536

46-5541

56 & ABOVE12

TOTAL120

(2) Length of residence in the city in years:

YEARSNumber of Residents
0 TO55

5 TO 1012

10 TO 2022

20 TO 3056

30& ABOVE25

TOTAL120

(3) Employed in the tourism industry:

YES41

NO79

(4) Benefits overweigh the negative consequences:

YES56

NO64

Results of the factor analysis:

Domain Bath Sample Item DescriptorFactor Loadings
POSITIVEBenefits outweigh negative consequences0.71
Tourism improves appearance of the city0.49
Increasing tourist numbers improves the economy0.70
Increase in recreational opportunities0.61
Need to become more of a tourist destination0.66
Improvement in the quality of life0.61
To attract more tourists0.63
Long term planning controls negative impacts0.40
Tourism provides good jobs for residents0.62
Tourism should play vital role in the future0.75
Support local tax for tourism0.29
Influence tourism decisions0.24
When i talk to fellow residents I am positive0.38
NEGATIVETourism businesses too influentially politically0.49
Local govt should restrict tourism0.62
Local govt should control tourism0.40
Negative effect on environment0.41
Increases the council tax0.45
Leads to more litter on the streets0.43
Should pay more attractions0.47
Unfairly increases property prices0.40
Quality of my outdoor recreation0.55
Increases the amount of crime0.64
Increases the traffic in the city.0.40

Mean scores for the tourism Impact Statements

Tourism impact statementsMean scores
POSITIVETourism improving the economy3.94
Benefits of tourism outweighs its negative impacts3.48
Play a vital role in the future3.56
Good jobs for residents3.46
Should not try to attract more tourists2.92
Improve the appearance of the city3.01
Increases recreational opportunities2.92
Should become more tourist destination2.84
Development increases the quality of life2.63
Fellow residents I am positive3.34
A local tax levy for tourism2.24
I can personally influence tourism decisions2.05
Mean for the scale3.19
NEGATIVETourism increases traffic4.27
Leads to more litter3.79
Development increases council tax3.17
Increases property prices3.10
Businesses are too influential politically3.28
Increases the amount of crime3.11
Negatively affects the environment3.23
Reduces quality of outdoor recreation2.84
Local govt should control tourism3.71
Local govt should restrict tourism3.01
Tourists should pay more for attractions3.51
Mean for scale3.35
Mean for all items3.35

The 1st hypothesis (Ho): no underlying dimensions will emerge

From the analysis of the resident responses to tourism development issues within theBath.

The 2nd null hypothesis (Ho): It is not possible to predict residents’ attitudes of tourism development according to their socio economic and the demographic characteristics, and the positive and the negative perceptions of the tourism.

A series of seven regression equations are computed as follows. The dependent variables are selected to assess the residents’ socio economic and the demographic characteristics. The work need to attract more number of tourists in the development of the tourism industry. The decisions in regard to the development of the city.

Independent variablesRegression 1Regression 2
BetaR sqrTPBetaR sqrTP
Income-0.02-3.5-0.0-0.03
Length of residence0.020.360.050.81
Distance of residence from tourism0.051.10.071.5
Born in city0.030.62-0.01-0.08
Home ownership-0.06-1.2-0.09-1.7
Age-0.06-1.30.081.4
Gender0.030.620.023.4
Year round the residence0.07-0.011.70.060.11.1
Importance of tourism to occupation0.050.071.10-0.01-0.24
Employed in the tourism industry0.030.570.7700.030.040.520.03
Positive opinion0.640.612.900.470.418.30
Negative opinion-0.19-3.9-3.10.47-5.40

The significance of the resident characteristics can be analysed that the positive and the negative attitudes of the residents of the city are predicted economic reliance is ( R sqr – 07;p<0.001) the positive scale offers the significant degree of the explanation (R sqr – 0.03; p < 0.001) . These results suggest that the as of the positive attitudes increase and negative ones decrease, they are increasingly in the supportive mode for the further more development of the bath city.

And the regression 2 is that the tourists are not interested to attract still more tourists. The r square being the 47% of these achieved the possible levels.

The positive attitude scale is of explanation of variance is of ( R Sqr = 0.41; p < 0.001) and negative attitudes scale explanation of variance ( R Sqr change = 0.06; p < 0.001). The independent variables accounted for the 65% of variance within equations. Economic reliance was significant. And the negative scale was insignificant. The equation accounted for 44% of variance. Resident characteristics were against insignificant, while economic reliance was significant.

Regression of the one item on resident attitude:
Independent variablesRegression 1
BetaR sqrTP
Income-0.1-1.4
Length of residence-0.1-1.1
Distance of residence from tourism0.193.1
Born in city0.11.5
Home ownership0.050.64
Age-0.13-1.7
Gender-0.020.37
Year round the residence0.020.041.20.018
Importance of tourism to occupation0.090.05-0.880.123
Employed in the tourism industry-0.060.082.80.002
Positive opinion0.210.080.160.873
Negative opinion0.01

Those living away from the centre reporting a greater sense of the influence over the decision making activities are in the process. The positive and negative attitude dimensions appeared to be effective as of in the case of predicting support for tourism development. The regression equation has found that of the 40% of the variance. In bath the length of the residence was again the great contributor to the overall explanation to the variance. Finally the significant residents as it is the people perceived relevance of a significant contribution of the industry. The inclusion of the negative attitude scale is actually intended to act as the check on the data responses of the residents.

Regression of two items on resident attitude:
Independent variablesRegression 1Regression 2
BetaR sqrTPBetaR sqrTP
Income0.020.382-0.07-1.1
Length of residence-0.14-2.0-0.050.747
Distance of residence from tourism0.030.700.020.386
Born in city0.061.00.122.0
Home ownership0.030.56-0.02-0.37
Age0.061.00.040.61
Gender-0.03-5.7-0.05-0.98
Year round the residence0.050.040.990.050.031.00.042
Importance of tourism to occupation0.122.10.20-0.1-1.8
Employed in the tourism industry0.060.111.00.000.030.080.540.00
Positive opinion0.06-0.560.36-10.60.00
Negative opinion-0.540.4-10.60.00

Socio economic reliance and the positive and the negative attitudes of the residents of the city. residents are of positive attitudes and the ability to predict the negative attitudes of tourism in the bath. These results indicate that the potentiality for predicting the attitudes of the historic cities according to certain residential characteristics.

Impact of the heritage tourism;

the purpose of the research is just to evaluate the attitudes of the residents of the city to examine their attitudes in regard to the development of the historic city of Bath. The study is to examined and found that there is the rejection of the null hypothesis. It is the result of the two factors. By increase in the dimensions of the city and with the development of the tourism in the city and with the proper planning and understanding and by the comparative analysis leads to the place for various approaches.

The various group of variables which in concern related to the economic reliance proved consistently predictive with the support of the tourism development. These variable factors are in deed help to support the tourism development and the beneficial economically and it leads to the lower incomes and in the residents were more likely to support increased tourism, and in turn leads to the city becoming one of the favourite visiting place.

It can be stated with the confidence whether or not socio economic and demographic variables are significant indicators of distinct attitudes.

Bath leads to enablement of the rejection of the second null hypothesis by requesting for the some variables, so that the researchers can provide the conclusion of the perceived tourism of the city.

Conclusion:

The purpose of the study is to examine the attitudes and perceptions of the residents of the Bath city, by the means of the socio economic impact understanding and by the process of fragmentation and by the help of the recommendations have been consolidated. The socio economic impacts are not just enough to make any of the strong conclusions to understand the attitude of the resident of the bath city in United Kingdom. And the study is in turn to push the tourism development. The study has found out the disseminate and even it helps to compete and balance the competing pressures. By the help of the statistical measures as of the regression analysis and the value of alpha and beta. And with the help of the developed questionnaire concentrated generally on the general issues of the city in relation to concern of the residents. The objective is to concentrate on the conduct of the future planning and management of the more particular and the reflective destinations of the country. Socio economic impact of the tourism is to achieve the satisfactory feeling for both the tourists and the local residents of the city.

Heritage tourism stimulates both depth and breadth in tourism, creates new markets for local and regional arts and crafts, extends tourism seasons, and encourages adaptation of existing products (ie. accommodation; tours).

• Heritage and historic tourism is globally attractive to governments because it has demonstrated an ability to contribute to the rejuvenation of regional and inner-city urban areas.

• Unlike many tourism products, historic and heritage tourism can spread economic benefits across a greater geographical area through themed trails and driving routes, rather than concentrating in single locations.

• There is a propensity for heritage tourists to stay and spend on accommodation provided within villages, towns and cities, unlike nature-based tourists who travel with greater levels of self-sufficiency. Heritage and historic tourism is one of the most rapidly expanding tourism Segments in terms of visitor numbers globally.

• Growth is being driven largely, but not exclusively, by the powerful “baby boomer” demographic, an economic force representing considerable time availability, discretionary income and personal interests.

• Visitor attendances, globally and withinUnited Kingdomare consistently higher at historic places and heritage sites than at art galleries, museums, casinos, Arts events and Indigenous cultural activities.

The investigation is in need to come in contact with attitudes of the residents with the strategies of the policy makers in a way that which can be able provide a basis for policies more securely required in the needs of host. Resident attitudes are fully utilized in involving the residents in the consultation of the city tourism development.

The analysis shows that the problems in relation to the heritage tourism and its development in the developed countries resident is being analysed in the study. the tourism includes commercialization and also concentrates on commoditization and even by undermining the cultural authenticity, the problems faced by the local residents of theBathcity are neither adequate nor powerful. They are in the controversial position as of being the residents of such an heritage city. There exist many mobilized arguments in relation to the residence and tourism sustainability and the process of development. In real the local residents are generally in the embracing position of being in such a community and in such a society. The economic benefits are also not such bad extent, as the tourism is providing employment opportunities also for the residents of the city. These are not merely abstract, intellectual problems of legitimacy and authenticity. In actual situation the heritage tourism has lead to some problems like eclipsing of the heritage dimension of heritage tourism, homogenization of tourist products, and dying out of cultural producers, knowledge, and technologies.

These are not merely abstract, intellectual problems of legitimacy and authenticity. Their impact is practical, more culturally sustainable policies and Management are crucial for preventing negative consequences of heritage tourism in Bath city tourism from going into the decline phase of its lifecycle as quickly as other over-exploited heritage tourist destinations do.

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“Implementing Sustainable Tourism in the USAID Context” BYArusha,Tanzania, February 2006.
“The Importance of Heritage to Tourism-understanding the competitive environment” by J John Lennon.
“Travel & Tourism EconomicImpact,INDIA2010” ,world travel & tourism council 9 February 2010.
“UKState ofTourism”, Final Report , April 2008.
“theUKTourist- Statistics 2009”,————————-
“HistoricTownsand Cities inEngland’s Northwest” Final Report, October 2005.
“Sustainable Tourism and Economic Instruments: the case of Hvar, Croatia” by Tim Taylor.
“Environmental Implications of the Tourism Industry” by Terry Davies, Sarah Cahill

Discussion, Paper 00-14,March 2000.

“ Tourism and Sustainable Development: Lessons from Recent World Bank Experience”

By Anil MARKANDYA.

“Air pollution envelopsBath” by Andrew Plant, BBC NEWS, 16 November 2010.
“ Southwest CASE Regional Insights”———————————————-
“ Tourism and Sustainable Development: Lessons from Recent World Bank Experience”

By Anil MARKANDYA.

“Tourism as a Development Strategy”, August 2006.
“Global Theory and Touristic Encounters” by Gavan Tetley vol 8, 2000.
“the sustainable cities index”, ranking the largest 20 British cities, November 2009.

Questionnaire

For the Residents of BATH CITY

Name
Sex & Age :
Place of Residence :
Education :
Occupation :
Is tourist activity increased by years : Yes/ No
What is the length of residence in the city in years :
Born in the city : Yes/ No
Employed in the tourism industry: Yes/ No
Do the benefits outweigh the negative consequences : Yes/ No
Do the tourism improves the appearance of the city : Yes/ No
Do the increase in tourist numbers improves the economy: Yes/ No
Is there any increase in the recreational opportunities : Yes/ No
Do you like your city to become more of a tourist destination: Yes/ No
Is there any improvement in the quality of life: Yes/ No
Does tourism provides good job for residents : Yes/ No
Here the tourism businesses are very much influenced politically: Yes/ No
Local government should restrict tourism: Yes/ No
Local government should control tourism: Yes/ No
There is negative effect on the environment : Yes/ No
Increases the tax of council: Yes/ No
Tourism leads to more litter on the streets ; Yes/ No
Need to pay more attractions : Yes/ No
Increases the amount of crime : Yes/ No
Increases unfairly the property prices : Yes/ No
Quality of my outdoor recreation is good: Yes/ No
Increases the traffic in the city: Yes/ No

Categories
Free Essays

The development of a web based system that provides quality data in real time, for dynamic information retrieval and display (web & mobile).

1.1 Introduction

In recent years, the Internet and World Wide Web (www) have become ubiquitous, surpassing all other technological developments in our history. They’ve also grown rapidly in their scope and extent of use, significantly affecting all aspects of our lives. Industries such as manufacturing, travel and tourism, banking, education, Olympic Games and government are Web-enabled to improve and enhance their operations.

Web-based information systems (WIS) are information systems (IS) that are based on Web technology and they are integrated with conventional IS such as databases and transaction processing systems (Chen & Heath, 2001; Isakowitz, Bieber, & Vitali, 1998). Nowadays there is a rise in the amount of readymade web based information systems available in the form of content management systems, which can easily be integrated into an organisations existing information system to provide solutions (e-commerce, social networking, file sharing etc.) to the information needs of individuals and the organisation.

Beynon-Davies 2002, states; “It has become something of a truism that the success of an organisation is dependent on its information systems.” As Web applications have evolved, the demands placed on Web-based systems and the complexity of designing, developing, maintaining, and managing these systems have also increased significantly. For example, Web sites such as for the 2000 Sydney Olympics, 1998 Nagano Olympics, and Wimbledon received hundreds of thousands of hits per minute (Ginige and Murugesan, 2001). They provided vast, dynamic information in multiple media formats (graphics, images, and video). Web site design for these and many other applications demand balance among information content, aesthetics, and performance.

1.2 Key Phrases

Olympic Games, Web-Based Information System, Content Management System Internet, Web technology, Database, Dynamic Information, Media Formats

1.3 Aims and objectives

To investigate Web-Based Information Systems with a view to understanding how they work, including concepts, methods, tools and techniques used for developing them. Activities: read literature on Web-Based Information Systems; learn how they operate and also the kind of technologies they are associated with. Deliverables: Section for report
To review a selection of different Web-Based Information Systems, investigating their characteristics, similarities, mode of operation and technologies associated with them. Activities: apply for and try to gain access to a selection (open Source) of Web-Based Information Systems and compare them, with a view to understanding their characteristics and the technologies involved with them and also the applications available.Deliverables: Section for report
To investigate the Olympic Games and the web technologies associated with it, to gain an understanding of the data (Content and structure), display mechanisms, data transfer methods, data retrieval mechanism’s used in their applications. Activities: apply for and try to gain access during the Internship placement, for sample data and technologies’ already in use by the company to gain a better understanding of the requirements.Deliverables: Section for report
To analyse the information gathered so as to establish an adequate requirements specification for developing a Web-Based Information System.Activities: select appropriate tools and techniques to provide an initial set of requirements for the Web-Based Information System.Deliverables: Section for report
To design an appropriate Web-Based Information System according to stated requirements; Activities: select appropriate tools and techniques to provide a possible design solution.Deliverables: Section for report

To implement a proto-type Web-Based Information System application (for the Olympics games), according to the stated design solution.Activities: Select appropriate methods, design solution and programming language; and implement the proto-type Web-Based Information System using the chosen design solutionDeliverables: Section for report
To test the Web-Based Information System application;Activities: chose appropriate test strategies and draw up test plans, and test the applicationDeliverables: Section for report
To critically evaluate the work carried out against stated requirements.Activities: to critically evaluate my product and the work carried out, and compare the completed product to the stated requirements and objectives, also discuss the lessons learnt and discuss possible improvements.Deliverables: Section for report
1.4 Scope and Definition

This project will focus on the development of a web-based information system for the Olympic Games. The London 2012 Olympic Games would be used as part of an internship arrangement with “Atos Origin” will be used as a typical example with the requirements and specifications built around its particular needs.

The front end of the system will be aimed at the general users (i.e. athletes, media agencies and Journalist) with success measured by its ability to cater to their information needs in real time. The back end will be content management system for the staff (Olympic Local Organising Committee), including all the functions necessary for the smooth running of the Olympic Games.

There will be no attempt to develop a full working system to be able to connect to pre-existing IT systems within the organisation, but a proto-type system using similar data types, structures and web technologies. The system will not be designed with scalability in mind however the need will be discussed in the report; As there are several legal, ethical and data right issues which would be discussed in the report, it will be assumed that the data to be used would be of dummy values and not the real thing, therefore the analysis of which applications to use will be conducted on open source software only.

The web-based information system will consist of a website with the content and structure being determined by the requirements of the Olympic Games. The front end will be a mixture of both static and dynamic information content which is constantly being updated via the Olympic Local Organising Committee databases (in my case, I would create a replica database with a similar data structure) to allow customisation by the users.

1.5 Literature review

The Olympic Games are a complex mix of technology, processes and people. Not only is there the scale and complexity of the project, covering many clients, sites and systems, but it is also a multi-supplier project with many varied dependencies. Furthermore, the whole event is highly visible and the world is watching. And where victory is measured by the smallest margin, there are no second chances! (Source: www.uk.atosorigin.com)

The company “Atos Origin’s” challenge is to create an IT solution for each Olympic Games that allows the capture and reporting of every moment of the action and supports in bringing it to the world via television and the Internet, first time, every time! This requires a blend of specialist skills and experience backed up by a complete understanding of just what the organisers, competitors and audience expect. (Source: www.uk.atosorigin.com)

Teams are created to work on client projects, each which have their own budgets, sets of deliverables and timescales. The management of a project is a vital task, as is the coordination of staff resources across a portfolio of current projects whilst ensuring their delivery on time and within budget. As lead integrator, project manager and IT operations manager, Atos Origin is ultimately responsible for the entire IT infrastructure of the Games. The focus is on three key IT areas:

Security and Risk Management
Games Management Systems
Information Diffusion Systems

Marchand et al (2000) note that “Information technology improves business performance only if combined with competent information management and the right behaviours and values.” They go on to conclude that Companies with high information orientation have focused on getting IT support for key processes in place to manage customer and product information for all aspects of the Games. From this base, the company has developed sophisticated systems and databases for Security and Risk Management, Games Management and Information Diffusion. (Marchand et al 2000).

The difference between modelling conventional Information Systems (IS) and modelling Web-Based Information Systems (WIS) is significant. Modelling conventional IS addresses their structured data requirements and process functions within the organisation. Its key concerns are general structured data and processes. On the other hand, a WIS operates to support networked organisations in the integration of specialised Web sites into a common set of tasks for them. Organisational computing network properties are the major focus of WIS. Since WIS and conventional business IS (i.e., data processing systems, management report systems, and decision support systems) normally overlap, the general components of ordinary IS such as structured data (databases), models (model bases), and groupware for decision making can also serve as general components of a WIS.(Wang, 2001)

There is a clear difference between a set of Web pages and a WIS in that a WIS supports business process and is usually tightly integrated with other IS. The recent development of WIS suggests that they are revolutionising commerce (Tenenbaum, 1998). They have become tools for online business processing. Also, software agents, content management systems are emerging in WIS to exploit the features of online transactions (Wong, Paciorek, & Moore, 1999).

WIS can also be viewed as database applications for structured as well as semi-structured data (Arocena & Mendelzon, 1998); in fact, the Web has become a major resource for supporting multimedia active documents and developing and sharing knowledge structure collaboratively over the Internet (Gaines & Shaw, 1999). Since business IS are migrating from batch processing, time-sharing, and client-server computing to WIS, information infrastructure of the organisations has become a crucial factor in WIS development (Detlor, 2000)

The benefits of this experience can be brought to this dissertation project through best practices in areas such as consortium and project management, content and knowledge management, risk driven management, change management, data centres and IT Security.

1.6 Methodology

According to CMS (2008), “a system development methodology refers to the framework that is used to structure, plan, and control the process of developing an information system i.e. the waterfall model, the prototyping model, the spiral etc.”

In the context of this project the waterfall model would be used as the framework for development, while an iterative prototyping approach would be used to assist the design, implementation and unit testing. (CMS, 2008)

These two approaches were chosen because; The project has to be divided into sequential phases; using the waterfall model where the outcome of one phase is used as the source of input for the next phase i.e. the output from the analysis phase forms the bases of input for the design phase. This is helpful but also causes some delays, because if one phase is not completed the other cannot be started.

The waterfall model would also assisted in maintaining tight control over the documentation, because each section of the report would be created as the phase was carried out and approvals and checks would be made to ensure I am on the right track before starting a new phase. (CMS, 2008)

The iterative prototyping approach would helped combine both the waterfall and prototyping models allowing me go forward and also retrace my steps where needed.

The iterative prototyping would also assist while implementing the product, because the coding could start while the phases are not complete as a mare prototype, which would be improved upon as the design and requirements are stated and analysed further. This would help save time lost using the waterfall model and also provide a platform for unit testing of the product, because each individual component of the system would be tested in turn before the entire application is put together and tested. (CMS, 2008)

These approaches have also been justified by;

Yeung and Brent Hall (2007), stating that an iterative approach is most suitable for this type of project due to the fact that specification cannot be determined precisely in advance. This would help develop, implement and test the functionality of the systems individual units before the whole system is put together. Coad and Yourdon (1991) also suggested that prototyping should be used for all object-oriented projects.

1.8 Work Plan

1.9 Resources

To develop this Web-Based information system, an appropriate computing system with access to internet is required. Some Integrated development environment (Visual Studio, WAMP Server) is required for design and programming, such as CMS (for example, joomla), SQL, JavaScript, PHP server, etc.

Also access to the Universities libraries would be needed and Suitable Software Development Tools. Universities computing facilities and my personal computer would be used for all aspects of development and preparing the report.

Access to “Atos Origins” databases, facilities, applications would be needed to gain an understanding of how their existing system works and the required data structure and transfer facilities.

1.10 Ethics and confidentiality

The major problem I would have is gaining access to the company’s existing databases and systems, due to the sensitive nature of the data and the company’s intellectual property right, I have opted to ask for permission only to view their data structure and create a mock up data base from it with dummy data values, which would not cause any issues for me or the company if am allowed to.

Also most of my research would be done based on open-source systems which are readily available online and my design solution would only be similar in nature to the companies and not the real thing, because my role on the internship is not to help with the creation of the system to be used but to test and monitor its performance and help correct errors and develop documents.

My prototype solution is not intended to be used by the company, but is for me to learn how such projects are undertaken and designed.

Initial References

Beynon-Davis P. (2002), Information systems – An introduction to informatics in organisations, Basingstoke: Palgrave

Ginige A., Murugesan S. (2001) Web Engineering: An Introduction. IEEE Multimedia, 1-3, pp. 14-18.

Choo, C W (2002) Information management for the intelligent organisation, 3rd ed. Information Today, cited in Goker, A. (November 2006) ‘IKM Session 8: Information Users and Access’, City University London

Detlor, B., 2000. The corporate portal as information infrastructure: Towards a framework for portal design. International Journal of Information Management 20 2, pp. 91–101. Article | PDF (132 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (48)

Chen, J. Q., & Heath, R. D. (2001). Building Web applications: Challenges, architecture, and methods. Information Systems Mangement, 18(1), 68–79.

Marchand, D. A., Kettinger, W. J., Rollins, J. D. (2000) ‘Information Orientation: People, Technology and the Bottom Line’, p.69-80, MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. 41 (4)

Isakowitz, T., Bieber, M., & Vitali, F. (1998). Web information systems. Communications of the ACM, 41(7), 78–80.

Tenenbaum, J.M., 1998. WISs and electronic commerce. Communications of the ACM 41 7, pp. 89–90.

Wong, D., Paciorek, N. and Moore, D., 1999. Java-based mobile agents. Communications of the ACM 42 3, pp. 92–100.

Arocena, G.O. and Mendelzon, A.O., 1998. Viewing WISs as database application. Communications of the ACM 41 7, pp. 101–102. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (2)

Gaines, B.R. and Shaw, M.L.G., 1999. Embedding formal knowledge models in active documents. Communications of the ACM 42 1, pp. 57–63. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (13)

Wang,S., 2001. Toward a general model for web-based information systems. Int.J.Inf.Manage., 2001, 21, 5, 385-396

Yeung, A. K. W., & Brent-Hall, G., (2007), Spatial database systems: design, implementation and project management, Springer.

Coad, P., and Yourdon, E., (1991), Object-oriented Design, Prentice Hall

Categories
Free Essays

History and Development of Miasmatic Theory in Homeopathy, from Samuel Hahnemann to Nowadays

Introduction

It is the intention of this study to give an in-depth and clear understanding of the theory of miasms, in order to comprehend them and identify its practical application.

Homeopathy society has always been divided over the question of miasms. Since the time of Hahnemann, this theory has remained controversial (Bathia, 2007). The dissidents have taken the position that this theory need not be an essential part of Homeopathy as it is still possible practises it successfully without accepting this theory (Pitt, 2008). Author will make a discussion here to recognize what led Hahnemann to enunciate his chronic diseases theory and to determine if it is useful in the management of chronic cases in Homeopathic practice.

Next it would be discuss its development, exploring the fact that a large number of homeopaths believe that miasms of Hahnemann are nothing but bacteria and viruses (Bathia, 2007). Then there are spiritual followers of Kent who believe in the non-material nature of miasms and call it a predisposition or dyscrasia (Pitt, 2008). Lately an approach of how are Miasms classified from the new perspectives such as genetic and epigenetic, embryology, Facial analysis, prototypes, periodic table, as all of them claim to follow the teachings from the Master (Klein, 2009). The other controversial issue to be look at is the number of Miasms, with two clear tendencies the three way model of miasms (psora, sycosis and syphilis) and from this up to eleven miasms as Sankaran have identify. (Klein, 2009) So the main objective of this project is to attempt to clarify and identify the different currents on the theory since Hahnemann make public his discovery until nowadays.

What are miasms?

The word miasm originates from the Greek word “Miasma” which means a stain, pollution, defilement of a noxious atmosphere or infective material.

It was first used by Hippocrates to refer to a certain taint in the air (Kiple,1993)The term “miasm” was commonly in use in Hahnemann’s day and referred to some noxious, unseen influence in the air that made one sick. A quick look to an early dictionary definition of the term miasm, closer to the time of Hahnemann’s use, show the follow meaning “Miasm, is the effluvia or fine particles of any putrefying matter, rising and floating in the atmosphere, and dangerous to health: noxious exhalations, emanations, or effluvia: malaria: infectious substances floating in the air ”. (Casell, 1902)

Germ theory was further developed by Louis Pasteur in the 1860s and Robert Koch in the 1870s, but it is important to understand that there is an abyss between Hahnemann’s dynamic conception of disease and the more material one of Pasteur and Koch (conventional medicine) (Verspoor, 1999) Sterner (2007) clarifies that the germ theory after revealed it soon prevailed over miasmic theory.

Hahnemann, during his lifetime, discovered that a “noxious agent” was responsible for the persistence of the disease condition. He named this a miasm. The chronic diseases originate on chronic parasite miasms or germs, now referred to as chronic parasitic microorganisms. (Tyler, 2007). In other words it is a contagion that can provide the foundation for chronic disease (Choudhury, 2007).

The Master (2003 ed.) in his last edition of the Organon on aphorism 78, postulates that veritable chronic illnesses are the ones that emerges from chronic miasms. If they are not treated properly with homeopathy CD becomes greater and tortures the patient until his death, regardless of the patients’ habits.

In analysing Hahnemann’s writings, Dimitriadis (2005), emphasizes Master’s own definition of miasm; that is in fact an infectious agent, meaning any ainfectious substance dangerous for health. Taylor (2002) proposed that Hahnemann was using the term miasm in the inclusive rather than the particular meaning, in addition Dimitriadis (2005) clarifies that Hahnemann stated precisely the word infection in a wide implication particularly when he expressed that after the external stimulus impact on the body the vital force is primarily affected.

Is been stressed that Hahnemann point out in all his works that miasms are not diseases themselves, if not the causation (Sarkar, 1968) Hahnemann also describes the gradually diminishing virulence via increasing immunity (Dudgeon, 1989: 166). On the other hand Dimitriadis (2005) states that any propensity to use the word miasm to describe tendency to disease (dyscrasia, diathesis or taint) is mistaken.

Instead Bathia (2007) points out that although Hahnemann truly believed in the infectious nature of disease and considered miasms as infectious agent, conversely he also considered disease as dynamic, non-physical and its origin as a dynamic predisposition to illness. He goes on argue that Hahnemann shows confusion on his last writings on the 6th edition of the Organon, as in one hand is stating that Cholera is caused by living microorganism but on the other hand he is saying that nothing material could be found in ill persons due to illness come from the dynamic perturbation of the Vital force. Bathia concludes that this and other statements on master’s writing confuse the next generations and the world of miasms has become more chaotic.

Moreover Vithoulkas (1980) the classic well known homeopath, defines a miasm as a tendency toward chronic disease underlying the acute manifestations of a disease, which is spreadable from generation to generation, and which may respond beneficially to the corresponding nosode prepared from either pathological tissue or from the appropriate drug or vaccine.

Further research by Dr. Banarjea (2006) lead him to define miasm as “an invisible, dynamic principle” which is absorbed into the human organism. This causes a stigma in the constitution, which can only be removed by the correct anti-miasmatic medicine. He goes on to argue that without the correct treatment the miasm will continue and will be pass on the next generation.

Heudens-Mast (2005) concurs that miasms are the basis of all disease. Miasms can be inherited or acquired from contagion or suppression. She concludes that the only way to truly help the patients is by addressing the miasms.

Alternatively, Dr. Tomas Paschero (2000) defined miasma as a vibratory alteration of man’s vital force, which regulates the constitution and behaviour, conversely he negates the infectious aspect of miasms.

In fact the definition of miasms during the course of the homeopathic history has marked the practice application, dividing the profession in two major groups, those who believed in the bacteria origin and those who believed in the spiritual nature of the miasms. After evaluating Hahnemann’s conception of chronic diseases, the differences between these two majors groups would be analysed.

The Beginning: Hahnemann Conception of Chronic Diseases

The Relapses

Hahnemann formulated the miasmatic theory of disease in his 7th decade, documented in his book The Chronic Disease (Watson, 2009).

After formulating the Law of Similar and developing the provings, he enjoyed early success treating acute and epidemic illness, however he came across cases which the initial improvement cease (Tyler, 2007, Handley, 1997).

His cases were overshadowed by old symptoms, which didn’t respond to the apparently well choose remedy (Haehl, 2003). He also experimented the emergence of new symptoms, which reacted inadequately to the remedies, and finally he states that the remedies were not better than palliatives, as the acute attacks tended to become more frequent and more serious over the time (Klein, 2009). In other words Hahnemann admitted that the Law of Similar although carefully applied doesn’t not always lead to success. (Whichmann, 2006).

According to Choudhury (2006) Hahnemann thought it could be five reasons responsible for this failure, firstly referent to the law of similar which may not be of general application, next the number of medicines may be too short to cover all kind of illness, following a misuse of the law of similar, after an oblivion in the totality of symptoms, and last there might be some obstacles which previse perdurable recovery.

Consequently, Hahnemann expended day and night working on long term patient’s cases to arrive to the root of the problem (Tyler, 2007), until he reached the conclusion that there is an obstacle in the organism that cannot be removed with medicines or the healthiest diet or disappear by itself. He named this obstacle a “miasm”.

The Missing Link

Hahnemann is know as very self-critic, and this censorious part of him, prevented him to be indifferent to the problem, he didn’t console himself with the magnificent acute cures, or looking for more remedies as many on the contrary followers urged, on the contrary Hahnemann knew that the problem lay not in the quantity but in the quality, in his lack of knowledge of illness. And so he took a though task to understand the disease (Decker 1999)

Thereby at his 73 years and after 12 years of analysis of thousands of trials, cases, analysis, reflection and hard work, he discovered the reason why the homeopathic remedies did not lead to true cure of the chronic diseases (Dhawale, 2004).

Thus he arrived to a profound notion in the treatment of chronic illness, which he first communicated to two of his most deserving disciples, in 1827, Staph and Gross, (Haehl, 2003) which for his surprise react with embarrassment, they were horrified, fearing for a further negative reaction to homeopathy (Handley, 1997). Not much later he wrote a letter to Baumgartner, declaring that his system was imperfect and defective without this missing link. (Bradford, 2004)

The Cause: infectious agents

It have to be stressed before continue with the history of Hahnemann conception of chronic diseases, that Hahnemann initially used the word miasm to refer to what we would know as infectious diseases (Tyler, 2007), she also draws attention that by chronic diseases Hahnemann didn’t meant those consequence from continual inadequate environment, overindulgence or too much worries, because those will disappear in its own, without any treatment if the circumstances change, so it would be inappropriate to call them chronic diseases. Tyler light up that Hahnemann conception of disease was a microorganism, which will not vanish even with the most accurately mental and body habits.

Is often quoted that Hahnemann when referring to infectious agents was talking about parasites, bacteria or viruses, without the help of a microscope, remarks and statements which went in advance of bacterial knowledge of many illnesses more than fifty year before of Koch’s discovery of the cholera bacteria. (Sarkar, 1968) Recent authors stressed similar views and even believe hat Hahnemann should be claimed as the Father of Bacteriology. (Choudhury 2006; Kanjilal 1977)

However the preliminaries had already been set in place in many directions, scientist had been discussing the idea for some time. The existence of microorganisms had become recognized in medical science even 75 years before Hahnemann’s births and sources of specific contagion had already been put forward as a causation of diseases, at least 130 years earlier. (Ott, 1996) So for Klein (2009) it was an evident step forward to grasp and seize the word miasm and encompass his theory on the origin of CD.

In fact Hahnemann’s theory of masked chronic illness, was very similar to the theory of diatheses, contemporary at Hahnemann’s time. However the exceptional stamp that Hahnemann marked his theory made it genuine and turned many people away from it (Handley, 1990)

Another common critic make to the Master’s theory, is the allopathic approach, that some identifies on it. Watson (2009) on his examinations of miasmatic theory states that Hahnemann acquired an allopathic mode of rationale within his theory of chronic disease, looking for cause and fighting against it.

The Underlying Predisposition

The conclusions that Hahnemann drew from his profound study, allowed him to identify a profound level of diseases, or on other words the cause of an underlying predisposition. He observes that infections that patients contracted in the course of their life left a vital impact that led to relapses of the initial symptoms or the rise of more serious and chronic diseases. (Klein, 2009)

While looking for these underlying diseases, Hahnemann look through the medical records of his patients searching for common factors in order to explain the nature of their illness. This was the beginning of his understanding into recognizing patterns of symptoms. (Haehl, 2003)

This led him first to recognize the two known venereal diseases, which were chronic, infectious and inheritable in nature, syphilis and sycosis, as two of the masked causes of chronic diseases. He treated venereal diseases as an acute infectious diseases and saw chronic consequences to these illness, nevertheless, these two cannot be reckon as the cause of all the chronic cases, so Hahnemann comprehend that the cause of the other chronic diseases does not lay on the venereal miasmas. (Verspoor, 1999)

In this way his dwells were on the cause behind of all non-venereal chronic diseases, he realized that the original malady had to be of a chronic and infectious nature, as the chronic venereal miasm already defined.

The Original Malady: Psora and non-venereal chronic diseases

In his research on patients’ chronic cases, Hahnemann observed a common eruption of itch in their medical history; on top of that he proposed that this itch influenced the start of the evolution of the whole chronic disease process. (Dimitriadis, 2005)

He declared Psora as the most primitive, common and dangerous and misinterpreted miasmatic disease. According to Hahnemann Psora is the sole and unique producer of non-venereal disease. (Choudhury, 2006)

Can be suggested that what Hahnemann stated is that all these non-venereal chronic diseases are apparently separate parts of a single, sound rooted chronic disease process (Internal Psora), which develops after an infection from the psoric miasm (infectious agent, stimulus) (Dimitriadis, 2005, p.15-17) thus we come to the unavoidable deduction that the miasm is an external stimulus, and so Psora Miasm is not the same as Psora the disease, and is not a predisposition to disease quite the opposite is the diseased condition itself (Sarkar, 1968) However a predisposition to emerge a variety of disease is related to the suffer of internal Psora, but is not a dyscrasia or diathesis (Close, 2005).

Hahnemann claimed that 7 of eight of human disease originated from infection of the Psora miasm, and the rest arose from infection with sycosis and syphilis miasm. It needs to be mentioned, that this state is highly speculative on Hahnemann’s side, as Dimitriadis (2005) lights up Hahnemann could not know that fact, even himself change his opinion on whether Psora was the cause of all or most non venereal diseases.

Much of the initial criticism with the miasm theory came from, the fact that Hahnemann attributed too many chronic disease to just Psora.

The symptoms attributed to Psora in Chronic Diseases (Hahnemann, 1998) are generally assigned to “leprosy” and “Scabies” which were experienced in some form or another by every living person and flourished through centuries without healing or being suppressed, progressing to secondary symptoms. The treatment of this illness were suppressive with lead, arsenic, calomel equivalent to antibiotic and steroidal medicines of today, which never cure the underlying disease (Klein, 2009) In addition D’Souza (2005) states that this treatments never brought any cure to the underlying illness. Instead the effect of those suppressions cause a deep taint on the vital force, compromising and weaken the vital force. Hahnemann (1998) attributed all diseases expressions such as inflammatory responses of internal organs and its further development as due to the suppression and incorrect treatment of symptoms of the primary psora over the centuries.

Hahnemann identified Sulphur as the main remedy for Psora.

Opinions on The Theory of Psora

The reaction in front of the new theory, from his contemporaries was as negative as Hahnemann expected to be (Verspoor, 1999). Wolf, Giessen, Jahr, Trinks, Schron and many more refused and criticized the itch theory. However Stapf, Boenninghausen, Hering, were supporters of the master and followed the new doctrine with enthusiasm. (Bradford, 2004, Haehl, 2003) In 1836 Griesselich summarized the judgment of the contemporary homeopaths on the Psora doctrine in one sentence: “I have enquired from all homeopaths, if they recognized Psora as the original evil, and must confess, that I do not remember ” (Handley, 1990, p.84) Hahnemann remained firm to his strict doctrine after all the comments received and break off friendly relations, he was very furious about it and reject all non-believing. (Haehl, 2003)

The Categorisation of Illness

Table 1.1

PsoraSycosisSyphilis
Mental
Physical





Sycotic Miasm

The Inheritance Factor

Founder wrote that miasms could be transmitted from generation to generation. He makes this discovery much before the science of genetic appears. So when a baby is born, he is got certain dormant illness, which in function of triggers during life can be aroused. The follow direct quotations from Organon 6th edition, constitute evidence that Hahnemann postulated that miasms are inherited. (Klein, 2009, Verspoor, 1999)

§284 Since Psora is usually communicated through the milk of the wet nurse to most nursing infants if they do not already possess Psora by inheritance from the mother, they are then at the same time protected anti-psorically in the indicated manner by means of the medicinal milk of the wet nurse.

But the care of mothers in their first pregnancy is indispensable by means of a gentle anti-psoric treatment, especially by means of the new dynamizations of sulphur described in this edition (§270), in order to extirpate in the mothers and in the fruit of their womb the Psora (engenderess of most of the chronic diseases) already imparted to the mothers through inheritance, and almost always present in them, so that their progeny might be protected against it in advance.

First Publication of The Theory

He first published the ideas in Chronic Disease in 1828, in his 4th edition of Organon and on the new title Chronic Diseases, Their Peculiar Nature and Their Homeopathic Cure, and shortly afterwards he starts to use this theory on his prescribing methods, therefore were the result of the new theory. (Handley, 1997)

The reactions were several, many who followed Hahnemann simply thought that wasn’t enough remedies, but Hahnemann rejected this idea and considered as a mere subterfuge. (Tyler, 2007)

According to Verspoor (1999) Hahnemann didn’t expect his new discovery or himself to be accepted with affection or enthusiasm and much less to be understood, not even by his followers.

Reception and Contradiction

Klein, 2010 – 2009

Interpretations

The Results

It cannot be stressed enough that this must have been an enormous work for Hahnemann at his 73 years old, however the contemporaries and successors have not hesitate to make her critics both positive and adverse on his CD clinical outcome.

A Hahnemann expert, after investigating the patient’s records of the master from 1836-1842, wrote: “It is an open secret that the progress of Hahnemann’s patients was generally not convincing” (Reinhard, 2006)

On this line, Whichmann (2009) states that Hahnemann had had little time after the postulation of his new theory to practice it and so he suggest whether we have to use the first draft of the theory of miasms or we have to keep to developing or even withdraw. Hahnemann was very flexible and self critic as is being pointed already, he was always questioning himself and his results, as matter of fact on his first edition of the Organon Hahnemann presents his law of similar as the most important thing, and twenty years later he change his opinion, expressed on his Organon and chronic disease. (Whichmann, 2009)

Controversially Klein (2009) states that master was recompensed and recognized with more success in the treatment of his patient suffering from long-term diseases.

In spite of the consideration has to be made whether Hahnemann’s case taking was as detailed as is today, to reveal the true chronic state of the person and therefore the most accurate remedy.

Another point to considerer on the results of Samuel Hahnemann is the influence of the other two miasms, syphilis and sycosis. Hahnemann described them from the miasmatic infectious origin given a clear picture, however he doesn’t make the connection between them.

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Free Essays

Personal Development Group Learning Journal Summary

Introduction

The Personal development group I believe is to learn about yourself and be able to discuss with others and share ideas and advice; for me, i guess the assumption of individuality point out really many important concepts, which has made me indentify many issues within myself. I now realise that many experiences, which I had been through in life have been important in shaping my character. The exercises to increase myself awareness have extremely challenged the way I feel, think and respond to others; for example where I may not have given someone a chance previously due to the way they present themselves, I have now learned not to judge based on first impressionsto the extent that for my personal development to grow I needed to gain further insight of myself to understand my responses.

Communication plays an important part in a learning experience. I believe we can communicate through words and body language. Within the group sometimes i felt and sense hostility in a level where, at times when I felt like some comment weren’t appropriate or misunderstood I felt powerless to speak my mind.

Robinson et al (2005) states that “status can cause distress within the team; in the group, members have different skills, experience and opinions, which we were always expected to respect”.

From the start of the PD group, I didn’t feel that my arguments were listened to by some of the group members. I felt like people were inconsiderate and difficult in their responses and feedbacks however, my stubbornness and persistence in the group strengthened me and enabling my involvement in the group to grow considerable in the topic discussed regardless as the weeks went by. Also my listening skills and the use of silence improved because these were the counseling skills areas that I was finding difficult to use.

I have learn to open myself to others and allowed them to give me feedbacks which mean I did put myself sometimes in a vulnerable position.To illustrate this I felt betrayed by a friend in a personal issue during this course. My immediate reaction would have been for that person not to be part of my study life but due to skills I’ve learned from this course such as active listening, reflecting, self challenge of my behaviours and responses this did not happen. This means that because I allowed someone to show me my blind self, my unknown self became smaller. I accepted the person’s criticisms about me but do not feel responsible for that person’s behaviour.

What I have learnt during this course alongside further reading is a more competent understanding of the signals. I now feel more secure in my interpretations and acknowledgment of my body language. I feel these skills that I’ve learned and body language are beneficial to the extent that I can keep myself safe by noticing my own intimacy and interpretating it for what it shows.

Due to my initial difficulties settling into the first personal development group, I used meditation often for relaxation prior to attending the group; a benefiting skill l have acquired during the course of my studies which has helped me in continuing and focusing on this course. My approach to teaching meditation to prisoners was to treatthese men the way l personally would like to be treated regardless of my crime that is, to regard them first as human beings and individual, then as clients which l tried to share with the group. One reasonfor this success is based on my approach to backgrounds.

When communicating within the group I have learnt over the period to rephrase my sentences and asked questions to make better understanding of what have been said. I felt taking turns when giving feedback was beneficial and it had prepared me for my placement practice in improved communication. I have gain better understanding of my experience in my group; I have not only recalled my experience but made decision on what I am going to do to improve my interprofessional skills.

During my time in the group, I have gain better understanding of what group work is about. Through my experience, I feel that I have learned how to relate better to other members and how to respond in a professional manner.

I now feel that the facilitator was attentive and easy to communicate with. She was quite observant of what was happening in the group. I am happier as I believe the group has moved forward and I have learnt so much. As being from African ethnicity fluent in French language rather than English, I have since living the UK, grown in an environment where people are treated differently. The PD group as I saw it was a diverse group; we all come from different backgrounds with different beliefs and values; I have over the years and in the course of my studies experience different types of treatment and discrimination to say the least. I have always been fully aware of people’s individuality and treated it with respect as I know how this feels.

Throughout this course I have challenged my behaviour and responses in professional and personal relationships and I have raised myself awareness and will continue with this learning process. These skills I have gained will be the roots of further learning in any other counselling courses I embark on and also in life as whole.

RESPONSE TO PEER APPRAISAL OF KATHRYN AND LISA

Kathryn mentioned in her peer appraisal that I don’t take feedback; I disagree. I have always been able to take constructive feedback not feedback based on my person but on my contributions in the group regardless of my limitations. I might appear to take my feedback wrongly; this is due to lack of clarification and misunderstanding in communication from me and the group. Everyone in the group had noticed and mentioned changes and improvement in me. It is a pity that there was a personality conflict within the group, but this If I may allow myself to believe, has brought some positive changes within each and every one of us in this group.

References
Robinson M. and Cottrell D. (2005) Health professionals in multi-disciplinary and multi-agency teams: changing professional practice. Journal of Interprofessional Care. Vol 19(6) p547-560

Categories
Free Essays

Green product ‘ in Chinese food companies and Prospects for the development of a marketing strategy.

Introduction

The aim of the research is to increase the awareness of ‘green product ‘ in Chinese food companies and Prospects for the development of a marketing strategy to meet the green challenge.

To consider the concept of green marketing emergence and development
To explore the consumption demand of green product via the green customers psychology and their behaviors.
To emphasizes on the impacts of quality, brand, package, price, place, advertisement and public relation on the green food marketing.
To examine the corporation social responsibility relationships between enterprises and society.
To propose a framework for a marketing strategy

RATIONALE:

In recent years, with the level of awareness of food security concerns, the increase in some areas of China green food industry has begun to take shape.

At present, the green food industry has developed the equivalent of 3-5 times the output value of farming. Foods, both at home and abroad, will have huge potential for development, which is the set of economic, ecological and social benefits in one particular industry, there is great economic development.
With the improvement of living standards and changes in consumer attitudes, as well as environmental pollution and resource destruction of increasingly serious problem is conducive to people’s health, non-polluting, safe, high-quality nutritious foods has become a fashion, more and more people of all ages. Development of green food has a sound basis for strong market consumption. Green Food sales data show that people around the world trust in conventional food supply declined, while the rate of increase demand for organic foods has been growing faster than supply. Japan has 91.6% of consumers interested in organic vegetables, 77% of Americans and 40% of Europeans favorite foods.
In China domestic market, organic foods has also been widely welcomed, green food to meet the needs of people living in transition. ? The relevant departments of the two cities, Beijing Shanghai survey showed that 79% -84% of consumers prefer to spend high prices, but also willing to buy green. According to authoritative institutions predict that the national green food will be consumer demand and profits are growing at a rate of 20% per year.
In addition, labor-intensive production of green food, a variety of operating characteristics such as the production of green food in developed countries are subject to certain restrictions, some countries in the aggregate have a serious shortage, at present in Germany, the UK organic foods rely heavily on imports, and import volume of domestic consumption has accounted for 98% and 80%.

Green food industry at home and abroad the strong development momentum and the strong demand for the development of China’s green food industry provides a good external environment.

But experts believe that China’s green food industry is faced with environmental pollution and resource destruction brought about accelerated reduction in the level of quality standards.

The need for the development of green food industry

Green is clean, safe, high-quality nutritious food, green food production and consumption into the protection of the environment, respect for nature to promote the concept of sustainable development of human society. Start green consumer market, the formation of green food production and consumption trends is essential.

First of all, the development of green food is the globalization of China’s integration into the world economy, the inevitable choice. China’s accession to the WTO, as a large agricultural country, should bring agriculture and green food processing industry as the country’s pillar industries. Fo green food industry is not only economic benefits were considerable, but in line with China’s national conditions, construction of green food base, development of special economic – ecological agriculture and green food processing industry, will surely have a difficult to measure social and economic benefits. After accession to the WTO, China should become the world’s foods (mainly organic food), and a major supplier of natural medicines.

Second, the development of green food industry is agriculture, the extensive mode of operation from the traditional to the modern green management style, develop modern agriculture needs. In the current context of China’s resource constraints, but also to change a single large-scale investment of natural resources characterized by low efficiency of resource elements combination, change the grain as the key link, heavy agriculture and light industry agricultural economic growth, changes to a single purely rely on experience in operations, self-sufficient small farmers in semi-subsistence mode of production to achieve the natural economy from extensive agriculture to the commodity economy and the market economy into a modern ecological agriculture and promote the industrialization of green food and internationalization.

Third, the development of green food industry is from the traditional planting and breeding industry to an integrated business segment of society’s changing needs. Should be in legislation, policies and quality standards of green food products with international standards step by step so do a good job to join the WTO and to meet international competition. To face both domestic and overseas markets and make full use of two kinds of resources, the implementation of modern enterprise management and enhance scientific and technological content and enhance the agricultural and food processing industry’s competitiveness.Through different levels and in different forms of vertical and horizontal joint, the formation of trans-regional, cross-sectoral, cross-ownership of modern agriculture and integrated management of enterprises and groups, integrated management of agriculture into the overall pattern of agricultural modernization among.

Fourth, the development of green food industry is scattered from the traditional to the modern management of Agricultural Integration of industrial operation’s changing needs. Through the industrial management of agriculture, you can optimize the combination of production factors into full play the role of science and technology elements to enhance the quality of agricultural products and grades, and achieve multi-level value-added; income of the farmers was greatly improved. ???????????? Through industrialization, the land can be appropriate scales to promote and encourage the farmers embark on a new United Way, and gradually form matched with the needs of the pillar industries, with specialization and regionalization of production of the regional economic structure suited to enhance competition in domestic and foreign markets force and expand market share.

Green food industry faces ecological threat

Although my country has developed green food industry, natural resource advantages, but in recent years, China’s industrialization, the agricultural ecological environment has deteriorated trend, direct threat to the green food industry.

In recent years, due to agro-ecological environmental degradation caused by agricultural pollution is very serious, industrial “three wastes” and the large number of urban domestic sewage to the rivers, lakes emissions. Part of carrying mercury, lead, arsenic, chromium and other harmful toxic substances in industrial waste water through irrigation water to the farmland, coupled with the irrational use of chemical fertilizers (mainly the excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers), pesticides and the loss of human and animal feces, etc., agricultural pollution is increasing, thus lead to surface water and groundwater quality pollution. More than half of China’s lakes are at different levels of eutrophication status, the Yangtze River and other rivers in the nitrogen content is also showing a rising trend and become a frequent occurrence of red tide offshore of the important reasons.

Former vice minister of Ministry of Agriculture, relative to re-Yang believes that to protect the ecological environment, first of all to speed up the development of national agro-ecological environment protection policies and regulations, as soon as possible the establishment of agricultural and agro-ecological environment monitoring system and the development of relevant standards, regular monitoring and reporting of agricultural by-products and its production environment has been polluted, so as to ensure that agricultural products do not harm people’s health. Actively promote the Festival of nitrogen fertilizer application techniques, adjusting fertilizer structure, and the implementation of balanced fertilizer formula, vigorously develop high-performance multi-fertilizer, promotion of special fertilizer, and actively promote organic manure fertilizer matching system.To strengthen agricultural protection advocacy training to improve management and technical personnel at all levels of agriculture and the peasant masses of agricultural environmental protection consciousness.

Green food industry is a systemic project, the parties must in all aspects to ensure product quality. The establishment of green food base for the industrialization of green food is conducive to speed up the pace of development is conducive to really make the green out of an Agricultural Integration, Chan Jiaxiao stop the industrialization path. At present, common organic fertilizer production methods still in the original state, either can not meet the quality and quantity of green food production.

China Green Food Standards urgently with international standards

As China Green Food standards and international standards are not unified, China’s green food export restrictions importance of working with international practice.

Heilongjiang Academy of Social Sciences researcher Songkui that foods with international standards, first of all to speed up green standards, certification criteria, such as trade rules with international practice. AAAA grade green food is the integration with the international organic food products, its export potential. China’s accession to WTO, has a comparative advantage in agricultural products face a large number of export opportunities. We should speed up the standards of construction, speed up the standards, certification procedures and related rules and regulations with international standards, in order to further explore the international market conditions. In particular, to master its international standards, and management requirements in respect of its changes, the more accurate market forecasts based on the formulation of scientific marketing strategies in order to quickly enter the international markets and expanding market share.

At present, the serious problems faced by the certification body is the certification standards and systems into line with EC standards are not role models, and its certification does not endorse the European Community, recognition is not high. Many customers have specifically requested by the European Community recognized national accreditation body. EC in recent years, some well-known Certification Authority have been carried out in China, the organic product certification work, and significantly increasing customer demand. Chinese certification body in the certification criteria, certification procedures and certification system still needs to be improved, and to the strict accreditation checks.

According to the EC requirements and the status of certification bodies in China, we recommend our organic product standards relevant departments to speed up the changes and development work, and actively with the international standards, as soon as possible a unified organic product regulations, in accordance with international standards to establish a reliable and reputable certification system, and through various channels to expand our certified organic product certification bodies and their well-known abroad for Chinese manufacturers to provide effective access to international markets passes. In addition, in the face of foreign certification bodies for organic products certified in China’s competitive pressure should increase the sense of crisis, turn pressure into motivation, as soon as possible from the organic product certification in China are not European Economic Community, the United States and Japan, accepted the situation, so that China organic products certified bodies to become the world’s major markets for organic products to consumers, importers, wholesalers and exporters in China jointly recognized quality certificate

Speed up the construction of green food base

Foods to form the pattern of big market, the key to have the leading products and mass production as a guarantee. Experts believe that although our country has a lot of green food base, but the most decentralized management, fragmentation is quite prominent, it is difficult to form scale advantages. In many places, though already have developed a number of green food, but delays do not form a superiority reason is mainly a single product structure, production and decentralized operation, economies of scale is poor, production, supply and poor convergence. Most have not formed at home and abroad utter the least sound-quality products. Therefore, while paying attention to industrial restructuring, with emphasis to large-scale, grouping the direction of taking mergers, horizontal joint-stock forms of cooperation, and vigorously to form a group of large-scale green food production bases and Enterprise Group in order to really play a leading enterprise-led scale production push-pull effect of market circulation in order to continuously enhance our foods at home and abroad market competitiveness.

As green food base for the creation, construction, development and growth must be strong leading enterprises to drive. Actively cultivate high-tech, large-scale, market competitive foods processing enterprises, the formation of the Commonwealth Agricultural Integration of green food development to achieve superiority in agriculture industrialization. ?? Our country become the world’s major supplier of organic foods.

In the domestic large and medium cities should be set up through the window, and opened green channel and other measures to continuously improve the market share; in foreign countries to open up shipping routes through the establishment of overseas offices, start-up window, such as direct sales channels, enhance the radiation power of green food market. On this basis, we should adopt recommendation, training, selection and other means to continuously develop and expand the ranks of brokers to establish a domestic and international market to ride the “flow of force”, making organic foods are sold at home and abroad force.

THEORETICAL UNDERPINNING

The subject which relate with my topic will focus on the author ken peattie’s book, the reason is that he was the first person who discovered the green marketing principle and increasing our knowledge on the concept of environment, not only for the society, but also for all types of organizations. The section for this area is only the primly source understanding,

There are four sectors need to be considering in the following order(just a brief description of them):

The green marketing defined

Ken peattie(1992) point out, ‘Green marketing is a style of marketing which has arisen response to the increasing concern about the state of the global environment and the life it contains (including human life).

1. The green product

Ken peattie(1995)said that green product is one of the newest product classifications to arise, but is also one of the most difficult to apply because the green product refers to the production of a specific mode of production, and the relevant specialized agencies by the state found, allowing the use of green food logo pollution, pollution-free, safe, high quality, nutritional food.

3. The green customers and their behaviors

Kotler (1994) defines a product as ‘anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need’.

The green product is the way to meet the green customers.

According to Ken peattie(1992),’The ‘green consumer’ is the driving force behind the green marketing process. It is consumer demand which is encouraging improvements in the environmental performance of many products and the companies that produce them. For marketers, it is important to understand what it means to be a green consumer and perhaps also what it takes to be a green marketer and also said that ‘Marketers are interested in the buying behavior of the customers within the company’s target markets’.

Corporate Social Responsibility

In recent years, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a strategic, customer buying behavior, brand, profitability and other key elements of business practice associated with the business. Theory and practice abroad show that corporate social responsibility, not only help to improve the welfare of society as a whole, the improvement of the competitiveness of enterprises also have an irreplaceable role. And because marketing practice, customer satisfaction on long-term corporate profits and shareholder value with far-reaching impact of strategic importance, therefore, to make Chinese companies more proactive social responsibility, in addition to helping companies understand the role of corporate social responsibility and the significance of corporate social responsibility and explore the relationship between the impact of customer satisfaction is definitely a good starting point: the ability to guide enterprises to take the initiative to put its own interests and the interests of the community together, through appropriate corporate social responsibility to act to improve overall competitiveness.

1.on the social responsibility associated with customer satisfaction

Fortune 500 companies have up to 90% already have a clear measure of corporate social responsibility initiatives (Kotler and Lee, 2004). Business Magazine (Business Week) 2005 special report year, a huge amount of large corporate disclosure related to corporate social responsibility investment, Target Corporation has invested nearly 100 million U.S. dollars, accounting for 3.6% of pre-tax profits, General Motors has invested 51.2 million U.S. dollars , representing the pre-tax profit of 2.7%, General Mills’s invested 60.3 million U.S. dollars, accounting for 3.2% of pre-tax profits, Merck has invested 920 million U.S. dollars, accounting for a pre-tax profit of 11.3%, Hospital Corporation of America has invested 9.2 100 million U.S. dollars, accounting for 43.3% of pretax profits.

Clearly, the rise of corporate social responsibility is socio-economic development to a certain stage. In developed countries, this concern of corporate social responsibility and oversight is increasing. Meanwhile, in the marketing literature, customer satisfaction because of the long-term profits and market value has a profound effect (Gruca and Rego 2005), there are also positive on shareholder value impact (Anderson, Fornell and Mazvancheryl 2004) and has important strategic significance, therefore, to explore corporate social responsibility impact on customer satisfaction has important theoretical and practical significance.

Some foreign scholars, the enterprise has undertaken various social responsibility, not only help to improve the welfare of society as a whole, beneficial to the enterprise itself. Bhattacharya, Smith, and Vogel(2004) proposed corporate social responsibility and should be integrated marketing strategy, corporate social responsibility to corporate brand equity, customer equity, market share, positive impact on corporate image.Chahal and Sharma (2006) established a corporate social responsibility analysis of the impact marketing performance framework, and that corporate social responsibility of enterprises is an effective marketing tool. Sen and Bhattacharya (2001) indicated that although the existing empirical studies of methods, approaches, there are still some flaws, but that the corporate social responsibility on corporate financial performance has a weak positive effect. Willmott and Mitchell (2001) research shows that consumers prefer more responsible products and services. These scholars are directly or indirectly, that the performance of corporate social responsibility good or bad indeed has an impact on customers. Therefore, this study suggests that further study of corporate social responsibility, the impact on customer satisfaction, can help us better understand the role of corporate social responsibility and the concept of customer satisfaction orientation.

Some of the existing research support, directly or indirectly, corporate social responsibility and the link between customer satisfactions:

Daub and Ergenzinger (2005) proposed the “general customer” concept. “Most customers” is not only concerned about the consumer experience of the consumer, but also the actual or potential stakeholder groups, one. From this point of view, “the general customer” will show good corporate social responsibility to provide more satisfactory products and services.

Good corporate social performances of companies, more beneficial to create a positive public opinion, enhance the consumer’s evaluation of the enterprise to improve the attitude of the consumer business (Brown1998 and Dacin 1997; Gurhan Canli and Batra 2004; Sen and Bhattacharya 2001). Especially in recent years, some studies (Bhattacharya and Sen 2003, 2004) proposed construction of corporate social responsibility is a key element of corporate identity, to attract customers more comfortable with a company, which is to produce a close relationship. In fact, Lichtenstein, Drumwright and Bridgette (2004) made a good corporate social performance of enterprises improved customer identification, to make it more support for the company, thus creating benefits for the company. Is not difficult to infer, full identification of the customer’s products and services more satisfied. (Bhattacharya, Rao and Glynn 1995; Bhattacharya and Sen 2003)

Luo & Bhattacharya (2006) believe that corporate social responsibility customer satisfaction by influencing the antecedent and thus affect the customer satisfaction. For example, empirical studies have shown that perceived value is an important antecedent to enhance customer satisfaction (Fornell et al. 1996; Mithas, Krishnan, and Fornell 2005b). Luo and Bhattacharya (2006)point out that in the other conditions being equal, a good corporate social performance of companies, customers can get a higher perceived value, thus enhancing their satisfaction with products or services, good social performance as product or service into a “value added.” Brammer and Pavelin (2004) findings suggest that, overall, corporate social responsibility and corporate reputation has a significant relationship. The corporate image as the concept of corporate reputation of the approximation (Dowling, 1993), the European model of customer satisfaction (ECSI), Chinese Customer Satisfaction Model (CCSI), there are certain degree of expression.

METHODOLOGY

Research strategy

Case Study:
Case study research is a method designed to study the particular within context and has a very specific purpose. […] The purpose of a case study is to provide a holistic account of the case and in-depth knowledge of the specific through rich descriptions situated in context. This may lead to an understanding of a particular phenomenon but it is understanding the case that should be paramount by PICARD, A.J (2007)
This paper will using the Tainted Sanlu Baby Milk Powder Incident identify the problems/issues in this case that are relevant to marketing.Analyze the case and apply concepts and theories of marketing to discuss the problems/issues Will be identified.

Marketing Problems:

For example: Celebrity Endorsement

1. Balance theory:

the scandal of the brand a consumer’ negative attitude toward the brand a consumer’s negative attitude toward the celebrity.

2. Social responsibility of the company;

The effectiveness of public relations in a crisis;

Product recall

B2B Problems: Supply Chain Management; Total Quality Management; Outsourcing; Purchasing…

The link including the milk powder production, cow raising, raw milk collection and dairy processing

Outsourcing to dairy farmers and milk dealers – they added melamine to the milk so that the diluted milk could still meet standards

B2B Problems: Supply Chain Management; Total Quality Management; Outsourcing; Purchasing

The link including the milk powder production, cow raising, raw milk collection and dairy processing:Purchasing, Quality control.

Dairy farmers a Milk dealers a Diary Producer (Sanlu) a Supermarket a Consumers:Cow raisingRaw,milk collectionDelivery, storage

B2B Problems: Supply Chain Management; Total Quality Management; Outsourcing ; Purchasing

There are two choose will be use(alternative):

1.investigate the problems from Sanlu (one company) perspective;

2.investigate the whole diary industry (Sanlu, Mengniu, Yili, Nestle; local brands & international brands);

Collect information from various sources; talk with diary distributors, diary producers, milk dealers, even consumers…

Research Method-Quantitative

Questionnaires/Survey

A questionnaire will be completed through http://www.monkeysurvey.com/

This project analyzes the impact of this behavior to identify the determining factor through research on the green purchase intention of consumers to. To this end, I designed a brief questionnaire, from different perspectives influence consumer purchasing decisions on a variety of psychological and social factors that raise questions.

This study will include 16 different area of Chinese food industry category

(See appendix for a complete list of green products to be pre-tested for inclusion in the final survey instrument!).

There will be two scales assessing the benefit emphasis of each item in the pretest.

One scale will assess “benefit to individual” and would range from “very little” to

“Very much” using a 5-point scale. The other scale will assess “benefit to society” in the same manner. The “gray” items will then be excluded, i.e., those which fall in the middle of the spectrum and are considered by some to benefit primarily the individual, by others primarily society.

The purpose for this survey is to identifies the Influence of consumer decision to purchase organic foods on the determinants of access to a more comprehensive and in-depth understanding of sustainable consumption and thus contribute to the further development.

Reference and Bibliography:

1.Anderson, Eugene W., Claes Fornell, and Sanal Mazvancheryl (2004),“Customer Satisfaction and Shareholder Value,” Journal of Marketing,68:4 (October), 172-185.

2. Bhattacharya, C., Rao, H. & Glynn, M.A. 1995. Understanding the bond of identification: An investigation of its correlates among art museum members. Journal of Marketing, 59: 46-57

3.Bhattacharya, C.B., and Sen, S. (2003). Consumer-Company Identification: A Framework for Understanding Consumers’ Relationships with Companies. Journal of Marketing 67(2): 76–88.

4.Bhattacharya, C.B., Smith, N. C., and Vogel, D. (2004). Integrating Social Responsibility and Marketing Strategy: An Introduction. California Management Review 47(1): 6–8.

5.Brammer, S & Pavelin, S 2004, ‘Voluntary social disclosures by large UK companies’, Business Ethics: A European Review, vol. 13, no. 2/3, pp. 86-99.

6.Brown, Tom J. (1998), “Corporate Associations in Marketing:Antecedents and Consequences,” Corporate Reputation Review, 1 (3), 215–33.

7.Chahal , H. and Sharma, R.D 2006, ‘Implications of Corporate Social Responsibility on Marketing Performance: A Conceptual Framework’, Journal of Services Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 205-216.

8.Daub, C.-H., & Ergenzinger, R. (2005). Enabling Sustainable Management through a New Multi-Disciplinary Concept of Customer Satisfaction. European Journal of Marketing, 39(9/10), 998-1012.

9.Dowling, G.(1993).Developing your company image into a corporate’, Long Range Planning vol:101 no.9

10.Fornell, C., M. D., E. W. Johnson, J. Anderson, J. Cha, and B. E. Bryant (1996), “The American Customer Satisfaction Index: Nature, Purpose, and Findings,” Journal of Marketing, 60, 7-18.

11.Fornell, C., Mithas, S., Morgeson, F. and Krishnan, M. S. (2006). Customer satisfaction and stock prices: High returns, low risk. J. Marketing 70(1) 3–14.

12.Luo, X., and Bhattacharya, C.B. (2006). Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Satisfaction and Market Value. Journal of Marketing 70(4): 1–18 (lead article).

13.Gurhan -Canli Z.Batra R(2004),” When corporate image affects product evaluations:the moderating role of perceived risk

14.Gruca, T.S., and L.L. Rego (2005) Customer Satisfaction, Cash Flow, and Shareholder Value. Journal of Marketing, Volume 69, July: 115-130

15.Kotler,P(1994)Marketing Management:Analysis,Planning,Implementation and Control(7th edn),Prentice Hall.

16.Kotler, P. & Lee, N., 2004.When it comes to gaining a market edge while supporting a social cause, ‘corporate social marketing’ leads the pack’. Stanford Social Innovation Review,

[Online]. Spring, Available t: http://www.ssireview.org/site/printer/best_of_breed/ [accessed4 August 2008]

17.Mitchell, A., Sikka, P., Willmott, H. (2001), “Policing knowledge by invoking the law: critical accounting and the politics of dissemination”, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, Vol. 12 No.5, pp.527-55.

18.Peter A. Dacin (1997), “The Company and the Product:Corporate Associations and Consumer Product Responses,” Journal of Marketing, 61 (January), 68–84.

19.PICARD, A.J (2007) Research methods in information. pp. 85.

20.Peattie, K(1992). Green Marketing. London: Pitman Publishing

21.Peattie,K(1995). Environmental Marketing Management. Pitman Publishing, London.

22.Sen, Sankar and C. B. Bhattacharya (2001), “Does Doing Good Always Lead to Doing BetterConsumer Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility,” Journal of Marketing Research, 38(2), 225-244

Appendix:

Green Products to be pre-tested for possible inclusion in survey:

1. Beverages

2. Dairy

3. Alcohol

4. Baked goods

5. Cigarettes

6. Convenience food

7. Meat, poultry and eggs

8. Canned Food

9. Tea

10. Oil

11. Condiment (seasoning)

12. Snacks

13. Health-care food

14. Sea food

15. Fruit and vegetable

16. Grain processing

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Free Essays

A management report addressing the impact of the restrictions and limitations of Iran Press Law upon press and online services of the country; focusing on the Articles of the Press Law and recommendations based on the most up-to-date media development and global standards of liberty of expression

Introduction

From what worldwide perceptions assume, media content and media operations could considerably impact countries vital aspects such as economy, culture, and political matters and importantly people’s opinions. Such as most of the media organisations around the world, Iran’s media and press organisations are regulated by law, but reverse the most of them, these regulations occurred through a specific Islamic Law, which managed by the government. The rules and regulations are strong power in the hand of the country authorities to influence and to shape decision-making process and outcomes in the country.

This matter shows that the Press Law of Iran1 – hereinafter (the Press Law) is one of the most considerable aspects across the country to be debate, argued and reconsidered in order to coordinate it with the Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Freedom of Opinion and Expression, which Iran also has agreed with it the National Union. Just in parenthesis, it has been shown that, Freedom of Expression, which has been known as a universal right and has been ratified for all people of the world, is not an absolute fact in the most countries including Iran. Consequently, it has been considered that both global law and Iran’s law Constitutions recognise that the freedom of expression may be limited although any restriction must stay in strictly defined parameters.

The rules and regulations of Iran Press Law, which has been ratified on March 19, 1986 and its executive by-law January 31, 19871, are evidently used as some strong social tools to prevent the private media organisations to involve the social or political issues in the country. The intended conditions and punishments exist in the Press Law has reversed the impression on the press owners, journalists, reporters and bloggers and stopped them of being involved in any social issue. Indeed, it has dramatically impacted these groups to stop disclosing or criticising religious, judicial or political leaders or authorities.

In this essay some of the particular layers and levels of the Articles of the Press Law such as Limitations and Authorisations1 will be discussed briefly. It will reveal that it is quite complicated to split up the Fundamental Regulations from the main body of the Press Law; the religious – political rules that are impacting not only the main body of the Press Law but also the abstracted content of the Article 19; Freedom of Expression. Also, it will identify that some dissonant parts of the Articles of the Press Law; Chapter 4, Articles 6 & 7 1 that are including several explanations, may suites the mentioned exact statements above. The Articles of the Regulation will be quantified variable from different angles and point of views, such as the media industry players’ perspective and / or from the country rulers and politicians’ point of view.

Eventually, it will discuss that the Press Law fails to amend key provisions in the original Law, which are at odds with international standards. For instance, according to the Press Law the government; the Ministry of Islamic Culture and Guidance and the Press Supervisory Board, controls the Press Council but press and media has not efficient right to criticise the government authorities. More over, There will be some suggestions and recommendations on some of the existing fundamental rules of the Press Law with a sight to convey these laws into a way with the most up-to-date media development and global standards of Liberty of Expression; some international standards on freedom of press law regarding media regulation such as what is running in the UK and then suggesting them to Iran Press Law authorities for a slight reform.

Media and Press Law Background in Iran

Many People believe that writing about the Press Law of Iran (media Law in general) and its link with the freedom of expression is considerably a complex matter. It is somehow true. WhyBecause it is mainly, a closed limited restricted context. The digital media and broadcasting firms are in the monopoly of the government and far less susceptible to change. Television and radio are totally administrated and direct by the government and no one allowed establishing a private broadcasting company, television channel or radio station. It is difficult to access to the foreign sources of news from inside the country and people get their foreign news form satellite TV channels; in an illegal state, which banned by the government; satellite TV channels are shown in Iran since 1995. Previously, Iranians used to listen to the foreign news via radio, SW1 and SW2 views. There is a highly restriction to prevent people bring any foreign publications into the country. Reading, watching and listening to the foreign media contents are banned and illegal.

The Press Law is very restricted and the role of the media is limited within the society. Not every context can be published because of the high level of penalty and punishment such as custody, whipping, and banning of media outlets, which are typical sanctions for all type of crimes including press crimes. In fact, lack of objective criteria and clear definitions in the Press Law caused to applying individual action in the most of legal punishments by the governmental characters. There is an inappropriate use of the Revolutionary Court and the issuing of written orders by the Executive about what material can be discussed in the media in general. ”Iran: State Media Control Extends To Provinces, Airwaves”3.

On the other hand, it is not possible to publish an article that than immediately the situation does not change and leaving the writer in the undesirable state of being irrelevant. When printing article published on the topic years ago, footnotes should be added to describe the atmosphere of the past time being discussed. This unstable state of affairs is caused by a lack of democratic press law in Iran.

As this assignment is being written, the social situation in the country is transforming. Some believes it towards more restrictions status and some says it is going to be better and obtain more freedom. The Press Law of Iran specifies that government official who obstructs the freedom of the press in publishing articles beneficial to the public good would be liable to litigation. In this way, the issue is how to define, and who defines, public good.

In fact, Iran historically, has broken down on the press because of high speed and hard laws and decrees. “The media is accountable to Islamic Law and heavily censored by the ruling religious clerics. Conservative Iranians believe that Islam should be the rule of law in all of Iran: men and women cannot associate in public; the press cannot criticise government leaders who are also religious leaders; and other religious tenants must be upheld in social, cultural, and political arenas. Theoretically Iran offers constitutional protection for the press, but the lengthy Press Law outlining the purpose, licensing, and duties of the press shows the true limits placed on journalists. The Press Law details a long list of DON’Ts for journalists, preventing free publishing under threat of punishment, which is also detailed in the Law.”2

Nevertheless, there are several papers publishing in Iran every day. Currently, around 3.5%2 of Iranian has access to the Internet and online media, which are mostly the fastest and the most reliable services to connects, to the world and receive information and news (in case of availability and do not be block by the authorities). All the broadcast services are state, which are the most popular source of news in the country.

There are some considerable number of news agencies in Iran, such as The Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA), Iran Labour News Agency (ILNA), Iranian Student’s News Agency (ISNA), Pars and Mehr, which mostly are independent but impacted buy the self-censorship or limitation of the legislations that is the largest concern in the media in the country. Many of international news agencies and media companies’ representative have been ban, without connected telecommunication, jailed and / or terminated during their regular job in Iran by the government authorities due to the fact that exactly is religious statements. “Over the past three years, Iran’s conservative judiciary has banned about 80 newspapers and magazines”. 12

It is believed that few journalists can see enough logic to take the Press Law of Iran genuinely. On the other hand, preoccupation with the law could linger and attempts to changed or amend it may repeat.

Issue Analysis

Politician’s interferences: Formerly, it has been mentioned that the government manages Iran’s media and press organisations, which are regulated by a specific Islamic Law. Due to this operation the government has an incredible control on all media segments. “Many pro-reform publications have been closed and reformist writers and editors jailed. The conservative judiciary has also campaigned against the liberal media. (BBC)” 9 This is absolutely a complex statement in Iran because media is an interesting object to control the society and remained as an authority in the country. For instance, there are numbers of reports that uploaded and broadcasted form Iran official press for Iranian and the world that has criticised the other governments’ policies negligent, while there are numerous issues in the country itself to be judged and criticised. ”The authorities in Iran are reportedly making new plans to disrupt broadcasts from abroad after earlier efforts failed to stem the tide sufficiently” (BBC) 10. Considerably, regulation of the media in Iran presents imparts particular issues known as Politician’s interferences that gradually caused to censorship and limitation for the Media organisations. “Government jamming of ‘phone systems and the web encouraged rumours to grow and left many Iranians feeling uncertain” (BBC). 8 Although officially, the Press Law contains express provisions forbidden censorship, executing the Right of Freedom of Expression in the country needs that the politicians refrain from interferences.

Plenty of obligations / illegal or impossible: One of the other issues through the Press Law is that the government keeps the media highly under controlled by either employing loyal / apathetic staffs or making the work of independent and oppositions journalists and publications illegal or impossible. “ILNA reports that Mohammad Ali Ramin, head of the Press Supervisory Board announced today that Bahar newspaper has been banned for “publishing items contrary to reality” and “creating doubt regarding major issues such as the elections. “He also added: “questioning principles of the Islamic Republic” and “slandering countries official bodies and organizations” amongst the other reasons for the closure of Bahar“ (Payvand.com). 11 Chapter 4 of the Press Law places plenty of obligations on the press and online medias to limit the press or online services on reporting current affairs or news: “Limits of the Press: Article 6: The print media are permitted to publish news items except in cases when they violate … codes and public rights as outlined in this chapter, Note 6: Disclosing and publishing classified documents, orders and issues or disclosing the secrets of …private proceedings of courts of justice and investigations conducted by judicial authorities without legal permit“4This means neither state nor private press and media are not allowed to discuss and / or open any case or report against judicial authorities to consider their activities. This is including political and religious authorities as well.

The State and private media: Regarding this issue as the discussion has been open in the previous paragraph it has been highly debated that there should be an article into the Law to give the right to the State Press and / or private media to enable them to consider the judicial, political or even religious authorities crimes, which all are highly restricted by the Law now. “Iran has tightened controls on the internet, ordering thousands of political and pornographic websites to be blocked…State domination of Iran’s media has been undermined in recent years as Iranians increasingly turn to the internet and satellite TV channels run by Iranians abroad.” (BBC News) 12 How ever giving the right to the private or the States media itself will be another issue in the country within the media decision makers that in what condition they are allowed to use this power and how can they inter to the details of a case. ”Iranian bloggers have reacted with anger and scorn to a new law requiring them to register their websites and blogsites with the authorities. It is being seen as the latest attempt by the Iranian government to control the media.” (BBC NEWS) 13 “Note 6: Disclosing and publishing classified documents, orders and issues, or, disclosing the secrets of …private proceedings of courts of justice and investigations conducted by judicial authorities without legal permit“4

Censorship: “The authorities exercise technical controls (filtering, limiting bandwidth) and implement legal and regulatory curbs. Censorship extends to political and human rights sites. Blocked sites include Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, Flickr and YouTube. Bloggers and online activists have been arrested.” (BBC NEWS) 14Due to a mass pressure put on the media and a long-term censorship, restrictions and limitations, it is now a big step to ensure the people of the country that the right of media, including Freedom of Expression is highly respected in the country and the people’s right would be implement. It should be pointed that the media are involving a self- censorship, which it might be a consequence of a long term and duration of violence and punishment to the media peoples such as journalists, editors, writers and reporters by the government in the country…Iranian authorities have arrested about 20 online journalists during the current crackdown.” Iranian authorities have recently clamped down on the growing popularity of weblogs, restricting access to major blogging sites from within Iran” (BBC NEWS). 15 Following these considerations it is now a new issue that how to suggest to a semi religious semi military government to apply some articles including freedom contents to the main Law.

Impact of the Articles

Impact on the Public Opinion: The Articles has a negative impact on the media sectors as well as an indirect impact on the public opinion. It has a significant impression on the authorities attitude as well, which makes them to feel and show up immaculate and extraordinary person. Keeping people apart from the facts, which is running underneath of the current affairs caused a large influence on public beliefs that leads them to absorb their original media contents form international broadcasting and press agency rather than local media. When public needs to be involved with the most crucial facts of the country they usually are not covered at all.

Media Independence: In order to promote multiculturalism (Iran has an ethnically diverse population) and supports the right of freedom of expression, even in a total religious multi ethnical country such as Iran, it is essential that the media be permitted to operate independently from government, which is not. Media became a tool in the politicians’ hand for stabling their statues and positions in the country. As they have legally the right: ”Article 29: The Ministry of Islamic Culture and Guidance must avail of competent and qualified centers for examination of specialised publications.4” Deprivation of being permitted to operate independently suspected people that the media’s responsibility, which is to serve them and to protect their right is not operating. In this case public generally feels that they have not sufficient access to the right ideas and opinions therefore are not able to share their interest and decide with others for instance whether to say YES or NO to any assumption referendum or policy in the country. Especially, when a public matter such as making relationship or business with the other countries or more importantly an international issue such as energy consuming is debating.” Iran Press Law, Chapter 4, Articles 6, 6.Disclosing and publishing classified documents, orders and issues, or, disclosing the secrets of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic, military maps and fortifications, publishing closed-door deliberations of the Islamic Consultative Assembly or private proceedings of courts of justice and investigations conducted by judicial authorities without legal permit; Iran Press Law, Chapter 4, Articles 6, 7. Insulting Islam and its sanctities, or, offending the Leader of the Revolution and recognized religious authorities (senior Islamic jurisprudents);”6

Key Element: Independence and freedom roles as a key element, which can magnificently impacts the media managers’ perspective. When deprivation of freedom of expression happened it does not allow the media managers to implement their main duty in the society. For disclosing the private proceeding of the courts of justice and investigations conducted by judicial authorities without legal permit, they need authority and freedom otherwise they lose their sense of loyalty to the society and convert to some mechanical programmed machine that their main duty is to distribute some classified tabloid news for promoting an specific idea or individual, such as what exactly happening in the country. Deprivation of freedom for Media Managers, Journalists, Correspondents, Editors, and the other professionals in the media industry is such as cutting the verse of caring blood to the brain of a body. As the main duty of media is keeping the society informed of what is happening in the reality then it supposed to be executing in an international accepted procedure.

Strategic Implications and Recommendations

Implications of the self-regulation: The suggestion in general is an global supported proposal, which has been stated by several high commissions of deferent developed and developing countries such as the USA, the UK, Denmark and South Africa for the print and media. They all believe that self-regulation such as what is running in the BBC is one of the best structure for promoting well standards of consideration aspects in the media industry and could be a helpful implacable format for Iran media as well. ”President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has made known his opposition to the use of “banal and Western” music and the need to promote Islamic values.” (BBC NEWS) 16

Public Authority: The other option, which may work for Iran as well, is the Public Media Authority. If self-regulation because of any foundation or problem does not work for the country a public authority may work perfectly for the country media law; the Press Law. It should be considered that changing a general idea or core culture of a society may not happening during a night or even an era so implying any new method needs basic social willingness and awareness about what is going to happened in the country. In fact, living in democracy needs practicing then applying the general concept of the idea. Having the freedom of expression and implicating authority in public media makes great evolution. This type of media rules enables the media executives in a public sector to act such as eye and ear for the people of the country and feeling always responsible about the impression steps or actions in the country. “Noting that the technical and economic developments, which lead to the expansion and the further complexity of the sector, will have an impact on the role of these authorities and may create a need for greater adaptability of regulation, over and above self-regulatory measures adopted by broadcasters themselves; -Recognising that according to their legal systems and democratic and cultural traditions, member states have established regulatory authorities in different ways, and that consequently there is diversity with regard to the means by which – and the extent to which – independence, effective powers and transparency are achieved; (Council of Europe)”5

Protection Against Interference: In case of implementing any case of the two above mentioned methods as a general content for the Press and Media Law in the country, it is essential that these public authorities to be protected. They are active as formal regulatory powers over the country media and need to be protected against interference; especially they should be protected of political or economical type problem and issues. “The European Court concluded that there had been an interference with the applicant company’s freedom to impart information and ideas and that this interference had not met the requirement of lawfulness under the European Convention. The Court noted in particular that a procedure, which did not require a licensing body to justify its decisions, did not provide adequate protection against arbitrary interference by a public authority with the fundamental right to freedom of expression. (Council of Europe) ” 15

Freedom for State Media / Protecting social profit: It is highly suggested – especially for the broadcasting sectors and online, which at the moment are totally state media – to format either rules and regulation based on the Article 19; Freedom of Expression, of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which are implying in the plenty of developed or developing countries such as the UK (the BBC), or the USA (the CNN), Denmark, South Africa or France or format a specific authority for the State Media in general. An independent media regulatory structure enables the States Authorities to inter to the cases containing social benefits in other to protect the social right. It should be mentioned that people and authorities in such a system should be protected by the impact of the criminal characters.

Self – regulatory professional bodies: It is recommended that the Press Supervisory Board and the Ministry of Islamic Culture and Guidance be replaced by an independent self – regulatory professional bodies free of State controls and in which membership is voluntary from a high level of academicals performance experience with educational achievements in law or journalism field. “Article 10: The Press Supervisory Board shall consist of devoted Muslims who possess the required scientific and moral competence and are committed to the Islamic Revolution as follows:”6 In particular the role of the Press Supervisory Board for the press legal affairs and examining application for press licenses and competency in relationship with media firms in Iran should be abolished. “Article 11: The Press Supervisory Board is responsible for examining applications for press licenses and the competency of the applicant and the managing dirctor.”6

Removing Articles, which makes confusion to implementing the law: Although this recommendation does not contain the meaning of removing the article, which is abolishing insulting, it is suggesting that articles 7 & 8 of Chapter 4 should be abolished to do not make confusion in order to leading and allowing press to criticise religious authorities (senior Islamic jurisprudents). “Chapter 4: Rights of the Press 7. Insulting Islam and its sanctities, or, offending the Leader of the Revolution and recognized religious authorities (senior Islamic jurisprudents); ?8. Publishing libel against officials, institutions, organizations and individuals in the country or insulting legal or real persons who are lawfully respected, even by means of pictures or acricatures;”6

Press communities voluntarily, rather than government control: Eventually, as it is mentioned Iran Press Law established the committee for Suspension of the Press within the Ministry of Islamic Culture and Guidance to monitor the press and brings charges, it is recommended that any suspension or press council should be established by the media and press communities voluntarily, rather than by law and it should not be subject to government control. The scale and range of its duties and power should be explained and it should be requited to conduct its duties clearly. They way of choosing the member of this type of committees should be clearly emphasised.

It should be mentioned that all the analysis, argues and recommendations on the Articles of the Press Law that have been brought here, are concerned from this point of view that the human rights and democracy in general and the Liberty of Expression in particular are not just some Western concepts and are not incompatible with the Islam as a religion. In deed, it has concerned the possibility of executive activities for media industry players to work in the current atmosphere; meanwhile it offers a framework for outcomes and common objective to unify disparate areas of legal activity.

References:

1- The Press Law of Iran, http://www.parstimes.com/law/press_law.html

2- http://www.pressreference.com/Gu-Ku/Iran.html

3-http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1071740.html

4- http://www.parstimes.com/law/press_law.html

5- https://wcd.coe.int/wcd/ViewDoc.jsp?id=393649&Lang=en

6- http://www.parstimes.com/law/press_law.html

7- http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml

8- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/8101299.stm

9- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/790877.stm

10- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4762827.stm

11- http://www.payvand.com/news/10/apr/1183.html

12- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3019695.stm

13- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/syndication/6252737.stm

14- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/790877.stm

15- https://wcd.coe.int/wcd/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1599533

16- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4952078.stm

Categories
Free Essays

Study of Professional development for strategic managers

Introduction
TASK 1: PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS REVIEW

This assignment will examine my personal and professional skills through my own evaluation and assessment of my colleagues. The purpose of the assessment is to identify my weaknesses and strengths. It also helps in identifying some techniques to improve and enhance my skills. This will be analysed through the accomplishment of personal audit.

Activity 1: Personal Skills Review

Stress Management

According to Lazarus and Folkman (1984) stress is a result of the imbalance between demands and resources or when pressure exceeds one’s ability to cope. Stress management was developed on the idea that stress is not the result of a stressor but rather on one’s capability to cope and the ability to respond to it. Also, if the person possesses or can use adequate coping skills, then stress may not actually be a result or develop because of the stressor.

In my personal experience, I have learned to face damaging challenges at home and in the workplace. When I am anxious I think of some activities to help release the tension. I exercise regularly. Regular physical activity is very effective in fighting stress. There are a lot of physical activities that is very effective in distressing. I just choose a particular activity that suits my personality otherwise it will just add to the heavy load of emotional burden. I find some activities like jogging, brisk walking, cycling and aerobics dancing fun and enjoyable when participated with people I am comfortable to be with. My other ways of fighting stress and anxiety is to be in the company with happy people.

According to Hargreaves, (1998) stress is expensive. Stress related illness leads towards the increase of financial cost. For example when I become sick due to stress related illness at work, my medication was shouldered by the management. I was also paid with my whole salary during the period that I was absent from work. These are one of the cases where stress related illness added cost for the company. .

Time Management .

Manktelow (2006) writes that the starting point for effective time management is to set priorities. When I am faced with a variety of choices competing for my attention and time I prioritize things because it will help me decide which path to take. Setting my goals help me identify and focus on my priorities that help me evaluate what needs to be done first. By doing this, I can do things easily and use time effectively.

Susan Ward (2011) has pointed out five (5) time management techniques which I have practiced. These are:

Recognize you can’t do it all: I decide what roles and activities are important. The important thing is, I am happy and healthy the way I am spending my time. I don’t force myself into doing things I don’t like to please other people.
Prioritize: I plan things and review my list of what to do on a particular day and what things that must be done. I give attention on the most important activity on hand.
Learn to say “Yes” and “No”: When I am ask to commit on something, I would say “no” if I really can’t and “yes” if it’s equally important to me.
Unplug: There are times when it’s important or useful not to “be connected” all the time. Recognize what situation must be given attention and disregard things that appear to be nuisance.
Take time off: Weekend is my personal and family day. If I need to be with my family, I set time for them. I also allow myself to take some refreshing time alone with my friends.

Good time management helps me control my time and life. I have maintained a balanced work and personal activities. This gave me flexibility in dealing with challenges in life and respond to new opportunities.

Assertiveness

Winstanley (2005) wrote that assertiveness is expressing your needs, your wants, opinions, feelings and beliefs and get these met in direct, honest and subtle way. It is also respecting the needs of the other party.

Though I speak out my opinion at times, it will only come out as that because I don’t assert enough to get what I want. In my experience, my promotion to Human Resource Management Officer II, at the Human Resource Department of the Livelihood Corporation was delayed because I was too shy to ask my manager to send me to a one week external training program. I was not able to attend the scheduled training program and had to wait for months for it to be conducted again.I eventually got promoted only after 6 months of waiting. It could be much earlier if I had been assertive.

According to Cooper (2008), there are some techniques that can provide you with the opportunity to slide up or slide down in an attempt to assert your personal views or opinion:

To Slide Down: This is being able to communicate our feelings and thoughts in an open and direct way, showing respect of the rights and feelings of others and them to respect our own.

Empathy: It understands the depth of another person’s feelings.
Active listening: It is giving importance to the other person’s point of view.
Focus on facts and issues (not the person): Being objective and not subjective
Good quality questions: Ask questions relative to the issue
Being non-emotional: Being professional in dealing with the matter

To Slide Up:Is defined as showing rage, aggressive body language and forcing other people to do what you want.

Body and hand language: shows aggressiveness
Eye contact: insisting and compelling
Facial expressions: indicates dominance
Pace, tone and volume of speech: argumentative
Directness of language: no respect

Assertiveness is a mutual and open exchange of views and understanding. The slide down technique must be used all the time when assertiveness is needed to be projected in dealing with other people in common circumstances.

Activity 2: Professional Skills Review

Coaching Skills

It is the responsibility of the human resource manager to produce a well trained and motivated work force in the organization. Employees’ knowledge and skills needs to be continuously improved to perform productively to achieve personal and organizational goals. .

Maharlika, Complex is a subsidiary of the Livelihood Corporation, a government owned and controlled corporation. The company is engaged in providing financial aid to farmers and help these farmers sell their agricultural goods in the market. The employees of Maharlika Complex.,are monitoring the progress of the vendors (farmers) in the market to ensure that these farmers will be able to pay the loaned amount from the company. This is the government’s way of helping small farmers augment their living, helping them financially from planting to selling their products.

Counselling and mentoring are conducted by Maharlika employees to the farmers and vendors. More of the counselling was given to farmers whose plantations were devastated by natural disaster. It helps to motivate them cultivate their lands to have better produce. The employees were effective in their counselling skills and able to uplift the self-esteem of the farmers. They are good in counselling because they were trained and coached how to do it professionally by their mentors.

Having worked at the Livelihood Corporation, I have observed how the project manager of Maharlika Complex effectively exercises her coaching style. She has the ability to communicate with people well with good understanding to varying traits and attitude of each individual working for the company. The manager has effectively managed to apply the coaching cycle of Cooper (2008), in her attempt to teach the staff with new skills and learning as ways of motivating them to perform at their best.

The Coaching Cycle

The cycle starts with telling the employees of what, how and why a particular task needs to be done. Showing how a task should be done is optional, giving the person the leeway to perform in his own convenience and style. In order for the employees to be competent and confident to do or start a new task, they are given the opportunity to practice what has been learned through coaching. The manager coach then monitors and observes the performance level of each individual and assess in what areas there is a need to be improved. After assessment a constructive feedback is facilitated where the discussion between the coach and the individual is light and a two-way process.

According to Armstrong, S. and Mitchell, B. (2008) employees want mentoring in two areas: (1) the skill they need to succeed in the job and (2) the skills they need to build a satisfying career.

The skills they need to succeed in the job are mentored through on going training and development where the professional experience of the manager is applied in one-on-one coaching.The new employees of Maharlika Complex were closely monitored by their mentors who know the job they were doing, and willing to take them by the hand then teach and lead them to a new defined skill for future career advancement. It stimulates enthusiasm and energy so that the employees keep moving forward towards their goals (Merlevede, P.E. and Bridoux,D.C, 2004).

Leadership Skills

In the writings of Hersey and Blanchard (n.d.) a Participative Leader seeks to involve other people in the process, including subordinates, peers, and superior. Often, however, as it is within the managers’ whim to give or deny control to his or her subordinates, most participative activity is within the immediate team. The question of how much influence others are given thus may vary on the manager’s preferences and beliefs, and a whole spectrum of participation is possible.

The department managers of Maharlika Complex exercised different styles of leadership in their assigned areas. In the case of the Project Manager he has been very successful in being slightly autocratic because he has the full knowledge of how a task or project is to be accomplished.The project manager is not over using his capacity by controlling every movement of his subordinates. He listens to some suggestionsand even considered implementation of the suggestion if found to be beneficial for the project, the department and the organization as a whole. The human resource manager in the other hand projects a participative leadership where she as the manager shared leadership with the staff members. This gives employees the feeling of satisfaction when some responsibilities are placed in their care. Shared leadership is like a partnership between the manager and the employees for the purposes of developing a motivated and co-operative working environment.

The management of Maharlika Complex is developing employees that have potentials to become good leaders. Some of the company’s employees have the leadership skills.The managers are encouraging these people to work hard and develop their leadership skills not only for their personal and professional growth but also for the benefit of the company. Regular counselling was conducted to boost the self-esteem of the employees. An effective counselling eliminates an undesirable behavioural aspect of an individual and creates a positive attitudinal character. Good leaders have confidence and the natural characteristic of influencing other people. These leadership skills are being taught by the managers to their staff for them to develop to become good mentors and leaders in the future.

The management of Maharlika has adapted the 7 steps to ensure an effective mentoring relationship as researched by Merlevede and Bridoux (2003). The following steps are:

first step is “choosing a protege” where the leader chooses to mentor a person because the leader knows there is a lot of potential present in that person.
second step is “connecting”, where the mentor and the protege would establish relationship skills, and rapport to ensure that mentoring will run smoothly.
third step is “outlining the relationship” that once certain level of trust is achieved the mentor figures out what the mentoring will be about.
fourth step is “getting to the bottom of it” where the mentor identifies what might have caused for a protege from achieving goals and then to take some actions for the protege to come close to the goal.
fifth step is “concrete action” where the mentor sees the protege taking his own destiny in his own hands and not relying or depending on his mentor.
sixth step is “following up” where the mentor can ask questions to the protege to know how the mentoring was absorbed.
seventh step is “get out of the way” is the period in time for the mentor and the protege to part ways letting the protege to loose and ready to face new challenges on his own.
Multi-tasking Skill

Multi-tasking is the ability of an individual to perform multiple tasks all at the same time. It is not only limited to the managers to do multi tasking, but it is also performed by the people from the ranks. It is performing loads of tasks in a limited period of time. To get better results and output from an individual performing multi task, he should be prepared and willing to do the job, well trained to perform it, and he must love to do it. Only a motivated individual can successfully accomplish and produce good output from loads of responsibilities placed on his shoulder. Otherwise, if the management will assign multiple tasks to an individual who is half hearted to perform it, the quality of the results will suffer.

Maharlika Complex once implemented multi tasking when the management decided to stream down the workforce. The employees were given the option if they wanted to stay or settle for early retirement. Most of the older personnel opted to be paid off. The jobs they left were distributed to the employees who stayed. The personnel manager looks into the job function of each employee and distributed these jobs to employees having the same function. In this case, the employee did not find it difficult to perform because of its similar skill needed to perform the task. Adjustment was made and eventually the multi tasking works. It saved time and cost and the employees were motivated to work efficiently because the managers themselves were also performing the same.

There was little mentoring done on the employees that were left behind. It is because the new tasks that were added to their responsibility were similar or hold the same function with the task they perform.The counselling and mentoring were concentrated on how to manage their time effectively and deal with stress.

The counselling was intensive because of the additional workload added to their responsibility. A group counselling was conducted twice a month to ease tension and stress for the employees doing the multi-tasking. As part of the counselling session, a time management seminar was also conducted. It is to help employees identify goals and learn to prioritize activities to get things done effectively. They were also counselled and mentored to keep diaries of planned activities to avoid missing important tasks.

With the effective counselling technique the employees of Maharlika Complex were motivated and committed to the tasks assigned to them. Mentorship was also emphasized to develop the leadership potential of the employees.

TASK 2: PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

This group activity will help me and my co-group members to identify our strengths and weaknesses and analyse what should be done in order to enhance and develop our personal and professional skills. We will listen to each of our experiences told and give our insights to help each other in achieving our personal aspirations in life.

Activity 1: Personal Audit

A. Group sharing on Professional and Personal Life Experiences

I have discussed and shared with my group my professional and personal success and failures in life and they gave their comments and suggestions how to develop and enhance my skills based on their personal assessment on my experience.

My co-group members Hina and Hanushka have their own personal suggestions on how I would be able to enhance my strengths and develop my weaknesses. To enhance my skill in time management they have suggested that I should continue to focus on each important planned activity. In this way I will be able to accomplish what is needed to be done and will still have time to do other important matters.

We have also discussed on my lack of confidence to assert to get the things I want or to achieve. They have suggested that:

I should build my confidence;
I should learn to exercise my rights;
I should be firm;
I should not be intimidated; and
I should know the relevance and importance on what I am asserting for.

Another professional skill that I have to enhance is my coaching ability. I know that in some situations I am able to get the attention of the people I am given instructions to. They learn easily what was taught of them because I was patient enough to guide them step by step on what to do. My co-group members have suggested that I should attend some coaching trainings in order for me to get the techniques to enhance my skill.

B. PERSONAL AUDIT QUESTIONNAIRE

Please tick the appropriate option on the following rating scale (1-5) 1 being the weakest and 5 being the strongest.

1) I lack confidence in expressing my needs.

1___2___3___4___5___

2) I manage time effectively.

1___2___3___4___5___

3) I am not confident to lead.

1___2___3___4___5___

4) I cope with stress well.

1___2___3___4___5___

5) I manage a number of tasks well.

1___2___3___4___5___

6) I do not have confidence to give presentations.

1___2___3___4___5___

7) I am patient when imparting knowledge and skills to others.

1___2___3___4___5___

8) I do not have confident to influence others.

1___2___3___4___5___

9) I motivate people to perform.

1___2___3___4___5___

10) I do not direct people to do tasks.

1)___ 2___3___4___5___

C. Professional and Personal Audit(1 is weakest ; 5 is strongest)

Based on the personal assessment made by two persons on my personal and professional skills it was identified that I lack assertiveness. I had to develop my confidence to express what I want and develop my skills to lead effectively. It also shows my capability to coach and the strengths I have in time and stress management. If I develop my confidence and assertiveness, I know I will be able to overcome my weakness when it comes to leadership and assertiveness.

I should take some time to reflect on what to do first to proceed with the learning process to achieve my objective. The learning style I am adapting is the Reflectors Style. I am comfortable with this kind of learning because it gives me the opportunity to reflect on the information I get and compare to my personal experiences. I will get some techniques on how to assert by collecting informative reading materials. Watching video on personality development will also be considered to improve my confidence. Getting feedback from a friend will also help me in my learning process to gain confidence.

Activity 2: Progression Plan

A. Personal SWOT Analysis

As a result of making this analysis I can give emphasis on my strengths and focus on remedies to overcome my weaknesses. This will aid me in taking possible advantage of the opportunities at hand.

B. Development Plan
Skills Audit: Identifying Areas to Improve

In order to attain my goals, I have to strengthen my leadership skills. I need to improve my cognitive ability, strategic thinking, analytical ability, ability to delegate and influence, ability to learn from experiences and the ability to build technical competence. Developing my confidence is also a way to become assertive and stand up to get what I want.

To aid me in achieving this, I had to adapt the Reflector Style of Learning, one of the learning styles identified by Honey and Mumford (2008). This type of learning suits my personality. To develop my learning ability, I collect data, review and think carefully before making any conclusion or decision. I learn more by observing others, listening to their views and reflecting their leadership techniques.

I had to follow this learning style technique suggested by Honey and Mumford below:

Observing individuals or groups at work – Observing on what good leaders do and reflecting what I need to do to improve.
Reviewing what has happened and thinking about what they have learned – This is learning through experience and reflect what to do next to improve.
Producing analyses and reports doing tasks without tight deadlines – Evaluate the observations I made and do the things learned through observation to improve develop skills.

As part of my personal development plan I will consider the suggestions of Corttrell (2003) to make a structured process of reflection in order to develop my understanding on myself, my choices, what I want to achieve, how to plan and how to take action on improving my work. This will help me reflect on my weaknesses and think of better ways to minimize them. Trough reflection I will be able to:

Make sense out of experience: this will help me learn and develop my skills in leadership and assertiveness
Standing back : being observant and not in the midst of the activity to see the level of confidence of the people around
Repetition: practice to assert on small things first to gradually develop confidence
Deeper honesty: admitting my flaws and work to rectify them
Weighing up: help me evaluate the advantages of being assertive and disadvantages of being submissive.
Clarity: review activities done will help me see things clearly not only on my success but on my failed plans because of being non-assertive.
Understanding: I will be able learn things in a deeper level like gaining insights through reflector style of learning
Making judgement: reflection aids me in deciding things whether to assert or not.

This plan will be carried out by me as a guide to develop my personal and professional skills.

The Monitoring Process

Through monitoring my progress I should be able to know if my planned activities for the realization of my aims are achieved. It will help me recognize if my learning style applied to achieve my goals is effective. A monitoring device to determine my progress is provided. I will solicit feedback from my colleagues, coaches and mentors.

Monitoring progress on learning goals

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS

Armstrong, S. and Mitchell, B., 2008. The Essential HR Handbook. USA:Book-mart Press
Cooper,S., 2008. Brilliant Leader. Great Britain:Pearson Education Ltd
Cottrell, S. 2003. Skills for Success. New York:Palgrave Macmillan
Hargreaves, G., 1998. Stress Management. The Essential Guide to Thinking and Working Smarter. London:Marshal Publishing
Lazarus, R. and Folkman, S. 1984. Psychological Stress and Coping Process. New York:Springer Publishing Company:ISBN:0826141919
Manktelow, J., 2006. Manage Your Time. London:DK
Merlevede, P.E. and Bridoux, D.C., 2004. Mastering Mentoring and Coaching with Emotional Intelligence. Wales:Crown House Publishing Ltd.
Winstanley, D., 2005. Personal Effectiveness. London:CIPD

WEBSITE

1.Wikipedia (2010). Stress Appraisal and Coping. 8 April 2011: www.uk.ask.com/wiki/stress_management.

2.www.spiritize.blogspot.com/2007/05/assertiveness-training.html. Notes to Self-Assertiveness

3.Hersey and Blanchard (n.d) Chairing Meetings.03 March 2011

4.http://www.blessingwhite.com/helping_others_succeed_gc.asp?gclid=CIjlpMyY46cCFQod4QoduBCv9A Helping Others Succeed:successful coaching Relationships are Custom Built

5.www.davidbonham-carter.com/assertiveness-training-book.html. Chairing Meetings

6. www.coachingnetwork.org.uk/resourcecentre/whatarecoachingandmentoring.html

7.Ward, S. (2011).Time Management.8 April 2011: www.sbinfocanada.about.com/od/timemanagement/a/getmoretime.htm

8.www.changingminds.org/discipline/leadership/styles/participative_leadership.html.

Categories
Free Essays

Evaluation of Mendix as a Rapid Application Development (RAD) Tool

1 Introduction

1.1 Overview of RAD and RAD Tools

The computers play a very important role in our lives as all the things that were done by people are now being replaced by computers. Initially all the data of an organization or a firm used to be stored in a tedious manner using papers which were very difficult to maintain but due to the fast improvement in field of computers everything is now becoming computerised. The generation of Database System was like a boon to the developers as it made storage of the huge amount of data very easy. Slowly everything started becoming computerised and then evolved the need for application development. For developing an application a specific method has to be followed so that the project can be build up on time and meet the requirements. Then evolved conceptual methodologies such as System Development Lifecycle, waterfall model, spiral method, linear sequential, etc. and were used for the step by step development of project.

Due to the advancement in the technology many new methodologies have developed. Rapid Application Development was developed as a response to the non-agile methodologies like Waterfall Model. The projects using this methodology took long time to build, as a result of what the requirements used to get changed at the end of the project [1]. Though, waterfall model is still being used and still is widespread among the developers, new technologies have been developed like Rapid Application Development, Agile Methodology, etc. A Rapid Application Development approach makes the use of CASE (Computer Assisted Software Engineering tools) and prototyping that describes the procedures to speed the development of the software. The RAD method was developed by James Martin in 1991[2]. It took time for RAD to develop so much but now many tools have developed which use RAD methodology for the development of quick designs of the proposed project. Small scale projects can be developed using RAD tools as it is still not much reliable to be used for large projects because of the automatic code generation the requirements of the project may get over looked. It uses the RAD model which is a combination of linear sequential model (mentioned later in the report in Methodology section) and prototyping model which allows the development team to generate a fully functional system within a very short time. The RAD method may use three procedures:

Prototyping: In this process a quick design of the software is created and presented to the business or eventual users for refinement. This refinement is done on the bases of feedback given from the user [3].

Iteration: Iteration and prototype go hand in hand. Iteration is the commitment of applying the refinements as soon as possible [3].

Timeboxing: This is a management procedure that focuses more on delivery above all [3].

The different methodologies will be explained further in detail in the Methodology section of the report.

I have seen my friends facing problems while developing and maintaining database in complex systems, that gave an idea of such software that can create and maintain the database on its own without getting into trouble and RAD tools was the best solution for this. I knew some about the RAD methodology and the tools used as I have been using tools like NetBeans, Visual Studio and Visual Basic about which I have mentioned later in the report. My supervisor encouraged and guided me for developing my knowledge in this area. He introduced Mendix to me for the research and for understanding its working properly. This was the seed of an idea for choosing Evaluation of Mendix as my project topic. It was a new approach for me to fully analyse software like Mendix and comparing it with other better RAD tools. Throughout my project I will develop a Payroll application that will be developed using the main features of Mendix.

1.2 Project Aims

Review RAD tools

In this section I will give detailed information about RAD tools, improvements in the RAD industry and the ways it has being used from the past.

Use Mendix

This section will discuss the reasons why I chose Mendix for research and detailed study on the features provided by this software that makes it easy to develop small scale applications.

Evaluate Mendix

Here I will evaluate Mendix by comparing its basic facilities with other tools by providing advantages and disadvantages of using this software.

Recommend situations where it can be used

In the end, after the full study of Mendix, I will give recommendations on what type of applications this software can develop.

1.3 Personal Aims

Developing knowledge in RAD tools.
Try to explore Mendix as much as possible.
To efficiently develop a conclusive report.
Offer recommendations for the improvement of Mendix.

1.4 History of project

I had read about the RAD development methodology and the tools using that methodology. It is very easy way of creating the business applications in a very short duration of time. The applications developed using this methodology are often developed by compromising with the usability, feature and sometimes execution speed [4]. Various tools have been created that use the CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tools for the rapid development of the applications. These tools are basically used for creating the instant designs of the information system that is to be created so that the basic scenario of the project can be cleared. As described in the section 2.1, RAD methodology comprises of a lot of prototyping, iterative customization and timeboxing through which the basic working of the project can be specified [4].

I found this methodology very interesting as instant implications of the ideas can be done. Also the project completion time can be approximately 60-90 days using RAD tools [4]. Firstly I read about Mendix and other tools. Then I experimented with Mendix for understanding the basic functionalities provided. I found it quite easy as everything that I used to do using long process was done easily in a very user friendly interface. Moreover things like creating a database design in the form of Domain model was done just by dragging and dropping the entities and there was no need to develop and maintain the database tables for storing data. These basic features interested me more and I decide to evaluate Mendix for my Bsc. (Hons.) Computing Final Year Project.

1.5 Overview of report

Section 2 will be containing the methodology I will be using for my project. Section 3 will give the overview and brief information about RAD tools and also brief review of Mendix and Lightswitch, two RAD tools I am going to perform research on. In section 4, I will give complete description of Mendix including the functionalities and facilities of this RAD tool. Followed by this will come the analysis of payroll system that I am going to develop using Mendix as a part of my research. According to the used methodology I will give information on the design and implementation of the application. The full evaluation on Mendix will be performed and I will give recommendations concerning Mendix. the last section of the report will contain the conclusion concerning the project.

2 Methodology

Project development is a step by step process. All the tasks must be divided into several different parts so that development flow is maintained (reference book). There are many methodologies like Waterfall, Agile, RAD, Prototyping, Spiral, etc. using which developing a project becomes easier and quicker and these are also known as Software Development Process Models [5].

Waterfall Methodology:

Waterfall methodology is the most basic and frequently used methodology. Waterfall approach was the first process model to be introduced and followed in software engineering [5]. “Many new methodologies have evolved that follow the basic steps of waterfall model but use different modelling approaches at different times” (reference book). Waterfall model follows simple procedure of SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) i.e. planning, analysis, design and implementation. Following is the figure of the waterfall approach:

FIGURE 3-1 Waterfall Model

This process model is called waterfall because it moves from phase to phase same as a waterfall (reference book). Next phase starts only when the previous phase is completed. The flow is to be maintained exactly same as shown in the figure 3-1. Once a particular phase is finished we cannot take the project back to the previous phase. Following are the phases of the waterfall approach:

Requirements gathering and analysis: In this phase requirements of the proposed system are gathered from the end user so that the main goal of the software is understood correctly. Requirement is a set of functionalities that the user expects from the system [5]. Requirements are gathered by consulting the end user and understanding the actual desires of the user from the system. This gathered information is analysed for their validity and also some other possibilities are suggested to the end user for their satisfaction from the system. Finally, a requirement specification document is created that states the guidelines for using the next phase [5].

System Design: Before starting to write the code it is necessary to have a complete understanding of the system to be developed [5]. For this purpose the system design is developed according to the requirement specification document prepared in the previous phase so that the complete knowledge about the system hardware and the functionalities is obtained [5].

Implementation: Once the system design is received the work is divided into different units for the development of code [5]. This work is divided in different modules and is allotted to the development team. The requirements are first developed as small units and then integrated to form a full system. These units are tested while they are being created to check the functioning of the different units of the application. As soon as the coding of the system is completed it is forwarded to the testing team.

Testing: After the coding of the system is completed it is integrated and forwarded to the testing team for testing that how the system works as a whole and whether it meets the requirements of the client. In large systems the testing phase may be sub-divided into different parts like alpha testing, beta testing, etc. so that the requirements are fulfilled completely.

Deployment of System: This phase includes the delivery of the system to the client a, installation of the developed system on the client system and training to the client.

Maintenance: This is the last phase of waterfall model and can be considered as the longest phase as its end time is not fixed [5]. The problems with the system that were not discovered during the development are discovered in this phase after the deployment and are solved again for its working properly [5].

According to me there are some disadvantages of using waterfall model:

As all the requirements of the system cannot be gathered at once, it is possible that the desired product may not be created.
This model is called Waterfall model because it follows a continuous flow in one direction so the problems with one phase if not solved during that phase itself, it becomes very difficult to go back to the phase and solve it. This may result in a badly structured system [5].
Client requirements always go on adding to the list [5]. This results in a completely unusable system and client dissatisfaction.
The main disadvantage of Waterfall model is that there is very less client communication and till the end client does not have the working model of the system, so the client remains ignorant of the progress of the system and remains unaware of what is being developed is as per his requirements or not.

As there are some limitations in using waterfall methodology, it cannot be the only methodology that should be used in the systems development, so I am going to use some other methodology along with waterfall to overcome these curbs.

According to Rapid Application Development (RAD) based methodologies, special techniques and computer tools should be used to speed up the analysis, design, and implementation phases of the system development. Tools like CASE (Computer Aided Software Development Tools), Joint Application Design (JAD), fourth-generation programming languages and automatic code generators should be used for the quick completion of the system. But due to speedy development of the system, the user requirements might change dramatically. For handling this problem there are three RAD based methodologies using which the systems can be developed as per the user requirements even if the requirements keep on changing (reference book).

Phased Development:

“A phased development-based methodology breaks an overall system into a series of versions, which are developed sequentially (reference book).” The system requirements are quickly identified in the analysis phase that leads to the design and implementation phase of the system but only with the basic and fundamental requirements identified for the version 1 of the system. Working on version 2 starts after the implementation of version 1 is completely done. In the version 2 again analysis is performed that combines the requirements of version 1 and some new ideas and issues that arose from the users in version 1. According to the analysis performed, designing and implementation are performed and immediately work begins for the next version. In this way system is developed quickly and everytime the requirements are refined. The only drawback of using this methodology is that everytime user is presented an incomplete system intentionally so it becomes difficult to identify the important features of the system at the end.

Prototyping Methodology:

A prototype means a typical example that is used for the later stages. The main aim of prototyping model is to counter the first two limitations of waterfall model. In waterfall model the Requirements gathering and analysis stage is limited till its completion but in prototyping a quick design is created by taking the recently known requirements into consideration. This methodology contains a frequent communication with the client so product can be developed completely according to the client requirements and it doesn’t turn out to be unusable as mentioned in one of the disadvantages of the waterfall model. In a simple prototyping model the Analysis, Design and Implementation stages continue to be developed till it doesn’t match the client requirements.

FIGURE 3-2 Prototyping Model

Once the requirements for the system are specified a prototyping design is created and implemented on a very small scale with minimal features and is shown to the client. This gives an idea to the client that how the system will works after its completion. The cycle of creating a prototype and presenting it to the client goes on till the system is fully developed. Each time a new sample is developed, it is in an improvised form than that the previous one. The key advantage of prototyping model is that it assures the client that the development team is working on the system and user can be well informed about the unrealistic requirements.

The main disadvantage of this model is that in the process of creating prototypes and refining the requests every time, the actual/ initial requirements of the system might be forgotten till the end of the project. This results in the loss of small but important specifications that might be useful for making the system more functional. This drawback can cause problems in developing complex systems. Throwaway prototyping approach is similar to prototyping but is presented in a different way to overcome the drawbacks of prototyping approach.

Throwaway Prototyping:

“Throwaway prototyping approach is similar to prototyping methodologies, however prototypes are done at different stage of SDLC (System Development Life Cycle)(reference of book)”. In prototyping, analysis, design and implemetation stages are used in the prototyping cycle as a result of what the requirements get changed due to frequent gathering of information, but throwaway prototyping based methodologies have a relatively thorough analysis phasethat completely specify the system requirements so that the basic functionalities suggested by the client can be implemented. The issues identified in the analysis stage are examined in every possible way by analysing, designing and implementing the design prototype. Once the issues have been identified and resolved the design prototypes are thrown away.The system developed using this methodology are based on several designs prototypes during the design ang implementation phase. The key benefit of using this methodology is that all the risk factors are identified before the fully functional system is developed. Complex systems can be built using this methodology which cannot be efficiently done using prototyping methodology.

FIGURE 3-3 Throwaway Prototyping Model

Phased development-based methodology is one of the important categories of RAD based methodologies but because of its drawback as mentioned above, important features of the system might be overlooked at the end of development, it cannot be used in my project. Throwaway prototyping is a nice and useful approach for developing huge and complex systems but as I am not developing a large scale system using Mendix I will be using prototyping along with the Waterfall model but I would like to use throwaway prototyping methodology in my future projects.

3 Overview RAD Tools

RAD model is gaining popularity these days because of the flexibility in the time taken for the completion of the business applications. Many tools have been developed for these purposes which work on different operating systems. The first generation of RAD tools provided a high level programming language used for fetching stored data from the database of which dBase II is the best example [7]. dBase II was not very successful but proved to be beneficial for small organizations [7].

According to the human psychology, working can be joyful if the surroundings are favourable and because of this mind-set GUI (Graphical User Interface) Systems became popular and then arouse the need for the RAD tools that can work appropriately. Tools that could generate code automatically in backend by producing graphical notations in front end where developed and Microsoft Visual Basic (on Windows) and HyperCard (in MacOS) is its best example [7]. In both of these tools applications can be created by just dragging and dropping the required fields of the forms and associating them with an object oriented code.

Linux has been derived from UNIX and is said to be less user-friendly as compared to Windows but RAD tools have also been developed for Linux operating system using high languages like Perl, Tcl& Python, and 4G Languages [7].

There are two types of RAD tools, Non-graphical and Graphical. Linux based RAD tools used VHLL’s (Very High Level Languages) [7].

Non-graphical:

The first language used was Perl (Programmable Extraction and Report Language) which was developed by Larry Wall in 1987. Followed by Perl, some other languages like TCL (Tool Command Language), Python and Ruby were also developed. These languages cannot be considered fully as RAD tools as they don’t provide graphical interface builders [7].

Graphical:

Tk is a graphical toolkit which was originally developed for TCL (Tool Command Language) but can also be used for Perl and Python [7]. Tk is originally a graphics library that provides commands for designing interface easily which can work on windows, MacOs as well as Linux operating system. Tcl/Tk is free software that comes with Linux [7].

All the tools mentioned above still cannot be thought of as full RAD tools as a combination of a high level language and a graphical toolkit cannot make what is called as RAD tool [7]. After these advancements, people started understanding the need of RAD tools and understood that the development of business applications can be much easier. So tools such as Visual Tcl, SpecTcl which provide a very bright and colourful user interface where developed [7].

These are the basic and the initial tools developed after which many other RAD tools where developed. Now we have a huge variety of RAD tools available which can be used efficiently and amongst them I will be choosing one tool for the research.

3.1 Important RAD Tools

As the RAD methodology has developed many tools have been developed for implementing this model and producing the applications rapidly. Tools like IBM Rational Application Developer, NetBeans, LightSwitch, Wavemaker, Mendix, etc. are the famous RAD tools [8]. Microsoft Visual Studio is also a kind of RAD tool that provides a development environment that is much simpler.

NetBeans is a RAD IDE (Integrated Development Environment), generally used for visual desktop, mobile, web application using languages like Java, Ruby, C/C++, PHP, JavaScript [8].
LightSwitch is a new RAD tool developed by Microsoft Visual Studio which can be said as the further version of Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 [9].
Wavemaker is a RAD tool using which developing web and Java applications can be developed and deployed on multi-tenant servers easily [10].
Joomla is a very famous Content Management System used for developing powerful web applications [11].
Content Management System:A content management system is software that keeps track of every piece of content on your Web site. This content can be of any kind text, images, videos, documents, etc [11].

3.2 Mendix Review

Mendix can develop the business applications 5 times faster and at ? the cost of other software development platforms [12]. The applications developed can be deployed on the Mendix cloud and also on the local firewall [12]. It is new software with different set of functionalities for developing applications. Creating a Domain model is the most important phase in developing an application that connects to the database as it signifies visibly that how the data will be maintained in the database. A domain model can be generated effortlessly by just dragging and dropping the entities. The prime advantage of using Mendix is that the database is maintained by itself. The Mendix website is very helpful for the new users to be able to use the software efficiently. After creating an account on the Mendix website, a trial version of the software can be downloaded, which works for a month, allows you to have a rough overview of the software, also the application can be deployed on the cloud. Cloud computing (reference) is a new trend in the IT (Information Technology). In cloud computing, the software and hardware services that are being used sitting on your desktop or in your company’s network ares provided by any other company over the Internet. The users using the services have no concern about who is providing the service and where software and hardware are located; it is somewhere located on the “Cloud” for the users [13]. Similarly, the applications prepared in Mendix can be deployed on the cloud very easily.

The other facility provided is that various apps are available for free on the website that can be included in the projects that you create (throughout the website applications are referred as apps and I will also be using app for denoting an application). There are about 24 apps available on the website by the Mendix Projects that help us to use Mendix more efficiently. There are five different categories of the apps in an apps store; the academy section provides the readymade projects that can be referred before starting the development of our own project because they offer an example of the basic functionalities delivered by Mendix.

3.2.1 Examples from the app store:

The first app in the academy section is Wizard (with 5 steps) example project v1.0, this is the simple example that accepts the data by the user through 5 dialog boxes, these dialog boxes are basically prepared by using input forms, and stores them in the database. This is a simple wizard that follows a series of steps.

The other interesting app is My First App; it is a small application for storing data regarding the former as well as present employees along with their images. This application includes Google Maps widget, again provided by the Mendix app store. The image below shows the home form of My First App, at present there is one employee in the database and the Google Map shows the location of the address provided by the employee. The Faces tab shows the snaps of the employees. The Departments tab shows all the departments in the present organisation and the last Reports tab automatically generates the charts of Member Distribution and Department Size.

The following figure shows the generated charts according to the employees stored in the database.

There are some widgets available on the website for free usage of what may enhance the application that we are creating.

Time picker can be used to make the date time field more functional. It allows to select time from a two-directional dropdown and the monotonous job of entering the time manually is simplified.
A help text viewer allows you to add help buttons in the forms for the new users, which enhances the forms and make it more usable.
The Countdown calculates days, hours, minutes and seconds between the current and specified time.

Mendix also provide themes that change the appearance of the application when it is deployed and run on the browser. The business component section provides apps like Google Maps Module, about which I mentioned before, Excel importer, Account Management Module, etc. which make application building very easy.

Apart from the app store, demo videos are also available on the Mendix website that explains the basic steps for developing applications and gives a rough gist of the way Mendix works. The videos are very helpful to the new users who are confused about the starting point of the project.

3.3 Lightswitch review

(Reference) Lightswitch can be considered as the further version of Microsoft Visual Studio 2010. It has been released as the beta version and will be releasing as a full version after the beta testing is done. It is an RAD tool for the development of high-quality business applications for desktop as well as cloud. The free beta 2 version of this software is available on the Visual Studio Lightswitch website which can be downloaded easily. Beta testing is the test prior to releasing a computer product in market. Beta test is the last stage of testing and is often performed by either sending the product to the beta test sites outside the organisation or releasing the product online for free trial download so that it can be downloaded and can be improved based on the feedback of people (reference). Lightswitch is a high level and fascinating software as it is developed by Microsoft which is renowned for its perfect products. There are also videos on the website for the quick understanding of the software.

Visual Studio Lightswitch beta 2 can quickly built custom line of business applications. Software should have an appealing IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that makes it easier to work comfortably. Visual Studio Lightswitch beta 2 is successful in providing a good development interface. It provides a collection of preconfigured screen templates which can be used for preforming tasks such as entering data and displaying and formatting information in a variety of user friendly layouts. Application themes and skins can be downloaded for free that gives professional look and feel to the application. One of the most tiresome jobs in developing any application or a website is to put validations on the type of data to be entered by the user. Lightswitch provides built in functionalities to validate the input from the user. Normally, the common snag with using RAD tools is that the scope of the application is restricted up to the built in functionalities provided by the software, this results in dissatisfaction of the user. In Lightswitch, the functionalities can be expanded by using C# or Visual Basic code.

Lightswitch applications can combine data from a wide selection of sources including Sql server, Microsoft Sql azure, Microsoft Sharepoint server 2010 and Microsoft .net and many 3rd party data sources.Data can be easily exported to Microsoft Office Excel 2010 for data sharing. Lightswitch uses Microsoft Silverlight technology so applications can be deployed locally as well as on the web server. But due to security context, exporting to excel is restricted to the applications running locally. The new cool feature of Lightswitch beta 2 is that applications can be deployed on cloud by using the publish application wizard.

Lightswitch provides a readymade example of Contoso TRADers. Contoso TRADers is a dummy company name used by Microsoft for examples. In the example as per shown in one of the videos on the Microsoft website, Contoso tRADers are the manufacturers and distributors of mountain bikes and its equipments around the world. They have built a simple customer relationship management application to keep track of the products and orders placed by the customers. The application isbuilt using simple 2- tier architecture that enables to practice through the data fluently. A 2 – tier architecture is where the client talks directly to the server without any intervening server. It is typically used in small environments (that is under 50 clients) (reference).

In the present example the application is running locally on the desktop storing all the data that it needs in the Sql server database in any other part of the organization. Contoso TRADers are expanding their business all over the world and so they want to convert the present application into a web based application so that the orders can be managed online. This can be done by deploying the application over 3 – tier with the server elements running as web application over the IIS. IIS (Internet Information Server) (reference) is a group of internet provided by Microsoft Windows NT. It is generally used for running web based applications (reference). A 3-tier architecture is a well-defined client/server architecture which works on three stages, all working separately (reference).

The User Interface that runs on the client computer.
The middle tier or Application Server is a functional module that processes the data.
The Database Management System that store the data provided by the application server. This normally works on a separate server called Database Server.

This architecture enables the application to run from almost anywhere. Moreover, Lightswitch beta 2 enables users

3.4 Common Features of RAD Tools

Development of RAD tools has reduced the leg-work in programming. There are some common features of RAD tools that are almost available in all the respective tools. Following is the list of some of the common features of RAD tools (reference):

RAD tools help in developing quick and dirty examples i.e. prototypes that do not exactly demonstrate the full working of the application but fulfil most of the customer requirements.
Adding new requirements to the project while it is evolving results in a chaotic atmosphere which becomes easy in RAD tools using the CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tools.
Without writing any code applications can be developed in a user friendly atmosphere.
Often the client is not clear about the requirements unless he/she sees a functional example of the application. RAD tools are very useful in creating such examples.
The feature of reusability of code helped including Object Oriented languages in RAD tools.
Some more features.

3.4.1 CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tools

CASE tools can be defined as “These are the tools that provide leverage in the software requirements analysis and design specification phases, as well as those tools which generate code automatically from the software design specification.” (Reference of book)

4 Description of Mendix

Mendix is a newly developed RAD tool that is based on Java platform for the application development. A general RAD tool would make it easy to prepare quick designs of the specification, in the similar way you can create a design quickly using the features of Mendix. Mendix provides a wide range of components from which the required components can be easily included by just a click. Readymade forms can be added quickly which is very less time consuming. You can also insert new data into the database as well as update or delete the existing data.

The unique feature provided by Mendix is the use of microflows for handling the data as per our wish. Microflows are pictorial presentation of the code that could be used for the desired actions and events. You can use all the basic features of a general programming language like looping, start/end events, data retrieve, etc. and everything is handled through Java code at the backend. All you have to do is select the Java event and place it in the microflow and you see that automatically things are handled. There are many other interesting features of Mendix which I will explain in the later part of my report. Mendix can be appropriately used for prototyping because if the client is unhappy with the working of the provided prototype, the entire application can be rebuilt very tranquilly to match the user’s requirement specification. Also it’s easy to add new functionalities to the project if the requirements evolve in the middle of the development.

According to me if the working environment is soothing, half of the work becomes easy and Mendix is little successful in doing this. The look and feel of Mendix is pleasant and less complicated so the person who is using Mendix for the first time can understand the purpose of the software, though the appearance of Mendix is not that attractive and interactive as compared to Microsoft Visual Studio Lightswitch beta 2. If I am asked to compare the IDE of Mendix and Lightswitch and make a choice between them, I would prefer using Lightswitch even though it is more complicated than Mendix. The reason for this choice is that Lightswitch is a product by Microsoft Corporation, one of the leading software companies. Microsoft has set a trend of extremely user friendly environment in its softwares with much functionality for example, Microsoft Word. Basically Microsoft Word was developed for text based files and it’s formatting, but along with these, features like saving the document in multiple formats, inserting tables and images, performing small calculations like summation, etc., are also incorporated. In spite of so many features majority of people don’t find Microsoft word complicated and are always ready to accept newer versions of it. That is all, I think is because of the powerful presentation services used by Microsoft. For newly developed software like Mendix, the present interface is nice.

4.1 Features of Mendix

Mendix provide many new features that allow you to develop applications effortlessly. As mentioned in one of the above sections, creation of domain model is very simple in Mendix. Domain model, also called as Domain Object Model (DOM) is a conceptual design of the system involving various entities and showing its relationship with other entities (reference). It is basically used for developing and handling database of the system. Using Mendix it is just some clicks away. Entities can be simply dragged and dropped into the working area for a domain model. Its attributes can be set by double clicking on the entity where you can set the entity name and add as many attributes as you want along with their datatypes and constraints. There is even no code required for placing validation rules on the attributes. All you have to do is to select the attribute name and select validation type from required, unique, equals, range, regular expression or maximum length. It is so easy to validate your application just by selecting from the list of validations. A generalization relationship can also be established by selecting the name of desired parent entity. A generalization relationship is “a relationship in which one model element (the child) is based on another model element (the parent). Generalization relationships are used in class, component, deployment, and use-case diagrams to indicate that the child receives all of the attributes, operations, and relationships that are defined in the parent (Reference)”. Moreover relationships between entities can be established by dragging and dropping the selection from one entity to other the same way as it is done in MS Access. Multiplicity of relationships that it is one-to-one, one-to-many or many-to-many can be specified by clicking on the line connecting two entities and selecting the desired cardinality. Same as MS Access, a specific attribute/field can be given primary key by providing the validation Unique to the field. The data can be fetched in two ways, from a database or from a microflow.

The second step that is to be followed after the domain model is created is to prepare forms to provide functionalities in the app. In the project explorer section, when you right click on the name of your project and select the ADD option, it gives a huge list of components that can be added to make your application more usable and attractive. New forms can be added quickly in which different functionalities are easy to include. You can control the way your data appears in your forms by inserting table, data grids, data views etc. The properties of all these objects are managed from the properties pane on the right side of the working area.

Data Grid: A data grid displays the objects of the selected entity in the form of grid. All you have to do is place data grid in the form and connect it to an entity from the connector pane in the right side of the form. The attributed of the entity will automatically fill in the grid. Through the datagrid you can even search, add or edit the objects.

Data View: A data view is basically used for viewing the details of exactly one entity object. Generally the New or Edit button on the data grid opens a form containing data view that shows the details of the object that is already selected in the data grid. A data view comprehends a table like structure that contains input options like text boxes. The Data Source properties of a data view indicate that which object will be shown in the data view. Data can be obtained in two ways in a data view, from an entity or a microflow that opens a form.

Template grid: It is exactly same as the data grid but the only difference is that it displays the objects of entity in a tile view.

Table: the layout of the form can be changed by using table. Several rows and columns can be added and desired objects or buttons can be placed inside a table. In short we can create our own form by using table.

Tab control: A tab control can be used when the information that is to be displayed is more than the screen space. Each tab page contains different information.

Horizontal split pane: A horizontal split pane divides the region into two parts horizontally. A horizontal split pane can be used again with in any of the (horizontally or vertically) divided regions.

Vertical split pane: A vertical split pane is same as a horizontal split pane, but the only difference is that it divides the region into two parts vertically. It can be used again in any of the (horizontally or vertically) divided regions.

Textbox: A textbox is used to display or add a value.

Text Area: A text area can be used to display or add a long text value that may be appear in many lines. For example, for inputting address, a text area can be used.

Dropdown: A dropdown can be used for displaying the enumeration value.

Checkbox: A checkbox is a small box that appears with a tick or without a tick. It is generally used for editing a truth value. A checkbox must be connected to the attribute of type Boolean. When the checkbox is ticked, the value is 1 i.e. true and when it is unchecked, the value is 0 i.e. false.

Date picker: A date picker is used to display or edit date value. It should be associated with the object having Date datatype. It shows a localized calendar from which you can pick any date.

There are other form elements as well like:

Reference selector
External link
File manager
Image uploader
Image viewer
Microflow trigger: used to trigger an already created microflow.
Mendix also provides a report widget that helps in automatic report generation.

No code is required for connecting the forms to the database; this is again handled in a simple way by selecting the desired entity that has already been created while producing the domain model and the form fields are automatically filled up. Most of the work can be done without writing code, but when complex calculations are to be done, microflows come in action. As stated above, a microflow is a pictorial presentation of the code that can be used for performing desired actions. Microflows can be considered same as the flow charts that are used at the early stage of programming for making the programmers familiar with the programming logic, even though the microflows are much more complex and difficult that the simple flow charts. Same as flow charts, microflows also have a start and end event between which the whole process of programming is handled. Below is the example of a simple microflow that is taken from the examples available on the Mendix website.

In this example, microflow is created to show a form called Department_Show that returns a true (Boolean) value. So whenever this microflow is called, it shows the Department_Show form and returns the value true. Here, Department is used as a parameter. A parameter is a data that serves as input for a microflow (reference).

This was the most basic example of a microflow being used. More intricate and bigger applications can be developed by making use of the activities provided by Mendix. These activities are divided into 6 types: Object, List, Action call, Variable, Client and Integration. The object activity can be used for directly performing actions on the entities by creating their objects. The object activities can be used for creating, changing, retrieving, casting and deleting the objects.

List operations are used for handling list of the data of an object rather than a single value for an object. An XPath query can be used in the list functions. An XPath is a type of query language used by Mendix for retrieving data. XPath query can be written by specifying the path expressions that select the data of Mendix entities and its attributes and associations (reference).

Action call activities can be used for calling any previously created Java action or calling a microflow in another microflow.

Variable activities are used to perform tasks on variable; the variables can be created as well as changed as per the requirement of the microflow.

Client activities refer to the actions performed on forms.

“Mendix OQL (Object Query Language) is a relational query language just like SQL. The major advantage of OQL is that OQL uses entity and association names instead of the actual database table names (reference).” It uses the clauses that are used SQL queries like SELECT, FROM, WHERE, etc.

5 Analysis of Payroll Application

For understanding the working of Mendix it was necessary to choose a topic developing which I could experiment with Mendix features. So, for the full evaluation of Mendix I decided to develop a Payroll application that will use and understand all the possible features provided by Mendix. I used to work part time in a shop in my home country (India). In the shop the wages of the employees were handled through a payroll system. I was impressed by the working of the system. When I got a chance to create a working application using Mendix the first clue that hit me was to develop a payroll application. This is how I decided to develop a payroll application for my research.

Payroll System: The term payroll refers to the details of a company’s employee that receives wages and other rewards regularly. Some of the employees may get wages on monthly basis while others may get based on hours worked daily or weekly. Using the computerized payroll system the wages can be generated by calculating the bonuses or allowances and even deductions like Provident Fund, medical insurance, charitable contributions, loans, taxes, etc. A payroll application is used by a payroll specialist and pay checks are generated (reference). The sign in and sign out time can also be kept track by making use of a payroll application. The employers keep constant tally on the details of the employees and all the data is maintained.

The basic requirement of a payroll system is that it collects the hour details of an employee and calculates gross wages, subtract all the deductions and print checks. A payroll application can also be used to maintain the records of company’s retirement accounts.

Payroll software does the critical calculations just by taking a small input from the user i.e. employee’s pay amount and the total hours worked. The salary is calculated on its own without taking any pain. In higher level payroll softwares, automatic updates are received for the taxes every time the law is changed. Computerized payroll software reduces the tedious work that used to be done in handling the employee details manually and it also saves huge amount time.

As mentioned above in the Methodology section of my report, among the RAD based Methodologies (phased development, prototyping and throwaway prototyping) I am going to use Prototyping. Therefore I’m going to do a first domain model, implement the most important functions and evaluate the prototype. After the evaluation of the prototype I will refine the requirements and develop a second prototype. This process will be followed till the whole system is developed fully.

6 Design

After the analysis I came to know the basic requirements of a payroll system. The basic details that need to be stored in the database are the employee’s personal details, job details, payment details, deduction and timecard details. The first thing to be done for the first prototype was to create a domain model. The first domain model was as follows:

In the domain model-1, I used 8 entities: emp, job, time_card, deduction, payment_schedule, payment_method, bonus and payment. This is the very first domain model I created when I started using Mendix. I was learning to use the features properly and was confused regarding the relationships that should be established between the entities. I have used Microsoft Access before as a database for my application and according to the rule for establishing relationship between tables in MS Access, each table should have a primary key and a foreign key then only relationship can be established. A foreign key is the primary key of other table with which relationship has to be established. So, initially I was working on this principle, that’s why I included the fields of on table in another as foreign key for the relationship but then I discovered that this not the case with Mendix. Mendix does not work on the MS Access principles; we don’t need to include the fields of one table in another for establishing a relationship, it can be done directly. The type of relation can also be selected i.e. one to one, many to many or one to many by clicking on the line joining the two entities. For the system to work properly, it is necessary that the relations between the entities are correct and sensible. I was not able to decide relations between some of the entities and I found the model impractical so I decided to develop a new improved version of the domain model in which I decided to remove some of the entities that were of no use in my application. The new version of my domain model is as follows:

In the version 2 of my domain model I removed payment_schedule, payment_method and bonus entities because I found them useless looking at the requirement of the system at that time. I needed to retrieve the employee details like employee’s first name, middle name and last name and display them in the payment table so that it becomes easy to store and calculate the payment details of the desired employee. For this I used microflows that would fetch the details of employee’s first name, middle name and the last name and view them in the payment entity. Following is the microflow that I used to retrieve the employee’s first name from the database:

In the above microflow, a parameter of the Payment object with the variable name Payment is used for input for the Payment object. Whenever the microflow is triggered, it retrieves the employee details from the Employee entity which is saved in the variable called Employee_fname and returns the emp_fname attribute from the Payment entity. I developed the same kind of microflows for retrieving other details of employee and tried to implement this practically in the forms but this didn’t worked the way I wanted. I consulted to Mr Jim Longstaff about this problem and he guided me to use the reference selectors in the forms through which we can directly fetch data from the desired entity without using microflows. For this we do not need the attributes of other entities in our desired entity, it can be directly fetched from the referenced entity. For this the only thing you need is the relationship between the two entities.

I discovered the problem with the above microflow when I understood the working of microflows in the later stage of my project. To fetch the details from Employee table, I should have taken object Employee instead of Payment and the output should have been of type $Employee/emp_fname. But there was no need of using microflows for this purpose now. To implement the reference selectors instead of microflows I had to develop another version of the domain model. So I created a 3rd domain model as follows:

After creating the version 3 of domain model I developed the forms and used reference selectors in the form fields as suggested by Mr Jim Longstaff which fulfilled my requirement. Again I discovered a problem in the present domain model, the relationships between Employee – Payment, Employee – Job and Job – Payment were one-to-one which was not realistic and should have been a one-to-many relationships and needed improvement. Also I decided to remove the attributes bonus_amt and gross_pay from the Payment entity because calculating bonus amount and gross pay would be difficult and it was possible that it would have required more time for understanding the full functionality and then implementing it. Thus, I created a last and final domain model as follows:

In the domain model version 4 I included validations on the fields of entities like emp_id of the Employee entity was given required, that means if that field has not been entered an error message may occur (if specified) and gave a validation on the max length of the phone attribute i.e. phone number should be of maximum 11 digits. The Job_Title attribute of entity Job and date_time attribute of TimeCard were given the validation Required. Also the type of relationship was changed to one – to – many from one – to – one. I have given float datatype to all the time related attributes as it would be easy to calculate a float entry rather than a time entry. I have set a single value as a pay amount for each employee i.e. ? 4.50 as calculating wages for employees of different levels would have made my application more complex to develop. After the creation of this final domain model I started implementing these in the forms for making my application functional.

7 Implementation

Implementation in my application was intended to develop forms that would include the entities created already in the domain model. The first form that I made was EmpDetails form that contained a grid that would show all the details of all the employees.

The above form can display the details of all the employees all together. It is necessary to specify another form through which you can edit and add new employee details on the new and edit buttons of the grid otherwise it shows errors. The form that opens by clicking on New or Edit buttons looks like a simple form that contains labels, textboxes and buttons.

Here the field Job Title in the EmpNewEdit as well as EmpDetails form is a reference selector that fetches data form the Employee_Job association. An interesting thing to notice here is that there is the same form for adding new employee details as well as to edit the existing details. This is because data grid has to be used for both the purposes so if you want to add new detail in the database you can just click on the New button and a fresh form will open and if you want to edit a particular employees details, select the employees details first and click on the Edit button, an already filled in form will appear. This is so simple. Similarly other forms were created.

Forms related to entity Job:

The above form can be used to add job details at runtime.

Forms related to entity Payment:

Forms related to entity TimeCard:

I created an enumeration called Weekday which acts as an attribute for the TimeCard entity through which the day can be selected from the list of seven days while entering timecard details for an employee.

Enumeration:

After implementing all this I wanted my application to look more attractive and easy to use. I wanted to display all the details of an employee together in different tables on the same page. That could be possible using the Listen Target property of a data view. For displaying three different grids on the same page and connect them with each other Horizontal and Vertical Panes were used. This form was named EmpOverview and became the home form of my application. In this form when an employee is selected, all the details like payment and timecard details related to that employee automatically start appearing in other two tables. The new EmpOverview form is as follows:

This is how the above form appears after running the application:

Above is the home form showing three tables together. In the present scenario, there are only three employees in the database, so selecting the employee named Amyn Khoja in the employee table displays the Payment and TimeCard details of the same employee. The navigation bar at the top of the Employee Overview form contains four tabs through which a user can navigate between different forms.

8 Evaluation of using Mendix

Mendix has many impressive features but the main feature that I found most difficult to understand was the use of microflows. I tried to eliminate the use of microflows as much as possible but for handling the main calculations that were supposed to be carried out automatically, microflows were the only feature using which this could be possible. The calculation of total hours per day and the per day wages of employees was supposed to be handled through microflows.

The first thing I wanted to calculate was the total hours an employee worked on a particular day. Before calculating the total hours worked in a day, hours worked before and after meal were necessary to be calculated. For this I created two microflows. The first microflow was to calculate total hours before meal.

This microflow takes the TimeCard as an input and returns the total_beforeMeal attribute. On the onChange event, total_beforeMeal is calculated by using XPath query:

$TimeCard/timeOut_beforeMeal – $TimeCard/timeIn_beforeMeal

The above query subtracts the value of timeIn_beforeMeal with timeOut_beforeMeal and stores the result in total_beforeMeal attribute as shown in the figure below.

The second microflow calculated total hours after meal.

Same as the above microflow, this microflow takes the TimeCard as an input and returns the total_afterMeal attribute. On the onChange event, total_afterMeal is calculated by using XPath query:

$TimeCard/timeOut_afterMeal – $TimeCard/timeIn_afterMeal

The above query subtracts the value of timeIn_afterMeal with timeOut_afterMeal and stores the result in total_afterMeal attribute as shown in the figure below.

After the microflows for the calculation of total hours before and after meal are done, another microflow has to be created that takes the value of total hours before meal and after meal and adds both the values. The microflow below does the same:

The above microflow takes TimeCard as an input and on the onChange event it calculates the total hours by adding the values of total_beforeMeal and total_afterMeal attributes through this XPath query:

$TimeCard/total_beforeMeal + $TimeCard/total_afterMeal

After the microflows had been developed, these microflows had to be applied on the form fields so that they can be triggered to carry out calculations. For this purpose on the onChange event of Time before meal 2 field and on onEnter event of Total before meal field microflow TC_calBeforeMeal is triggered. Similarly, on the onChange event of Time after meal 2 field and on onEnter event of Total after meal field microflow TC_calAfterMeal is triggered. On the onEnter event of Total Hours field TC_CalTotalHours microflow is triggered.

The example below shows how the calculations are handled through the microflows when we run the application on localhost: 8080:

Here when you create a new TimeCard for an employee the total hours are automatically calculated after entering the details for Time Before Meal1 & Time Before Meal2 and Time After Meal1 & Time After Meal2.

After the TimeCard calculations started working properly the other complex calculations were the calculations for Payment entity. For calculating the total payment amount of an employee it is necessary to fetch the total hours worked by an employee from the TimeCard entity. For this I developed a microflow that retrieves all the data from the Payment_TimeCard association through Retrieve event and returns the total_hours from the TimeCard. Following is the microflow PaymentTotalHours:

The microflow for calculating the wages of an employee is as follows:

The above microflow takes Payment as an input. In the first activity PaymentTotalHours microflow is called because it returns the value of attribute total_hours from the TimeCard entity. An exclusive split has been used which works on the following condition:

if $TotalHours=8 then true else false

If the above condition is true, a Change object event is triggered and net_pay is calculated and the event is ended that returns the value of net_pay:

But if the above If condition becomes false another exclusive split is used that checks the condition for the deduction amount:

if $Payment/Deduction=0 then true else false

In the query above, if the condition becomes true, net_pay is calculated and event is ended but if the condition becomes false, net_pay is calculated by subtracting the deduction value from net_pay:

So far I was able to do what I wanted to do using microflows. I needed to include more features and wanted to experiment more with microflows but due to the lack of time I was unable to do that.

The next functionality that I wanted to include in my application is the monthly report generation for the employees. This was a difficult task because I consumed maximum time in understanding the working of microflows so there was no time left to understand the working of Report widget. But I found another feature as an alternative to generating reports and it is Export to Excel button in data grid. Using this button all the details of the data grid can be exported to Microsoft Excel and can be printed out from there. I have used this button in the main data grids so that a kind of report can be generated.

9 Recommendations concerning Mendix

Mendix is wonderful software and defines the RAD tools properly up to some extent. Even though it has been recognised very quickly and has been in the top lists of IT awards, according to me it requires many improvements that will make it easier to use. I think that the first thing that should be improved is its look and feel. I didn’t find the present IDE so user friendly that would make me work more to explore it. The other thing I found annoying about Mendix is that sometimes while running the application in the browser, the application becomes very slow and tasks are not performed properly. As compared to Microsoft Visual Studio LightSwitch, Mendix needs many improvements to be in competition with LightSwitch.

Mendix can be efficiently used for creating prototypes as large projects cannot be developed because of the limitation of the use of code. Large and complex systems like Banking, HR Management systems for huge multi-national companies, Stock Exchange systems, railways and Aircraft Management systems, etc. need more reliable softwares. While experimenting, using and evaluating Mendix I found that it is difficult to develop large applications because for developing huge systems, very complex coding is required for fulfilling the requirements of the system, but Mendix provides a very limited set of coding that would not even be useful for developing half of such systems. So Mendix can be used to develop the prototype of such systems for presenting it to the client and then the prototype can be handed over to the developing team for developing the system using proper code.

10 Conclusions

10.1 A Project Summary

The main objective of my project was to evaluate Mendix Business Modeler and compare it with other RAD tool. While evaluating Mendix I was supposed to develop a functional application that would use all the possible features of Mendix. The main feature of Mendix is Microflow and I was successful in using and understanding the events that are used in a microflow for carrying out calculations which I think now I am capable of doing. The Payroll system application that I have developed is a very basic level application that performs basic tasks. While evaluating Mendix I performed research on Microsoft Visual Studio LightSwitch and understood its basic features.

10.2 Future Developments

I have developed a basic version of my Payroll Application because I took maximum time in learning the features of Mendix, therefore there are many functionalities that I wanted to include in my application but I could not because of the diminutive time constraints. The main functionality that I wanted to include was monthly report generation which is now the area of future development of this application. Also the present application calculates the wages without considering the bonuses, deductions and taxes which is generally done by a genuine payroll system. This might require more complex microflows and entities but including these things in my application is my future goal.

10.3Personal Progress

11 References
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12 Bibliograpy
http://www.startvbdotnet.com/sdlc/sdlc.aspx
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http://www.answers.com/topic/prototype
http://www.freetutes.com/systemanalysis/sa2-prototyping-model.html

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Does CSR affect the sustainable development on Ford automobile manufacturing industry?

Introduction

An investigation concerned Cornell faculty members voted the most important of the day indicated climate change and its effects on ecosystems is the top one. (Lang, 2008) In the 2009 Copenhagen United Nations climate conference, countries discussed climate environmental problems, advocated energy saving and CO2 emission reduction.Automobile manufacturing industry significantly influences the environment. It reflected in the automotive mission, garbage collection and recycling, the expenditure of energy and environmental pollution in manufacturing process. As the third largest industry in the world, Automobile manufacturing industry has crucial status in fulfillment of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR indicates that companies are not only responsible for the interest of shareholders, but also responsible for the totality of their impact on people constitute its stakeholders, employees, customers, business partners, investors, suppliers and vendors, the government, and the community. Increasingly, stakeholders expect that companies should be more environmentally and socially responsible in conducting their business. As a part of CSR, the environmental responsibility has becoming the most important obligation to the automobile industry due to the current environmental issues. While within the world of business, the main“responsibility” for corporations has historically been to make money and increase shareholder value. Whether CSR conflicts with the interest of shareholderDoes CSR affect the sustainable development on automobile manufacturing industryTherefore, the paper present as an investigation based on the two questions, it focuses on the effect of automobile manufacturer doing the CSR on environmental protection. Due to the sustainable development of automobile industry is closely concerned with the corporate social environmental responsibility. Hence the research primarily demonstrates the activities that automobile manufacturer contribution for the society environment is three aspects. Enhance fuel efficiency and reduce CO2 emission, improve and develop the technology of hybrid vehicles, recycle resources and improves the utilization ratio of resources in the process of manufacture.

Background

The concept of CSR (corporate social responsibility) comes from the beginning of 20th century American research on enterprise responsibilities for its all stakeholders. CSR has become a consensus to the society all over the world. In addition to corporations undertake the economic responsibilities to stakeholders. They should consider the responsibilities apart from the stakeholders, such as the responsibilities for employees, customers, suppliers, community, the government, and the environment responsibility. Therefore, environment responsibility is a kind of CSR. It indicates that enterprises seek for the maximum economic benefits during the manufacture processes, while it also shall utilize the resources reasonable and take activities to contribute to the society for environmental protection. In the enterprise environment social responsibility theory was advanced, many international organizations also began to pay attention to these environmental problems. In 1972, the United Nations held the human environment congress in Stockholm. It established a new independent committee who published the report named our common future. This report first introduced the sustainable development concept. After that, numerous enterprises began to response the sustainable development calls and establish their own environmental management mode, actively undertake environmental protection social responsibility. With the increasingly serious environmental problems, the responsibility of environment has been concerned more and more. However, corporate contributions to the environment are expected and required for a higher level.

In 1915, Americans Henry Ford launched the assembly line of car production. After that, Ford as representative auto producer therefore entered into mechanization manufacturing. Another significant paradigm was the global nature of vehicle manufacturing. Automakers started assembling vehicles around the world. This trend was accelerated in the 1990s with the construction of overseas facilities and mergers between multinational automakers. This global expansion gave automakers a greater capacity to infiltrate new markets quickly and at lower costs. Henceforth, the world automobile production start rapid increase, and in late 1999, world car quantities rose to 7.7 million cars. What’s more that number is still rapid growth so far. Every corn has two sides, besides it brings to humankind remarkable convenient life and promote the world wide manufacture industry, vehicle also cause our environment great damage and pollution , such as acid rain and photochemical smog, ozone depletion, lead poisoning, the greenhouse effect, the city voice, etc. On the other hand, the evolution of the automotive industry has been influenced by various innovations in fuels, vehicle components, societal infrastructure, and manufacturing practices, as well as changes in markets, suppliers and business structures. However, the most important issue is environment pollution. The emission pollutants only cause the global warming, but also seriously threat the healthy life to human beings. Furthermore, the consumption of automobile has great affect on the finite resources sustainable utilization. As a very important part of the manufacture industry, automobile manufacture industry concerns with variety of relevant manufacturers. Accordingly it becomes an industrial chain; therefore both the motor producer and relevant suppliers are responsible to the environment problems.

The concept of sustainable development first appeared in 1987: “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”— From the World Commission on Environment and Development’s report Our Common Future. (What is Sustainable Development) This definition is widely accepted on the 1992 United Nations conference on environment and development. The sustainable development does not have an exactly standard, instead it has three targets. It aims to promote the economic develop at first. Besides, the development cannot beyond the bearing capacity of the resource and environment. The final objective is improving people quality of life and creating a prosperous society. In automobile manufacture industry, sustainable development means co-exist with communities and the global environment. Due to vehicle plays a dominating role as a transport tool, it has no alternative at present; it therefore will be exist for a long time until new transportation takes its place. Because of the irreplaceable function in logistics and transportation, environmental protection is needful to automobile industry achieve sustainable development.

Methodology

The paper is based on the secondary date. For the first part of this paper, the data are collected from the Ford corporate official website. It present as sustainable reports. The data contains 10 years of sustainable report. There are figures and graphic including in the reports. For the second part of this paper, the data is collected on the TOYOTA global corporate social responsibility report for the 2010. What’s more, other company’s similar product data is also collected. The data is also figure and graphic in the report. For the last part, the data mainly collect form both this two company’s reports. However, there are also some data from other company collected on the website.

To the first part, search for the key information in the 10 years reports at first. Then the paper develops some questions to the ten years quantitative data. Next according to the answer of questions it analysis the changes of figures and get the primary result. Make an assumption for the primary result. At last, compare with the financial statement and test the result.

To the second part, the specified data are collected for a case study. The case study focuses on a type of product of TOYOTA. Next the data are compared with other kind of product and same type but different company. Then raise some questions and analysis the data or information. At last through the financial statement and other standard tests the result which comes from the answer of questions.

To the third part, collect the similar type of data from the 3 corporate reports firstly. Undertake the research and analysis the data. Then create an output based on the analysis. Next go back to the report to have a review. At last evaluate the output and make the final conclusion.

Main body

Challenges in sustainable mobility and encouraging energy source diversity

In general, the automobile faces these challenges in adapting to the global environment:

Reducing CO2 emissions to help prevent global warming
Encouraging the need for energy source diversity
Preventing air pollution

With regard to energy source diversity, gasoline is expected to remain the primary resource for the time being. Accordingly for gasoline and diesel powered vehicles, solutions are under way that focus on improving fuel efficiency, including reducing vehicle size and weight, redesigning power trains and introducing hybrid technologies. (Toyota motor corporation, 2010) Against the background of climate change, the increasingly difficult availability of energy and tighter emission regulations, the industry will have to spend billions in R&D (research and development) for sustainable individual mobility, said Klaus Draeger, who is responsible for R&D in the management board of car maker BMW AG, in his initial lecture. Emission reduction and fuel shortage, these two factors have the top priority in the industry, but they are not the only hurdles to overcome. “While the list of challenges is almost shocking, companies which refuse to change will face hard times or even disappear,” the BMW top developer said. (Automotive industry faces sustainability challenge, 2008) Therefore, automobile manufacture industry is indispensable for emission reduction and increase fuel efficiency.

Section one:Reducing CO2 emission and increase fuel efficiency

An overview of the issues of global warming and CO2 emission

Global energy consumption and CO2 emissions are said to be a cause of global warming, which have been steadily increasing since the Industrial Revolution. Global warming, which is the increase in global average temperature in the course of the twentieth century, is mostly due to the increase of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations caused by human activity; these anthropogenic emissions have increased by 70 per cent between 1970 and 2004 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4th Assessment Report) The resulting climate changes and the adverse affects this has on ecosystems and human living environments is cause for concern. The need to significantly reduce greenhouse gases on a global basis, to slow the rise in average temperature and keep it within 2 degrees centigrade of pre-industrial era levels, was affirmed a long-term goal at COP15 held in Copenhagen in December 2009. (COP15 for journalists: a guide to the UN climate change summit, Nov 2009) Since approximately 20% of the world’s total CO2 emissions from energy sources are generated by the transportation sector, reducing CO2 emissions is an extremely important issue that the automobile industry must address. Automobile manufacture corporations are accordingly under way to take appropriate and persistent action on energy and global warming issues for medium to long term.

Global approach to fuel economy:

For the environmental pollution problems caused by vehicle emissions, had aroused widespread concern over the world developed country in the early 1970s. It consequently promoted countries to formulate automotive emission regulations and fuel taxation. Many countries use fuel taxation and emission regulations to decrease dependence on fossil fuels reduce resources consumption and air pollution. With the increasing standard, the control of vehicle pollution emission becomes more and more stringent. The control of pollutants from the initial CO, HC and NOx already extend to the PM, particulate, sulfur, benzene etc. (DELPHI, 2010-2011) Current regulations on CO2 emission values adopted in EU, Japan, USA, and Canada are already quite strong. EU and Japan are frontrunners in setting examples related to the fuel economy regulations and standards for the rest of the world. It is obvious that without strict regulations there will be no decrease of CO2 emissions from transport, while regulations force vehicle efficiency improvements equal to 2-3% per year. Correspondingly to the increasing standard of emission, fuel taxation is constantly changing and has risen steadily over the since the establishment. It is considered a good way of the government making money and also to help protect the environment by discouraging people from using their cars. On account of the achievements on environment after the establishment of emission standard and fuel taxation, the sustainable development is not contradictory. Instead, only strengthen environmental protection can realize the sustainable development of the auto industry.

Vehicles sales tendency and fuel economy:

For all kinds of vehicles the logic that the larger the engine the larger fuel consumption is a common view. There is a significant difference in engine size around the world, the engines from Japan has a distinct contrast to the USA. Most of engines made by Japan a small (under 1500 cc fuel consumption of the engine) instead they are dominantly large in the USA. However, there is a case related to vehicles sales between General Motors and Toyota, which indicates the tendency of cars purchase. As a result, Toyota surpasses GM in global auto sales in 2006. General Motors has held the number-one spot in vehicle sales for every year since 1931. From 1931 to 2005, GM are absolute the top automobile enterprise groups. Nevertheless, Toyota toke its place since 2006, which partial owns to the sustainable development concept of Toyota. (White, 2007) Moreover, Toyota has long beaten GM in profitability, racking up record profits for the past four years, with $11.8 billion profit for the fiscal year through March 2006. GM lost $2 billion last year. Toyota’s fuel-efficient cars, such as the Corolla, Yaris and gas-electric hybrid Prius, are big hits because of surging gas prices. General Motors, meanwhile, has been forced to scale back production in some regions to tackle a turnaround “Toyota sales are booming because of its good image around the world about reliability and ecological technology,” he said. “It’s just the opposite for GM, and its image is deteriorating.” (Toyota overtakes GM in global vehicle sales, 2007) Furthermore, in January 2005, Toyota announced the Contribution towards sustainable development, an interpretation of the guiding principles at Toyota that takes into consideration Toyota’s relations with stakeholders. This was revised in August 2008 to become the CSR policy: contribution toward sustainable development to take into account subsequent environmental changes and heightened societal interest in CSR. (Toyota) As to this case, it indicates that contributions in CSR promote the sustainable development.

The Evolution of Crude Oil Prices and fuel efficiency

Gasoline and diesel are made from crude oil; they are treated as the dominating power for the motor cars. The price of crude oil has great influence to the automobile industry. The price gradually grew up from nearly $10 per barrel in 1970 to $40 per barrel in 2004. (See appendix) Oil ministers from producers’ group OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) have expressed their support of an imminent reduction in production levels in 2004. (Opec moves to reduce production, 2006) The price therefore increased rapidly, it hits an all-time high above $147 a barrel on July 3 2008. Accordingly the issues of the fuel economy are increasingly concerned by various industries in worldwide. Automobile industry is regarded as one of the most consumption industries; the increase of oil price has dominating influence on the automobile producers. Based on the responds on the auto sales market, it is necessary for the automobile manufacturers to pay attention to the fuel economy problems. As mentioned above, Toyota surpassed the GM in worldwide auto sales, which indicated the importance of increase fuel efficiency in auto industry sustainable development. The issue of oil price increase promotes auto manufacturers to make energy efficiency vehicle. However, assume the oil price stay the same, whether auto makers are willing to enhance fuel economy The answer is a resounding yes, for instance, a vehicle can drive 15 miles per gallon (MPG) gasoline versus a 20 MPG one; it is obvious for people to choose the higher MPG automobile. For this reason, auto manufacturers are willing to produce higher level MPG vehicles. In other words, auto manufacturers actively seek depend on energy economy vehicles make more competitiveness. In addition, auto producers should concern with the issue of emission pollution meanwhile manufacture the energy economy vehicles. On the other side, the fuel economy standard established by NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) conflicts the MPG of vehicles. On account of the standard, auto manufacturers have to enhance fuel efficiency. As a result, fuel economy of vehicles grows up by the contribution of auto manufacturers, fuel economy standard and issue of increased oil prices.

Fuel economy technologies and eco-driving concept:

High fuel efficiency was achieved by advances in technologies, modification of engines and adaptation of the law on vehicle improvements. There are different methods to enhance fuel efficiency in worldwide, which are including use of tires with low rolling resistance, improved aerodynamics, decreased vehicle weight or size and energy efficiency of electric components. The development of power train technologies is based on the advanced internal combustion engines and introduction of innovative technologies, including hybrid, electric, hydrogen and fuel cells engines is necessary. So far, the hybrid engines combined with electric technologies have achieved a 50% raise in the fuel economy since introduced. Besides, vehicles in all weight categories need to be designed to meet the fuel efficiency standard. By contrast hydrogen engines are able to achieve the improvement as well, yet they are more expensive than the electric. Due to the CO2 emissions in real world from driving are 33% higher than tested CO2 emissions due to the use of air-conditioning, aggressive driving methods and poor traffic conditions. Behavior changes such as acting on driving style (eco-driving) is deemed to be a significant potential way to lower the CO2 emissions.

Eco-driving means smarter and more fuel-efficient driving. The eco-driving process is constituted by 4 simple steps:

Plugged the USB stick into the vehicle at beginning of journey
During the journey, USB stick record the driving data
Plugged the USB stick into computer when back to home; then the eco driving application analysis the collected data.
Eco driving system analyses driving behavior and advises on improvement, focusing on four key areas: acceleration, gear changes, average speed and deceleration.

Eco-driving is a way of driving that reduces fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and accident rates. Eco-driving is about driving in a style suited to modern engine technology: smart, smooth and safe driving techniques that lead to average fuel savings of 5-10%. The performance on early gear changes, efficient deceleration and steady average speed, which contributes to a more efficiently engine running and lower fuel consumption. Meanwhile smooth acceleration reduces fuel consumption, noise and noxious emissions. (See appendix Figure 3: Contribution to total eco-driving changes) As an important component of sustainable mobility, eco-driving considerably contributes to climate protection and pollution reduction (the concept of eco-driving) Introduction of Eco-driving concept reflects that automobile manufacturers are seeking for any available approach to sustainable development. They are under way to reach expanded use of eco drive indicator and eco mode to help drivers learn about environmentally considerate driving. Therefore, performances on CSR have a positive effect on sustainable development of automobile corporations.

CO2 emission perspective and development of Electric hybrid vehicles technology

The CO2 emission level is quite different in various regions worldwide. USA and Canada present an advance of CO2 emissions from road transport comparatively to 1990-2007 emission levels, with the largest increase (40.31%) in Canada. Throughout the entire 27 countries in Europe, total CO2 emissions have decreased by 7.17% from 1990-2007. However, consistent with other large economies such as Russia, USA and Canada, road transport CO2 emissions over the same year period have grew up to 28.31%. To make sure a decrease in the transport related CO2 emissions in future, it is essential that countries import or produce cleaner vehicles, use low-sculpture and unleaded fuels, and increase the turn-over rate of their ageing vehicle fleet. Of total transport CO2 emissions in all countries surveyed, road transport contributed the vast majority of greenhouse gas emissions to the sector. Moreover, the figures (See appendix figure 4) show North America will continue to be the largest CO2 emissions region with increases year by year. Developing countries such as China has well advance in auto industry which gives rise to further CO2 emissions. Instead, Europe and Pacific area stay steady or even a decrease to the 2050. (World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 2010)

The issues of global warming and greenhouse gas are regard as the two main reasons which lead to introduce of hybrid vehicle. A hybrid electric vehicle is defined as a type of hybrid vehicle either electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. The presence of the electric power train is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle, or better performance. Fossil fuels are still the majority power for the cars at present; while the fuels sources are limited utilization for human beings. Therefore, it is very necessary to respond to the need for alternative fuels efforts to conserve existing oil resources. There are a variety of alternative fuel candidates, including bio fuels, natural gas, electric power and hydrogen. It is necessary to take a range of factors into account in order to determine which source to choose. According to electric power can generate various primary energy sources from sunlight, hydraulic power and other renewable and clean energy. As the most familiar power to people, electric power is applied in a large amount of fields. It is also considered to be convenient and low cost energy. Moreover, it is easily supplied for automobile use. Electric power therefore becomes a very promising energy source among many alternatives.

A case research on Toyota hybrid vehicles:

Background:

In 1993, large and luxurious vehicles were still prized. Toyota made itself a question: “Can vehicles in the upcoming twenty-first century remain the same as they have been up to now?” It was during this time, when the term “hybrid” was not yet in common use, Toyota launched a project to investigate what type of vehicles would be best. However, a short time later, global environmental issues including global warming and the limits of fossil fuels became increasingly prominent. Accordingly hybrid system is one of the responses to those serious problems. The precise symbol of this approach is the Prius, which is known as the representative hybrid vehicle. (Toyota)

Achievements of Toyota Prius and impacts on automobile industry:

Toyota Prius is the world’s top selling hybrid car, with cumulative global sales of 2.2 million. It account for 72% in 3.03 million hybrid vehicles worldwide since 1997 when Toyota first rolled out the Prius in Japan. (Rybold, 2011) Accumulated CO2 reduction from 1997 to 2010, with 2.5 million hybrid vehicles by Toyota reached about 14 million tons of emission. Besides, the figure demonstrates the contributions to reduce CO2 emissions growing up rapidly. The prominent development of Prius was based on the distinguished R&D and sensible sustainable concept. Toyota has adopted a sustainable mobility concept seeking ultimate eco-vehicle that vehicles coexist harmoniously long into the future. In addition, Prius technology that controls the hybrid system achieves excellent energy efficiency and low fuel consumption. The achievement on Toyota Prius sets a good example to other auto manufacturers. It not only gear up the technology of hybrid vehicles, but also encourage the auto manufacture industry towards an advanced field.

Summing-up:

Achievement on Toyota Prius leads the evolution of hybrid vehicles in automobile industry. Moreover, it coalesces the concept of environment protection and sustainable development, meanwhile demonstrates doing CSR in favor of sustainable development.

Automobile recycling

Vehicle recycling is the dismantling of vehicles for spare parts. At the end of their useful life, vehicles have value as a source of spare parts and this has created a vehicle dismantling industry. According to the alliance of automobile manufacturers and recycling industry, cars become one of the most recycled consumer items. Approximately 82 percent of an average vehicle’s weight gets recycled. Automakers often manufacture recycled materials into new vehicles; however recycled materials are used in the production process in recent years. Since vehicles recycling industry is considered as an essential partner to auto industry, which promotes sustainable development. To the auto manufacturer industries, they reduced resources use in process of manufacture, for instance, GM decreased water use of 35% from 2005 to 2009. Components of vehicles are divided into more than 10 parts for recycling in UK. Ferrous metal account for almost 70 %, plastics and non-ferrous metals each occupies about 10%. Others take few such as electrical parts, glass, tires and rubber etc. (Vehicle Recycling & The Environment) for this reason, auto producers are needful consult details on components recycling with recycling companies, which makes sense on efficient recycling and reuse in produce process. Meanwhile, increase in utilization of raw material and energy, recyclable productions, high efficient recycling of components, these factors active sustainable development in auto manufacture industry.

On the other side, with the increasing number of end of life vehicles every year, in 1997, the European Commission adopted an instance for a directive with the propose of making vehicle dismantling and recycling more environmentally friendly, sets clear quantified targets for reuse, recycling and recovery of vehicles and their components and pushes producers to manufacture new vehicles also with a view to their recyclability. This legislation was officially adopted by the EP and Council in 2000, and it was improved to a secondary legislation in 2002. (End of Life Vehicles) ELV legislation had good effect on old vehicle resources squander away until the end of its life. However, second hand vehicle is a kind of automobile industry derivative; they are also an important sector for sustainable development.

Conclusion:

One of the most popular climate changes, global warming leads the greenhouse gas emissions to the top topic in worldwide at the time being. Accordingly, public responds to take action for environmental protecting. As a significant part of CSR, protect environment giving rise to the establishment of sustainable development project. Automobile manufacture as the third largest industry has great responsibility on the present climate issues. The CSR concept aroused automobile manufacturers making contribution to environment sustainable development consciously. The automotive emission regulations and fuel taxation succeed in restrict automobiles

Integrated approach will achieve the best results if cooperation of all stakeholders, including fuel makers, vehicle suppliers and consumers through joint activities on the global level will take place.

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Critical Study of the Development of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine at Cliff Searle

Abstract

The completion of this project would not have been possible without the help and assistance of my supervisor Prof. Paul Wagstaff and Kingston University lab technicians Dean Wells and Cliff Searle. Tremendous thanks must be given for all of their time and efforts in aiding with this investigation. It served as a good insight to the nature of an engineering project and the considerations which must be taken in order to stick to given deadlines.

Project Introduction

Types of Wind Turbine

The type of turbine is defined by its method of creating rotation; lift or drag based. An example of a drag based turbine is the Savonius Wind Turbine design, Fig 1. Whereas a drag powered turbine uses the pressure difference on either side of the turbines axis to force rotation, a lift powered turbine utilises pressure differences around the surface of the blade itself. All modern turbines are lift based machines as even though drag based designs have improved significantly, the limitations involved are much greater than those of lift based turbines. According to Gipe, (1995, p171) “When examining the portion of the frontal area covered by the wind turbines blades, lift devices easily produce at least 50 times more power per unit blade area than drag devices.”

Lift devices are then further defined by the orientation of their rotating axis or prop shaft; either vertical or horizontal axis. The two solutions each have their own relative advantages and disadvantages and therefore are suited for different applications.

Horizontal axis wind turbines face the wind and use the lift produced to rotate the blades perpendicular to the wind direction. The gearbox and generator are usually located in the ‘hub’ at the top of the tower.

Horizontal axis systems operate at a lower RPM but higher torque and can be more efficient than equivalently sized vertical axis systems. As they can be manufactured on a much larger scale they can produce much higher maximum power ratings also. Modern turbines incorporate a pitching device to allow the blades to reduce the lift they provide in high winds in order to prevent damage to the system without completely shutting down.

The size of the large horizontal turbines however means they require larger average wind speeds to overcome the very large inertial forces to self start. It also then makes them very expensive to produce, transport, install and maintain. This is not helped by the fact the machinery is located at the top of the high towers.

Horizontal systems must also face the wind in order to extract its energy so requires a yaw mechanism so it can reorient itself when the wind changes direction. This occurs electronically via internal motors with the larger turbines although simpler devices such a tailfin can be incorporated into smaller designs. This extra mechanical requirement only adds to the cost of installing and maintaining a large horizontal axis turbine.

Figure 2 – Vestas V164 7.0MW HAWT c/o http://www.vestas.com

Horizontal axis wind turbines therefore, such as the Vestas V164, Fig 2, are usually deployed where the wind is relatively high, constant and predictable, usually either offshore or in sparsely populated areas to minimise visual impact for local residents.

Vertical axis wind turbines operate at a higher RPM but lower torque than equivalent horizontal turbines. They can also accept wind from any direction so require no yaw mechanisms for when the wind changes direction.

As they are generally smaller they create less visual objection and rotate with less noise.

The fact the gearbox and mechanisms do not need to be as high as horizontal axis wind turbines means they are cheaper to install and maintain.

If the wind speed does exceed the maximum, unlike the horizontal, the vertical axis turbine cannot pitch down its blades and must shut down to prevent the system being damaged. It is for these reasons that vertical turbines are suited to urban areas where wind direction can be lower and more unpredictable, as well as having less impact on the people living in the area. A common vertical axis wind turbine being installed is the Quiet Revolution QR5, Fig 3.

Wind Turbine Theory

In order to complete the project successfully a solid understanding of the wind turbine principles that will affect its performance must be grasped so that they are considered during the design process.

The aim of the turbine is to convert the energy in the wind into a useful form of energy, namely electrical energy. It does the by capturing the wind and rotating to drive a generator which converts the kinetic energy into stored electrical energy. The turbine blades of lift based devices are airfoil profile shapes which utilise the lift produced to convert it to a rotational force, i.e. Torque.

The lift acts perpendicular to mean chord on a symmetrical airfoil profile. Because of this a vertical axis turbine can only utilise a certain component of this lift force due to the nature of its rotation.

Figure 4 – VAWT Blade Vector Diagram c/o http://www.traviscarrigan.com

An optimum angle of attack must be achieved so that the profile is generating enough lift although with vertical axis wind turbines, if the angle of attack is too high the drag increases to the point where the resultant torque output is reduced.

Horizontal axis turbines can operate at much higher angles of attack so that more of the lift is converted to rotational torque.

Betz Limit

The energy transfer between kinetic energy in the wind and the turbine cannot be 100% efficient. The limit of the maximum fraction of power any turbine can extract from the wind can be shown mathematically to be 16/27 – or 59.3%. This occurs when the velocity reduction ratio (b) is 1/3, Swift-Hook (2011). The velocity reduction ratio is the ratio between the relative speeds of the incoming wind to the wind leaving the turbine.

The turbine system will also inevitably not be 100% mechanically efficient so the Betz limit of 59.3% is an ideal that can never be achieved. The most efficient modern turbines operate at 35-40% efficiency.

Cyclic Loading

As it is only when the blades are travelling into the wind they create lift, and therefore rotational force, the torque output of the turbine operates cyclically. Some turbine designs, such as the Quiet Revolution QR5 vertical axis wind turbine, Fig 3, have blades which occupy a range of angular locations and create lift along its complete length. This reduces, if not eliminates, the cyclic loading effects.

Reynolds Number

The Reynolds number is a dimensionless value which represents a ratio between the inertial and viscous forces of an object moving through a fluid. As it travels through the molecules of the gas they effectively attach to the surface of the object, creating what in known as a ‘boundary layer’. This boundary layer effects the aerodynamic properties of the object as molecules outside of it react with it as they would the object itself. This boundary layer is very complex to calculate and predict. The Reynolds number serves to provide a numerical, more objective description of the surface conditions so that the behaviour of the object can be better predicted and compared in experimental conditions.

The Reynolds number is calculated as follows:

Where: ? = density of the fluid

? = dynamic viscosity of the fluid

? = kinematic viscosity

V = relative velocity of the object to the fluid

L = the length the fluid travels

The higher the Re number, the better the attached flow over the object. Wortman (1983, p76) notes however that ‘small scale model tests are of questionable value because aerodynamic performance of the blades deteriorates at low Reynolds numbers.’

Solidity

The parameter ‘solidity’ is a ratio of the combined blade area to the total swept area of the turbine. It is a critical factor for designers of wind turbines. To determine the solidity the following equation can be used, Paraschivoiu (2002, p57):

Where: n = number of blades

C = chord length of the blades

S = total swept area of the turbine

L = the length the blades

Tip Speed ratio

A crucial factor in ensuring the turbine operates at maximum output is determining the optimum tip speed ratio, ?. This is the ratio of tip speed compared with the speed of the wind which powers it. If the turbine rotates at a ? which is too small most of the wind will pass undisturbed through the structure, meaning it is not extracting as much energy as possible. On the other hand if the blades travel at a ? which is too high, the blades will be travelling through disturbed air from the previous one, lowering the aerodynamic efficiency, or even effectively acting as a wall blocking the wind from passing altogether (Manwell et al). Solidity of the blades will also have an effect on its output. Solidity is defined as the blade area divided by the total swept area of the turbine blades and the result is effectively a ratio.

Project Definition

The objective of this project is to redesign the existing vertical axis wind turbine and construct a functional model to test in the Kingston University wind tunnel. The project utilises previous investigations, most notably for the existing model components.

Previous experiments have operated the turbine with a negative angle of attack meaning direct numerical comparisons will be limited. Recommendations on the design of the turbines construction will be taken on during the design phase in order to maximise the probability of a successful outcome.

The parameters of the turbine will be defined based on basic wind turbine principles so that their effects can be observed on testing.

Recommendations for further investigations or development of the current design will also be made.

Project Aims

The primary aim of the project is to gather experimental data to analyse in order to validate the design changes.

During the design phase specific focus will be given to reducing the start up speed of the turbine as this will give the design a distinct advantage for real world applications. The method for achieving this will be to reduce the moment of inertia of the turbine by manufacturing a lighter blade design.

The testing will also be based around investigating the effect of the augmenter on turbine output.

Another parameter under investigation is the maximum achievable power of the turbine. This will be deduced by applying various loads under various wind velocities.

Project Deliverables

The deliverables associated with achieving the aims of the investigation are as follows:

A Project Planning Report
New blade concept design
Detailed blade design
CAD model
Engineering Drawings
Blade manufacture
Complete turbine assembly
Wind tunnel analysis
Seminar presentation and Poster
Final Report

Background

The turbine consists of an internal rotating structure surrounded by a metal augmenter which aims to direct the airflow onto the blades in a more controlled manner. The blades are a NACA 0018 symmetrical airfoil profile and are constructed out of fibreglass with a rapid prototype core mesh. The complete turbine can be seen in Fig 5.

Figure 5 – Previous Turbine Design

The mechanism employed to allow a range of pitch angles (+5o to -10o) in the previous model can be seen below in Fig 6. The angle of attack was altered by rotating it about a pivot using a bracket with an extended slot. This was then secured in place by a small nut. It appears this was not strong enough as a shaft extending from the central spindle to the blade was also added to give extra strength to the trailing edge.

Figure 6 – Previous Pitch Fixing Mechanism

There are 2 bearings mounted into two steel crosspieces to support the turbine, which in turn is supported by a large lattice framework. Below the turbine is a torque box hub concentric with the shaft.

The augmenter consists of eight folded steel surfaces around the circumference to direct the airflow onto the incoming blades, simultaneously increasing its lift while decreasing the drag of the system as a whole by directing it away from the blades travelling out of the wind. The turbine is omni-directional meaning it should produce the same results regardless of wind direction. The upper and lower surfaces connecting the vertical surfaces are tapered toward the turbine to direct more of the available wind onto the blades.

The previous model had been completed yet was not constructed to the optimum configuration that has been described. Also the maximum wind speed had been exceeded when it was placed in the wind tunnel which led to a catastrophic failure of the model as the RPM was too high and an imbalance in the rotor mass led to vibration, causing a collision between the turbine and augmenter. The augmenter was also distorted.

Literature Review

Ben Davis (2009)

Ben Davis investigated various blade vertical lean angles to assess the optimum configuration. The conclusion was that 0o, i.e. no lean, gave the best power output results.

The absolute data and results will not be comparable for this investigation though as the blades were pitched at a negative angle of 10o.

David Camacho – Kingston University

David Camacho identified that the ratio of the blades height (h) and the diameter of their rotation (d) plays a vital role in the overall efficiency and power output of a vertical axis wind turbine. This was determined to be at its optimum at h/d = 0.625 and has been shown that any deviation from this has a detrimental effect on the results so it is this attribute which took priority during the design process.

David also investigated various vertical lean angles of the blades by using CAD and CFD to derive as above that 0o is indeed the optimum position.

Max McDougall (2010)

Max McDougall’s investigation is the latest and much of the previous structure has been salvaged in order to save time where manufacturing new components would be unnecessary. The data however is of very limited use for comparison as Max pitched the blades at -10o (with the leading edge closer to the axis of rotation than the trailing edge) – despite him quoting it to be +10o. For this reason the real data produced is redundant for the current investigation.

The start up speed for the turbine was found to be reduced from 9m/s to 4m/s when the augmenter was included although without it required a manual start by hand. The upper limit of the wind speed in this investigation was over 20m/s – the current investigation would not expect to expose the wind turbine to such high speeds.

It was also noted that the investigation should be restricted to operating the turbine at below 200rpm as deflections in the blades and prop shaft were visible at these speeds. This also is expected to be exceeded.

Design Concept Generation

Assessment

Once an understanding of the task was gathered, work began on appraising the existing structure and assessing which remaining parts could be salvaged for the rebuild. The triangular pieces which fix the blades to the central spindle would have to be recycled regardless as they were costly and complex to manufacture. This was a driving factor with regard to optimising the height to diameter ratio.

As mentioned previously the structure had failed catastrophically so deconstruction of certain elements was not as straightforward as possible. Once the frame was removed the cruciform pieces fixing the centre spindle to the supports were easily removed. The augmenter could then be removed leaving the skeleton of the turbine itself. Members that had been added to secure the blade angles had snapped leaving the remains of its shaft in the central nut securing main shaft. This subsequently had to be sawn off as the thread of the main spindle had been ruined. After cutting the thread again the remaining nut was removed and the model reduced to its component parts.

Design Concept

The decision was taken to reduce the height of the turbine blades to meet the h/d requirements for sake of time and ease of manufacture. The height of the blades was determined by the existing diameter which currently was 0.42m, hence:

To reduce the weight as far as possible it was decided to manufacture them as a hollow structure from a lightweight composite material. This led to a concept which involves producing the complete blade as two separate halves and bonding them together.

Detailed Design
Blade Design

As mentioned the blade concept is to have them as light as possible and achieving this with a hollow composite structure. The final design is shown below in Fig 7. The outermost shell is 265mm long at its outer edge. The end caps are thicker than the aerodynamic surface to aid its strength and allow for tapping threaded holes for assembly. This is the same on the inner shell so that the end caps have three times the thickness of the aerodynamic surface once assembled.

Figure 7 – Blade Concept Design

The internal profile of the end caps for the inner shell must be altered from the basic NACA 0018 to allow for mating. This profile is shown in Fig 8.

Figure 8 – Internal Blade Profile

Material Selection and Manufacture

The blades were manufactured using ‘Depression Moulding’, Gay & Hoa (2007, p19). One mould and blade half was made initially so that the thickness and finish could be assessed. Producing them in this way meant the exact length required for the opposite halve could be achieved and incorporated into the opposite mould.

The material used for the blades is Kingston University stock composite of bi-dimensional woven prepreg Carbon Fibre with E650-02 42% Resin.

As the material was hand laid and with prepreg the only consideration was the angular direction when defining the construction. Having a symmetrical layup is very important as unsymmetrical laminae cause a warped final product as a result of the curing and cooling cycle. A bending-extension coupling, Bij ? 0, occurs where a force is exerted in the x and y direction of the lamina, Barbero (2011, p182). The definition of a balanced laminate is that ‘for every +? there is another at –?…; and for each 0o lamina there is a complimentary 90o lamina with the same thickness and material’ Barbero (2011, p184) – although as mentioned the material and thickness considerations is negated by the use of prepreg.

The laminar orientation is symmetrical and balanced at [0/90/0/90].

CAD Design

A CAD model was produced for the entire assembly using the SolidWorks package, in order to assess its physical parameters at the design stage, Fig XXX.

Figure 9 – Complete Turbine Model

The final turbine design has the following physical parameters:

Blade Height (m)0.265
Turbine Diameter (m)0.424
h/D0.625
Swept Area (m^2)0.112
Blade Chord (m)0.078
Blade Area (m^2)0.02067
Number of Blades3
Solidity5.519

Manufacture
Blades

To manufacture the moulds a SolidWorks CAD model was made in order to be converted to an STL file which was loaded into the CNC milling machine, Fig 10, at Kingston University. The material chosen was high density foam readily available from university stock.

Figure 10 – Moulds in CNC Milling Machine

Once the moulds were completed they had to be finished by hand. This included filing down the sharp edges around the outside of the billet in order to prevent any damage to the bag in which it was to be cured. More importantly, the inner surface of the mould needed to be smoothed to an appropriate surface finish as any roughness would be shown on the aerodynamic surface of the blade as the Carbon Fibre was cured in a vacuum. This would be detrimental to the efficiency of the blade so a rough sand paper was used, followed by a fine grade.

Also in the corners the milling machine left a small radius form the tool. These were removed by hand to ensure a clean corner for mating of the two halves.

Once the finish was satisfactory, heat proof tape was laid onto the mould surface, Fig 11, to improve its smoothness and also to allow easier removal of the piece once it was cured. Special attention was given to minimise the overlapping or gaps down the span of the blade as these also would be visible on the blade surface.

The method of layup was to place the aerodynamic surface and end caps separately but with an overlap to form one solid piece.

The Carbon Fibre was removed from the freezer where it stored and allowed to defrost in its protective bag. The profiles for the surfaces and end caps were marked out at the appropriate angles to the composite orientation and labelled for order of insertion, Fig 12. The initial surface pieces were laid at the correct 265mm length, and then increased consecutively by 1mm to allow for the required overlap at the seams. The surface and end caps were laid in alternate order, also alternating orientation on each respectively for strength.

On the aerodynamic surface, four layers of Carbon Fibre were used but on each end six were applied. This then means that when the two halves are mated, each end is twelve layers thick – three times that of thickness along the blade span. This extra thickness allows depth for holes to be tapped to secure it to the turbine structure and also gives strength to allow the loads being applied to be transferred over a greater area, reducing the risk of failure.

After laying in each piece a roller was used to squeeze out any potential air pockets and while working the area was kept clean of dust or any small pieces of debris which may be added to the piece. The use of prepreg is useful for this as the resin content is higher than desired for the final part and the removal of this resin during curing helps to eliminate these. If any of these flaws in the material occurred they would create an impurity and potential weakness in the blade as it would act as a stress concentration point. Each 1% of these trapped in the laminate leads to a 7% reduction in intralaminar shear strength and any defects of 2% and above leads to a ‘significant reduction in compressive strength’, Barbero (2011, p74).

The theory of imbalanced laminae was proven as a [0, 30, 90, -30, 0] lay up was attempted initially. The piece was removed from the mould and was indeed warped, Fig 13, which was most likely caused by inaccurate application of the 30o and -30o lamina.

The completed layup was then wrapped in a breathable fabric. This will prevent any air pockets being caught in the bag under vacuum, Fig 15.

Figure 14 – Moulds Wrapped in Breathe

Figure 15 – 3 Moulds in Oven for Curing

Once the blades were laid in the mould the bag in which they were to be cured was prepared. The bag itself was cut to size and another sheet of the breather material inserted across the base for not only the mould to rest on but also for the nozzle. If this was not added the bag itself could be pulled onto itself, disabling the ability to remove all the air from the entire bag, rendering it useles.

The bag was then sealed with a double sided rubber tape, taking extra caution to lay the bag material down with no folds or creases which may allow the entrance of air during the curing process. The functionality of the bag was tested by applying the nozzle before it entered the oven for curing, Fig 14.

The entire apparatus was then placed in the oven for 1 hour at a temperature of 100oC.

Once one section was produced the locations with four layers were 0.8mm thick once cured and cooled, and the locations with 6 layers were 1.2mm thick. This meant the second mould could be made and had a length of 262.6mm, with an altered profile of the end caps to incorporate the 0.8mmm reduction on the top half of the airfoil.

Once the two halves were removed from their moulds, excess material was removed by filing it down. The excess material refers to small flanges which were created from the sheets being laid slightly over the side of the mould and also the radii on the internal corners of the longer half which may prevent the blade mating as intended when the shorter half was inserted into place. This process had to occur above an extractor fan whilst wearing a face mask as the airborne fibres created can cause severe damage to the lungs if inhaled.

To bond the pieces to form a complete aerofoil araldite was applied to where the end surfaces meet as well as along the leading and trailing edges and the whole thing clamped together while the adhesive set, Fig 1

As the leading and trailing edges had a thickness of approximately 0.8mm and therefore a very small contact area for the adhesive to bond, a few small gaps still were visible. These would have a negative impact on the aerodynamic properties of the blades so a hardening filler was used roughly and filed down once set.

Assembly

Once all the components were ready the turbine was assembled in the machine workshop. One new auxiliary part was made from the previous assembly and that is shown in Fig 17. A piece of 5mm Aluminium was fabricated and folded, and threaded holes located to support the struts which fix the trailing edge. The previous design had inserted these struts into the nut on the central spindle. This however made disassembly difficult and the solution shown should resolve this. It also means there is more length of strut locked into not only the Aluminium but a further nut is added to increase its strength, following the recommendation of McDougall (2010, p38).

It is important that all three blades are identical in weight in order to minimise the imbalance which may occur when the turbine is rotating. As the turbine will operate at high RPMs any imbalance will have a great effect. Two of the blades weighed in at 52g and one was 53g. By re-bonding the metal end caps to the blades increased their weight slightly but meant it was possible to balance them perfectly. Once the correct configuration of blades and caps was found all three blades weighed 68g.

The central shaft also had to be turned down and threaded to allow assembly for the reduce turbine height.

Testing
Theory

The goal of the test is to measure the power output of the turbine at certain wind speeds. To do this, under a known load, the RPM of the turbine was measured so a value for the power produced could be calculated using:

Where: P = Power (W)

T = Torque (Nm)

? = Angular Velocity (rad/s)

The conversion of RPM to angular velocity is:

Knowing the amount of power produced by the turbine enables us to calculate a value for the coefficient of power under those conditions using, Paraschivoiu (2002, p320):

Where: ? = Air Density (kg/m3)

V0 = Wind Speed (m/s)

S = Blade Area (m2)

The pitch angle of the blades will be set at +5o as this is the angle for best L/D, Airfoil Investigation Databse – www.worldofkrauss.com.

Procedure

Two phases of testing took place in order to compare data to that of the previous design. Initially the turbine was exposed to the wind without any load and the wind velocity increased to the point where the turbine self started. This was then repeated with the augmenter added so that the effect on start up speed could be observed.

Then by applying various loads to the turbine at constant wind speeds, the maximum power for that wind speed can be found by plotting a graph of Power vs. ?. By repeating this at increasing wind speeds a curve of Maximum Cp vs. Wind Speed should identify a trend and possible suggestion of at what wind speed the absolute maximum power may be achieved.

When taking measurements of turbine RPM care must be taken to ensure the blades are not accelerating or decelerating. To ensure this the value on the Tachometer must remain constant for 20 revolutions or 30 seconds, whichever is greater.

To apply the load the test rig was assembled with a rope wrapped around the shaft of the turbine. On one end was a mass hanger, supported by a pulley and the other end was fixed to the supporting framework. By the end with masses a torque is applied to the shaft by way of friction from the rope. Using the following equations the torque being applied, and therefore the working torque of the turbine, can be calculated.

Where: T1 = Resultant resistance (N)

T2 = Tension (N)

? = Coefficient of friction

? = Angle of contact on shaft (rad)

The angle of contact on the shaft was set at 180o, which is ensured by maintaining the two lengths of tether were exactly parallel to each other, Fig 18. The coefficient of friction, ?, was found by experiment to be 0.917.

The resistance being applied to the shaft, found by resolving T1, can then be converted to an effective applied torque using the equation:

Where: T = Torque (Nm)

F = Force applied (N)

d = Shaft radius (m)

The power of the turbine under each condition can then be calculated using the equation below:

Where: P = Power (W)

T = Torque (Nm)

? = Angular Velocity (rad/s)

The graph of Torque vs. ? should be a linear function due to this equation. From this data a graph of Power vs. ? should be a polynomial curve with a maximum value occurring between maximum torque and maximum angular velocity.

The lattice framework was stiffened to minimise vibration and flutter effects when it was in operation. To do this it was first raised off from the relatively loose metal beams running parallel to the tunnel and rested on large masses. It was also weighed down by heavy objects from the wind tunnel lab, Fig 19.

Figure 19 – Lattice Framework Stiffening

The upper framework still felt unstable so it was G-clamped on both sides to the wind tunnel opening using surplus beams from the wind tunnel lab, Fig 20. These measures ensured there was minimal vibration caused by the framework itself being deflected in the wind.

Figure 20 – Lattice Framework Supports

The procedure was then repeated with the augmenter in place. The top section of the framework was removed as a whole, Fig 21 and the augmenter lifted over the top of the turbine. This allowed the turbine to remain in position and minimise any variables that might be affected. To secure the augmenter, an M10 thread was made in the lattice members so a long bolt could be screwed in. On the other side of the bracket a nut and washer were secured, Fig 22, to ensure no slippage of the augmenter which may lead to collision with the blades. This was identical at 4 locations on both top and bottom of the augmenter.

Results

The start up speed of the turbine without the augmenter was 4.8m/s and with the addition of the augmenter it was reduced to 1.1m/s.

Initially the turbine was run with no loading.

When the turbine was rotating at low wind speeds without the augmenter it did not acquire true lift and remained at a low RPM. It was not until the wind speed was raised to around 5m/s that the turbine would accelerate to a significant RPM. When the augmenter was added the turbine RPM at lower speeds was proportional to those at higher wind speeds. The results of increasing the wind velocity on RPM of the turbine are shown in Fig 23.

Figure 23 – Graph of Wind Speed vs. RPM

The wind speed at which the turbine would accelerate into lift appears to be correlated to the start up speed. When no load was applied and the turbine was in lift the relative RPMs with and without the augmenter are almost identical. It was also observed that the turbine acceleration would sharply increase once it had reached 150-165RPM.

The addition of the augmenter therefore also had a significant effect on maintaining a constant tip speed ratio at lower wind speeds because of this – displayed in Fig 24

Figure 24 – Graph of Wind Speed vs. Tip Speed Ratio

Loads were then applied at a wind speed where the turbine was in lift. The torque applied was proportional to the reduction in RPM for both cases, which was expected

Figure 25 – Graph of Torque vs. RPM without Augmenter

Figure 26 – Graph of Torque vs. RPM with Augmenter

The gradient of the trend lines serve as a good indication of the reliability of the results. All are relatively parallel, in both cases, except for at 8m/s with no augmenter. The trend line gradient exceeds that of the data at 9m/s which suggests the values found are too high. This would have been caused by anomalies or errors in the execution of the experiment. Looking at the trend line gradients for all speeds without the augmenter suggests the behaviour of the turbine is less predictable than when the augmenter is added.

Higher loads were applied than the data points shown although the turbine decelerated to zero in these cases and so has been omitted for the purpose of analysis. The complete data set can be found in Appendix 1.

Analysis

From the raw data displayed in the previous graphs, the power of the turbine could be calculated. The graph of turbine power is shown below for each case with (Fig 28) and without (Fig 27) the augmenter.

Figure 27 – Graph of Power vs. ? without Augmenter

Figure 28 – Graph of Power vs. ? with Augmenter

Polynomial trend lines have been added to predict the entire curve based on the data found. The peak of these curves indicates the optimum power and corresponding angular velocity for the investigated wind speeds. These figures were read off the graphs and then plotted as a series to compare the augmenter effect on maximum power at different wind speeds, see Fig 29.

Figure 29 – Graph of Max Power vs. Wind Speed

The augmenter appears to increase the power of the turbine at all wind speeds. The data from testing the turbine without the augmenter at 8m/s has been shown to be higher than is realistic. If this were to be repeated the maximum power at 8m/s could be expected to be around 0.8W in this configuration.

Evaluation and Discussion

There are several elements of the turbine assembly which can be improved to increase the efficiency and therefore the power output of the design.

Blades

The blades were a novel design and as a result were subject to imperfections because they are essentially the first article.

The surface of the blades after they had been cured had a very slightly rough texture. This will increase the skin friction drag when the turbine is in motion. Also there was remains of the adhesive from the tape which acted as a barrier between the piece and the mould. It was not possible to remove this although several methods were used. Thinners, ethanol and a heat gun were all used to no effect.

The process of filling the gaps post-bonding of the two halves also could have been improved as the trailing edge was not as thin as possible. This will induce extra drag as the air struggles to reform in the stream as the airfoil travels.

There was also audible rattling of auxiliary structure in the region of 550-600rpm. After examination this was found to be due to the screws inserted into the threaded holes on the blade ends. It was found that on one of the blades, the screw attaching the bracket closest to the leading edge was not locking when screwed up fully. This meant it was slightly loose and the bracket itself was vibrating. The turbine was run up to 800rpm in this state so there was no fear of failure yet it is not a desirable situation. The cause is down to the weak nature of the thread inside the composite. For future designs, a rawl plug or socket to support the screw.

Another source of inefficiency was the drag caused by strut members securing the blade pitch angle. If possible a design should be developed to secure the blades at the correct angle without these members.

Yet more inefficiency would have been caused by the spindle arm pieces which connect the blades to the shaft. From a previous experiment where the turbine failed and general wear and tear from others have left these pieces scuffed. At the extreme ends of these there are extension pieces to increase the turbine diameter. The mating of the two has left gaps which will trap air when it is rotating. Both of these factors will also increase the drag unnecessarily.

The augmenter was not altered in order to complete the project on time. The preferred option would be to shorten it down to leave approximately 10% of the blade height distance between the edge of the blade and the upper and lower cowling. Also the upper and lower rim itself would be at best effect at 30o to the incoming wind; it presently sits at around 10o. This would be a useful update for future investigations.

The testing procedure is open to scrutiny. The absolute value for power output is dependent on the coefficient of friction used between the tether and the shaft. The method for deducing this was to fix the turbine blades and place a mass hanger on two pulleys at either end of the tether. Imbalanced masses were added to the hangers and the rate of acceleration that the heavier one fell was calculated. Knowing the acceleration, a difference between that figure and 9.81m/s 2 of gravity was assumed to be caused by the friction applied at the shaft. This resistive force was converted to a friction coefficient for the materials. The timing of the falling masses was repeated 10 times and all values were in a range of 0.2 seconds. The value of 0.917 however seems high and errors may have occurred in either the timing or the height at which the masses were dropped.

This doesn’t mean the results are worthless though. As long as the same materials and hence coefficient of friction is used, which it was, then the varying results for different conditions are still valid if only as a comparison and therefore the aim of finding optimum conditions is still achieved.

A further alteration which would of much improvement to the investigation is the material used for this tether. At high applied loads then the tether ‘burned out’ as the turbine was at high RPMs also. This meant applying a new tether very often and possible discrepancies in the results. A better material or even better method, with greater accuracy would enable the absolute results to be much more reliable.

Conclusion

The addition of the augmenter not only greatly reduces the start up speed of the turbine but improves performance, especially at low wind speeds. When there is no loading and the turbine is in lift the augmenter does not affect the RPM however with no load the turbine is not useful. It is only when a load is applied that power can be extracted. The augmenter does have a significant effect on this and allows the turbine to not only operate with a higher power output but also appears to give greater predictability as a result of directing the airflow.

Recommendations

The following recommendations are made to improve the investigation in the future:


References

Gipe, Paul (1995) Wind Energy Comes of Age, John Wiley & Sons Inc, Canada

Davis, Ben (2009) Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blades for Urban Environments, Unpublished MEng Dissertation, Kingston University, London

Perera, Kapuruge (2009) Analysis and Development of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Unpublished Final Year Individual Project Report, Kingston University, London

Bhatt, Hardik (2009) Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Unpublished Final Year Individual Project Report, Kingston University, London

McDougall, Max (2010) Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Project, Unpublished Final Year Individual Project Report, Kingston University, London

Pathmanathan, A.V (2008) Analysis on a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Unpublished Final Year Individual Project Report, Kingston University, London

Gay, D & Hoa, Suong. V (2007) Composite Materials Design and Applications – 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis Group, USA

Barbero, E.J (2011) Introduction to Composite Materials Design – 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis Group, USA

Wortman, W. J (1983) Introduction to Wind Turbine Engineering, Butterworth Publishers, USA

Paraschivoiu, I (2002) Wind Turbine Design, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Canada

Airfoil Investigation Database, Available at http://www.worldofkrauss.com, accessed on 8/3/2011.

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Sustainable development toward an eco-build homes

Introduction

Sustainability in construction is a common issue today, ranging from sustainable design to sustainable technologies. These issues have made the United Kingdom’s Government push forward for alternative advances in various technologies and renewable energies. The government are also looking for any other strategies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions because the scientific evidence shows that the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions are growing rapidly in UK. Due to 47% of the national energy consumption that is used by the UK homes and domestic buildings regardless of when lighting, appliances and buildings are energy efficient as well as having zero carbon technologies are installed.

Due to the higher rate of energy consumption that homes in United Kingdom’s generate, the government came out with an idea that, all newly built homes in England and Wales should be built to zero carbon by 2016. By progressively tightening the energy efficiency building regulations by 25% in 2010; and by 44% by 2013 leading up to the zero carbon target in 2016.

Aim and Objective

The aim and objective of this project is to design a three bedroom family house that will achieve code level 6 zero carbon footprint. This can be done by using a sustainable and eco friendly materials. Research will also carried out on current zero carbon homes project and also looking into the past project that has already achieved code level 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Climate Change

The word of climate change is one of the biggest threats to the global environment especially to the developed country like UK. It needs an urgent and radical response if we want to secure and enhanced our prosperity and quality of life. The uses of fossil fuel (oil, coal and gas) for energy and transport has already damage our climate and as a result of this, the climate change is already having impact on our live and is expected to destroy the live hoods of many people in the developing world as well as ecosystem and species, The research carried out shows that greenhouse gasses is the main contributors to the climate change and the government are committed to reduce the production of greenhouse gasses particular on carbon dioxide. In November 2008, the climate change act became law this is because the government want to reduce carbon dioxide emission CO2 by a minimum of 26% by the year 2020 with a long time goal of 80% reduction by 2050.

The scientific evidence shows that 47% of carbon dioxide emission CO2 in the UK come from the energy used in our house and other domestic building e.g. hospital, school and offices. In other to eliminate carbon emissions from the built environment by 2050, we need to start making our building as energy efficient as possible and using on site renewable energy, community scale renewable and decarbonisation of the grid. The UK government has done a lot in other to achieve the commitment of the climate change Act by introducing mandatory energy performance certificate for sale and purchase of new and existing homes, The government banned incandescent light bulbs in favour of energy saving light bulb, introducing the climate change level where businesses must pay additional tax on their use that is non renewable energy and by passing energy act 2008 which introduce measure such as the feed in tariff, smart metering, renewable heat incentive and carbon capture & storage. The government even went as far as introducing the renewable obligation whereby all electricity suppliers must provide 10% of the electricity they sell from renewable sources.

The issue of the climate change is behind why we arrived on the sustainable development.

Sustainable Development

Sustainable development has become generally accepted as planning goals in UK, which was defined by Department of the Environment Transport and the Regions London (2000) as;

“The simple initiative of ensuring a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come”

The intention of the definitions is to achieve social, economic and environmental objectives and at the same time given us more inclusive society by which the benefit of increased economic prosperity are widely shared, with less pollution and more efficient use of natural resources.

The key objective of achieving the sustainable development is as follow;

The sensible use of natural resources
The effective protection of the environment
Maintaining high levels of economic growth and employment
Social progress that recognises the needs of everyone

The sustainable development is a serious matter because need for growth is becoming huge as ever especially in a developing world. At this point of time, the environments are struggling to cope with the current levels of consumptions, e.g. Energy Consumption which is having huge impact on the climate change. The government has to come out with a new way of meeting people’s need, prospect and aspiration to ensure that our economy, society and environment grow and develop in harmony. We should also know that, the design and construction of a building play major role in contributing to the sustainable development. The issues of sustainable development lead us to the sustainable design which concentrates on how individual or groups of building complies with the objective of sustainable development. This is by ensuring that the sustainable designs are;

The construction of buildings should minimises the amount of resources they use, including energy, waste and pollution
The materials used for construction should be environmentally and eco friendly
The existing built fabric should be re-used as far as possible
Buildings are energy efficient

The issue of sustainable design usually focus on long term benefit rather than short term saving reason is that, sustainable building will cost less to build and has smaller impact on the environment in terms of natural resources that are used during the construction.

Literature Review

Scope of the Chapter

This chapter explains what zero carbon homes is also the sustainable principle and sustainable codes. All relevant building regulations especially Part L 2006 will be looking at in other to accomplish the aim of the project. Analysing case study on the previous project that already achieved code level 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6

Conclusion

Research will be on case studies, materials and design of past projects will be discussed and at a later date incorporated it into proposed three bedrooms family house.

The discussion on how the building will achieve code level 6 will on be considered in the chapter and the consumption of energy that the house use will also be detailed.

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Study of economic growth and development China

Introduction:

Economists have during recent time associated economic growth to research and development ability of a country. One of such economic models is called the endogenous growth model. According to the endogenous growth model, research and development is a key driver of technological innovations using human resources capital and the existing knowledge (Romer, 1986). This theory goes on to state that innovation is then used to produce goods which will contribute to the permanent increase in the growth rate of output. Innovations that are endogenously created are essential to a sustainable economic growth. Research & Development therefore can be regarded as an engine for the creation new technology and goods.

China has a long history of research and development. The ancient China is celebrated for having invented paper, printing, compass and gun powder. China has also made great invention in the agricultural sector as well as in the astronomy (Sevin 1982). From 1946 to 1970, China pursued a socialist agenda with government playing the central role of coordinating all state affairs. Even though China was considered as a low income country during this period, it invested a lot into Research and Development motivated in order to become a world military power. Elite research institutes such as the Chinese Academy of Sciences were created to support the research and development and China rapid progress in nuclear technology, space technology, and genetic engineering in the 1960s and 1970 testifies to the partial success of this system. However as the Soviet Union was suddenly divided in the 1960, this advancement could not be sustained because China was then dependent on the importation of Technology from its main ally the Soviet Union. Beginning from the period of Chinese economic reform in 1979, Research and Development in China experienced two transitions: first, from plan to market economy as it moves away from a centrally directed innovation system, secondly, from low income developing country toward Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) industrialised country status as it intensifies its innovation effort and more effectively deploys the ensuing technological gains. According to the comparative measures of R&D intensity among countries of OEC from 1991 to 2003, China’s R&D intensity rose to 1.4 percent.

Beginning from 1980 to 1990, the central government of China in its bid to catch up with other developed countries decided to formulate and finances science and technology programme throughout the countries. Programmes such as the 863 project and the 973 project were designed to promote science and technology capabilities and to catch up with the growing technological and innovation gap between China and the West. Other programmes such as the Torch programme were designed to support local high –tech industries by providing direct government grant and tax incentives to industries. This essay focuses on the Chinese National R&D (863) programme. The objective there is to critically examine the programme, evaluate its output and impact and provide recommendation for its future directions (Naughton,2007).

National High-Tech R&D (863) Programme in Brief

The National High-Tech Research and Development Programme also known as the 863 programme came into being on the 3rd March 1986, when four top China scientists addressed a private letter to Deng Xiaoping, the then Leader of the China calling for the establishment of an Elite project devoted to technology that would make china the “xin jinshu geming” the new technological revolution. Deng Xiaoping agreed and approved the proposal and directed that action must be taking immediately to implement the programme. The project was then codenamed 863 programme for the year and the month of its birth.

The 863 Programme has set as objective to provide funding for technological research and innovation which were of a strategic importance to the economic and social development of China. It was expected that the programme will enable China achieve a technological “leap frog” especially in areas were China already enjoys a relative advantages and support the implementation of the third phase of china modernisation process. In recent years, the programme has been extended to include the development of key technologies, in agriculture, biology, environmental protection, renewable energy and information technology.

Policy Context and Implementation

The programme 863 can be described as part of the general reform efforts that begun in 1979. It was important to move the country away from the socialist approach which was more focused in investing in military research which did help improve the Chinese people wellbeing. The Chinese government also believed that a reform of the economy was important as it will enable a rapid economic growth, improvement on technological innovation and fast infrastructure development that will improve the quality of life of Chinese people.

The 863 programme was constituted of an emerging China’s high-technology sector, which includes a number of high level government agencies, state-run research institutes, public and a growing private R&D investment funds. The programme could be described as an attempt of the government’s openness policy adopted toward international trade and foreign investment by providing investment attraction to foreign investors through tax incentives and co-investment in research. The project came to being at a time the government needed to find a lasting solution to its energy needs which became high as the volume of industries and the number of imported cars have increase dramatically. According to the New Yorker, by 2001, more than two thousand new cars were bought in China everyday and millions of barrels were imported from outside and depended of its coals to generate more eighty percent of its energy. This phenomenon was rendering China very polluted and the impact of climate change could undermine China’s future stability. It was therefore for China to develop new technology to find new solution to its energy and pollution management. The central government wanted to focus on the development renewable energy and as a result made available direct significant public funding to research, product development and application of technologies in the renewable sector. The Ministry of Science and Technology is the lead body in charge of developing science and technology strategy, policy and coordinating other government agencies that were involved in the implementation of the project. Other institutions such as the Chinese Academy of science, the Natural foundation Committee and the Academy of Engineering were also playing important roles in the allocation of funding to research institutes.

Funding and Impact

Data from the Ministry of Science and Technology reveals a continuing growth in the Chinese Expenditure on Research and Development. In 1996 the gross domestic expenditure on R&D was 404 million Yuan and by 2006 the figure has increased to 3003 million Yuan. China currently spends almost 1.5 percent of it of its GDP on research and Development. China’s expenditure on R&D can be regarded as high considering the fact that the living standard of living is still low. By comparison the level of expenditure among OECD countries ranges between 2-3 percent. China is the only low and middle country that depicts such intensity on Research and Development expenditure (UNDP 2001). The government of China is the principal provider of funds for the realisation of the programme. Data from figure 2 shows that government funding is around seventy percent of the total fund that the programme attracted in 2006. Other sectors such the Businesses and Foreign Direct Investment also contribute to funding R&D.

Figure 1. Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D, 1996-2006

Source: Ministry of Science and Technology 2007

Figure 2: GERD by source of funds and sector performance

Source: MOST 2007

Even though it is believed that the 863 programme has immensely contributed to the China’s recent technological and industrial development an examination of the impact is required to justify the large amount of fund pumped in to the programme. The 863 programme is heavily dependent on government fund. At the beginning of every year the commission in charge of award of grant set it objectives and calls for bid. The government intention is just to fulfil its catch up agenda with the west. Researchers and research institutes that are involved in the programme are therefore under indirect pressure to deliver the set objectives. As a result Research and Development is often riddled with plagiarism, falsification of data and conflict of interest. In 2004, the popular Chinese researcher from Shanghai Jiao tang University, Chen Jin was involved in a fakery scandal after having received more than ten million dollar in grant to produce a Chinese microchip to rival the American Intel. The situation is a rampant one among Chinese academics and researchers and the reason is that because it is public fund that is involved many researchers are afraid of taking risk since failure may be expensive to them and to the government as this may mean waste of fund among public opinions.

According to information from the Ministry of Science and Technology, the 863 programme was a successful project as it helps China invent new technology such as the world First man –loading HTS Maglev, the Third Generation Intelligent Robot that can move freely and avoid barriers and able to talk with human within a certain distance and the Atmosphere and Environmental Monitoring Laser just to mention few. Considering the amount of money the Chinese government spend on Research and Development it is not encouraging to say that China high tech export is highly dominated by foreign investment. According to report from OECD, in 2006, China surpassed the European Union, the US and Japan to become the world largest exporter of high-tech. This is mainly due to the relocation of production capacities of multinational enterprises into China. The China technological advancement has little to do with the indigenous High Tech market. Most of the firms producing High Tech goods in China are mostly foreign companies; China only contributes in labour term (Xing, 2010).

The 863 programme in its conception cannot be said to be a programme which has been designed to promote R&D in China. The central government plan was to improve the image of China and it is purely the continuity of the socialist agenda. The only change is that, instead of developing military capabilities, the Deng Xiaoping administration decided to focus on economic catch up. All the projects that were executed under the programme cannot be described as things that will contribute to long term economic growth of China. In the infrastructural and construction area, it is a fact that that the programme has helped China to achieve a historical record in road, railways and airline development. Between 2000 and 2005, the road length in China has increased from 250.700 km to about 1, 930,500 km. Also the Railways have experienced a rapid development. China now has double tracked rails of 25, 000km and electrified rail of 20,000 km. The civil airline has also been developed and today China has become world second largest air transporter after the United States (Liang Chuan, 2008). Some may argue that China needs all these infrastructural development to elevate its status to a developed country. There is even a Chinese old saying which says that “If you want to be rich, you must first build road”. But the problem is all these constructions are heavily dependent on public fund and no other country spend so much on infrastructure as China does. According to one study it is estimated that China will need to spend around $132 billion ever year from 2006 to 2010 to maintain these constructions. Moreover the central government does not take into account the social cost of all these development projects for the common Chinese people in terms of lost of land and environmental problems. The speed at which these projects are executed also poses a problem of quality and standard in the construction and engineering process. In October 1999, the $52 million 0ne half mile-long Zhaona Mountain bridge which was built over the young river in Ningbo started to has sways and shack a month before its opening date and inspectors discovered cracks caused by engineering and design flaws. So also in the month January of same year 1999, two bridges collapsed in two different places killing 47 people and injuring more than 30 others (Hays 2008).

Another core problem with the 863 programme was the incentive packages the central government made available to motivate researchers and R&D firms. It is believed that the central government support to R&D through the 863 programme has contributed to the rapid rise of China in the patent applications. Data for figure 3 from the Ministry of Science and Technology shows that the total domestic patent applications increased from 383.157 to 470,342 between 2005 and 2006. The design applications increased from 151,587 to 188,027 within the same year. This tremendous achievement can on the one side be attributed to the zeal and hard work of Chinese researchers but on the hand it can be attributed to the incentives made available by the central government.

Figure 3 Patent application filed and patents granted by SIPO

Source: Ministry of Science and Technology, 2007

The 863 programme put in place incentive packages ranging from tax reduction to several concessions. In a paper published the Economist title “Innovation in China: Patents yes ideas maybe” it was stated that “Professors who do are more likely to win tenure. Workers and students who file patents are more likely to earn a hukou (resident permit) to live in a desirable city. For some patents government pays cash bonuses for others it covers the substantial cost of filling. Corporate income tax can be cut down from 25% to 15% for firms that file many patents. They are also more likely to win lucrative government contracts. One could say the patents applications filed did not mean so much to the applicants compared to the gains and interest the application may yield for them. Therefore the quality and originality, patents designs, and inventions were questionable.

Closely link to this argument is that fact the 863 programme did not promote the culture of innovation among Chinese researchers and enterprises. The Ministry of Science and Technology which is the principal government agency coordinating the 863 programme stated that one of the key objectives of the programme was to strengthen the innovation capabilities of Chinese researchers and enterprises so that they can become technical bodies that will support the national aspiration of China to achieve socio-economic development. The programme supported some innovative ideas such as the development of an Intelligent Robot, the Coal-fired MHD Power Generation and the Experimental Fast Reactor. Otherwise, most realisations under the 863 programme were heavily dependent on importation of technologies. The programme was following the international high technological development but did not focus on the development of local indigenous technology (Chunliang, 2008).

Conclusion

The 863 programme has enabled the Chinese government to achieve a considerable economic and industrial advancement. In order to consolidate all these achievement is important that the 863 programme be reformed to rather focus its attentions on promoting indigenous innovative research and development activities which can turn China into technological advanced country. Incentives and motivational elements in the programme for researchers and private investors should also be reviewed as this may put local investors at a competitive advantage over foreign investors and deter them from investing into R&D in China. Finally Chinese Government has to enforce the weak intellectual property right regime in existence at the moment.

References

ROMER, P. (2005) “Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth” Journal of Political Economy, 94 (5):1002-1037

SAMINI, J. A & ALERASOUL, S. M. (2009) “R&D and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Some Developing Countries” Australian Journal of Basic Applied Sciences, 3(4):3464-3469

HU. A G. & Jefferson, G. H. (2008) “Science and Technology in China” China’s Great Economic Transformation. Ed. L . Brandt and T. Rawski, New York City, Cambridge University Press

NAUGHTON, B. (2007) “The Chinese Economic: Transition and Growth, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

PENTAS, P. (2005) “Natioanl High-Tech Research and Development Program 863: Introduction, Objective and Organisation [Online] http://www.ppentas.com/thesis/National_RD_Programm_863.pdf, Accessed on the 17/05/2011

ONOS, E. (2009) “Green Giant: Beijing’s Crash Program for Clean Energy” The New Yorker [Online] http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/12/21/091221fa_fact_osnos, Accessed on the 17/05/2011

XING, Y. (2010) “Chinas High-Tech Exports Myth and Reality” EAI Background Brief N. 506 [Online] http://www.eai.nus.edu.sg/BB506.pdf, Accessed on the17/05/2011

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What role does the family play in the development, maintenance and treatment of eating disorders?

Abstract

This essay aims to clarify the role that the family plays in the development and maintenance of eating disorders among adolescents. It argues for a conceptual shift in treating the family as a dynamic system which can be restructured for successfully treatment of adolescent eating disorders. Supportive family participation should be an integral part of the treatment effort to facilitate the recovery of the identified patients.

Introduction

The role of the family in adolescent eating disorders

For many years, the family has been held responsible for eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia that are rampant among youngsters (10~20 years of age; Kreipe, 2006). Consequently, parents and other family members close to the identified patient are portrayed as negative influencers, and are generally excluded from the therapeutic process of the ‘frightening illness’ (Michel and Willard, 2003a). However, a new line of research stemming from Minuchin and colleagues (1978) has reframed the role of the family in a way that creates a profound impact on the development of effective family therapy. In the light of this conceptual shift, the present essay attempts to provide a renewed perspective into the role that the family system plays in the multifaceted aspects of eating disorders.

The development of disordered eating symptoms appears to be characteristic of dysfunctional parenting and abnormal familial situations. For instance, inappropriate parental pressures and overprotection (Horesh et al., 1996; Shoebridge and Gowers, 2000), critical comments and high expectations on shape and weight (Graber et al., 1994), and elevated negative expressed emotions in the family (Le Grange et al., 1992) all increase an adolescent’s chances of developing an eating disorder. Meanwhile, as the family system evolves and reaches its homeostasis where rigid rules of behaviour are observed, the youngsters may find themselves being hindered from establishing an identity or learning adaptive skills to cope with life stressors (Michel and Willard, 2003a). Consequently, eating disorders are maintained as a safe avenue to expressing their individuation from the family of origin (Michel and Willard, 2003b). In addition, medical research from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies seems to vouch for certain genetic underpinnings in disordered eating (Le Grange et al., 2010), giving rise to the speculation that eating disorders emerge from the complex interaction between a multiplicity of genetic and non-genetic family and sociocultural factors (Bulik, 2005; Striegel-Moore and Bulik, 2007).

While the family system provides a holding environment for an adolescent’s development and maintenance of an eating disorder (Michel and Willard, 2003a), the system can in turn be restructured to cultivate an environment that facilitates eating disorder treatment and recovery. Recent research and clinical experience has established that family therapy, i.e. having family members as part of the treatment team, is an effective modality for treating eating disorders among adolescents, and can even enhance the efficacy of cognitive-behaviour intervention for adolescents with bulimia if the family involvement is active and supportive (Lock and Le Grange, 2005). However, if the family is highly critical and hostile, family involvement should be avoided (Le Grange et al., 1992).

To conclude, by viewing the family as a dynamic system, eating disorders become part of the system and its development and maintenance would be subject to the influence of the interaction between genetic or non-genetic family factors. Meanwhile, the family system can be restructured to enhance the treatment of adolescents’ eating disorders by family participation or exclusion based on the nature of the family system (i.e. critical or supportive).

References

Bulik, C.M. (2005) Exploring the gene-environment nexus in eating disorders. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 30 (5), pp. 335-339.

Graber, J.A., Brooks-Gunn, J., Paikoff, R.L., & Warren, M.P. (1994) Prediction of eating problems: An 8-year study of adolescent girls. Dev Psychol 30, pp. 823-834.

Horesh, N., Apter, A., Ishai, J., Danziger, Y., Miculincer, M., Stein, D., et al. (1996) Abnormal psychosocial situations and eating disorders in adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35, pp. 921-927.

Le Grange, D., Eisler, I., Dare, C., & Hodes, M. (1992) Family criticism and self-starvation: a study of expressed emotion. J Fam Ther 14, pp. 177-192.

Le Grange, D., Lock, J., Loeb, K., & Nicholl, D. (2010) Academy for eating disorders position paper: The role of the family in eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders 43, pp. 1-5.

Lock, J. & Le Grange, D. (2005) Family-based treatment of eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord 37, pp. S64–S67.

Kreipe, R.E. (November 2006) Eating disorders and adolescents. Retrieved 11 Jun 2011 from http://www.actforyouth.net/resources/rf/rf_eatingdisorders_1106.pdf

Michel, D.M. & Willard, S.G. (2003a) Family treatment of eating disorders. Clinical Focus 10 (6), pp. 59-61.

Michel, D.M. & Willard, S.G. (2003b) When dieting becomes dangerous: a guide to understanding and treating anorexia and bulimia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Shoebridge, P. & Gowers S.G. (2000) Parental high concern and adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa: A case-control study to investigate direction of causality. Br J Psychiatry 176, pp. 132-137.

Striegel-Moore, R.H. & Bulik, C.M. (2007) Risk factors for eating disorders. Am Psychol 62, pp. 181-198.

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Critical study of the parametric model development process

Abstract:

Complex parametric models may consist of many interrelated cost estimating relationships (CERs), as well as other equations, ground rules, assumptions, and variables that describe and define the situation being studied. Models generate estimates based upon certain input parameters, or cost drivers. Parametric models can generally be classified as commercial or company-developed. This review provides practical information about developing, deploying, and maintaining company-developed parametric models. Company-developed models – also referred to as company-owned, in-house, or proprietary models – differ from cost estimating relationships (CERs) because of their higher level of complexity, and the range of costs they estimate. Commercial parametric estimating models, available in the public domain, use generic algorithms and estimating methods which are based on a database that contains a broad spectrum of industry-wide data. Unlike commercial models, company-developed models are designed for the specific estimating needs of an organization or to describe a particular product. A proprietary model offers an alternative to trying to use a commercial model to meet an organization’s unique estimating requirements.

JEL classification: C50, C51

Key words: equation, parameter, parametric model, commercial model, proprietary model

1. Introduction

A parametric cost model can be viewed as the collection of databases, cost estimating relationships (CERs) [1], cost factors and algorithms, which together are used to estimate the costs of a system and its components. A parametric cost model uses known values to estimate unknown ones. Industry use parametric models to support conceptual estimating, design-to-cost analyses, life-cycle cost estimates, risk analyses, budget planning and analyses. Parametric models can also be used as the basis of a cost estimate in preparation of firm business proposals, or in the independent assessment of cost estimates prepared using a traditional estimating approach.

Models generate estimates based upon certain input parameters, or cost drivers. Parameters “drive the cost” of the end product or service being estimated. Some examples are weight, size, efficiency, quantity, and time. Some models can develop estimates with only a limited set of descriptive program inputs; others, however, require the user to provide many detailed input values before the model can compute a total cost estimate. A model can utilize a mix of estimating methods, and it may allow as inputs estimates from other pricing models (or information systems) or quotes from external sources, such as subcontracts.

Several companies implemented commercial parametric estimating hardware models, which can rapidly compute development and design costs, manufacturing costs of prototypes, and production unit/manufacturing support costs.

Commercial parametric estimating models use generic algorithms and estimating methods which are based on a database that contains a broad spectrum of industry-wide data. Because this data encompasses many different products, a company working with a commercial parametric model must calibrate it before using it as a base of estimate for proposals submitted to the higher-tier contractors. Calibration tailors the commercial model so it reflects the products, estimating environment, and business culture of that particular company.

A proprietary model offers an alternative to trying to use a commercial model to meet an organization’s unique estimating requirements. Proprietary models are developed for an organization’s own product and cost estimating needs and are, in effect, self-calibrated.

Proprietary models can be implemented for a variety of estimating purposes, and have a wide range of complexity, completeness, and application.

2. The Proprietary Model Development Process

The major activities involved in developing a proprietary model are:

Step 1: Identifying the Parametric Model Opportunity

One of the most critical steps in the proprietary model development process is the identification of a good opportunity for implementing a parametric model. This involves two points. First, it is important to investigate the feasibility of developing the model, which entails an evaluation of both its technical feasibility and cost effectiveness. Technical feasibility refers to the ability of the model to meet the estimating needs of the organization, and examines whether the organization has the resources to develop the model within a reasonable timeframe. This includes performing a cost-benefit analysis to decide whether a proprietary model would be cost-effective to implement and maintain. All potential benefits should be considered in the cost-benefit analysis; for example, contractors have achieved significant savings in proposal preparation, evaluation, and negotiation through the implementation of proprietary parametric estimating models. Other contractors have achieved additional benefits through multiple applications of the same model, such as for design studies, target costing, and contract risk management as well as basic estimating.

The second critical point involves gaining the support of internal upper-level (including program) management and key customer management. If the model then meets the acceptance criteria provided by these groups, they agree to support its proper application in subsequent proposals. Little good comes from implementing a proprietary model if there is no internal management buy-in, or no support from the key customers on the estimating technique. Also, the firm’s management will want to understand the results of the feasibility study so it can properly assess the financial investment required to support model development and on-going maintenance activities, such as training, model enhancements, and software corrections. On receiving approval to begin development from internal and external management, the contractor establishes an implementation team to guide the creation of a valid proprietary model. This team should include representatives from the company and key customers.

Step 2: Information Systems Needs

When implementing a proprietary model, the organization should commit and obtain the necessary resources for information systems development and support activities. Information systems support is required for a variety of functions:

– defining the formal system requirements needed to support the cost estimating model (e.g., hardware, software, interfaces with other systems);

– testing the model to ensure it adequately satisfies all end-user requirements;

– maintaining the integrity of the model throughout its life span by establishing procedures to manage and control all changes (i.e., configuration management);

– providing software support services once the model is deployed to keep it operational (e.g., corrections, revisions, miscellaneous enhancements).

When simpler models are implemented (e.g., spreadsheet models), the degree of support is smaller, but the configuration management and long-term maintenance issues still must be addressed.

Step 3: Data Collection and Analysis

Historical costs should be used, with the development team ensuring that they are relevant to the firm’s current operating procedures.

In an effort to include as much relevant cost data as possible, analysts normalize it as it is incorporated into the database [2]. They adjust data so it is as homogeneous as possible (e.g., similar in content, time value of money, quantity), and does not contain anomalies. Programmatic, noncost data may also require normalization. The analyst must assess the condition of each program’s data and make appropriate adjustments as required.

When developing a model, the team identifies the main characteristics, called the primary cost drivers, that are responsible for, and have the greatest impact on, the product or services cost to be estimated.

Step 4: Model Development

The development of a proprietary model incorporates many anticipated uses and goals – such as estimating/users’ requirements, availability of credible data, life-cycle costs, systems engineering costs, forward pricing rates – and it must integrate these into the parametric estimating approach. The modeling process, in particular, focuses on these tasks:

– specifying the estimating methods for accomplishing the estimating goals;

-identifying the job functions and other elements of cost that will be estimated;

– defining data input structures;

Proprietary models may contain a number of different estimating techniques.

Step 5: Calibration and Validation

Parametric models are calibrated and validated before they are used to develop estimates for proposals. Since proprietary models are based on an organization’s historical data, they are considered to be self-calibrated.

Validation is the process, or act, of demonstrating the proprietary model’s ability to function as a credible estimating tool [3]. Validation ensures:

– estimating system policies and procedures are established and enforced;

– key personnel have proper experience and are adequately trained;

– proper information system controls are established to monitor system development and maintenance activities in order to ensure the model’s continued integrity;

– the model is a good predictor of costs.

Models should be validated and periodically updated to ensure they are based on current, accurate, and complete data, and that they remain good cost predictors.

The purpose of validation is the demonstration of a model’s ability to reliably predict costs. This can be done in a number of ways. For example, if a company has sufficient historical data, data points can be withheld from the model building process and then used as test points to assess the model’s estimating accuracy. Unfortunately, data sets available are often extremely small, and withholding a few points from the model’s development may affect the precision of its parameters. This trade-off between accuracy and testability is an issue model developers always consider.

When sufficient historical data are not available for testing, accuracy assessments can be performed using other techniques.

Another testing methodology compares a commercial program’s final cost to the proprietary model’s estimate of it. However, it may be months, or years, before this approach can be applied to a given program. The model team may use this method when a program is near completion, or is at a point where a meaningful earned value performance index for it can be determined.

Step 6: Estimating System Policies and Procedures

After validation, the company must modify its estimating system policies and procedures to explain the appropriate use and application of the model for reviewers and company users. In particular, the model’s developers need to document its proper use as a valid bidding tool.

Companies should also explain the model’s design, development, and use. For example, the contractor, as part of its support for the follow-on production model and estimating tool, developed a detailed manual containing information about the mechanics of the model, its estimating methodologies, and the timing of updates. The company also amended its Estimating System Manual to include a section on the model, and to refer the reader to the model’s own manual.

Step 7: Internal Approval Process

Model developers need to assure company representatives that the model relies on the firm’s historical data and, therefore, captures how the company executed similar projects in the past. Any departmental budget allocations produced by the model should reflect the average budgetary split the firm has historically experienced. Developers should also consider the fact that a model, if approved, might change the way the company anticipates executing an existing (or planned) program (e.g., the project director may need to shift work and modify the budget). This obviously affects the circumstances under which other company personnel would approve the model.

A best practice from contractor experience involves the integration of the company representatives into the model implementation team. As an example, when implementing the follow-on production model, the model designers, from the beginning, solicited the participation of key internal representatives. During the development of each module, the team incorporated the inputs of the functional department primarily responsible for executing that portion of the project which the module was designed to estimate. Although the Finance Department led the model building effort, it continuously reviewed its progress with representatives from the Engineering and Manufacturing Departments. These representatives were responsible for coordinating and obtaining any necessary information from their organization, and keeping management informed.

Step 8: External Approval Process

Although a company may internally approve a model, the customer must also be shown that the estimating approach is valid. The involving of customers in up-front decision facilitates their acceptance of parametric techniques.

In seeking acceptance of a proprietary model, the company formed a Continuous Improvement Process (CIP) team [4]. The team’s composition included company representatives from various departments. All team members participated in establishing selection criteria for the model’s database. Based on the selection criteria, the contractor personnel collected actual cost data from many contracts. When using the model for the first time with a buying organization, the CIP team invites the buying organization to the company for a joint review and explanation of the model.

Immediately after obtaining funding to develop the model, the developing company discussed it with other contractors, additional government organizations, to ensure widespread support in data collection and model validation.

Including customers on the development team does not guarantee a model’s acceptance, of course. It does ensure that the customer has a voice in the model’s design and usage, but the model’s ability to reasonably predict costs is the ultimate basis for acceptance. No person, internal or external to the company, can prove this before final development and testing.

Step 9: Model Maintenance

Through the development process, the team develops a sense of how often the model needs updating. Maintenance activities include not only the incorporation of new data into the model, but also an evaluation of the mathematical relationships between the technical parameters and the costs the model estimates. Periodic evaluation of the model is required to ensure the estimates are relevant and the contractor is using the most current, accurate, and complete data.

New data is contributed as programs mature and, occasionally, from non-company sources. In some situations, the cost modelers develop new CERs, based on a subset of the original database, in order to better match a new estimating requirement.

The process of maintaining a model involves keeping an audit trail of the CERs developed, the data points used, and their statistical effectiveness.

3. Conclusions

Company-developed parametric models – also known as proprietary models offers an alternative to use a commercial model regarding organization’s own product and cost estimating needs.

No company or individual can develop a valid model without the participation of a number of key people which include the customers, all interested company personnel, and government representatives.

Some concepts should be considered by all implementation teams as follows:

– establish a process flow and target development dates to ensure all team members provide their inputs to the model’s design;

– consider the costs and benefits of model development;

– evaluate commercial models as an alternative to proprietary development;

– remember that the goal is to establish a more efficient and reliable estimating system, not just create a model.

References
Stuparu D., Vasile T., Stanciu M.

The Cost Estimating Relationships (CER’s) – modern method for predicting cost, Revista Academiei Fortelor Terestre, nr. 1/2010.
Vasile T., Stuparu D., Daniasa C.I.

Collection and Normalization of Parametric Data, Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Tom XVIII, vol. II, 2009, pp. 703-708.
Stewart R.D., Wyskida R.M., Johannes J.D.

Cost Estimator’s Reference Manual, 2nd Edition, New York, Wiley, 1995, pp. 57-67.
* * *http://www.ceh.nasa.gov/webhelpfiles/Cost_Estimating_Handbook_NASA_2004.htm

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Background information on how the development LASIK

Introduction

Over the thousands last years, human has experienced many ways to redress their sight. One of the most significant inventions was an eyeglass which is discovered in 1268 by Roger Bacon. This invention has developed through creation contact lenses (Teagle Optometry, 2007). However, the majority of humans who wear glasses or contact lenses are bothering from it. Therefore, Jose Barraquer discovered LASIK in 1950, which is considered one of the recent technologies in vision correction. LASIK is a Latin word that indicates to create a thin layer of the cornea (black eye) and then using the laser vision correction (LASIK Portal, 2010).

Background information on how the development LASIK

Lasik is one of the most important types of eye surgery in advance medical that intended for improving in particular Myopia, Hyperopia and Astigmatism. It was invention by Jose Barraquer at the first time, where he effectuated the first operationto reduce the thin flaps in the cornea to change its shape by keratomileusis. By 1981, the Alaximr Laser was been founded which worked on ultraviolet radiation, and it was used at the first time by Rangaswamy Srinivasan to decrease tissue in specific way through extract layers of thin films without any effects thermal in surrounding area. As a result, he could use this kind of Laser without any side effect compared to different type of Laser which worked in the field of visible radiation. After a number of experiments, the Lasik technique has been improved in 1990 by Ioannis Pallikaris and Lucio Buratto to become more accuracy than keratomileusis. All of these results led Stephen Brint and Stephen Slade to performed surgery operation in the United States for the first time (Ezine Articles, 2011). With the development of technology, Lasik has become more fast than before and it has been improved to be better (Wikipedia, 2011).

The way the LASIK has affected peoples’ lives;

. The majority of humans bother from wearing spectacles or contact lenses therefore they want to eliminate them by Lasik. Lasik has many positive effects on humans including that

Lasik has ability to accurately correct most layers of Myopia, Hyperopia and Astigmatism. Moreover, its surgery occupies five to ten minutes with painless or very little pain. It is one of the easiest operations because it is operated by computer and does not require any stitches after it.One of the most important factors of Lasik that most patients are not longer needed corrective glasses.

Conclusion

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In addition to the variety of development, the study of child development has been carried out from a number of perspectives, which offer signposts to different routes to understanding children. Compare and contrast the theories of Vygotsky, and Piaget in relation to thinking and learning.

Introduction

The manner in which children develop cognitively, is essential in expanding their overall learning and thinking capabilities. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) and Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) are among the most significant researchers in the discipline of cognitive development. Both Piaget and Vygotsky contributed information of great magnitude to studies of the learning and thinking abilities of children, however they offered different hypotheses in order to reach their research conclusions.

Piaget posed that human thinking begins with motor capacity growth. Consequently, infants acquire early knowledge through awareness, behaviour and the resulting changes that their actions impose on their environment (Dubuc 2002). During his lifetime, as Dubuc continues, Piaget linked brain development and behaviour, thus leading the way in the research field of genetic epistemology. By studying young children, he was able to observe their thoughts, and how such thoughts are formed; leading him to conclude that cognitive development is a result of complex connections between the maturation of the nervous system and language. This in turn posed the theory that such maturation is dependent on the way in which children interact physically and socially with their environment. Language and literacy assessments are a useful too for investigating brain development in young children. Exposure to sounds from early infancy has an important influence on auditory neurons and how these neurons differentiate and perform. This would support Piaget’s idea that the immersion of a child in a learning environment is how they develop – what they hear, see, and feel (Mustard 2006).

Through his research, Piaget developed his stage theory. He posed that the thinking and reasoning abilities of a child develop at different rates across different stages throughout their life. In relation to brain development, Piaget’s stages of intellectual development can be correlated with some of the foremost periods of brain growth in young children (Child Development Institute 2010). Human brains do not reach total maturity until at least the adolescent period, and it is important to ensure that expectations of a developing child are realistic for any given age. Piaget’s sensorimotor stage, for example, is based on children from birth to approximately two years. Their development and learning is sequential, commencing with learning to undertake small repetitive actions, such as grasping, through to having the ability to stand, and eventually walk.

The theories of Piaget have, however, faced much criticism. Russian-born Lev Vygotsky is one of the most famous psychologists to challenge Piaget’s ideas. Although he also saw the child as an “active constructor of knowledge and understanding” (Smith et al 2003 p 493), his notions differ because of an emphasis on the way in which social interactions by more knowledgeable peers aided the child’s learning journey. The Vygotskian approach also believes that children’s growth proceeds in a more continuous manner than a maturationally determined stage theory such as Piagets. While this perception highlights the beneficial contributions of biological and environmental factors, greater emphasis is placed on predetermined progression path through rigid developmental sequences (Kessenich & Morrison 2011). Vygotsky’s way posed the notion of a more gradual developmental process which was equally influenced by brain maturation and stimuli within the environment.
Vygotsky formulated the Zone of Proximal Development, which can be defined as the difference between a child’s current level of knowledge, and subsequently, their possible capabilities with correct and proper guidance. He posited that instruction always preceded learning, and quotes “learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function” (1978, p. 90). He theorised that a child’s social or external speech, develops into egocentric or inner speech, prior to total internalisation as an adult. This can be defined as the manner in which children describe or narrate their actions aloud prior to developing the ability to think to themselves. In contrast, the Piagetian approach viewed egocentric speech as a mere an auxiliary to behaviour, which subsequently disappeared as the child matured. (Ginsbury and Opper 1979).

As Smith et al state, Vygotsky placed a higher importance on language in learning than Piaget, however he also emphasised that the learning process must take into consideration a child’s culture, and the interactions with significant people within the culture and immediate environment. Whereas Piaget focussed on the notion that learning occurs through interactions with objects and subsequently creates a foundation on which develop further, Vygotsky believed learning is achieved through cooperating with peers, parents, and teachers, for example, and also through the culture in which the child is immersed – the language, play and beliefs. Some years after Vygotsky’s death, his works were translated into English and although, as Smith et al have discovered, he had failed to give intricate detail of how an adult may “lend consciousness to the child who did not already have it” (p 502). This led to Jerome Bruner (1915-) and colleagues developing the notion of scaffolding, which is interactional support, mainly by way of adult-child discourse that is structured to increase the child’s intrapsychological performance. Eventually adult support will be withdrawn gradually as the child masters a given task. This idea is still the subject of much research in present day, and Bruner has ensured that the Vygotskian way is still very much present in the education and childcare system

According to Piaget, two major notions direct brain and biological maturation: adapting and organising (Bhattacharya & Han 2001). In order to survive in any situation, children should adapt to physical and mental stimuli. As Bhattacharya and Han continue, Piaget theorised that assimilation and accommodation are integral to the process of adapting. He believed that humans have the ability to assimilate new information and subsequently adjust this data to fit into their existing mental structures. These mental structures accommodate, or adjust to constant changes that are faced within the external environment.

Further research on child development attempted to describe how genetics underpinned learning processes and abilities. Piaget’s developmental theory was also referred to as genetic epistemology, owing to his interest in human knowledge development. The scientific explanation of genetic epistemology is the study of knowledge and intellect advancement, throughout a person’s life. Although Piaget studies such intellectual growth, his stage theory failed to cover beyond adolescence. In contrast, Vygotsky’s theory saw that human knowledge is constantly evolving, throughout many more ages and stages in life. Knowledge of genetic structures and operations convinced some psychologists to consider that psychological characteristics could have been inherited. While they believed in the prominence of genetic factors in child development, others theorists, such as Vygotsky, argued that other issues also had a bearing on the development of the human mind (Child Development Blog 2008). Whilst he recognised that genetics do play a role in development, he believed that it is the transmission of cognitive abilities because of social interactions, as opposed to transmission of genetic traits (Rathus 2007) which develops the mind.

The theories of Swiss-born Piaget and Russian Vygotsky can be related to the ongoing nature versus nurture deliberation, which has been in existence for many generations. “Nature” focuses on set genetic traits much like the theory of Piaget. However, “nurture” considers learning through social and environmental experiences, which is how Vygotsky saw the learning process.

REFERENCES:

Bhattacharya, K. & Han, S. (2001). Piaget and cognitive development. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Available http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/. Last accessed 31st Mar 2011,

Child Development Blog. (2008). Child Growth and Development. Available: http://childdevelopmentblog.info/influence-of-genes-and-environment-on-child-development/. Last accessed 4th April 2008.

Child Development Institute. (2010). Stages of Intellectual Development in Children and Teenagers. Available: http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/piaget.shtml. Last accessed 2nd Apr 2011.

Dubuc, B. (2002). PIAGET’S MODEL OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT. Available: http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/i/i_09/i_09_p/i_09_p_dev/i_09_p_dev.html. Last accessed 31st Mar 2011.

Ginsbury, H. Opper, S. (1979). Piaget‘s Theory of Intellectual Development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, Inc

Kessenich, M., Morrison, F. (2011). Developmental Theory – Cognitive and Information Processing, Evolutionary Approach, Vygotskian Theory – HISTORICAL OVERVIEW. Available: http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1913/Developmental-Theory.html. Last accessed 3rd Apr 2011.

Mustard, JF (MD). (2006). Experience-based brain development: Scientific underpinnings of the importance of early child development in a global world. Paediatric Child Health. 11 (9), p 571-572.

Rathus, S (2007). Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development. 3rd ed. Andover: Cengage Learning. p 581.

Smith, P.K., Cowie, C., and Blades, M., (2003) Understanding Children’s Development. Oxford: Blackwell.

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Free Essays

Critically evaluate the empirical support for Piaget’s theory of the stages of cognitive development

Introduction

Cognitive development overlooks the way children learn which Piaget (1896-1980) has had a great influence on. Piaget observed children throughout activities by interacting with them verbally and active listening. Piaget (1952) believed that children move through various stages in order to develop. In order for children to develop they had to pass the four stages, Piaget (1952) names the stages as follows, sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operations and formal operational. However there have been many criticisms made by many theorists such as siegler, case, Lewis etc. In this essay I will be evaluating Piaget’s theory stages of development critically and coming to a conclusion.

Piaget had a broad horizon on cognitive development. He felt that in order for a development to be passed a child creates schemas. Piaget (1951) schemas are senses of experiences gained by a child from birth. A schema represents a child’s physical and mental capability, for an example a new born child begins to grasp, suck, blink etc. In order for a child to go through the next stage he should be intellectually and mentally fit. The first stage is the sensori-motor, this stage start from birth to 2 years. During this stage children begin to use their senses to create senses in order to develop such as see, hear, touch etc. Piaget (1952) did a task with children ages 8 to 12 months. He called this task “object permanence”, where he hid an attractive toy away from the child. The child responded by pushing objects away to find the toy. His findings showed him that children began to problem solve and have an understanding.

The second stage is the preoperational stage. This stage occurs from 2 to 7 years. Piaget (1936) felt that children were not intellectually capable as their perception was dominating the way they saw situations. He believed that there were many limitations to the way children will think during this stage. The first limitation was egocentration where their own perceptions are being dominated by themselves. Piaget felt that young children are unable to express their views other than their own. In order to prove this he created a task called “three mountains task”. He came to the conclusion that children up to the age of seven could not identify what the doll could see as they would only answer what they could. The second limitation to this stage is centration which Piaget (1936) believed that children could only focus on one situation going on at one time ignoring others. Piaget (1952) created a task called “conservation”, this task involved objects which were transformed into different lengths, shapes etc. From this task he found out that children cannot focus or understand the concept of height while concentrating on the width.

Robert Siegler (1981) replicated Piaget’s (1958) “Balance Beam” task to see why children could not solve conservation tasks. However Siegler (1981) believed that there are some strategies which children use in order to complete tasks. From his experiment he found that children below 5 could not use the first strategy but used strategy 2 and 3.

The third stage is concrete operations. This stage starts from 7 to 12 years. This stage strongly focuses on reasoning. At this stage children are able to see and understand conservation tasks, size, height etc. There are 4 areas which consist within this stage conservation, classification, seriation. Conservation involves children to problem solve mathematically. Classification is for children 7 to 10, Piaget (1967) has said classification is what children in those ages should be able to understand and group objects relating them to their characteristics. Seriation is children able to put things in order for example in size, colour shape, numbers etc. This stage is allowing children to experiment with real objects in order to explore and problem solve. Piaget (1967) did an experiment for seriation with sticks where he found out that, children can put into series of order but make many mistakes. He found that above 6 years can put in order in no time and correctly.

The final stage is formal operational. This stage occurs in children around 11 according to Piaget (1958). At this stage children are thinking like adults where they can easily problems in their head with ease. Piaget (1958) constructed a task called “pendulum”. From this task he found out children do little mistakes but learn from them and all three stages pre- operational, concrete and formal operational are concurred and passed. Lewis (1981) did an experiment to show that not all teenagers at the age of 11 can think like adults, he found out that 50-60% teenagers used formal operations. This shows that not all teenagers including adults use this stage.

However Bryant (1974) had criticised that tasks that Piaget (1936, 1951, 1952) did to prove his theory were very hard for children to do. Bryant (1974) proved that Piaget was a bit harsh in tasks with children so he constructed a task where he found out that children under 5 were able to do the tasks without any hesitation. This shows the Piaget (1952) did have a good theory but didn’t have the right task for the age group which the children didn’t answer correctly. Robbie case (1992, 1998) did an experiment to see that a child’s development is not just about schemas or to see their cognitive development, but it includes information processing, which is internal capacity of a child. Cases’ (1992, 1998) theory shows that children have not got enough memory capacity to help them process and develop. So as children grow older they concur the stage.

This essay has come to the conclusion that Piaget’s theory has a good source of empirical support to prove his theory. Piaget himself has underpinned numerous tasks such as 3 mountains task, pendulum, object permanence, in order prove his stages of development. However other theorists such as Bryant (1947), Case (1992), Lewis(1981) and Siegler (1981) have proved that there more to the stages of development for example case (1992) has showed that information processing has an equivalent contribution. Nevertheless Piaget had a great impact on cognitive development whereas as many theorists have been inspired.

References.

Berk. E. L. (2009). Child Development. United States: Library of Congress Cataloging-in- Publication Data pages, 22-24,224-257,278, 280-281, 293.

Birch, A. (1997). Developmental psychology. London: Macmillean Press LTD, pages 65-80,111-113.

Piaget, J. (1955). The Childs Construction of Reality, trans. London: M. Cook.

Piaget, J. (1959). The Language and Thought of the Child. London: Routeledge and Kegan Paul.

Siegler R. S. (1998). Childrens Thinking 3rd edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, pages 44, 66-67, 74-78.

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Free Essays

Use Ansoffs matrix to evaluate the extent to which innovation has driven the development of Innocent ltd.

Introduction

1. Evaluate the extent to which innovation has driven the development of Innocent from its inception to the present day

To start off with Innocent only had one product which is their renowned smoothie made from squashed up fruits. After entering the market with their famous healthy juice they were able to provide themselves with sufficient finance, in 10 years they were able turn over ?110 million calculating out to ?6m profit. With the additional finance Innocent were able to diversify their product range and widen the scope of their business. This successful turnover led them into creating and developing new products and penetrating into different markets such as,

“Yoghurt thickies”
“Juicy waters”
“Wedged shaped cartons” – Fitting neatly into lunchboxes (entered into the children’s market in 2005)

In relation to the new products that Innocent have introduced it is possible to use the Ansoffs matrix in order to analyse the development of products into different markets and place them into the categories within the matrix.

Source: tutor2u.net

Product Development

Kids smoothies – Instead of appealing to cash rich time poor consumers they have started to bring out new products for kids
Innocent Smoothie– The first product that Innocent launched
Juicy waters– Competing with healthy waters such

Market Development

Yoghurt Thickies
Innocent Smoothies– Trying out new flavours with new fruits

Diversification

Vegetables– Trying to move into the fresh vegetables sector

In order for Innocent to be this popular there would have been certain stages that business would have to have gone through in order to be where they are at the present day. NPD (new product development) would have been a strategy that Innocent used in order to try and see whether or not their first idea was feasible to carry on with. The table below consists of 6 phases that they would have gone through.

StageRelating to Innocent
Strategic logic & AlignmentFirst of all Innocent wasn’t an easy business to set up for the three university friends. As they were young and inexperienced they found it extremely difficult to find financial banking for the business they proposed to set up. 20 banks or so had rejected their business plan due to lack of experienced and knowledge of the sector. Finally after much pursuing they were put in touch with a business angel who invested ?250,000 and who now owns 20% of the company.
Idea generationThe three university students at this stage would have had to look at the current markets and try and find a possible gap that they felt they could penetrate into. Smoothies were a concept they had engaged into.
Concept Development & SelectionOnce they had all of this set in place they needed to develop their idea to be different from any other potential competitor products out there, they made the smoothies from 100% fresh fruit which could be preserved for 14days and still get the same fresh taste.
Programme DefinitionThe idea of the smoothie had originally come from the trio buying ?500 worth of fresh fruit and making them into smoothies then going onto to sell them at a music festival in London. The customers were asked to put the empty bottles in either one of two bins one named “yes” and one named “no”, the question they would be answering was “do you think we should give up our day jobs to make these smoothies” The yes bin was overwhelming so this gave the three entrepreneurs the push they needed to take their idea forward. Giving every consumer “2 of their 5 a day” with one bottle of Innocent.
Design & DevelopmentThe design of the smoothies had to be unique and welcoming to the consumers Innocent also wanted to be a company that built on ethics hence the name. Ethics was decided to play a big part of the business by using fresh fruit for example the banana suppliers have rainforest accreditation, they also strived to try and be carbon neutral and using bio degradable packaging.
ValidationTo try and make sure that customers were willing to invest in the product they had the knowledge from the music festival that customers were interested in their product.
Pre- Commercialization & launchThe launch of their product was on a national level at first finding distribution channels through the market and now there product is stocked at many delicatessens, health food shops and coffee bars. First day they sold 24 bottles from a van.

Innocent were the first company to start selling smoothies which in turn gave them a competitive advantage of being the first on the scene, this gave them allot more experience over the years of operation than other competitors in the market today, factors which play in favour of Innocent are as follows:

Experience– Having years of practice in serving the customers exactly with what they want, also taking on board the customer’s views and opinions to try and increase product ranges but also at the same time satisfy the needs of the consumer.
Scale benefits- Innocent will definitely have this advantage as they will already have bulk order in place and be able to mass produce quicker than any new upcoming smoothie business.
Pre – emption of scares sources- Innocent have key technology and product innovation that makes there smoothies last 14 days from the day of production, so consumers will still get that great fresh taste.
Reputation- In the years Innocent have been operating they have managed to gather a huge client database through emails and feedback this gives them an advantage as they have started to build relations with the customers a long time ago and by listening to what the consumers want and by responding appropriately they are able to keep the interested and having consumers who are brand loyal.
Buyer Switching- As Innocent are big well known business there suppliers would be more than happy to negotiate with them in terms of competitive pricing.

2. Evaluate the extent to which entrepreneurship has driven the development of Innocent from its inception to the present day

As the three young entrepreneurs had a lot to learn about business it was a huge learning curve for them to be thrown into the deep end so fast. Although successful as it is Coca-cola have huge part to play with their ?30m investment into Innocent when sales went down and competitors got tough. Innocent can gain from Coca-Coola distribution channels such as Europe and global distribution something that Innocent wasn’t to geared up with. From being Entrepreneurs they had given 20% away for investment but also taken onboard help and investment from another major drinks company that has been around for a lot longer than they had. On the other hand this could be a partnership between both businesses that could work. Coca-cola can learn how to compete with a whole new style of drinks.

Below is a diagram of entrepreneurial growth cycle which the three young students would have found themselves going through in the early stages when Innocent started up. The diagram will give an insight and relate how the founders of Innocent would have proceeded within each step of the diagram.

Start up capital– For Innocent the start up capital came from on a business angel as the banks had turned them away for being inexperienced, the business angel now owns 20% of Innocent.
Growth– As the business grew so did the amount of employees by 2007 Innocent has 250 members of staff working within the organisation of Innocent.
Maturity– Innocent have handled with maturity very well in terms of them diversifying themselves into different markets offering new products aimed at different ages. They have kept revenue on a positive scale by doing this. Innocent are from maturing as they are constantly innovating new ideas and creations and with the help of their loyal customers they are always trying to find ways to impress their consumers.
Exit– This does not apply to Innocent as of yet as the entrepreneurs are still running the business and the Angel investor still owns 20%.

Innocent have done well to not base their business entirely on profits but have been looking at the bigger picture in terms of social and economical responsibilities. This helps them achieve the business they originally set out to create which was “natural, entrepreneurial, responsible, commercial and generous”.

3. Evaluate the extent to which leadership styles has driven the development of Innocent from its inception to the present day

When starting up a new business it is very important to try and get the leadership styles correct as this can make or break a business from the offset. Having a sound leader for a business can not only help with the direction of the business but also the way in which employees react to the style of leadership. If it is possible to get employees on side with the business values this can help increase efficiency and brand image. Being three young university students it was hard for Innocent to give of a professional image at first as the youth of the entrepreneurs was soon noticeable in their approach to business. Their youth style approach consisted of:

Dress codes- “dress informally, often in shorts and bare feet’
Messages- “funny informal message” on the drink carton labels
Employees- “leaving their personal values at home when they go work”
Buildings- “fruit towers” Office block name

The factors above show the laid back autocratic approach that the founders of Innocent adapted to help the business image and help support employees within the workforce to come up with new innovative creative ideas to help push Innocent forward.

As the company was growing it was very important for the leadership styles to suit the number of employees so that all work could be done effectively and efficiently. After the auto critic approach as there were no employees at that time the leadership style has slightly changed to democratic as there are now 250 employees, but Innocent still ensures that employees play a role in the business and partial decision making processes, giving the employees freedom at work helps with their participation in fundamental decisions.

4. Evaluate the extent to which both the strategic direction and the method of development chosen are suitable

As time went on Innocent found itself in a situation where it needed from help other businesses, this was mainly due to the expensive marketing decision that took them into the European sector this proved to be costly for them and made their financial positioning weaker. This led them into the path of Coca-Cola a large global drinks company that has one of the strongest brands in the world. Coca-Cola currently have operations in over 200 countries and has been around since 1886. The global organisation is currently the leader in the drinks beverage industry. As Innocent have decided to take investment from the global business it is able to use many of the resources that Coca-Cola use for its own products, as well as looking into international investment. There will be certain factors that will drive Innocent in this direction which can be seen in the table below.

Source: Yip, Total Global Strategy

As it is clear to see the above drivers would help Innocent to move forward internationally with the help of Coca-Cola and their global marketing brand.

Objective comparison (Innocent vs. Coca-Cola)

As two totally different businesses the vision, values, & missions would differ a lot which could cause issues in the working partnership and could push toward a change within either of the organisations.

Mission

Vision

Values

Innocent

Make good foodThe earths favourite little companyBe commercialBe generousBe entrepreneurialBe responsibleBe naturalBe generous
Coca-Cola

To refresh the world – in mind, body and spiritTo inspire moments of optimism – through our brands and actions, andTo create value and make a difference – everywhere we engageProfitPeoplePortfolioPartnersPlanetLeadershipPassionIntegrityAccountabilityCollaborationInnovation

Quality

From looking at table above it is clear to see that coca-cola and Innocent both follow similar ways but show their views in different perspectives. Innocent is all about being simple and telling the customers exactly what they are doing where as coca-cola is a much larger organisation therefore they have to try and abide by settling a level platform as they operate globally. Innocent tend to follow the trends of the UK and try and adapt their changes to suit the UK economy as that is their main source of income, compared to coca-cola who have to look at the issues of the world and try and adapt their company values to suit the mass market. Looking at the suitability of each company joining together, it may not have been the best idea. Coca-Cola doesn’t have the greatest image of being a healthy drink where as “Innocent” has a strong backing of being health conscious and the concept of the drink is that it contains “2 of your 5 a day”. This is an immediate clash for both companies whether Coca-Cola can learn from Innocents approach to being health cautious or whether Coca-Cola have only invested for a return on investment.

Strategic capability

In order for a business to be able to be able to survive and trade it needs to have the resources and competences at its disposable to help alleviate the downfall of the business. Innocent seem to have many resources which they use effectively to send out a positive message to all its consumers:

Intellectual

Customer feedback, letters from consumers, emails letting Innocent know how they feel about their products which in turn gives Innocent new innovative ideas.

Financial

Millions made which means investment for expansion and product development, Partnerships, Business angel, 2million Innocent smoothies sold a week bringing in constant revenue

Human

Creativity in the staff that Innocent employ which is showed throughout their products, 250 employees who all have different skills and knowledge that make Innocent who they are, New staff after working with Coca-Cola brining potentially new ideas to the business.

Physical

Innocent have all their products that they sell as well as all the development & production technology that use to create the drinks. They also have “Fruity Towers” where they operate from.

All the resources that Innocent have proved to be a success for the business in the previous years else they would not be who they are today. Innocent having proven themselves to have good customer relations and doesn’t find it hard to communicate with their consumers this could be because of their critical success factors. Innocent have certain product features in order to keep their consumers engaged with the business such as the “funny informal messages” or making sure they are letting their customers know what they are drinking is healthy. Innocent’s honesty with the consumer has paid off as they are well engaged with many of their consumers.

All the different departments within Innocent all interlink together which helps the business run effectively and efficiently. As Innocent is a simple business its logistics and processes flow easily enabling them to create their products and meet the demands of the consumer, compared to that of Coca-Cola who have vast production lines in 100’s of countries with lots more products. The two different value chains could clash as the organisational structure and technology development as well as process methods differ drastically. The technology that relates to Innocent would be the fact they can keep their smoothie fresh for up to 14 days where as Coca-Cola have developed their packaging to ensure the coke tastes fresh when opened. With Innocent juicy possibly entering into international markets as well as European they could benefit from Coca-Cola’s production methods to ensure they would be able to meet the extra demand on time and of high quality. Also when distributing abroad with only 14 days of freshness for the smoothie Innocent will have to work with Coca-cola to help distribute their products quick enough so that they can be on the shelve as long as possible before the best before date runs out. Transportation costs on a global scale could creep up significantly for Innocent if Coca-Cola distribution channels are not feasible to use. Increasing costs in certain areas could cause internal conflict for Innocent as there are different investors that have put capital into the business, the decisions off Innocent as a whole can effect more than just the investors, other effected parties would be the employees and suppliers as well as any other stake holder. Rising costs and changes within the processes could cause possible disruption in parts of Innocents infrastructure leaving employees unhappy and investors concerned about expenditure. The stakeholder interests within both organisations will vary and all stakeholders will be expressing their views and concerns to the board which in turn could leave Innocent torn between following Coca-Cola on an international level or keeping stake holders happy on a more local scale.

Issues that face Innocent and Coca-Cola

The merge of the two businesses can cause serious issues that could affect the brand image and stakeholders concerned.

Ethics

Innocent have a much more ethical approach to business compared with Coca-Cola, partnering up with a less ethical company could bring down customer views and opinions of Innocent which could damage their international venture.

Competition

Although both brands are well established within their fields there is always the fear of a new competitor or substitute products being purchased, if Innocent cannot keep the price of their product at a competitive rate consumers may start to look elsewhere. Innocent currently only make 5p per bottle sold this is a low profit margin, with all the additional costs they will have to look closely or look into cutting costs which may cause a backlash on their ethical programmes. Innocent will have to do lots of market research to see if there is a need for their product in other countries, although consumers may be willing to pay the slightly higher price in the UK for a smoothie this may not be the same in international countries depending on the state of their economy.

Culture

The culture clashes between Innocent and Coca-Cola vary on a large scale, Innocent have the very laid back approach towards business where as Coca-Cola are a lot more formal and diverse. Management techniques and employee relations differ which could cause conflict in the way both businesses work together in order to get things done. The organisational structure’s of both business would look very different as Innocent only have 250 staff where as Coca-Cola would be in the 000’s making the layering of each level and employee powers differ.

Suitability

In terms of Innocent and Coca-Cola working together it needs to analysed whether or not it would be feasible for this to take place.

Strategic Options

Environment

Capability

Stakeholder/Cultural Influences

Consolidation

Innocent can maintain their market position within the UK and Europe. Coca-Cola maintains their global positioning.Build on their brand and product strength and new innovative ideas through the creativity of their employeesStakeholders not wanting to move into the European market as they are comfortable in the markets they operating in currently.
Market Penetration

Try gaining more market share through promotions or new products.Exploiting the resources available to them which were mentioned previously. Coca-Cola exploiting their vast global connection.Stakeholders happy with the current position of both businesses not wanting any change to occur, thinking they might be at risk of a loss in new strategic directions
Product Development

Innocent looking at feedback from the customers on acting on it. Coca-Cola taking a leaf out of Innocents book and engaging with their consumers maybe looking into healthy drinks with less sugar contents.Both companies could use each other’s research and development groups giving each business a different perspective on their products.Trying to make the stakeholders take interest in the better of the business in order for growth and expansion.
Market Development

Innocent and Coca-Cola can both benefit from new products and using existing products to penetrate into different segments of the marketExploiting the current capabilities and products in different market segments. Such as Coca-Cola trying out new kids drinks with an “Innocent” concept.Trying to help stakeholder understand the need for investment into new areas before current market reach the decline stage.
Diversification

The markets that Innocent and Coca-Cola have become to mature/declineExploit the core competences in new areasMust still be able to meet the needs of the stakeholders at the same time.

Source: Exploring Corporate strategy pg 337 exhibit 10.6

As we can see from all of the above analysis it would be fair to say that both Innocent and Coca-Cola can learn new ways of managing, developing products, and targeting different sectors, but this could come at a cost of either damaging brand image or leaving behind the ethical issues that both companies value.

With reference to appropriate models/frameworks analyse the change in management issues that could arise in implementing this strategy

With the merge and assistance of both Innocent and Coca-Cola coming together certain issues could arise in the management styles having knock on effects to other areas of both businesses such as employees and stakeholders the issues that could arise from this have been analysed below using different models.

To help try and overcome these issues there is a 8 step process that can be followed in order to and remove potential unwillingness to participate in new operations.

Step1- Create a sense of urgency

Innocent and Coca-Cola both need to let their businesses know that in order for them to grow and succeed further there visions and strategies need to be fulfilled to the maximum potential.

Step2-Pull together the guiding team

Making sure that the team has strong beliefs and values of what they are doing to show other people that it is a beneficial move.

Step3- Develop the change vision and strategy

Making sure that consumers and investors understand what the future will be able to give them and how they will gain from this and how it is different from the past.

Step4- Communicate the vision broadly

Make sure as many people as possible understand and accept the vision and the strategy this could be done through the media as both Coca-Cola and Innocent have media connections.

Step5- Empower others to act

For example if Innocent had enough money and certain stakeholder such as the business angel did not see the vision that everybody else had seen it may be in the best interest of Innocent to buy certain stakeholders out this would give the entrepreneurs more control and power to drive the company forward with Coca-Cola. Looking at this from Coca-Colas perspective they would have to convince their stakeholders that partnering up with Innocent is the way forward for a better image and more product innovation.

Step 6- Quick success

Produce sufficient short-term results to give their efforts credibility and to disempower the cynics

Step7-Buil momentum and keep pushing

Once the first success point has been reached for example Innocent in the international market they need to keep pushing themselves in order for the vision to become a reality.

Step8- Create a new culture

The old traditions of the business need to become the past and future should be embraced Coca-Cola could do this by leaving the high sugar content drinks behind and getting onboard with Innocent into the healthier beverages, with a strong brand name people may trust the drinks.

The method above is a simple 8 step rule of trying overcoming change management issues but time constraints need to be taken into account as it can be a lengthy process trying to get everyone on side.

References

http://tutor2u.net/business/strategy/ansoff_matrix.htm

http://www.innocentdrinks.co.uk/

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3Prwx2sWtPsC&pg=PA583&lpg=PA583&dq=DAVID+RAINEY+NPD+MODEL&source=bl&ots=vJ6Z37tZKT&sig=i8sT69tygn6cSHd3yuYTVRtuwAk&hl=en&ei=5kbYS-WdF4z0mAPezMCnCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false (PAGE 10)

http://www.coca-cola.co.uk/About_Us/

Kotter, J., and Rathgeber, H., (2006) Our Iceberg is Melting : Changing and Succeeding Under Any Conditions Pan Macmillan Ltd, London

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What is the impact of extra-curricular activity on children’s educational development?

Introduction

My report would focus on personal evidence that’s been gathered from my placement at Notre Dame RC Girls’ School. It would explore the grounds as to why extra-curricular activities are a contributing factor to the educational development of a child. Using empirical data gathered from my placement and theoretical theory, the report will outline and analyse factors that are plausible to the above question. This report would also show the evidence that have been analysed by theories on the impact of how education institution is interlinked with the needs of society. My reports focal point is to draw upon activities executed to improve the learning and development of pupils. My findings are focused on in school activities not going into the broader allotment of independent providers that run youth services and schemes.

In my report the children are referred to as” pupils” this is not a personal preference but because it is used to refer to children within the secondary school and primary school segment. The term, Extra-curricular is a conventional name used to mean, added support to the curriculum that may take place before or after school. However, many now refer to it as” study support” or out of school hours. Throughout this report I have used several of the phrases to cover the whole spectrum of activities within the school.

What are extracurricular activities and Curriculum Enriched activities

After school activities can fall into two exact categories, homework club, outdoor activities, creative clubs and varying from to school breakfast clubs. We then place these clubs into definite categorisations. Extracurricular activities and curriculum enriched activities. What is the difference between the twoExtracurricular activities: are like study support groups for example: homework club, reading club, science club, Maths and drama clubs etc. These clubs are positioned to allow extra time for detailed study and to give a helping hand to students who need aid with their work and study. Lessons are conducted in a fun manner so that pupils would not feel like they are not in school hours. Whereas, curriculum enriched activities are not there to help withacademic but to give them an opportunity to improve their skills and practice. These activities sometimes take place external places to help with their physical, poignant and communal skills.

There are many arrays of activities that pupils can utilise: dance class, drama clubs also fall into this category as well, singing lessons, athletics club, debating clubs, and arts and crafts etc. The vast spectrum of activities it enables pupils to enhance there people skills, working skills which later in life can prepare them for the workforce. Drawing upon sociological perspective theories, such as the work of E. Durkheim, functionalist theory argues that “The carefully constructed curriculum helps students develop their identities and self-esteem. universal education serves the needs of society, conveying basic knowledge and skills to the next generation” (cliffsnotes.com)

Which pupils are likely to attend these activities

Research as shown those pupils whom are likely to participate in after school activities are according to Barker et al: 2003 are pupils with educational needs their study suggests that these children with special educational needs (SEN) would benefit more because they would have the opportunity to be amongst other children who are ahead and there they can share skills. Their research in addition states that children who live in deprived areas are the ones also more likely to benefit from the after school hours for the reason that few children from poorer families are not privileged have access to modern equipments at home. Therefore the services provide by the school after hours would give them access to available resources. Alan Dyson from the University of Manchester from his study of extended schools suggests that “In particular, the study found that extended schools were most beneficial for pupils from the most disadvantaged backgrounds, providing stability and helping to improve their chances of learning.” (Alan Dyson, bbc.co.uk)

The logic behind these activities is so that pupils who are under achieving are able to get the one on one attention that is needed to help them. They are also open to students who show exceptional skills in their studies and are able to develop ahead of their peers. The pupils who fall into this category are called the gifted and talented, the gifted are pupils who are working beyond their peers in academic subjects and the talented are those who have practical skills in other fields for example sports and art. Extracurricular activities help students become more collaborative, more complex thinkers. Nevertheless, not all students effectively benefit from the system equally. The work of Everson, T. & Millsap, R. (2005) demonstrated that the level of benefit of extracurricular activities varies depending on the student’s background. Students from underprivileged background gain more benefits from the service that extracurricular activities’ provide than students from privileged background. Privileged student are socialised into a specific type of upbringing that enables them to gain culture capital, whereas, student from deprived background don’t have access to such facilities other than the ones offered at school. Consequently, kids from deprived background don’t gain the full benefit of their selected area of interest.

Before going away on my placement and finding out the materials that were needed to conduct this report. Many people would associate after school clubs with “geeks” and “teachers pets” as they were referred to in schools. However, that has not been the case, reflecting upon my placement the above studies to some extent has been proven in my time spent at homework club. Many of the girls who attend this club are partly there to use the resources i.e. the computers and books. After a constructive conversation with one of the girls that regularly attended the homework club, she told me the reason for her continuous attendance. She said to me is because she did not own a computer at home, this derived from me asking her to go home and continue with her work when homework club was finished because of the little time she had. Moreover, Pupils also likely to attend these clubs are sometimes students who have working parents and or other siblings. For example, in drama club I came across two sisters whom where in different years but both attended the club. The reason for the younger sibling attending the club was to wait for the older sibling so that they could go home together after the club, to meet their parents’ home from work. There are many reasons why many kids attend after school activities but the most common reasons are those that are mentioned above. Also with my experience, the clubs also usually get an influx of pupils who are attending to revise and prepare for exams e.g. I had the privilege of working with some year 11’s for their exam preparation after school in drama club. We worked on “The Crucible” play by Arthur Miller. As an overall judgment it is right to say that all pupils benefit from attending these clubs bearing in mind that they are optional to the pupil and those who would need it the most may not attend.

Who runs these clubs?

Out of school hours activities are controlled by the teachers of the school and are supported by educational bodies. Many teachers give up their extra time to facilitate these clubs. With the presence of the school teacher some clubs are run by practitioners or professionals who are employed to conduct these sessions after school. Drawing on my placement for example Drama club, which is run by a company called ACTive-8 their “workshops are run by experienced professional actors, dancers and singers who are keen to share their quest for excellence, experience of drama school training and current knowledge of the entertainment industry”. (Activ-8.net). despite the fact that some teachers put in their extra time to deliver after hours activities as charitable, it retrospectively gives back to them. “The extended school approach was believed to enable teachers to become more involved in a wider range of activities in the school and community, working alongside other professionals and community members. Opportunities for training and professional development were also enhanced through this approach. Morale could also increase as a result of direct involvement in the additional activities taking place in the school or through the general ethos and atmosphere generated through this approach.” (Barker et al: 2003, pg 7)

Benefits of the extracurricular activities

From my discovery with working both after school and during school, it became apparent from my observations and discussions with some of the girls at homework club and drama club, that extracurricular activity, provides confidence and a sense of achievement amongst students that have attended these sessions. Here are a number of the benefits of attending these clubs:

Interaction Skills: is a vital skill which is later on useful in life, it helps pupils with interaction skills which then helps them to make new friends and in some case helps them not get bullied in school by their peers. It prepares them for employment and people skills.
Contributing in class:this as been evident in my findings, for the reason that many of the girls in drama club contribute their ideas to create their performance. Whilst in class I noticed that those same girls are the ones answering questions even though they may not be right at times but because of the confidence they are gaining through clubs they are then able to transfer that in class. This helps them across all subject areas to improve their understanding of the subjects better.
Commitments: commitment is essential for discipline as this would come versatile for exams, especially for the older girls it is a good practice for when they have left school to further their education. Drama club is a really good example of commitment every week the girls would attend rehearsals and contribute to the class. The club also created a code of conduct that all pupils signed and one of the rule was to be committed to the club unless for emergency reasons. Here they are learning responsibility and taking ownership of their work.
Applications: after school clubs are a great thing to put on college application forms because it shows that a pupil have contributed and committed themselves after school hours. I have actually experienced this when I helped a student fill in an application form for college and it just goes to show how good it looks. Moreover, it also tells you a lot about the personality of that pupil and their ability to be diverse in their education.

Language

Language is an important part of our society today. After school language clubs are created so that children have that extra time to practise and develop their skill. Notre Dame in particular is one of the specilaist school for foreign languages. Having this facuality means they have an advantage to make sure that their pupils achieve good grades in foreign langauages.2010 results show that there were 158 girls entered for GCSE in foreign languages and on average 90% achieve A* – C. ( collected this informaation on the Notre Dame website, on results page) this result was achieved I was told by the deputy headteacher because many of the girls attended 4 or more sessions after school language clubs.

The learning of a foreign language for example, at an early age has several positive effects on a child’s development than that of an adult or a child at secondary school level. Learning a foreign language at an early age has a positive effect on intellectual growth; it gives a student a head start in language requirements for college and increase job opportunities in many careers where knowing another language is a real asset. A student from a privileged background is more likely to start learning foreign language at an early age because their parents are more likely to be in a better financial position. Effectively they will gain more in comparison to a student who picked up foreign language at the beginning or middle of their secondary school education. Nevertheless, both students will effectively gain from their participation in extracurricular activities. But it’s crucial to point out that other factors such as the background of the student can affect the how each child benefit from the service provided. Bernstein, B (1971) famous theory on language looks at the process of linguistic improvement by analysing the difference between two types of language code. Elaborated code is usually associated with formal setting. In his case study the child that used the elaborated code, illustrated clarity by giving full account of the situation, where as the boy who used the restricted code was limited with his use of language. Restricted code has static meaning, whereas elaborated code is interlinked with shared meaning and background and it enables the expression of values.

Extra curricular activities are usually inspired from specific cultural and its aim is to develop interest or learn skills within a specific area. Its importance are only recognised and appreciated by those who are aware of its culture. Private school for example, place a big emphasizes on certain type of extra curricular activities such the learning of a foreign language. Simply because it’s believed that the learning of a foreign language develops the child social and culture skill thus the process of learning the language will lay the foundation for the student to be socially and culturally mobile. Atherton (2002).

Extra curricular activates such as art and craft and learning of foreign language develop the child’s cultural capital, by proving education beyond the national curriculum. The importance of cultural capital is that it provided student with the social values of the capitalist, it’s interlined with shared meaning and background and provides understanding to institutional jargon and socialising agencies

This is an advantage for later occupational position in the life of the student because alongside qualification and experience certain prestige companies only employ candidates who have cultural capital and have experience with area. For example a requirement can be, having the ability to speak a foreign language or being able to play a specific type of sport.

It’s likely that a student from a private school is more likely to have such skills because it was part of their school’s culture. Whereas, a child from a mainstream school only gained that knowledge from participating in extracurricular activates.

Those it can be argued that the process of extracurricular activates is not just about developing the child’s academic development but also developing them socially by exposing and teaching them social values that enables them to share meaning and background of the capitalist. Lastly it can develop their linguistic skills, which will effectively alter their communication level with their teacher. Robin Nash(“Keeping In With Teacher”) has argued that teachers and pupils interact in the classroom in ways that draw implicitly on concepts of cultural capital (teacher-perceptions of family background being particularly important, for example).

Self esteem

Self esteem defers from one man to the next. Everyone’s esteem if built by the experiences the face in life. So when asked to define this term is really tricky to get a precise answer. According to Lawrence (2006). “self esteem is the individual’s evaluation of the discrepancy between self image and the ideal self.” He goes on to say that “that the discrepancy between the two is inevitable and so can be regarded as a normal phenomenon.”(Chap 3, pg 5) self esteem is a feeling of worth and assurance. The ideal self are visions created by a person about themselves, in a case of a child, being praised for good behaviour and given positive feedback continuously is going to make them believe in themselves which motivates them to achieve more.

This is far the most beneficial gain in extracurricular activities. With its merit itcan be transferred in all parts of life. It is a life long gift that is forever with that pupil. I really saw this put into practise in the drama club when they did their performance to their parents and peers. Because of the belief that was passed on to them that they could do it and the positive praises the end result meant that they all felt overwhelmed and some actually came to me and told me that next term they wanted to do it all over again. Another example is in homework club particularly when a pupil has spent their time to do their homework and get a really good feedback from their teacher; it gives them the urge to want to get those same feedbacks all the time. Over half of the staff that I came across during my time at Notre Dame stated that after school clubs do really contribute to a child confidence and community skills.

Improving exams and results

Studies have shown that after school activities contribute immensely to the drive and self esteem of the pupil, another great factor of after hour’s activities is that it has proven to have contributed to attainment results. Macbeth et al (2001) study of the impact of study support took a sample of8,000 pupils in 52 schools across the UK their aim was to come to a conclusion that pupils who partake in after school curriculum activities accomplished better grades than they were expected.

Their study also showed that on average the result of partaking in out of school hour’s made an on the whole increase of three and- a-half grades at GCSE level and in Key Stage 3, partaking in after school activities enhanced math’s attainment by half a level and science by three quarters of a level. These statistics clearly show that the repercussions are not only showing through the behavior of the pupil but also through their academic work.

My subjective observing from doing five full days for couple of weeks showed that breakfast clubs is also a contributing factor to academic achievement. Except, for it being the most important meal of the day, it has in fact revealed that the pupils would leave their house early to just make it in time in the morning to get breakfast if they haven’t already done so at home. This has also contributed to attendance and punctuality of those particular girls which would develop their concentration level in class. Shemilt, I., et al (2004) A national evaluation of school breakfast clubs showed a mix in results. From the research it proves that breakfast those facilitate with the concentration level of the pupils and rate of truancy. However, the findings also showed that the pupils he observed had a frequency bad behavior. There may be other factors that may have triggered their bad behavior or something went wrong somewhere by the pupils he observed, in my observation from what I experienced in the school that wasn’t the case. I have personally worked with the girls in class and after school and did not find any behavior problems.

Crime and antisocial behaviour

Research have revealed that children who partake in after school hour clubs are not liable to get involved in any violent activities after school or get involved in antisocial behavioural activities. It is proven that children who have nothing to do after school and who’s parent may still be at work sometimes often find themselves in gang related activities and are highly likely to commit offences. Whereas after school clubs are a way of keeping kids busy and out of the street. From discussions with the girls that I have been working with, it was concluded that some of their friends who got themselves involved in after school fights never attended after school clubs because it was seen as a waste of time. This meant that they landed into the hands of trouble even if it was not intentional and many of them were in the wrong place at the wrong time. Not suggesting necessarily that after hours activities would entirely keep a pupil out of trouble, however, it would teach them about social skills which would mean that they are less possible to get into antisocial activities. Durlak, J. & Weissberg R. (2007). Chicago, IL: research on, The Impact of After-School Programs that Promote Personal and Social Skills, found that children whostay after school and are supervised boost their academic, social, personal and recreational development. Their research looked at three areas school performance, behavioural adjustment, feelings and attitude through these findings they concluded that children who go home and are not supervised are at risk for under achievement and behavioural problems.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the benefits of extracurricular goes beyond the process of secondary school, but rather enables student to gain knowledge and develop skills that allow individual’s to gain knowledge to specific arrears which inevitably shapes their further development. The report has outlined the benefits extracurricular activities have on a student social, emotional, and intellectual development. Several studies conducted have proven that there are factors that contribute to development. The urge of wanting to find out how extra- curricular activities contributed to a Childs development has open doors to many studies and theories. My experience at Notre Dame has allowed me to acknowledge that after school activities contribute a great deal to aspects of a Childs progress. The skills then learnt are transferable into society. It can be argued that the participation of extracurricular activates can effectively develop the overall educational experience of a child development.

Extracurricular activities’ purposely seek to enhance student overall educational experience by exploring new areas or by developing further skills in an area of interest. Students effectively benefits from it via establishing friendship outside the classroom with their peers. Their relationship with teachers can also develop outside the classroom environment which can enhance classroom communication. It is agreed that for every good there is bad. Opposition theories may argue that not every factor may have been taken into consideration for example many schools now ask parents to contribute fees for their children to partake in activities.Where does that leave the children who’s parents cannot afford for them to attended these seesions, it’s crucial to point out that these benefits are influenced by a number of factors such as race, sex and social class. Thus the level of benefit varies on each child personal circumstance.

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The Second Millennium Development Goal: Achieving Universal Primary Education by 2015?

Introduction

The main focus of this dissertation is to examine the second Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of achieving universal primary education (UPE) – ‘ensuring that by 2015…boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling’ (UN, 2010). This paper identifies the returns from education at both the private and social level, providing an economic justification for investment in education, which will be further explored by looking at the Human Capital Theory (HCT). Following this I will analyse recent estimates from around the world and in particular SSA, to determine whether UPE is realistically achievable by 2015. To do this I will be collecting data from the World Bank, United Nations and Millennium Development Goal Indicators to analyse information such as net enrolment rates, the proportion of students that reach grade five of primary school, and literacy rates.

This paper identifies that although SSA has made significant improvements – with enrolment increasing by 51% between 1999 and 2007, it is still unlikely that UPE will be achieved by 2015 given that around 42 million SSA children are still out of school (UN, 2010). This paper identifies that these results can be attributable to various elements of market failure – gender inequality, under schooling (due to demand and supply side constraints) alongside the misallocation of resources. This paper highlights that lack of resources and financial constraints of the national budget are fundamental economic limitations hampering the right of EFA – with the UN predicting that double the current number of teachers are needed to achieve UPE. The World Bank (2010) stresses the importance of achieving gender equality in education as a significant factor in helping to achieve UPE, alongside its effective protection weapon against HIV/AIDS. This paper realises the inter-link between the MDGs to help eradicate world poverty, inequality and stimulate economic growth.

I will then go on to identify policy changes that will aid progress towards achieving the second MDG by overcoming supply and demand side constraints. Sound macroeconomic policies combined with education are fundamental for the construction of globally competitive economies and democratic societies. As described by Birdshall and Londono (1998) ‘education is key to creating, applying and spreading the new ideas and technologies which in turn are critical for sustained growth; it augments cognitive and other skills, which in turn increase labour productivity’. This will enable sustained economic growth which will further help to reduce poverty and inequality and enable the achievement of the second MDG, and hopefully many other MDGs.

Chapter 1 An economic justification for investment into education

Psacharopoulos and Woodhall (1997) emphasize that

‘Human resources constitute the ultimate basis of wealth of nations…human beings are the active agencies who accumulate capital, exploit natural resources, build social, economic and political organization, and carry forward national development.’

The augmentation of developing economies in SSA can be constituted through acquiring education which ultimately increases the productivity of the un-educated workforce, developing the human resources required for economic and social transformation. The acquisition of new skills and knowledge helps to increase productivity and help improve citizens to upgrade their general standard of living, creating positive social changes to society as a whole.

The Human Capital theory has become the most common theoretical framework for the adoption of education, as described by Schultz (1971), which rests on the assumption ‘that formal education is highly instrumental and even necessary to improve the production capacity of a population.’ Such a theory has provided reasoning for heavy investment into education which would be restored through higher future earnings – ‘as an educated population is a productive population’ (Schultz, 1971). Such economic returns are at both the macro and micro levels which will be addressed below.

There is however the issue of unlimited wants and limited resources. As described by the UN (2010) it is estimated that almost double the current number of teachers are required to meet the MDG requirements in 2015. Such supply side constraints confine individuals – failing to provide them the right to education. This is exacerbated by financial constraints due to the constrained national budgets and social-political environment of a particular country (Boissiere, 2004). These issues will also be discussed later on in the chapter of market failure of education.

The rest of this chapter continues to examine the effect of investment into education by looking at the private, social and macro-economic effects to education.

(i) Private Returns to Education

The calculation of private returns to investment in education is essentially a micro-economic exercise which can be calculated using the net discounted present value calculation (NDPV). This includes a given discount rate, i; which represents an individual’s valuation of the present relative to the future in terms of consumption and leisure, amongst others. It is assumed that it is worthwhile investing in education if:

(B1 – C1) / (1 + i) + (B2 – C2) / (1 + i)? + …+ (Bn – Cn) / (1 + i) n is equal or superior to zero (Sheehan, 1973).

[Where; B1 = benefits in period 1; C1 = costs in period 1; i = the discount rate]

Individuals undertake a cost benefit analysis to determine a quantifiable economic rate of return to education and consequently whether education would be obtained. At a stance, future earnings need to at least compensate individuals for the direct and indirect costs of education – which can be seen in Figure 1. Calculating private benefits are more difficult than computing the costs of education – highlighting a weakness in the HCT.

Figure 1: Potential Earnings Streams Faced by a High School Graduate and College Graduate (Borjas, 2010)

Borjas (2010) shows the direct and indirect costs of acquiring education, which will hopefully be counteracted by the higher earnings faced by the college graduate, justifying his decision to acquire more education. Although not primarily interested in whether a pupil is a college graduate or high school graduate, the same principle applies to a child in SSA on the decision of whether to attend school or not. The foregone earnings of attending school, than perhaps working in the agricultural sector, can be seen by the shaded area 2 in the figure. In addition to this are the direct costs of acquiring education – such as books and tuition fees as shown in area 1. If these costs are lower than the benefits of increased earnings obtainable in the future (area 3) then an individual will attend school.

Most empirical literature on the private returns to education follows Mincer’s wage regression which can be expressed in the following form:

Ln (E) = a + bs + cX + dX? + eZ + u

[Where: E = a measure of earnings; S = years of schooling; X = years of work experience; X?= the square of years of work experience; and Z = other variables that could be deemed important, such as gender].

Mincer’s (1974) contribution to the analysis and distribution of earnings through his pioneering focus on labour market experience or on the job training includes the development of the human capital earnings function. This function applies regression analysis to earnings data on a cross-section of individuals to relate people’s earnings and their level of schooling and work experience. The regression coefficient on the schooling variable can, under certain assumptions, be interpreted as the private returns to education. It may however be possible to alter this coefficient to include other costs of education – such as direct public and private costs rather than just foregone earnings which would help reduce the limitation of the model.

Mincer’s model illustrates that an individual increasing their human capital stock via education to enhance their productivity of labour and of the capital they use at work will enable them to earn higher earnings. This provides a microeconomic justification for investment in education. The differences between individuals who acquire and don’t acquire education can be calculated by observing how log wages change with the level of education. This calculation can also be used as an indication to predict the demand for education.

However critics of the model identify the absence of the term ability – which exists prior to the start of human capital accumulation process and which affects the labour market wages even after controlling for acquired human capital. There are also issues concerning the quality of the education provided – the UN (2010) provided evidence on the ratio of pupils to teachers and found that these current levels don’t enable valuable learning to take place, thus hindering the returns to education. The Mincer’s regression does however provide insight into the economic justification for private investment into education. From the equation it can be seen that earnings are a function of the years of schooling acquired.

Sianese and Van Reenen (2000) also highlight the issue with the missing term ‘quality’ in Mincer’s equation which is not taken into account. Sianese and Van Reenen (2000) emphasise that obtaining education is meant to have a positive impact on the productivity of an individual in the labour market to enable him/her to obtain a higher wage in the future. Although, acquiring education doesn’t necessarily signify higher productivity (the issue of education as a signal is discussed in further detail later on). This raises an important issue about the debate of public provision – whether the Government should concentrate resources in expanding education in SSA or rather to improve the quality of educational structures for existing studentsThe former is the requirement to achieve UPE but the latter highlights an important issue; that although a greater mass of children will be receiving education, it does not specify the quality and usefulness of obtaining education – whereby productivity may not be increased at all.

There are however various other benefits to education due to the positive spill over effects to the wider economy and economic performance which I will discuss below. Also, when assessing the profitability of education as a social investment, which is especially useful for government policy – social rates of return to investment are much more sufficient as an indicator.

(ii) Social Returns to Education

The returns to education applied to the assessment of social profitability in human capital are the private rate of return of such an investment but evaluated from a social point of view. The two returns thus only diverge due to differences in social and private costs and benefits. The social returns to education should guide the decisions governments make to finance education and distribute the optimal quantity (Sianese and Van Reenen, 2000).

Viewed as a public good, education brings benefits to society as well as at the individual level. Such social benefits range from expanded technological possibilities, increases in work force productivity and greater social equity, to name a few of the monetary advantages. Social costs include public subsidy – which includes the net cost of recovery and adjusted for any possible deadweight-losses of tax-financed public spending. There are also non-monetary (non-market) rates of return to education, but are difficult to quantify – such as externalities and spill over’s. A combination of the private and social costs of education can be seen in the following table.

Table 1: Classifying the impact of human capital (OECD, 2000)

Owens (2004) explains how human capital acts as a joint agent with social capital – that facilitates collective action, to bring about economic and social development. The OECD (2000) reveals that non-monetary returns, along with economic returns which form human capital, are one of the most important contributors to GDP.

Other non-monetary social benefits that further fuel the justification for large public expenditure on education are the positive externalities associated with the education of females. This helps to combat the spread of HIV and AIDS – due to ramifications of the fertility and family planning decisions. More educated girls tend to start families later – slowing the population growth rate which helps to combat poverty. Also, as Schultz (2003) identifies though the micro-empirical studies of child development, that increases in the schooling of the mother are associated with improvements in child development outcomes. The larger effects of the mother’s schooling are observed in the child’s birth-weight, child survival, and nutritional status as measured by the height or weight-for-height given age, age of entry into school, school enrolment adjusted for age or years of schooling completed upon reaching adulthood. The positive spill over’s of an educated mother are clear to see whereby the human capital intergenerational externalities of schooling favour social investments in women’s schooling (Schertz, 2003). This follows the achievement of gender equality – an issue I will discuss later; whereby the achievement of the third MDG will help realise the second MDG and so to achieve UPE.

The social returns to education allow an assessment of the return of public subsidy provided for primary education. For developing countries, the higher rates of return to education are found at the lower, primary level which can be seen in the table below.

RegionPrimarySecondaryHigher
Sub-Saharan AfricaAsiaEurope/Middle East/N. Africa

Latin America/Caribbean

OECD24.319.915.5

17.9

n.a.18.213.311.2

12.8

10.211.211.710.6

12.3

8.7

Table 2: Social returns to education by level (Psacharopoulos, 1994)

The returns to education are highest at primary level because the marginal improvements in knowledge and skills are highest at this level, which results in a population of higher productive capacity. Such findings have provided persuasive influence on public debate regarding investment and public expenditure on primary education. The World Bank has realized the importance of UPE and have recently developed the Bank’s new Education Strategy for the next decade realizing countries will not achieve MDG2 by 2015 (World Bank, 2011).

There are however various methodological and measurement issues associated with the measurement of the various social benefits that education brings. The OECD (2000) notes that it is often difficult to quantify the benefits and spillover effects that education brings, thus the total effect of education at the individual level does not compensate for the larger benefits that it brings.

(iii) Macro-economic impact of education

To identify the full social returns of education is it necessary to look at the macroeconomic level.

The Solow (or neo-classical) model aggregates the production of an economy as a function of GDP, as shown below:

[Where Y is output; K the stock of capital; L the labour force; and t the time]

However as identified by Sianese and Van Reenen (2000) this neo-classical model doesn’t incorporate any endogenous determinants of growth rates – such as the role of education. The neo-classical model argues that a one-off permanent increase in the human capital stock will be associated with a one-off increase in the economy’s growth rate, until productivity per worker has reached its new steady-state. The new growth theory argues that the same one-off increase in human capital will be associated with a permanent increase in the growth rate.

With education playing no role in traditional neo-classical theories of economic growth, new theories have brought the role of education to the forefront, providing underpinnings that education can affect the national economic growth rate via two main channels (according to Sianese and Van Reenen, 2000) these are:

1) ‘Human capital is explicitly incorporated as a factor input in the production function, by – in contrast to the augmented neoclassical model – explicitly modelling individual educational investment choices, as well as often allowing human capital to have external effects…

2) The factors leading to endogenous growth (in particular technological change) are explicitly related to the stock of human capital. This may be because either human capital is assumed to directly produce new knowledge/ technology or because it is an essential input into the research sector which generates new knowledge/ technology.’

These two strings of thought focus on the effects of firstly the accumulation or flow of human capital, and secondly; the stock of human capital. This distinction however may cause problems for measurement when discussing government subsidies for education. Sianese and Van Reenen (2000) identify that education raises the level of human capital and will have a once-and-for-all effect on output in the former case, but will increase the growth rate of the economy forever in the latter case. There is however no consensus in empirical literature over which approach is more appropriate – whereby both yield similar predictions relating to the impact of some human capital variable on growth. It is however made implicit in this study that increasing average education in an economy will permanently increase the rate of economic growth, even after the human capital stock has adjusted to its new long-run level.

Sianese and Van Reenen (2000) further emphasise the difficulty of obtaining information on defining, measuring and comparing skills and competencies on the returns to education which forces input measures to be used as an alternative. They also highlight the problems of endogeneity bias – whereby there is a reverse causality problem with education; ‘as income grows, educational standards rise, but we cannot be confident that economic growth is caused by higher educational standards’ (Sianese and Van Reenen, 2000). This highlights that the association of education and productivity growth may reflect the demand for education, as well as its supply effects.

Chapter 2: The global situation – at a glance

Primary education is a basic human right which transforms and empowers individuals yet 100 million children of primary school age (15 percent of the worldwide total) are not in school. Of these, 42 million are in SSA (UNESCO, 2006) which makes the achievement of UPE by 2015 seem unachievable. Figure 3 shows the out of school trends projected to 2015 – at present rate, regions furthest behind will miss the literacy target for 2015 – with SSA lagging furthest behind.

Figure 3: Missing the target – out of school trends projected to 2015 (UNICEF, 2004)

Although there is much more progress to be made, there has been a thirty seven million decrease in the number of out-of-school children in the past ten years. For countries that are off track, they need to raise their completion rates by around ten percent to reach UPE target by 2015. Those countries seriously off track such as SSA need to accelerate their progress much more quickly, otherwise according to a UNICEF report (2004) these countries will not reach the target before 2040, which will deprive several more generations of the benefits of education.

SSA has the lowest completion rate by far, with around just half of all school-age children completing primary school; followed shortly behind by South Asia. Bruns et al (2003) describe the disturbing stagnation pattern over the 1990s in East and North Africa with average completion rate remaining around 74 percent. East Asia is the closest to the goal of universal primary education followed by Latin America and the Caribbean. They also identify that within regions, trends at the country level diverge sharply, with rapid progress registered in some countries, stagnation in others, and decline elsewhere.

Bruns et al (2003) suggest that the trends over the 1990s provide some encouraging evidence that where political will is strong, and effective reforms are adopted, and international support is adequate, dramatic progress in increasing primary completion rates are possible. With a significant number of countries registering significant improvements in the primary completion rate of 20 percentage points or more in less than a decade; such as Brazil, Camodia in East Asia and Nicargua in Latin America, there is still hope that other countries will reach the UPE target by 2015. However, it is clear to see from table 3 that progress is still fragile. With nineteen middle-income countries and fifty-one low-income countries experiencing stagnation or decline in completion rates over the 1990s – countries such as Zambia, Madagascar, Kenya, Iraq and Cameroon all experienced a decline in completion rates and thus achievement of UPE by 2015 does not seem reachable.

Table 3: Prospects for Universal Primary Completion (taken from Bruns et al, 2003)

The picture depicted in table 3 is not hopeful but a number of the at-risk countries could reach the UPE goal if they try and match the average rate of progress – 3 percentage points per year as observed in the best performing countries over the 1990s (Bruns et al, 2003). Bruns et al (2003) believes that at this rate of progress, all of the middle-income countries and more than two-thirds of the low-income countries would reach the MDG. In order to achieve UPE, good governance and institutional structures with the aid of international assistance should support these countries’ progress. With SSA lagging furthest behind, in order to achieve UPE they will need to improve at a faster rate. Such an achievement is suppressed by the conflict amongst these countries and thus will require an even stronger combination of political will and stronger financial effort than has been organized so far.

To evaluate such deviations from the target set by the UN it is necessary to use the three different measurement tools for UPE to identify where the problems arise. The three measurement tools for UPE are:

1) Net enrolment ratio in primary education

2) Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5

3) Literacy rate of 15-24 year olds

Net enrolment rate (NER) in primary education is, according to the Millennium Development Goals Indicator (2010) the number of children of official primary school age who are enrolled in primary education as a percentage of the total children of the official school age population. The purpose of NER is to show the extent of participation in a given level of education of children and youths belonging to the official age-group corresponding to the given level of education. This is an important indicator in measuring the rates of access to education when considering gender inequality issues, as well as regional or rural/urban inequalities.

At present there is progress being made in SSA – as the number of children entering primary school has climbed sharply. The NER for primary education has risen from 56 percent in 1999 to 70 percent in 2006 (MDGI, 2010) although this is still not enough to reach UPE. While although out-of-school population has dropped by 10 million since 1999 there were still 35 million children of primary school age not enrolled in 2006. To achieve UPE this NER value needs to be close to 100 percent. In other words; almost all children in school are of the official school age whereby late school entry, repetition and drop-out rates are very low.

The second measurement tool for UPE is the amount of children who start grade 1 at primary school and reach grade 5. Completing at least five years of primary education is essential to avoid the risk of these children becoming illiterate adults.

For example; in Botswana the proportion of pupils finishing at least five years of primary education has increased from 82.0 percent in 1999 to 86.8 percent in 2005. In Kenya this statistic has increased from 72.8 in 2003 to 83.6 in 2004 (World Bank, 2010).

The knock-on-effects to literacy rates for these two SSA countries are; Kenya – 92.3 percent of boys and females in the age bracket of 15-24 were literate in 2008; for Botswana, 95.1 percent of females and males were literate in 2008. Both these countries have experienced a rise in the number of 15-24 year olds that are becoming literate. These figures will continue to rise once these younger generations pass through schooling.

Although these figures look promising, there are still 760 million persons that are illiterate. The necessity to reach UPE is essential as children’s futures and those of their children depend on whether they go to school and how much they earn. This has highlighted the role for the broader Education For All (EFA) which emphasizes ‘early childhood care and education, quality of learning, gender equality and learning skills for young people, and adult literacy’ (UNICEF, 2010) in a bid to reach the second MDG which will hopefully help realise other MDGs.

(i) Is Universal Primary Education (UPE) achievable by 2015?

To assess whether UPE is achievable by 2015 Bruns et al (2003) focused on fifty-five of the largest low-income countries in the world in which 75 percent of all children are out of school globally. Such countries have fragile domestic resource bases with institutional weaknesses making them priority for a global effort to support the achievement of UPE. Bruns et al (2003) analysed the primary completion rates and gross enrolment rates as a function of characteristics of the education system and plotted the results in the graph shown below. Clearly visible is the variance in the relationship between school enrolments and completion rates, providing a strong argument for the importance of tracking primary completion directly.

Figure 4: Primary School Completion Rates and Gross Enrolment Ratios in a Sample of Low-Income Countries, circa 1999/2000 (Bruns et al, 2003).

The diagonal line in the graph represents a perfect one-to-one mapping between GER and PCR which highlights that few of these countries have achieved as such. The 51 low-income countries under analysis were categorised into four stylized groups to deepen the analysis. Group 1 comprises relatively successful countries, with high GER (85%>) and high PCR (70%>). Group 2 includes high inefficiency counties, with high GER (80%>) but low PCR (both 60%<). Group 3 contains low coverage counties, with low GER and PCR (both 60%<). Group 4 includes countries that are falling in between the defined ranges, presenting milder version of these patterns.

For these stylised groups, education spending and service delivery characteristics were analysed enabling several clear patterns to emerge. Group 1 who is relatively more successful than the other groups devote a high share of their GDP to public primary education; have unit costs that fall in the middle range; pay teachers an average annual wage of about 3.3 times per capita GDP; have an average pupil-teacher ratio of 39:1 and have average repetition rates below 10 percent (Bruns et al, 2003). For Groups 2 and 3; their statistics deviated from these average values. For Group 2; countries in this bracket have lower average spending and much higher repetition rates – 28 percent on average. Group 3 countries have considerably higher unit costs, driven by very high average teacher salaries.

This analysis suggests that the countries doing relatively well in Group 1 may offer an indicative benchmark to guide the other groups, providing a clear strategy to achieve UPE. Furthermore, this data suggests that to achieve UPE countries have very different paths to follow including different costs and structure of service and delivery, compared to the indicative benchmark. Also brought to attention by Bruns et al (2003) is that to achieve UPE it also depends crucially on the education system reform other than just the financial reform. Such education reforms are discussed in a later chapter under policy proposals.

Bruns et al (2003) calculated that globally, roughly $33-38 billion per year in additional spending on primary education will be needed in developing countries between now and 2015 if UPE is to be achieved. Clearly this is a significant challenge and is a major increase relative to current spending levels. From this, Bruns et al (2003) do not believe that even with optimal policy reforms and strong domestic fiscal commitment to achieving UPE, countries themselves will not be able to generate the resources required, and will necessitate up to $5-7 billion of this spending to come from external aid.

Chapter 3: Market Failure and limitations of education

(i) Gender inequality in education

Further to these developing countries being off-track from reaching UPE by 2015 are the high levels of inequality between the quantity and quality of education that men and women receive. The third MDG set out by the UN promotes gender equality and empowerment of women with the target of eliminating disparity in primary education (UN, 2010). This highlights the synergy between achieving UPE and the accomplishment of other MDGs. The World Bank (2011) views education as a method to prepare children to participate in their society and the global economy, and is the basis for reducing poverty and inequality, and also to improve health and to enable the use of new technologies and spread knowledge. Figure 4 shows the disproportion between boys and girls enrolled at primary school, with the lowest rates of enrolment in SSA.

Figure 4: Primary education – percentage of children enrolled in and attending primary school 1996-2002 (World Bank, 2000)

According to the World Bank (2011) the second MDG of educating children; particularly girls – has the greatest impact on eliminating poverty. For this reason, the World Bank has placed education at the forefront of its poverty-fighting mission since 1962. Data suggests that although education opportunities for girls have expanded, the gender gap still remains large – which is especially apparent in rural areas. ‘Cultural attitudes and practices that promote early marriage, the seclusion of girls and the education of boys over girls continue to present formidable barriers to gender parity’ (World Bank, 2000). Such tradition hampers the achievement of UPE and EFA unless the realisation of the third MDG and empowerment of women is achieved.

Figure 5 displays developing countries progress toward gender parity; with SSA lagging furthest behind suggesting that they are unlikely to achieve gender parity by 2015.

Figure 5: Progress toward gender parity in primary education (World Bank, 2000)

Reasons for such gender disparities are highlighted by Tembon and Fort (2008) who identify five core issues that hamper this achievement and lessen the effectiveness of education systems. Such problems are educational quality, access and retention, post-primary education, the transition from school to work, and emerging issues such as HIV/AIDS, violence and conflict. Some of these issues are identified in the NER, completion of at least five years of primary education and adult literacy rates.

Other advantages to girls receiving at least five years of primary education have been discussed in the social returns to education section. The positive intergenerational effects help to reduce dependency ratios, boost the survival rate, educational levels and raises per capita spending – which helps lift households out of the vicious cycle of poverty along with other economic and social benefits.

(ii) Under schooling – the market failure of education

Given the amount SSA lags behind achieving UPE and thus will not reach its target by 2015, this section looks into the reasons why some children are not receiving at least five years of schooling.

It is apparent that the main reason these children do not attend school is due to family budget constraints. Many feel that attending school and getting an education does not guarantee a high return or outweigh the costs. With the schooling decision generally undertaken by parents who are blinded by the substantial in-direct costs of education, it results in too few children going to school. This highlights problems with asymmetric information amongst parents, justifying the need for public provision of primary schooling.

The individual’s decision of whether to attain primary education is displayed in Figure 6 below. Individuals only consider the private returns to education when acquiring education although the social benefits are much higher – due to the spill over effects and positive externalities associated with education. This results in too little education being obtained, causing market failure.

Figure 6: Private decision of amount of education to obtain (adapted from Todaro and Smith, 2006).

According to the HCT the decision to go to school is often undertaken by the parents who usually only consider the narrow economic returns of education and exclude the full social returns. Parents have to evaluate the costs and benefits of educating their children; whereby the private costs of schooling are deducted from the benefits associated with wage differentials from an initial decision point when their child may enrol in school.

According to Schultz (2003) the private incentives for student-family to enrol in school are the increased wage opportunities that are attainable after receiving schooling and the increased consumer benefits. The costs incurred to send their children to school include the value of the student’s time while going to school – such as time spent travelling to school, their time in class and foregone earnings, and also the direct financial expenses such as fees and textbooks. These foregone earnings are intensified during seasonal farming events, and when the child becomes older and more productive, causing more children to drop out of school and lower the completion rate further. It is usually the case that these substantial indirect costs of going to school exceed the expected income gains in the future from receiving education, resulting in a reduction in demand for education and enrolment.

The decision of the parent to enrol their child in school must value the gains their child is likely to receive from their schooling over their adult lifetimes. The private rates of return to schooling need to equalise the present discounted value of private benefits and costs. In order to make this decision parents must be willing to reallocate resources to enable their child to go to school and make such schooling investments. One possibility is for the family to borrow to enable them to make these investments; which appear likely to enhance their children’s future productivity and thus hopefully receive future return to cover such costs. However credit market imperfections often prevent this from happening despite the private returns that they could obtain. Schultz (2003) identifies the reason for this stems from the belief that the poor, who are constrained in access to such credit, and because human capital cannot generally be used as collateral by lending institutions or money-lenders. Consequently, only families with sufficient income send their children to school – resulting in only such individuals acquiring the signal; indicating that they have attained a certain level of education. This highlights a market imperfection whereby a signal doesn’t necessarily signify higher productivity, but only identifies those that have been able to afford schooling. If educational degrees/ attainment are used as a device to signal higher innate ability without raising individual productivity, then the social rate will be less than the private one (Sianese and Van Reenen, 2000). It is also causing the Government to spend too much on tertiary education which is both inefficient and an inequitable use of public resources.

(iii) Misallocation of resources

As just briefly mentioned above, problems with the misallocation of resources are another explanation of market failure in education. This misallocation is across the different levels of education – namely primary, secondary and tertiary. Perkins et al (2006) identifies that ‘among the 19 sub-Saharan African countries for which the relevant data are available, the median gross enrolment rate for tertiary education is 3 percent while the medial share of total education expenditure devoted to tertiary sector is 17 percent’. This exacerbates the inefficient use of public resources where a gap between enrolment rates and expenditure shares suggest that more attention needs to be paid to how much resources are being spent.

This is amplified by the high percent of generous allowances the government distributes to students to obtain tertiary education. Perkins et al (2006) discovered that up to 50 percent of non-educational expenditures in the form of student allowances, scholarships and subsidized housing, health care and loans was spent on tertiary education among African countries, stretching the already constrained education budget.

Given that social and private returns to education are highest at primary level – it seems imperative that governments invest more in the primary sector, then once UPE is achieved, to further invest in the secondary level, then tertiary. Given that governments invest a lot of money into education explains the high social costs of education – which is lower at primary level. However estimates of the social returns to education in Table 1 do not take into account the positive externalities associated with education at the different levels, which is mainly due to the difficulty of estimating such returns.

Given that national governments have primary responsibility for developing and implementing appropriate measures to achieve UPE, good governance and strong institutions are of vital importance to achieve it. The drive to achieve this must come foremost from the political leaders which can be translated through legal, governance and bureaucratic structures.

Policy makers and those concerned with promoting economic development need to make schooling a better investment for children in SSA and their families, as a lot of time is devoted to education to cover the direct costs of education provided by Governments and donors (Perkins et al, 2006). The political drive and determination to achieve UPE can be expressed through the amount of government expenditure spent on primary education. The UNICEF (2010) states the share of GDP for education has increased particularly in SSA countries since 1999, however this share ranges considerably from more than 6 per cent in some large African countries to less than 3 percent in large South Asian countries. Governments in SSA generally spend too little on educating their children and fail to provide the right amount of education. This is exacerbated by the problems of calculating the returns of education and no guarantee that more money spent on education yields a more productive outcome.

Furthermore, the lack of investment in education in SSA is usually the result of fiscal constraints. The various objectives of the government cover a wide range of topics – such as education and health, but also other social areas such as the military and debt service. Negative growth rates and issues surrounding defence and war have depressing impacts on the amount of expenditure on education, resulting in entire cohorts of children missing out on education than would have been apparent in a more stable economy. Such underinvestment in education results in many SSA countries not achieving the target of UPE by 2015 as set out by the second MDG.

Chapter 4: Policy Proposals – helping more children go to school

According to the World Bank (2010)

‘to reach the MDGs by 2015, school systems with low completion rates will need to start now to train teachers, build classrooms, and improve the quality of education. They will also have to remove barriers to attendance, such as fees and lack of transportation…’

With conventional knowledge that income inequality leads to educational inequality, and vice versa, there is strong evidence in the support of increased public investments in primary education. Limited capacity and low quality of public schools throughout SSA have resulted in low levels of enrolment and rising inequality to form, which alongside demand-side constraints emphasises the role for public intervention to achieve UPE.

Various methods and approaches can be used to induce families to send their children to school to help reduce the 42 million children in SSA that are out of school (UNESCO, 2006). As identified earlier, poor families constrained by low income cannot afford to send their children to school, even at primary level. School fees and uniform charges along with fees for textbooks sum up to more than a family’s combined income, as many live below the $1 a day poverty line, resulting in less demand for education.

Kremer (2008), a development economist uses randomized trials and evaluations to shed light on ways to help more children attend school and improve learning. Kremer (2008) consistently found that the decisions to attend school and invest in human capital are highly responsive to education costs and subsidies. He discovered that reducing the out-of-pocket cost of education through school meals or conditional cash transfer programs consistently increased school participation.

His results from Kenya found the magnitude of behaviour response to out-of-pocket costs was larger than expected from the standard human capital investment model. He concluded this to be the result that a large mass of households were on the margin of attending school, so that the provision of free school uniforms led to a 10-15 percent reduction in teen pregnancy and drop-out rates. Previously parents would need to pay $6 for a school uniform which is just slightly under 2 percent of Kenya’s per capita GDP. It was found that children who received payment for these uniforms remained enrolled an average of 0.5 years longer after five years and advanced an average of 0.3 grades further than their counterparts in comparison schools. This analysis was conducted using a ‘treatment’ school who were provided with out-of-pocket costs and a ‘control’ school which didn’t receive such benefits (Kremer, 2008).

Hindering such policy developments are the 1.9 million children under the age of 15 affected by HIV/ AIDS (UNESCO, 2009). This inhibits many from completing school or causing low attendance thereby reducing school demand which further inhibits UPE to be achieved. The human capital theory (HCT) framework is designed to consider complex choices that individuals make – involving the current costs and the chances of enhancing lifetime consumption opportunities. As the mortality caused by HIV/ AIDS occurs most frequently amongst adults in the middle of their working years; aged 30-45, this disease inflicts a heavy economic burden on families and society (Schultz, 2003). Within this age bracket individuals tend to be at their most productive and thereby able to provide support and care for others, including their children. Consequently, if a parent falls ill with the disease at this age it has negative implications on the private incentives to invest in education. Not only on the demand side are there effects, but also on the supply side of education; whereby teachers may fall ill with the disease. Schultz (2003) identifies that each year several percent of the schoolteachers are dying of AIDS in severely affect SSA countries such as Malawi. Consequently this will result in a growing scarcity of teachers, and in order for the government to attract replacements in this area; they will need to offer a higher salary.

If may be apparent however that from the attainment of education, more knowledge about the disease will be spread to a wider audience, helping to reduce the spreading of HIV and AIDS. Schultz (2003) identifies that if negative externalities can be confidently attributed to the dissemination of information with regard to both the characteristics of a communicable disease and the individuals own infection status, information should be provided to as many people as possible. If this is not the case then more educated and richer individuals will have an advantage due to knowledge about the disease. In this scenario public subsidies should be provided to spread information about HIV and AIDS.

(i) Policy application – Uganda

Many SSA governments implemented the abolishment of school tuition for public primary education due to concern that UPE will not be attained by 2015. Uganda was one of the first SSA countries to adopt the UPE policy in 1997 and saw a vigorous increase in primary enrolment from 2.8 million in 1997 to 7.6 million in 2004 (UNESCO, 2000). The UPE policy removed tuition fees for public primary education, providing improved access to primary education for children of poor households. Such a reduction in the direct private costs of education contributed to equality and equity in education (Nishimura et al, 2005).

Before such an introduction, student’s families paid more than 80 percent of the total direct costs of primary education with the government paying the rest. After the introduction of UPE in Uganda, the role of the government increased to provide more resources and ensure the quality and equity of education, which was supported by the mobilised resources through the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative along with other donor funds. The share of GDP spent on education increased from 1.6 to 3.8 percent – with the primary sector expenditure increasing from 40 percent in 1996 to 65 percent in 2004. This enabled an increase in the supply of teachers by 41 percent, alongside the erection of new schools increasing by the same amount.

Nishimura et al (2005) analysis showed the positive effect UPE had on the poor, especially girls, in helping improve access to schools which contributed to the access and equity of education as a pro-poor policy. However, Nishimura et al (2005) revealed from their studies that more than just the one demand-side policy intervention of reducing school tuitions in primary education to achieve UPE was needed. Internal inefficiency – such as delayed enrolment and repetition still remains a major problem in Uganda, inhibiting UPE to be achieved. Also due to extremely limited resources, achievement of expanding educational opportunities to all children in poor households has not been achieved – especially to those in rural areas. Such an inequitable distribution highlights that proper supply side policy interventions – such as providing enough school facilities in the nearby neighbourhood; or demand side policy interventions – such as improving parental awareness, should pursue the elimination of school fees. Another supply side intervention aimed to help achieve UPE by 2015 is the school construction sites in remote areas in order to retain teachers in such areas. This should help increase the expected benefits of obtaining education and also exceed the total costs of the direct and indirect costs of education.

Schultz (2003) extends these thoughts with the use of the HCT to analyse education. He concludes that the design of the educational policy should take into account both the private demand for schooling and the public supply of schooling. He continues to inform that if the private returns to schooling are low and families do not demand more schooling for their children, an expansion of public expenditures on education may not increase enrolment, and building new schools is not a solution. There needs to be coordination between supply and demand to forecast school utilisation rates and to anticipate the private and social returns and forecast enrolment rates.

Chapter 5: Conclusion

As laid out by the United Nations the second MDG aims at achieving universal primary education so that boys and girls alike are able to attend and complete primary school. The benefits of receiving at least five years of primary school have been evaluated from the private, social and macro level, providing sound economic reasoning’s to justify the expenditure needed in the educational sector. However, due to inadequate resources, financial constraints, lack of focus and accountability with policy frameworks within SSA and many other low-income countries, the attainment of UPE doesn’t seem achievable by 2015.

It is fair to say that one reason aggravating these shortfalls has been caused by the recent global and financial crisis. From this, various policy proposals have been erected with the aim of achieving UPE. One apparent successor was the removal of uniform fees which resulted in improved demand for education. Furthermore, SSA countries need to ensure that there are enough teachers and class rooms to meet the demand for education, given recent experiences of increases in enrolment rates. Alongside this there needs to be sufficient coordination between supply and demand policy proposals to forecast school utilisation rates, and to anticipate the private and social returns to forecast enrolment rates.

Although identified in this paper that some SSA countries are seriously off track to achieving UPE by 2015, it is still possible that further advancements can be made to help these countries escape the issues of chronic poverty. The crucial question now depends on how quickly SSA countries can transform their pace of change to try and meet the target of UPE. It is clear that these developing countries need additional support of external finance in the form of foreign aid, to provide governments with the resources to fulfil supply and demand constraints.

There does however remain an important issue about the distribution of public provision – whether the government should concentrate resources in expanding education in SSA or rather to improve the quality of educational structures for existing studentsThe former is the requirement to achieve UPE but the latter highlights an important issue; that although a greater mass of children will be receiving education, it does not specify the quality and usefulness of obtaining education – whereby productivity may not be increased at all.

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WORLD BANK (2011) ‘World Bank Education Strategy 2020’, World Bank, Washington, DC, available online at: http://web.worldbank.org [ accessed 17th February 2011].

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Study of Childbearing subsidiary policies and the Child Development Co-Savings Scheme

Introduction

In our study, we refer childbearing subsidiary policies as child-care subsidies and baby bonus (Child Development Co-Savings Scheme). Most would agree that these subsidy policies, which reduce parent’s costs to raise babies, would lead to higher Total Fertility Rate. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is defined as the number of children an average woman would have assuming that she lives her full reproductive lifetime [1]. Subsidy is generally defined as money granted especially by government to reduce the cost of service or of producing goods [2].

A study revealed that Australian Baby Bonus exerted a small positive effect on fertility [3]. The effect seemed to be stronger for second and possibly higher-order children. In addition the result showed that bonus effect is permanent. Other study conducted in United States evidently show that child-care is positively associated with the intentions to have further children among couples [4]. It is expected that by providing subsidies, number of children an average woman would have, would increase. However, the conclusion from past study could not determine that the result would be similar in local context since the researches are conducted in different demographical area. Our report will investigate the short-term and long-term effect of the policies and aim to provide a comprehensive solution to improve the fertility rate in Singapore.

Problem/Objectives:

For the past 30 years, Singapore has faced a serious problem of declining TFR (total fertility rate). With TFR of 1.16 in 2010 [5], Singapore is ranked 170th [6] in the world and arguably one of the lowest TFR in the world. This issue will lead Singapore to be an ageing society. Currently Singapore has 344,069 elderly residents in 2010; this amount is estimated to increase by 20% the year 2030. The situation causes some serious problems in productivity, national defence, and will be detrimental to the economy. Nowadays the Singapore government strongly encourages the Singaporeans to get married and have at least 2 children. To support the campaign, the country has provided various subsidies to help parents in raising their children.

Rationale:

Though subsidies have been given to the parents, the general statistics show that the Singapore TFR declines over the years. Several revisions such as increasing baby bonuses are done to make the subsidies even more helpful, but the result is still negative. Therefore, in our project, we would like to analyze in greater depth relating to Singapore subsidiary policies, investigate its short and long term impacts and research more about the perspective of our future generation with regards to government policy.

Scope of study:

Our research will focus primarily on the different government policies that are implemented to increase TFR. Other factors such as the environment, psychological-thinking, social factors which may affect TFRs will not be included. To make our research clearer and an all-rounded study, we have our attention only on childcare subsidies, baby bonus, educational subsidies, housing loans, maternity and paternity leave, and hospitalisation subsidies. To prevent discrepancy in interpretation, TFR is defined as the number of children an average woman would have assuming that she lives her full reproductive lifetime and the policies that we are looking at are pertaining to those implemented by the Singapore government only.

Research Methods:

Our study will focus on evaluating the effectiveness of government subsidy policies. Some of these policies had been revised over the years, to ensure that our analysis will be as accurate as possible, we will divide the discussion into 3 parts: short term, long term and future estimation. Short term is defined as 3 year after policy is implemented, long term will represent the general trend of the policy since it is implemented till present. Short and long term impacts will be analysed using data compiled from administrative records. Future estimation will be done through analyses of our obtained data from the survey.

In this study, a two-part survey will be conducted as well. The first part will identify the important factors that affect people’s decision to give birth. Subsequently, the second part will address the perspective of the young generation towards childbearing.

The survey questionnaire will include close –ended as well as open-ended questions. The target of our survey will be NTU students. The target sample size will be 100, of which 50 will be males and 50 will be females, after which the results will be collated and be analyzed further. With the results we will propose suggestions that will mould the policy towards greater effectiveness for the new, upcoming generation of Singaporeans.

The expected result for our analysis is that government-based policies are effective in the short term, after which ineffective in the long term. We will then review the suggested solutions in hope that the policy can work better.

Conclusion:

Much research has been done to explore the effectiveness of government’s policies in increasing the fertility rate as the Singapore government found that they had a serious problem such as ageing population. Although many policies were conducted and revised many times, the fertility rate seemed to decline slightly recently. Therefore, our paper hopes that by investigating the various polices Singapore government has used to impact TRF, we can find out the root of the problem to Singapore’s persistent low TFR and propose reasons for it.

References:
Biology-Online Dictionary (2007), Online dictionary.

http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Total_fertility_rate

2. Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary (2008), Oxford University Press.

3. Drago, R., Sawyer, K., Sheffler, K., Warren, D., and Wooden, M. (2009), “Did Australia’s Baby Bonus Increase the Fertility Rate?,” Melbourne Institute Working Paper No. 1/09, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.

4. Lehrer, E. L. and Kawasaki, S. (1985), “Child Care Arrangements and Fertility: An Analysis of Two-Earner Households,” Demography (Vol 22; no.4), pp. 499-513.

5. Department of Statistics Singapore (2011), Online statistics.

http://www.singstat.gov.sg/stats/keyind.html

6. Total Fertility Rate 2010 (2010), CIA World Factbook 2010.

http://www.photius.com/rankings/population/total_fertility_rate_2010_0.html

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Conditioning Performance Analysis and Development of the Golf Swing

Introduction

Golf is one of the most popular sports played throughout the world and is played at all levels, form beginner to advanced pro levels. One of the great things about golf is that you can compete against anybody of any levels as long as you have a handicap. Over recent years, since Tiger Woods came on to the scene, golf has seen more of a scientific approach with most pros and even elite amateurs implementing fitness programmes into their daily routine in order to improve their performance on the course.

Burden et al. (1998) states that in order to optimise powerful rotational force that translates into the back of the ball via the club head, the athlete requires to produce a series of muscular contractions and joint movements that have to be precise in order to develop an efficient swing. The advantages of having an efficient and powerful golf swing will result in high ball velocity, which in turn will have a positive impact on performance. In addition, an efficient golf swing will require less effort to hit the ball the same distance when compared with someone that has less efficiency (Burden et al, 1998).

It is evident from biomechanical literature that using the longest lever available will result in the greatest force being produced (Cooper et al, 1974). This can be highlighted in the game of golf, where an individual seeks to hit their longest club in the bag when they want to achieve optimal distance. At the elite level in golf, the difference between hitting the ball that extra 5 or 10 yards in the air can be huge. This could be the difference between carrying bunkers off the tee, to going for the green in 2 at a par 5. These finite differences can separate a golfer from his competitors and can be the difference between success and failure.

As previously mentioned, golfers use the driver off the tee when they want to maximise distance. In contrast to this, Iron shots, chipping and putting are more about the feel that the golfer possesses, as the goal is to send the ball to a certain location with a required distance. In order to seek perfection in these categories, hand eye co-ordination is the skill required as opposed to strength and power.

The purpose of this study was to identify the components of fitness that an elite amateur golfer possesses, which would provide the fundamentals for an efficient swing. A battery of tests was constructed that replicated movements in the golf drive. These tests were performed by an elite amateur and recreational club golfer, which would highlight differences between results. A training programme was then constructed for the recreational subject, which would focus on the weaknesses and try to bridge the gap between the novice and elite athlete.

Athlete

Name: Keith Young

Gender: Male

Age: 36

Height: 5’10

Weight: 85kg

Handicap: +2

Club: Gullane

Keith Young is regarded as one of the best amateurs in Scotland and has been for many years. Keith has played at all levels of the game, representing his county and country along the way, together with turning pro for a spell earlier in his career. Keith was chosen for this project due to his past experience of competing at the top level, which will enable a true comparison to be drawn between an elite and novice golfer.

Novice/Control

Name: Stuart Brown

Gender: Male

Age: 39

Height: 5’9

Weight: 80kg

Handicap: 15

Club: Glencorse

Stuart has been playing golf for less than a year and in comparison to Keith he has a high handicap, which will enable the differences in physiological components of fitness to be highlighted in the golf swing.

Needs analysis

Barrentine et al. (2004) states that an efficient golf swing is a result of a sequence of muscular contractions that enables powerful rotation. Plowman and Smith (2003) define power as work divided by time. The power created in the golf swing is largely down to the strength of the muscles involved and the speed at which they contract. Large amounts of strength together with fast muscular contractions result in peak power output(McArdle et al, 2001), which essentially results in high ball velocities.

In addition to the golfer requiring to produce large amounts of force into the back of the ball, it is essential that they maintain core stability throughout the swing in order to maintain efficiency and reduce the amount of energy being wasted (Hosea et al, 1990). Gatt, (1996) and Lehman, (2006) also imply that sufficient core stability will reduce the likelihood of injury and will maximise the total energy that is transmittedthrough the ball. A study by Baechle and Earle (2008) conveyed that core stability was the ability of the central muscles to control the movement of the body in the anterior and posterior directions.

According to Hosea and Gatt, (1996), large levels of core stability around the abdominal and oblique area allow for an efficient transfer of power between the lower body and upper body. In contrast, low levels of core stability would result in the weaker muscle breaking down during the swing, which would result is the loss of energy and low power output. Due to the large amounts of force and torques being created during the golf swing, injury to the spine is likely if the athlete is not in the right condition. This is highlighted by Lehman, (2006) who noted that weak core stability will result in the golfer not being able to resist the large torques generated and may predispose the golfer to lower back pain.

The golf swing is a complex movement and involves a sequence of coiling of the legs, hips, back, arms and the club. The power output of the golf swing is a byproduct of the power generated by the agonist and antagonist contractions, which is known as the pre stretch principle (Baechle and Earle, 2008). The pre stretch principle usually involves a rapid change from deceleration to acceleration in the positive direction and can be best replicated by using polymeric exercises (Chu, 1998). The driving distance of a golfer is well documented in studies by Doan et al, (2006) and Fletcher and Hartwell, (2004) who conveyed that you can significantly increase your driving distance, with the implementation of polymeric training.

Muscle groups

In the golf swing it is imperative that the golfer has a solid base, as this will provide balance for the rotation of the upper body, which will result in large amounts of torque being generated. Barrentine et al, (1994) suggests that the hamstrings, quadriceps and gluts provide the base and in turn have a large role to play in the golf swing. A solid base in the golf swing will involve a stance of shoulder width apart and a flexion at the knee of 40 degrees. To enable this knee flexion and a solid base, there will be an eccentric contraction around the quadriceps with an opposing concentric contraction in the hamstrings. Furthermore the hip rotation that goes towards the target is controlled by the quadriceps adductors and abductors.

Barrentine et al. (1994), also state that it is imperative to contract the hip flexors, rotators and extensors if you want to achieve maximal club head speed, as in order to create this powerful transition between the lower and upper body, hip rotation is the vital ingredient to the cores rapid uncoiling.

In the same study by Barrentine et al. (1994) they also convey that a golfer must have strong forearms if they want to achieve optimal distance off the tee. This is largely due to strong forearms being able to resist the force of the club on the way down, allowing for a delay in the rotation of the forearms, which in turn increase the torque generated and essentially results in greater performance.

Methods

A battery of tests was constructed for both the athlete and the novice that would replicate the movements of the muscles in the golf drive. The tests were constructed in orderto cover all components of fitness that are vital in the golf swing and can be identified as; balance, power, strength and core stability. These tests were chosen as the golf swing is a whole body movement that involves open kinetic chain movements together with contractions of the muscles (Bruder et al, 1998).

The following tests were carried out at Craiglockhart Sports Centre, Edinburgh, UK. In order to ensure that there were no external factors present that could affect the validity of the results, all tests were carried out in the fitness suite and sports hall. In order to minimize the risk of injury, prior to testing, both subjects performed a 10 minute warm up to ensure heart rate was elevated and the muscles were warm (Olsen et al, 2004). In addition to this, they also replicated their own warm up that they would undergo prior to playing golf.

An overhead medicine ball throw (2kg; NIKE SPARQ) was prescribed to provide replication of the hip flexors on the back swing and downswing, as this ensures that the core and torso coil before rapidly uncoiling towards the target. This plyometric exercise was chosen to ensure that a pre stretch occurred around the hip joint. Fletcher and Hartwell. (2004) implied that in order for the projection of the ball to be successful, the subject would have to start the movement form the legs and in sequence transfer this energy through the hips and arms, which would ultimately lead to the projection of the ball. Poor co-ordination and an inability to link these sequential moves efficiently would result in loss of energy, which would present a poor throw. The subject required to stand in an upright position whilst holding the ball anterior to the hip flexors. The subjects then required to keep their arms extended, whilst flexing their knees, and then extend their knees to propel the ball vertically with the arms in the vertical direction. The ball was thrown overhead and distance was then recorded. Each subject was given 3 familiarisation trials post warm up, where upon they would have 3 trials and the best trial would be recorded.

A 45 degree incline medicine ball throw was the second plyometric test performed by both subjects. Subjects required to flex both their knees whilst holding the ball just outside of the right knee and keep their arms extended. The subjects were then instructed to rotate in the opposite horizontal direction and extend vertically, where they would propel the ball at 45 degrees in the upward direction, where upon distance would be recorded. The subjects were then required to carry out the same movement in the opposite direction, to ensure that they were both using concentric and eccentric contractions that are replicable in the golf swing (Beachle and Earle, 2008). This would also help to highlight potential weaknesses or imbalances between the dominant and non dominant sides.

One of the test measure used to measure core stability was the plank. This test involves the subjects to support their own body weight with the aid of their forearms and toes in the face down position. The plank requires the back to be flat at all times, together with a gap between the ground and core muscles at all times. Subjects were required to perform these tests to failure, which could be identified as a reduction in the gap present, increased curvature of the spine or failure to maintain the tension of the core muscle which would result in falling.

In addition to the front plank there is an alternative method that can be used, and is known as the side plank. This method is used to assess the strength of the oblique’s, which are present in the in both the loading of the back swing and rapid uncoiling of the downswing. Subjects were required lie on their side and support their body weight with the foot and forearm of the same side. Proper technique was deemed when the hip was raised off the ground and a straight line between the feet and head was present. This test was performed on both the left and right sides to failure, which would highlight imbalances between sides and potential areas of gain.

The back plank was the last testing plank protocol used to measure core stability. This test is similar to the previous planks, however it required subjects to face upwards and hold their body weight with both their heel and forearms. Again proper technique was only deemed if there was a straight line between the legs and upper body. However this exercise not only assesses the strength of the core muscles, it tests the strength of the lower back, which is one of the main injury risks in golfers (Vad et al, 2004).

A medicine ball twist to failure was the last method used to measure strength in the core muscles. This method required subjects to sit on the ground with their knees flexed at 90 degrees, whilst keeping their back straight. They would then proceed to rotate laterally on both sides, ensuring that the ball touched the ground, as this would replicate the rotation of the golf swing and would imply a plyometric effect. In order for the subject to return the ball to the ground of each side, they would require to maintain balance throughout the core muscles and erector spine. This test was performed to failure, which could be deemed when the subjects back or legs touched the ground, or the inability to enable the ball to touch the ground on consecutive occasions.

Strength in the forearm is a key element in the golf swing as mentioned previously. In order to measure this, a one rep max (1RM) was calculated for the flexion/extension of the wrist. The methods of Kraemer et al, (2002) were applied to this protocol to ensure that there was a low risk of injury. These methods required subjects to perform a 5RM in a seated position with the forearm resting on the knees, being flexed at 90 degrees, whereupon the dumbbell would be moved by the flexion of the wrist.

As mentioned previously, the legs are the base of the golf swing and invole a serious of concentric and eccentric contractions in the quadriceps and gluts. The strength of the lower body was measured by having the subject perform a 1RM seated leg press, where the knees were flexed at 90 degrees and extension of the knee provided the subjects maximum strength in the gluts, quads and knee joint. In addition to this, a 1RM of the back squat to parallel was calculated for the subjects using the established 5RM protocol provided by Kraemer et al. (2002). The back squat required the subject to hold an Olympic bar (20kg; Eleiko, Sweeden) just below the back of the neck in the upper trapezius region. Whilst keeping the back straight, the subject was instructed to squat down until there was a flexion of 90 degrees at the knee. This position was addressed in advance to the test with familiarisation trial and a safety bar being placed at the 90 degree position. The parallel squat was used as Beachle and Earle. (2008) imply that this test is a true measure of whole body strength and is also deemed to be safer than testing for strength during the midpoint of the squat. This test was found to be relevant as it replicates the golf swing as a whole body movement, with the muscle and joints having to work in sequence to provide efficiency.

Results

Table 1: Battery of test results

Exercise Athlete Novice
Leg Press260kg195kg
Back Squat135kg110kg
Overhead Med. Ball Throw45 ft.46 ft.
45 °Med. Ball Throw Left51ft. 40ft.
45 °Med. Ball Throw Right45.9 ft. 37 ft.
Med. Ball Twist45 reps. 42 reps.
Wrist Flexion27 kg. 26 kg.
Wrist Extension11 kg. 9 kg.
Plank3 minutes 4 seconds. 2 minutes 42 seconds.
Side Plank Left3 minutes 15 seconds. 1 minute 45 seconds.
Side Plank Right2 minutes 30 seconds. 1 minute 52 seconds.
Reverse Plank2minutes 42 seconds. 1 minutes 43 seconds.

Figure 1: Measures of core stability. Time to failure measured in seconds.

Figure 2: Measure of rotational power, distance measure in feet.

Discussion

The results illustrated above highlight that generally the elite golfer outperformed the novice golfer. In order to establish the differences between the two performers, components of fitness were put into different categories, of which were, power, core stability and strength. Due to the demands that strength training places on the body, it was agreed that flexibility work would be incorporated on a daily basis to ensure there was no restriction in range of motion.

Strength

As mentioned previously, power and strength are 2 key components in achieving a successful golf drive. Beachle and Earle. (2008) define strength as the ability to exert maximal force at a given velocity and in turn Kraemer et al. (2002) Portray they theory that in order to develop power, it is essential to have a strength base. Kraemer et al. (2002) also noted that individuals must train at intensities higher than 80% of their 1RM in order to seek optimal rewards.

Strength training would therefore be incorporated into the programme prior to the commencement of the power phase. The use of closed kinetic chain exercises would be employed as Kraemer and Ratamess, (2004) implies these compound movements enhance the production of muscular force.

Power

Plowman and Smith (2003)defined power as the product of force and velocity. Therefore, it is imperative when constructing a training programme to take into consideration both elements (Kraemer and Ratamess, 2004). During the power phase the athlete should attempt to lift the same loads they were lifting in the strength phase (>80% 1RM) but should attempt to do this at high speeds. Furthermore, the power production phase should involve the athlete lifting lighter loads (>60% 1RM) at maximal velocity (Power and Howley, 2009). Research within the literature (Beachle and Earle, 2008; Kraemer et al, 2002; Kraemer and Ratamess, 2004) suggests that maximal power production be addressed with the use of both heavy and light loads at maximal velocity.

Core stability

As illustrated in the results section, the elite athlete possessed higher levels of core stability when compared to the novice. In order to minimise the risk of injury and achieve optimal performance, core strength training has to be prescribed in the exercise training programme (Baechle and Earle, 2008). The goal is to increase the neuromuscular strength or the core and enhance endurance, rather than focussing on shear muscle fore, as inexperience in this area can lead to injury (Kraemer and Ratamess, 2004).

Exercise prescription

The control subject did not employ a training programme prior to testing or at any stage in the last couple of years, therefore this training programme would not disrupt any progression with any other physical components. Following the guideline of Kraemer et al. (2006) it was decided that the control subject would exercise 3 days per week. This would enable the subject to have sufficient rest periods between sessions and allow for adaptation to occur (Power and Howley, 2009).

The programme was prescribed in order to initiate the development of strength prior to the inclusion of the power phase, with development of core stability and maintenance of flexibility being incorporated throughout. All exercises with the exception of core stability were to be performed to 3 sets of 8; with a 2 minute rest period in between sets. The series of core exercises were prescribed to be performed for 4 sets of 25 reps and a 1 minute rest was deemed to be sufficient for recovery.

In order for physiological adaptation to occur, each training phase was prescribed for a period of 4 weeks, as Kraemer and Ratamess (2004) state this period of time is sufficient enough to allow for adaptation to the training stimulus.

Table 2: Strength development – Phase 1.

Day One

Day Two

Day Three

Deadlift

Unilateral dumbbell bench press

Squat

Bent over row

Shoulder lateral dumbbell raises

Triceps kickbacks

Core stability series

Shoulder rear dumbbell raises

Forearm curls/extensions

Flexibility series

Core stability series

Core stability series

Flexibility series

Flexibility series

The commencement of exercises prescribed in phase 2 could only be employed post phase 1, with the subject having adapted and now having a strength base. The goal in the power phase as noted by Kraemer and Ratamess. (2004) would be to apply maximal force at maximal velocity. In order to enhance power, it was deemed appropriate to reduce the weight to 60% of the athletes 1RM, as this would enable the load to be lifted at a higher velocity. All of the prescribed exercises were performed to 4 sets of 5 with 2 minutes rest, with the exception of the core, which was performed to 4 sets of 30.

Table 3 – Power – phase 2

Day OneDay TwoDay Three
Deadlift? Jump squatOne arm dumbbell snatch
Bent over rowHang pullTricep kickbacks
Unilateral dumbbell bench pressLateral medicine ball throw (off rebounder/wall)Forearm curls/extensions
Core stability seriesCore stability seriesCore stability series
Flexibility seriesFlexibility seriesFlexibility series

The purpose of phase 3 was to divide the week into 2 different components, of which 2 sessions would be on each. The sessions would be based on strength/power and ballistic/speed exercises. On the force production days, it was deemed imperative to perform all exercises for 3 reps and 5 sets, as Kraemer and Ratamess (2004) implies that this will enable maximal force production. The introduction of fast force sessions was incorporated to enhance power by moving heavy loads at high velocities. These sessions were to be performed for 5 sets and 3 reps, with 2 minutes rest in between. The speed exercises were employed to be performed with light weights (30-60% 1RM) which is highlighted in the study by Kraemer and Ratamess (2004). These exercises were in accordance with the same set and reps of the fast force sessions. The core exercises increased from 4 sets to 5, whilst keeping the reps the same.

Table 4: Maximal power – Phase 4.

Day One/MaxForceDay Two/SpeedDay Three/Fast ForceDay Four/Speed
Deadlift60m sprintHang pull60m sprint
SquatHang clean? jump squatOne arm dumbbell snatch
Forearm curls/extensionsCore stability seriesSeated Russian twist with weight plateLateral medicine ball throw (off rebounder/wall)
Triceps kickbacksCore stability seriesFlexibility seriesCore stability series
Flexibility seriesFlexibility series–Flexibility series

Conclusion

It is evident from all of the above, that in order to have efficiency in the golf drive, physiological components of fitness need to be addressed. With the comparison of the elite and novice golfer, noticeable difference can be highlighted and therefore shortfalls in the the novice are highlighted. A training programme can then be adopted following guidance within the literature and taking into account current fitness levels of the individual. This training programme aims to address the weaknesses in the novice golfer and provide a physiological basis for improvement taking into account the understanding of scientific literature.

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Social status and the neurobiology of stress: Clincally understanding the development of suffering

Introduction

Popularity, high social status and subordinate status can affect person’s sense of well being in lots of different ways. Interpersonal experiences between human relationships can determine how the human brain shapes our personal experiences whether they are positive or negative. Within the Mental Health field, subordinate status can be reduced with strategies put into place to make a person feel more equal within our society. Marmot (2010) said that wealth and social rank plays a very important part in how people’s lives develop. This essay will include a client from clinical practice and will follow best practice guidelines on confidentiality from the Nursing and Midwifery Code of Conduct (NMC 2008). It will explain how social status and stress affects individuals within today’s society. To protect the anonymity of my client in this essay her name will be changed to Mrs X.

Mrs X had a troubled childhood; she was born into a working class family where money was tight and she had six siblings to which she was the youngest. She became pregnant at the age of sixteen and was asked to leave the family home where she lived with her parents and siblings. This left her feeling isolated and scared. After the birth of her child she became dependant on alcohol which she used as a coping mechanism for her anxiety. Anxiety is the feeling of fear we all experience when we are faced with threatening or perilous situations (Martin 1997a). It also helps us to avoid dangerous situations, makes us alert and motivates us to deal with our problems. Coping strategies can include the way our minds deal with stress and anxiety. In this case Mrs X used alcohol to deal with stress and anxiety. People who work in the Mental Health field suggest that mental illnesses tend to be coping mechanisms that are derived from certain stressors. For example, panic or anxiety attacks may be the body’s coping mechanisms for inappropriate fight/flight reactions to minor stressful situations (Martin 1997b). Symptoms of anxiety or panic attacks include an overwhelming fear and sense of loss of control, increased breathing rate, increased pounding heartbeat, profuse sweating and in some cases a bad panic attack may make you feel that you are going to die (Levin 2009).

Cortisol, an important hormone in the body is more commonly known as ‘the stress hormone’ as it prepares the body for fight or flight responses during stressful situations. It is secreted into the bloodstream by the adrenal glands which are located on the top of the kidneys. This response to stress is known as the HPA-Axis or the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis. When the body perceives a situation to be threatening or stressful; the Hypothalamus sends a signal to the pituitary gland which then releases the Cortisol into our bloodstream (Waugh and Grant 2006). Within today’s highly stressful society it may be difficult for our body to return to normal after such an event as our stress response is activated so often through everyday life events such as coping with our profession or job, having children and juggling a home life. This can result inchronic stress which is detrimental to both physical and mental health (Martin 1997, c). Mrs X suffered chronic stress which increased her chances of developing physical health problems due to her stressful life and lack of support.

Salpolsky, (1990) researched that even in animals when in astressful situation the higher ranking males showed a faster

increase in Cortisol than a subordinate male, and when there werenot in a stressful situation the basal rate of the higher rank males returned more rapidly than those of a lower rank. This was due to the fact that they had better choice of foods, friends and living conditions.

Mrs X stated that alcohol helped her cope with everyday life as a single mother. She was isolated from her family and didn’t see

much of her friends. She had no job which meant she had little money to socialise and struggled to live what is deemed a ‘normal’ life; as a result of this she became very depressed. Mrs X’s physical health also suffered due to her dependence on alcohol. Mental health and physical health are bound together and depend on each other. They are both affected by the combined influences of biological, physiological and social factors (WHO 2011). Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause significant problems in physical health. It can cause damage to major organs such as the liver and the heart muscle. Damage to the heart can increase the risk of a stroke or a heart attack and increase blood pressure. Alternatively, regular exercise will help to strengthen the heart muscle and lower blood pressure (Hamer 2010). According to Barry (2002) women are far more likely to suffer from poverty and social exclusion because of single parenthood. Poverty is linked to ill health because it can lead to a lack of healthy food. In this case Mrs X became so depressed that it affected her ability to look after herself and her child. She felt that she had no control over her future and could not cope with daily life. She had no social support to speak of and spoke of feeling like she had no hope, no job and that her alcohol dependence and low social standing as a single mother would affect her ability to gain employment. She stated that she felt discriminated against and had nobody or nowhere to turn to. She wanted to abstain from alcohol which would enable her to rebuild friendships and social networks which would help to improve her chances of employment which would help to improve both her physical and mental health whilst also helping her abstain from drinking excessive amounts of alcohol.

Research suggests that social factors can have as much impact on a person’s physical health as smoking does (Martin 1997). Those who suffer from poor mental health are heavily discriminated against and have to endure the perception of their illness from others on a daily basis. The symptoms of their illness may add extra pressure upon relationships with family and friends.

Therefore discrimination from others is another battle they should not have to endure in today’s society.

According to the World Health Organisation (2011) Women are far more susceptible to mental health problems. This is due to women having a greater exposure to poverty than men. The health gradient shows that 70% of the worlds poor are women and when women are in employment they earn significantly less than men. With mental health problems experienced by one in six people in Britain, the health and well being of people of working age is of fundamental importance to our future. The Government believes that everyone, including employers, has a role to play in improving the mental health of society. Mental health problems, ranging from distress to severe illness, are extremely common. They can be made worse by the way people are perceived or treated by others, whether in the workplace or in their day to day contact with other members of society (DOH 2006). The government has currently developed an expansive guide to make the population aware of good mental health as well as good physical health thus making people aware of the services and support available to them until they regain their health (DOH 2006).

A study by Wilkinson (2001) stated that those people who are at the bottom end of the hierarchy are more susceptible to threat. Those who haven’t got the same opportunities as higher class individuals will have to work extremely hard to enable them to afford what is seen as “the norm” in high class society such as good healthy food and higher education which in turn will lead to a higher ranking job or place in society. Power and status mainly refers to situations, not individuals for example, not everyone within a low social class has to suffer low prospects or expectations.

Stigmatised norms can be broken by an individuals desire tosucceed or be successful. Fortunately Mrs X sought help for her alcohol dependence andanxiety attacks through using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy andusing The Good Lives Model (2004). CBT is recommended by NICE(National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2011) as treatment for many Mental Health problems which includes depression and anxiety. CBT consists of two components, the behavioural and the cognitive. Through the process of this kind oftherapy patients learn to distinguish negative thoughts and think about how to inhibit them from occurring as an immediate reaction when faced with a stressful situation. They are then learning to manage stressful situations in a different and more positive way thus reducing their anxieties and fears.

The Good Life Model (GLM) (Ward and Brown 2004) Practices practical reasoning in therapy. One fundamental component of this is assessing a good life goal or incentive and determining its purpose .The Good Lives Model is a guideline to help individuals who wants to re-evaluate their life and find out how they can re-evaluate their goals and contribute to a society in a healthy and safe manner (Ward & Brown 2004).

Wilkinson (2001) stated that friendships and social networks have a profound effect on the physical health status of an individual. He stated that death or illness was four times higher to those with few friends or were socially isolated than those who had a good circle of friends around them. He also said that heart attack victims were three times more likely to survive with good social support around them than those who had a poor network of friends.

Mrs X had little to no social support or friends and was under constant stress due to lack of money and having no support or close friendships until she decided to seek help. By using the techniques she learned by having Cognitive Behavioural Therapy she was able to gain confidence and strength in her abilities rather than focusing on alcohol to cope with the activities of daily living. Social status or social class refers to refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups within society. For example, working class, middle class and high or elite class (Argyle 1994). Social Darwinism follows a theory that believes ‘only the fittest or strongest survive’ including human issues (Darwin 1859). The Whitehall study of British civil servants begun in 1967, and it was found that disease and social rank had an effect on mortality rates. Between 1985 and 1988 there was another investigation on the causes of social class and the social gradient of mortality (Whitehall study 2). Male and female civil servants were asked to answer a questionnaire and attend a health examination. In the time lapsed between the two studies it was found that health diminished earlier in those who had a lower social class and lower ranking jobs. Health status was worse in lower status jobs as well as smoking and eating a bad diet being more prevalent in those who had lower ranking jobs.The Whitehall Study showed there is a social gradient in health even though the participants were neither very rich nor very poor. So the social gradient isn’t only related to poverty, it’s related to where you are in the hierarchy (Marmot 2010). However, people that are wealthier and lead a high class lifestyle are higher in the social hierarchy have more control over their lives. They can afford healthier foods because they have a greater income to enable them to have more control over their lives (Mirowsky 2003).

Marmot and his group tried to explain this gradient by reference to the important risk factors that we know about. He modified for diet and smoking, blood pressure and for physical activity and obesity and even social networks, as well as many other variables. But the gradient remained even after adjusting for these factors. Eventually they decided that the difference was control of destiny; the lower down you are in social class/rank, the less opportunity you have to influence the events that happen in your life, and that is what is causing chronic stress in people’s lives. (Marmot 2010).

In conclusion mental health problems can affect anyone regardless of gender or social rank. It can be extremely upsetting for the family and friends of someone suffering from mental ill health and although these problems can be stressful, with the correct treatment from professionals and understanding and awareness from friends and family ; stigma and judgement can be reduced. It seems that people with a higher social status deal with everyday stresses much easier than those of a lesser social rank due to lifestyle choices. With reduced stereotyping, respect and equality along with the support of professionals and close family and friends it is possible to overcome stigma and lead a better lifestyle, thus improving the quality of mental health as well as physical health.

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