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Drama in English National Curriculum

The aim of this report is to understand where Drama stands in education within England at present. It searches for its’ mention within the National Curriculum and interprets what this means for the teaching of the subject. It looks at primary and secondary schools’ current trends towards Drama as a discrete subject, and argues the benefits and disadvantages of it having its’ own subject heading within the National Curriculum. The evidence will be evaluated and a conclusion formulated.

1. Drama in the National Curriculum.

The National Curriculum website provides the most up to date information on how Drama is placed within the curriculum. At first glance Drama is absent but mention of it can be located, mainly within the subject of English. [See Appendix One for a description of the requirements and activities for Key Stages (KS) 1 & 2. (National Curriculum, 2011a)]. Whilst there are aims and objectives published for KS1 & 2, at KS3 & 4 there is mention of selected playwrights as subjects to be studied and the expectation that at least one Shakespearean play will be explored in depth at each stage (National Curriculum, 2011b & c). References to the use of Drama appear under Literature [See Appendix Two] (National Curriculum, 2011d).

For England the Teachernet (Teachernet, 2011), DFES Drama Objectives (DFES, 2011) and QCDA (QCDA, 2011) resources have been/are being decommissioned with edited highlights appearing in the National Archive. In fact most of the Government resources advocated by the Initial Teacher Education website for English are no more (ITE, 2011a). The Department of Education website is replacing it, but the only suitable material found for Drama is an item for the Speaking and Listening element at KS1 & 2 dated 2004 (Department of Education, 2011).

In Ireland drama is within the ‘arts’ sector, alongside visual arts and music. The strand is “Drama to explore feelings, knowledge and ideas, leading to understanding.” They expect that when this subject is taught correctly it can help children at a young age to understand/relate and deal with life situations that can occur (Irish Curriculum, 2011). Whilst Drama is placed firmly in Arts Education as a trio with the visual and aural mediums, there is little support to be found in their Curriculum Planner as well (NCCA, 2011). Compare this to 52 resources for Drama in the Scottish Curriculum (Scottish Curriculum Resources for Drama, 2011). In Northern Ireland Drama is mentioned in Language & Literacy and has its own subject within The Arts and resources are well provided (N. Ireland Resources, 2011).

At KS1 & 2 the statutory subjects that all pupils must study are art and design, design and technology, English, geography, history, information and communication technology (ICT), mathematics, music, physical education and science. Religious education must also be provided at KS 1 and 2 (National Curriculum, 2011e), although there is a non-statutory program of study. From the National Curriculum (2011e) for Religious Education there are the following two points:

1). Explore how religious beliefs and ideas can be expressed through the arts and communicate their responses.

2). Using art and design, music, dance and drama to develop their creative talents and imagination.

Art and design does not mention drama until KS 2 as follows from the National Curriculum (2011f): Exploring a range of starting points for practical work [for example, themselves, their experiences, images, stories, drama, music, natural and made objects and environments]

Yet making puppet theatres, and also creating atmosphere in sounds, lighting, backdrops and costumes for full size plays would make the subject more fun whilst defining a practical purpose for the work.

Drama in a similar way should be a fertile ground for scenery and special effects within Design and Technology yet it is not mentioned at all (National Curriculum, 2011g & 2011h). Music and Physical Education in a similar vein have a relationship to Drama through Dance but there is no credit for it. History could conceivably use period dramas to illustrate points and the appreciation of accuracy in the texts and writers’ bias would then be covered in Drama. Stenhouse (1981, p.29) is against the idea that Drama is for teaching other subjects in the curriculum and rejects the imagined realities of Drama for the authenticated realities of pure history. ICT could provide a multi-media back drop similar to that of exhibition trade stands and modern performances that use computerised effects and giant screens.

When the National Curriculum was being formulated teachers were vocal in their disapproval of the many curriculum subjects being loaded into the National Curriculum, such that subjects were curtailed following Music and Art (Baldwin, 2011). As the (NCCCE, 1999, p.75) report states ‘…there are more than ten subjects in the world.” It also notes that Dance is not found with sport, games and athletics after education and that Drama is not just verbal. (NACCCE, 1999, p.76) points out that of all the countries in the QCA/NFER INCA archive, England was unique in having 10 discrete subjects from KS 1-4.

“When the National Curriculum was introduced, specialist drama practitioners eagerly awaited the National Curriculum for Drama. They are still waiting.” (Baldwin, 2011).

1.1 Drama as part of English in the National Curriculum.

One of the ongoing debates about the nature of English centres around its relationship [sic] the creative arts. “Is English an Arts based, creative discipline, or a much more functional, competency led subject?”, and “Is Drama itself an Arts based discipline or a method of education, a form of learning?” (ITE, 2011b)

The role of drama in the curriculum remains in practice very much in doubt. It is believed that future employers have been unhappy with general educational standards of school leavers.

A contributionary factor to this low estimation (for the subject) has been the political shift from a liberal view (of the centrality of aesthetic and artisticexperience in education) towards a more vocationally – orientated view in which the secondary curriculum is seen rather as a feeder of commercial, industrial and post-industrial requirements as they have been immerging in recent years. (Morton, 1984, p.56).

The Arts Council England (2003, p.6) explains that all pupils’ minimum statutory entitlements for the study of Drama are acknowledged within the National Curriculum for English. According to Ashcroft & Palacio (1995, p. 196), “The national curriculum firmly places drama within the English domain.” Neelands (2008, p.1) refers to the National Curriculum as the English Model where, “Drama was first introduced into the secondary curriculum through the English curriculum and timetable”. He amusingly cites the fact that Shakespeare was English to explain how we arrived at this unique position, which has not been followed elsewhere in the world except maybe Wales (Welsh Curriculum KS 1 (2008) & Welsh Curriculum KS 2-4 (2008) where Drama is mentioned within English and to a lesser extent Welsh.

Drama as a subject in its’ own right is not present in the primary curriculum, but as a part of English or R.E, or furnishing other areas and cross curricular themes. Even though Drama is absent from the curriculum for primary schools, it is still present through the activities and lessons which are taught using drama, “…many primary schools already include drama in their curriculum, without realizing that the activities the children are involved in are actually drama.” (Arts on the move, 2010).

For High School teachers, it can be a problem for them to know what to expect of pupils entering KS 3, this is because of the lack of continuity in Drama across all the Primary Schools, therefore only an educated guess can be made on the pupils’ prior drama experiences. Neelands (2004, p.9) offers 6 points of common reference which can be found in Appendix Three.

According to Neelands (2008, p.2) statistics show that,

…many schools in England do offer drama as a separate timetabled subject in Key Stage 3 and this makes drama the only ‘subject’ in the English system which is ‘unregulated’ in terms of a nationally agreed curriculum beyond the references to speaking and listening in the Orders for English”.

So only at KS 3 do some pupils get the opportunity to take Drama as a separate subject but it is still an unofficial one. Whilst this offers a complete freedom in how the subject is taught and presented [see Neelands (2004, p.5) for three different approaches at secondary level], it also means there is little in the way of a safety net for its practitioners that standards, assessments, guidelines and official support can provide. So it would appear that Drama has become a Cinderella subject that is busy working in the shadows whilst the Ugly Sisters of English and Religious Education take all the credit.

1.2 How we got to where we are now.

“Most of what young people know of the world, they know through representations of it.” (Neelands, 2008, p.9), suggesting that schools have a moral obligation to help shape the citizenship of their stundents.

“There is little time allotted in the daily routine for drama in early childhood education settings, due to the pressure that many teachers feel to cover too many materials in too little time.” (Jones and Reynolds, 1992, p.7). This suggests that head teachers and teachers are forced to focus their concentration and resources on the subjects the ‘really matter’ For example, those subjects that are recorded as National statistics, showing how many A* – C students have obtained; in particular on Maths, English and Science.

Drama being mentioned in the curriculum saw a mixed reaction.

Some celebrated the “fact” that Drama would now have to be taught. Others were quick to point out that there was a fundamental flaw here. There were few trained Drama teachers left. The reality has been, that hardly any Drama is happening (in Primary) despite the fact that it is deemed statutory. (Baldwin, 2011).

Yet Neelands (2008, p.1) states that, “In the English education system, all students in the 5-16 age range have an entitlement to drama within the National Curriculum Orders for English.” Baldwin (2011) the president of the International Drama/Theatre & Education Association provides a background to how Drama fell from grace, how a timely reaction to the rigid curriculum being built subject by subject stopped it being included at the eleventh hour and then, as it was no longer a subject, support for it fell away. Practitioners were left high and dry, as Drama was no longer part of Ofsted unless a fee was paid to assess it, which in one case ended up being marked as a ‘Satisfactory’ P.E. lesson. Dearing tried to soften the curriculum but then came the constraints of the National Literacy Strategy which concentrated on reading and writing for the ‘Literacy Hour’ at the expense of speaking and listening. However Winston & Tandy (2001, p.75-86) in their chapter entitled ‘Drama and literacy’ provide some ideas for including Drama within the hour.

Then at Secondary level we find a carte blanche where anything goes with Drama either as a separate subject taught by a Drama specialist or as a continuing addition within English or as another entity, which perhaps suits the more pronounced different streams of ability. Neelands (2004, p.5-6) noticed that the various sources of national guidance for Drama, for example the specific references to Drama in the Programs of Study for English showed a general agreement for the aims and objectives for Drama, such as:

Drama as personal, social and moral education
Drama as English
Drama as a subject in its own right.

As stated earlier he cites three very different secondary schools each illustrating one of these points as their individual approach to Drama.

The demands of a nationally prescribed curriculum put considerable pressure on teachers to “fit everything in”; each subject has it own expectations and makes its own particular demands. Finding the time for Drama, however highly you and your class may value it in its own right, can be difficult- the more so if we are going to give the Drama time to develop, deepen the children’s involvement and understanding, and reach a satisfactory conclusion. (Winston & Tandy, 2001, p.54)

Ashcroft & Palacio (1997, p.6) infer that longer serving teachers will find the prescribed nature of the National Curriculum and all its revisions to be a bone of contention. On the other hand –

The lack of core guidance for Drama, the parallel development of Drama within English with its development as a discrete Arts subject, together with the diversity of models of curriculum and assessment to be found in schools make it a particularly problematic area of English teaching for trainees. (ITE, 2011c)

Especially as:

School Drama Co-ordinators disappeared almost overnight, as did LEA Drama Advisers and advisory teachers. Drama courses became few and far between, relying more and more on professional organisations, which were and are run voluntarily, by increasingly stretched full time teachers and lecturers. (Baldwin, 2011).

CHAPTER TWO – ARGUMENTS FOR DRAMA BEING A DESCRETE SUBJECT

“As part of a broad and balanced curriculum, drama has a significant contribution to make” (Winston & Tandy, 2001, p.73). “Drama, more than any other subject in the curriculum, mirrors life as it is lived and experienced” (Winston, 2004, p.18). Please see Appendix Five for some positive results Winston (2004) notes as being seen in children’s writing due to their involvement with Drama.“At least a national agreement provides some external, relatively objective and visible materials to discuss” (Neelands, 2004, p.6).

However, the absence of a nationally agreed framework for Drama gives two points of concern;

The individual Drama teacher has no external framework to follow, therefore the success of the Drama class is completely at the mercy of the ability or lack thereof of the teacher;
How Drama is perceived at the school may well be based on the head teachers’ predilections and prejudices.

To illustrate this point I found at X High School, where the author has experienced Drama via a teaching training day placement, it was noticeable that Drama is thought of as a high priority subject. This was thanks to the Head realising that in a catchment area of high poverty Drama provided interest and expression for children that found reading and writing difficult. The school used Drama also as a marketing tool to promote itself to the wider community and its governors. It held annual Drama productions, school assemblies were punctuated with Drama in the form of funny sketches or more serious pieces designed to entertain and inform, it supported fundraising activities etc. Drama here is a timetabled subject throughout all the year groups, and is offered as an A-level subject.

As Ashcroft & Palacio (1995, p. 196) advocate, “Primary school pupils can develop through drama an extensive range of language uses, including the majority of those referred to in the national curriculum.” “…drama is a social process of making meaning…the framework and method of drama provides a unique context for developing a sense of identity and productiveness.” (Morton, 1984, p.37).

“All Our Futures” had already clearly recognised the importance of Drama, both as a creative teaching and learning medium and as the most powerful pupil motivator: “OFSTED data on pupil response to learning indicates drama to be at the very top in motivating learning” (NACCCE, 1999, p.77). Drama in education can help pupils learn and understand whatever is required, in ways that are emotionally, aesthetically and cognitively connected and meaningful to children who are natural dramatic players.”

CHAPTER THREE – ARGUMENTS AGAINST DRAMA BEING A DESCRETE SUBJECT

“…drama is a process that cannot be divided into a series of discrete and accessible outcomes in the kind of way that curriculum theorists have managed to do with many other subjects in the curriculum” (Young, 1981, p.94). Baldwin (2011) states:

Trainees are likely to encounter a diverse range of arrangements for drama within schools. In the absence of national orders and a statutory subject framework, schools are free to design their own local variations of a drama

curriculum based on the specific value given to drama in a particular school. Cynics were heard to mutter, that with an assessment driven curriculum emerging, process based drama would be too problematic for SCAA (as it was then) to deal with.

Assessment in Drama has always been tricky as so much goes on cognitively and emotionally during the Drama process that is not easy or even possible to assess. It is noted that this argument appears amongst many professionals, but no suggestions as to what criteria could be used is suggested. Is this because they believe there is to be none.

Baldwin, (2011) continues. “Assessment records were being revealed as lists of statements of attainment tick boxes and needed to be based on easily observable, extrinsic outcomes” suggesting that Drama specialists were not sure they wanted such a meaningful and aesthetic art form measured and graded in this way..

Neelaands appears to contradict his issues by stating

The local curriculum can be based on a highly idiosyncratic and ideologically motivated selection. What is taught may be left to the whim of an individual teacher and may reflect personal prejudices and interests rather that the breadth of depth of study which is a pupil’s entitlement (Neelands, 2004, p.6).

Yet according to Neelands on the Initial Teacher Education website (ITE, 2011d),

The non-statutory Framework drama objectives might usefully form the basis of the programme of study for drama at KS3. However, these specific objectives are unlikely to be considered sufficient as core objectives for drama as a discrete subject because they do not cover physical, visual, design and technical aspects of drama.

This suggests that although the concerns of Patrice Baldwin are relevant, the concerns of the ITE is that without a defined structure and specific objectives, the importance of Drama could be overlooked. This point of view is rejected by Way (1967, p.12) who

points out, “If we make drama another subject, then we make another ‘progressive straight line’ – in fact many straight lines, one for infants, one for juniors, and so on through the different age groups.”

Again, because of its ‘uniqueness’ there is a concern over how Drama can be ‘measured’ i.e. marked. Way (1967, p.3) wrote, “Education is concerned with individuals; drama is concerned within the individuality of individuals, with the uniqueness of each human essence. Indeed this is one of the reasons for its intangibility and its immeasurability.”

As Drama is not in the National Curriculum as its own subject, it might be seen as unimportant. With the pressures on schools to be ranked via league tables on the core subjects of English, Maths and Science, it is perhaps not surprising that schools focus on these subjects to the detriment of all else. However, the subject still has its own written examinations and an external examiner is called in to mark performances. It is therefore unclear as to the reasons behind why the subject is deemed by some to be difficult to assess.

CONCLUSION

“Ultimately, drama is a valuable tool, but first the tool itself must be fashioned.” (Way, 1967, p.7).

There appears to be a divide in international practice over whether Drama should be used across the curriculum or as a subject within its own right and/or as part of the arts agenda.

There were those who thought that if assessment was going to be the name of the game, then drama could and should be made to fit, in order to ensure its place in the new curriculum. And there were those who breathed a sigh of relief that drama did not fit and had been left outside the new curriculum,

where at least it would allow a greater freedom of practice and content, within the broader curriculum (Baldwin, 2011).

Therefore, unless the individual schools value Drama, and encourage Drama teacher training, the concern is that the level of teaching Drama will not be sufficient to add any value to teaching within the school as a whole. According to Ashcroft and Palacio (1995, p.203) there are two types of Drama within the National Curriculum spectrum, one being performance based activities, such as assemblies and school plays, and the other being educational Drama, which involves children in the active creation and exploration of situations based on fact or fiction.
“…it is regarded by many teachers as a learning method rather than a subject area because it can be employed to deliver many aspects of the curriculum very effectively.” (Ashcroft and Palacio, 1995, p.204).

Art is useful, not because it is true but because it is truly edifying. It is because drama – as – art functions in this way that a dramatic work cannot be explained, paraphrased or deconstructed into essays. Like any other art form, drama is unique and non – convertible… it resists crassly utilitarian efforts to corral it into the service of geography, history or management training as much as it refuses to be the acquiescent servant of personal, social, or political education. In a secular age, the usefulness of drama lies in its ability to articulate meaning in particular direct and accessible ways so that we, in turn, can make better sense of the world in which we live. For these reasons, drama is an indispensible part of the arts curriculum. (Hornbrook, 1991, p.40-41).

Whilst we cannot expect the commitment of the National Theatre at every Primary School (Turner et al., 2004) they offer a model of best practice that can be used within the subject of Drama to really bring out the confidence and intellect of young children and this should be the ultimate goal whether Drama is housed within English or is a subject in its own right.

Does this then mean that drama is yet another subject that has to be fitted into an already overcrowded curriculumNo. Drama is not another subject; theatre might be, with its ground work in history and its study of playwrights and their works but not drama. Drama is as intangible as personality itself, and is concerned with developing people. Indeed, it is as necessary to discard educational conventions as to disregard theatre conventions (Way, 1967, p.7).

The arguments will rage on but only the will of the government can make a difference to the position Drama as a subject or non-subject is in. The conclusion drawn from all the evidence in this report is that Drama should be included as a subject in its own right in the National Curriculum, but not as the curriculum currently stands. There appears to be insufficient structure and no definitive way that the success of pupils taking Drama can be measured. To try and ‘fit’ it into the current curriculum could restrict its usefulness as a holistic well being tool for the personal growth of pupils. How could this be measured in academic termsThere could be pupils who come alive as actors and give wonderful performances, but cannot translate this successfully into a written piece of work. How does one measure personal growthHow can we mark a student who has grown in confidence, can express themselves better than before the introduction of the Drama lesson, and interacts well with other students in the classWhereas before the use of Drama they may have been antagonistic, dealing with personal issues which had no voice except in eruptions of violent behaviour.

One can set tests to measure the knowledge of the literacy greats, the search for meaning in the works of the playwrights but should this lie here or within the realms of English Literature, such that it cannot be used as a mark of success or failure for Drama students.

The conclusion gathered is that this testing should be left within the English subject, thus allowing students of Drama more freedom to express themselves through this wonderful medium. It has been shown that Drama is a useful tool in the understanding of other subjects, but it should first be enjoyed and understood in its own right.

The greatest problem for Drama being included in its own right in the National Curriculum appears to be the way the success of subjects are currently judged. There does not appear to be current procedures that can fairly measure the true success and positive impact Drama can have on a student’s life. For example with a Mathematics exam there is a definite right answer with marks available for showing your workings out, but what is the ‘right’ answer in Drama?

The division between the teaching professionals as to the inclusion or not of Drama in the National Curriculum can be understood after researching and investigating this question. The concerns are that the importance of Drama within the schools is currently dependant on the will of the head teacher and the ability, passion and commitment of the Drama staff. Drama teachers’ experiencing schools who class Drama as a ‘fill-in’ subject and not that important will have experienced first hand the argument that Drama should be included.

It could be very demoralising to the Drama teacher who feels that their work, however committed they are, maybe seen as unimportant. However those Drama teachers experiencing and enjoying a school that appreciates Drama and uses it throughout school life for example in assemblies, community gatherings and the annual school performance may enjoy the freedom of the subject not being included in the National Curriculum, as they do not feel threatened about the validity of their teaching skills.

There appears to be no straightforward conclusion over Drama’s inclusion in the National Curriculum, however it must be pointed out that other parts of the British Isles make Drama a subject in its own right and provide excellent support for it. Perhaps there are lessons to be learned from the way they have gone about this by an exchange of ideas on best practice. For example what criteria are they using to measure Drama’s success as a subject; are more or less students choosing Drama as a subject at Secondary level; has its status had a positive or negative effect on the teachersWithout knowing the answers to these questions and many more besides we cannot hold these countries up as shining examples.

There needs to be a way of trying to take the best from the arguments for and against Drama’s inclusion in the National Curriculum. For example this research has shown that most of the Drama professionals feel that both the subject and they benefit from its inclusion to put them on a level playing field with other subjects. They believe that they may be taken more seriously and have more support from training being given. The concern of its inclusion appears to be that it could stifle the very creativity and freedom of expression some professionals believe Drama should be. They all appear to agree that Drama cannot be measured in academic terms as easily as other subjects as no ‘marks’ are awarded for students personal development.

Therefore after research and investigation into this question, the final conclusion is that Drama should be included in the National Curriculum as a discrete subject but only after the creation of relevant success criteria is added. Once there is an acceptable measurement formula in place Drama would then benefit from inclusion. As it stands at present there does not appear to be sufficient steps in place to recognise Drama students’ success.

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Categories
Free Essays

Dramatic Conventions

Dario Fo- Can’t Pay? Won’t pay! Can’t Pay? Won’t Pay! Is based on Dario Fo’s “Non Si Paga? Non Si Paga! “, a political work that he wrote to highlight the dilemma of ordinary Italian workers during the economic crisis of the 1970s. It is said that through Dario Fo’s plays he becomes both the peoples entertainer and the peoples spokesman. What is meant by this is that Fo better connects with his audience by entertaining them with their own thoughts. He speaks for the audience and stands up for the working class citizens and political injustice.

His play implied that he had full support for the lower class workers even though they commit crimes. He believed that they had no other choice than to do so, they only did it to survive. Throughout Can’t Pay? Won’t pay! Fo uses various dramatic conventions. One Dramatic convention that Fo uses to better connect with the audience is the breaking of the fourth wall. In drama the fourth wall is the invisible wall that stands between the actors on stage and the audience, it separates the world and situations created on stage from our reality.

What it means to break the fourth wall is that the actors have broken down the theoretical wall between the world on stage and reality, making the audience aware that they are in fact watching a play. The way that Fo breaks down the fourth wall is by the use of the same actor in multiple roles. The character of the sergeant, inspector, old man and undertaker was played by the same actor. Fo did this to create a realisation in the audience that they had seen the same man previously making them aware that they are in fact watching a play therefore breaking down the fourth wall.

Another dramatic convention that Fo’s uses throughout Can’t Pay? Won’t Pay! Is the use of slapstick humor. Slapstick is a type of comedy involving exaggerated physical violence or activities which exceed the boundaries of common sense, such as in the scene where Margherita and Antonia are convincing the inspector that Margherita is going into labour when she really just has stolen goods hidden underneath her shirt. By using this style of comedy Fo connects with the middle class working man. Though this style of comedy is extremely entertaining Fo in fact is distracting us from his real point.

The point that he is trying to make by using this style of comedy is saying that the government is like the style of comedy how they exceed the boundaries of common sense. Another dramatic convention used throughout the play is black humor. “Can’t Pay? Won’t Pay! ” Also deals with death. This happens when the sergeant accidentally bumps his head and fall unconscious. Whilst trying to revive the sergeant Antonia and Margherita give the sergeant hydrogen, which does not revive him but causes his belly to swell.

This makes them believe that they have killed a policeman. Black humor made up of domestic violence and death is one of the most unique assets of the drama. Coincidences also play an important role throughout the play. Using coincidences Fo brings comedy to his audience. One example of this is example is that when Luigi and Giovanni are having difficulty deciding where to hide the sacks without being caught by the authorities this is when the undertaker appears. So both Giovanni and Luigi decide to put the sacks into the casket so that they may not be found.

At the end of the play, Giovanni and Antonia find both of them have stolen something and that both of them had hid the stuff in their house. Without This coincidence they would not have been lead them to apologize to each other in the end. Throughout Can’t Pay? Won’t Pay! Fo integrated real political events in his play. This play is based on a true event He was inspired by a consumer revolt during the economic crisis of the mid-1970s in which people had declined to pay inflated prices.

Increased living costs and higher unemployment rates at the time made it difficult for the working class to survive. In this play, Fo let people of the lower class and working class such as housewives and factory workers, revolt to fight for their own rights of survival. For my practical work with a monologue from Can’t Pay? Won’t Pay! I had played the character of Giovanni. I had recreated the scene from act one where Giovanni cleans up after Margherita’s water breaks. The character Giovanni is a man of integrity.

He would rather die than steal and had even claimed he would kill his wife if he ever found out that she has stolen. He created Giovanni to mock those in society who obey the government under any circumstances. This scene perfectly illustrates his point. In this scene we see that Giovanni is quite naive to the process of childbirth and is willing to accept it even though it makes no sense whatsoever. This is shown in the line “Blimey, all this water! But what a strange smell, like vinegar… yeah, sort of brine. I’ll be damned I didn’t know that before being born we spent nine months brine? ”.

As we can see Giovanni is extremely gullible and will believe almost anything that he is told, this also adds to the comedic element of the scene. Dario Fo’s play “Can’t Pay? Won’t Pay! ” Has used various types of dramatic conventions such as black humor, the breaking down of the fourth wall, use of slapstick humor and coincidences. These features are why Can’t Pay? Won’t Pay! Has become one of Fo’s most famous works of drama. Fo’s Trait of writing politically controversial plays about working class has changed views on political injustice and has successfully obtained the support of audiences everywhere.

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Drama on Social Values

A Christmas Odyssey By John McNeil Summary A narrator takes a journey of discovery into the true meaning of Christmas, with Easter in view. This play was designed as a vehicle for participation by all age groups of a Sunday School, who appear in sequence from youngest to oldest. There are 2 alternate versions of this script. The first is written for a Southern Hemisphere summer Christmas, the second for a Northern Hemisphere winter Christmas. Script 1 Narrator: What does Christmas mean to you? Is it a family get-together, a big feed, Father Christmas and all that?

Or what? You know, we’ve inherited a lot of European customs in our Christmas, perhaps when we should have been developing our own style of things. So while picnicking in blazing sun on the beach, we still sing a song about a white Christmas, and hunt for mistletoe. Bit silly when you think about it, isn’t it! And after all, if the middle of winter is the proper time for Christmas, then maybe that’s when we should have ours!? It’s a thought. Choir: (Starts singing in background) Narrator: But there’s always one thing you can count on at Christmas, and that’s carols.

Used to sing them myself once when I was a kid. How did they go? (Hums to himself. ) Away in a manger, no crib for a bed. Yes, something like that. (Finishes off verse of carol. ) Group of children: (Pre-schoolers; they wander on) Narrator: Kids! I think kids were made for Christmas. It’s really their time, with all the goodies we pile on them. Lots and lots of goodies. (Turns to group) What does Christmas mean to you? (Narrator asks several questions, such as, “What’s the first thing you do Christmas morning? ” “Where do you go for Christmas? ” “Did you ask Santa for anything special? etc. After they have given their answers, Narrator suggests they go and sit in a corner, and pretend they’re opening their Christmas stocking, quietly acting out what they hope to find inside. ) It’s a bit like watching yourself, isn’t it! You know, there’s something else about Christmas I was going to mention to you, but it’s slipped my mind for the moment. It’ll come back to me. Singing!? Choir: (5-7 years; they file on, singing carol) Narrator: (When they have finished singing, asks questions of some of the choir, such as, “Who are you singing about? ” ‘Who’s he? etc. Finishes with, “Where are you going now? ) Choir: Off to church. Bye bye! (They file off. ) Narrator: (Turns to group still acting on floor. ) Aren’t you lot going to church too? Group: Yes. Come on, let’s go. (They get up, look to see if anyone’s watching, and run off playing with toys. ) Narrator: I guess church is different things to different people. Jesus? I knew I’d heard the name before. His birthday or something. I wonder what sort of birthday he had. What would it have been like to be there then? Animals: (7-10 years. File on, chattering among themselves.

Perhaps a donkey, cow, goat, sheep, dog, etc. They have just been in the manger when Jesus was born, and now they tell each other what they think of Jesus, looking at it from an animal’s point of view. ) Choir: (At rear, sing “Away in a Manger” quietly. ) Family: (Four children in congo line. When the animals have finished their discussion, the family comes on, honking, making other car noises, and comments such as: “Why can’t we find a good place for a picnic? ” “Did you bring your swimming costume? ” “Mummy, can we have lunch now? ” What are all these animals doing on the road? ” etc.

They tour the stage once, and then exit out front. As they go, one of the animals – a lamb – is knocked over, and it lies down crying. ) Narrator: Hey, you’ve knocked over a lamb! Come back! (Goes over to the lamb, and picks it up, carries it down the aisle. Other animals file down in procession after. ) Choir: (Enter singing. They do one verse or chorus only. ) Paper boy: (Enters, waving papers. ) Paper! Extra! Read all about it! Jesus Christ born in Bethlehem. Hit and run driver wounds family pet! Read all about it! Paper! Narrator: Thanks, I’ll buy one of those. (Paper boy exits. Newsreader: (While the voice is reading, choir hums a verse of its song. ) Here is the news. The year 1AD was marked today by the birth of a baby boy in Bethlehem. Three travelling salesmen offered prizes to the mother, Mary, for having the first baby of the new century, and local farmers have given a year’s supply of groceries free. Several authors are offering to write biographies of the child, but a prophet named Isaiah claims he already has copyright on the story. King Herod has sent a telegram of congratulations, and says he is planning a special reception for the family… ut the parents are understood to have declined the offer. A new song for the event has been written by a local choir of angels. It’s selling well, and is expected to top the charts this week. Narrator: Hold on a minute. What’s going on here? Who is this Jesus person everyone’s talking about? Choir: (Starts another verse of song. ) Narrator: (Breaks in at end of verse. ) Now hold it! You still haven’t answered my question. Reporter: (Enters, explains he is from the local radio station; carries a tape recorder. Asks some members of the choir what they think of Christmas, who Jesus is, etc. Choir: ( Finishes song. As they do, Paper Boy comes back through. ) Paper Boy: Extra! Extra! Jesus Christ born in Bethlehem. Paper! Choir: (Start to file out after Paper Boy. ) Narrator: Hey, where are you all going? Choir: (Some members turn back and call out) To worship Jesus. We’re going to church, etc. Narrator: (Picks up paper, starts looking through it again. ) Child: (10-13 years. Same sex as Narrator. Enters carrying a sack. ) Narrator: Hello, what have you got there? Child: A present for you. Narrator: A present! That’s very kind of you, seeing it’s Christmas. Can I open it now? (Child smiles and nods. (Narrator reaches in and takes out a hammer, and two pieces of wood. Comments on each. Then reaches in and takes out a doll dressed in baby’s clothes. Child takes them all off the Narrator, and cuddles the doll. ) Narrator: What is this all about? Why are these things in this sack? Child: (Whispers in his ear. ) Narrator: Are you sure? That’s in there? (Child smiles and nods. Narrator looks inside again, puzzled. ) Who are you? Child: Just someone you knew a long time ago, when you were my age. (Child takes the doll, hammer and pieces of wood and sits down to one side of the stage. ) Television crew: (Five or six of them.

They are making a film, though the audience doesn’t know this yet. They enter and act out the scene where the Pharisees come to Pilate and try to get him to indict Jesus. In explaining why they hate Jesus, they should bring out the reasons he is Saviour of the world. ) Produce: (Comes on carrying a video camera. ) Okay, cut it there. I didn’t like that scene. We’ll try it again in a moment. In the meantime, take five. And will the actors for the Crucifixion scene get ready please. (Director exits. ) Choir: (Enter and sings. While they sing, the TV crew stand round to one side, pretending to drink cups of coffee.

Child sitting with the doll in the corner starts to hammer the two bits of wood together, in between verses. As the choir finishes, the actors break into laughter at a joke. One of the actors, laughing, chokes and falls unconscious to the floor. Members of the choir go over and pick him up, carry him out. Rest of the choir file after, singing. When they’ve finished, Child finishes hamemring the two pieces of wood, holds the result up so the audience can see it is a cross. Child looks at the Narrator. ) Child: Would you do this to a baby? Then why do you do it every day to a grown man? Child goes over to Narrator, drops the doll at his feet, and goes out. Narrator stares at the doll, then bends over it, crying. As Narrator is bent over, Questioner enters. Narrator looks up at Questioner. ) Questioner: Well, what do you think now? Narrator: Why did he/she do that? Questioner: We all do. Narrator: But why did they kill Him? He was such a good man. There was no need for it? (Stands up, picks up sack, throws it over shoulder. ) Such a good man, and they killed him. (Starts to go. ) Questioner: Where are you going? Narrator: To see if I can find out where they took him. Questioner: But what have you got in that sack?

Narrator: A Christmas present. This sack is my life. The Child told me it contains everything that ever happened to me. Questioner: Wait a minute! Don’t you see? That’s what Christ died for. So we don’t have to carry all our sins around with us. Christ died, but He also rose fromt he dead. He’s alive now, and wants to give you life. Narrator: You really mean that? Questioner: Of course. 500 people saw Jesus not long after he rose from the dead, and millions since have turned to him and found that he’s still real. He loves you. Let that sack go. Narrator: (Looks at sack questioningly, shrugs shoulders and lets it drop. ) Hey, you’re right.

Suddenly there’s no load. Questioner:The Bible says, “God loved the world so much, He sent us his only son, Jesus Christ; so that whoever believes in him won’t die, but will be given everlasting life. ” Narrator: That’s tremendous. It’s the best Christmas present I ever had. You’ve got to tell me more. (As they exit, Choir and congregation sing a further song. ) Script Narrator: Christmas! What does it mean to you? Is it a family get together, a big feed, Father Christmas and all that? Or what? You know, we’ve inherited a lot of European customs in our Christmas, maybe we should have been developing our own style of things.

Why is it we don’t have Christmas in the middle of summer with fireworks and camping and cookouts and . . . we already have a holiday then, don’t we. Men’s Quartet: (Starts singing Deck the Halls in background) Narrator: But there’s always one thing you can count on at Christmas, and that’s carols. Used to sing them myself once when I was a kid. How did they go? (Hums to himself. ) Have Congregation sing ‘Good Christian Men Rejoice’. Group of children: (Pre-schoolers; they wander on) Narrator: Kids! Now that I think of it, kids were made for Christmas. It’s really their time, with all the goodies we pile on them.

Lots and lots of goodies. (Turns to group) What does Christmas mean to you? (Narrator asks several questions, such as, “What’s the first thing you do Christmas morning? ” “Where do you go for Christmas? ” “Did you ask Santa for anything special? ” etc. After they have given their answers, Narrator suggests they sing a couple songs (Away in a Manger, ). When they have finished they go and sit in a corner, and pretend they’re opening their Christmas stocking, quietly acting out what they hope to find inside. ) Narrator: It’s a bit like watching yourself when you were young, isn’t it! Those were the days . . .

You know, there’s something else about Christmas I was going to mention to you, but it’s slipped my mind for the moment. It’ll come back to me. ( 5-7 year olds enter dressed as carollers and chatting quietly) Oh yes, Singing! Congregation sings: ‘Angels from the realms of Glory’ Choir: (5-7 years; they file on, singing carol) Have this group do two or three songs. Go tell it on the mountain Hark the herald Angels Ring the bells Narrator: (When they have finished singing, asks questions of some of the choir, such as, “Who are you singing about? ” ‘Who’s he? ” etc. Finishes with, “Where are you going now? Choir: Off to Our Christmas program at church. Bye bye! (They file off. ) Narrator: (Turns to group still acting on floor. ) Aren’t you guys going to church too? Group: Yes. Come on, let’s go. (They get up, look to see if anyone’s watching, and run off playing with toys. ) Narrator: I guess Christmas is different things to different people. Jesus? I knew I’d heard the name before. It was His birthday or something. I wonder what sort of birthday he had. What would it have been like to be there then? Animals: (7-10 years. File on, chattering among themselves. Perhaps a donkey, cow, goat, sheep, dog, etc.

They have just been in the manger when Jesus was born, and now they tell each other what they think of Jesus, looking at it from an animal’s point of view. ) Angels We Have Heard on High O Little Town of Bethlehem A Child is Born Choir: (Sing ‘Away in the Manger’ with congregation) Narrator: I wonder what it was like on that morning in Bethlehem. If the people back then were anything like they are today, It must have been an interesting scene. Paper boy: (Enters, waving papers. ) Paper! Extra! Read all about it! Jesus born in Bethlehem. Confusion abounds! Read all about it! Paper! Narrator: Thanks, I’ll buy one of those. Paper boy exits. ) Narrator: Here is the news. The year 1AD was marked today by the birth of a baby boy in Bethlehem. Three traveling salesmen offered prizes to the mother, Mary, for having the first baby of the new century, and local merchants have given a year’s supply of groceries free. Several authors are offering to write biographies of the child, but a prophet named Isaiah claims he already has copyright on the story. King Herod has sent a telegram of congratulations, and says he is planning a special reception for the family… but the parents are understood to have declined the offer.

A new song for the event has been written by a local choir of angels. It’s selling well, and is expected to top the charts this week. Narrator: Hold on a minute. This can’t be what really happened? Who is this Jesus person everyone’s talking about? Scripture reading: Luke 2:1-7 Narrator: (Breaks in at end of verse. ) Now hold it! This still isn’t clear to me. No one has really answered my question. Scripture reading: Luke 2:8-20 Paper Boy: Extra! Extra! Jesus Christ born in Bethlehem. Paper! (Exits) Choir: (Start to file out after Paper Boy. ) Narrator: Hey, where are you all going? Choir: We’re going to worship Jesus.

Do you want to come along? Narrator: No, I think I’ll just read more about it. (Picks up paper, starts looking through it again. ) Scripture reading: Luke 2:21-22,25-38 Child: (10-13 years. Enters carrying a sack. ) Narrator: Hello, what have you got there? Child: A present for you. Narrator: A present! That’s very kind of you, seeing it’s Christmas. Can I open it now? (Child smiles and nods. ) (Narrator reaches in and takes out a hammer, and two pieces of wood. Comments on each. Then reaches in and takes out a doll dressed in baby’s clothes. Child takes them all off the Narrator, and cuddles the doll. Narrator: What is this all about? Why did you give me these things? I’m not sure a doll’s quite my style. There must be something else. Child: (Whispers in his ear. ) Narrator: Are you sure? That’s in there? (Child smiles and nods. Narrator looks inside again, puzzled. ) Who are you? Child: Just someone you knew a long time ago, when you were my age. (Child takes the doll, hammer and pieces of wood and sits down to one side of the stage. ) Song: (During the song, the Child sitting with the doll in the corner starts to hammer the two bits of wood together, in between verses.

As the choir finishes they file out, singing. Child finishes hammering the two pieces of wood, holds the result up so the audience can see it is a cross. Child looks at the Narrator. ) Scripture reading: Isaiah 53:1-12 Child: Would you nail a baby to this cross? Then why did they do that to Jesus? (Child goes over to Narrator, Places the doll at his feet, and goes out. (Narrator stares at the doll, then bends over it, confused. As Narrator is bent over, Questioner enters. Narrator looks up at Questioner. ) Questioner: Well, what do you think about Christmas now?

Narrator: ( Still thinking about his gift) Why did he/she do that? Questioner: He wanted you to understand what Christmas was all about. It’s not about presents, packages, trees or tinsel. Not even about carols. It’s about God coming to Earth to do something no-one else could do. Narrator: But why did they kill Him? He was such a good man. There was no need for it? (Stands up, picks up sack, throws it over shoulder. ) Such a good man, and they killed him. (Starts to go. ) Questioner: Where are you going? Narrator: To see if I can find out where they took him. Questioner: What have you got in that sack?

Narrator: A Christmas present. This sack is my life. The Child told me it contains everything that I’ve ever done wrong or that has ever happened to me. Questioner: Wait a minute! Don’t you see? That’s what Christ came and died for. He wasn’t just a good man, He was God in the flesh. Christ died, but He also rose from the dead so we don’t have to carry all our sins around with us. He’s alive now, and wants to give you life. Narrator: You really mean that? Questioner: Of course. 500 people saw Jesus not long after he rose from the dead, and millions since have turned to him and found that he’s still real.

He loves you. You can let that sack go. Narrator: (Looks at sack questioningly, at first cannot drop it, but finally shrugs shoulders and lets it drop. ) Hey, you’re right. Suddenly there’s no load. But why did God do it that way. I would have done things differently . . . Special Music: He Became a man like me Questioner: The Bible says, “God loved the world so much, He sent us his only son, Jesus Christ; so that whoever believes in him won’t die, but will be given everlasting life. ” Narrator: That’s tremendous. It’s the best Christmas present I ever had. You’ve got to tell me more. As they exit, Choir and congregation sing Joy to the world. ) ……………………………………………………………………………………….. © John McNeil 1973 All rights reserved This play may be performed free of charge, on the condition that copies are not sold for profit in any medium, nor any entrance fee charged. In exchange for free performance, the author would appreciate being notified of when and for what purpose the play is performed. He may be contacted at [email protected] net. nz Or at: 36B Stourbridge St, Christchurch 2, New Zealand.

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Drama Analysis Lars and the Real Girl

Lars and the Real Girl “Who is Bianca? ” “Lars and the Real Girl” is a production about a young man named Lars who tries to find love by ordering an anatomically correct sex doll, Bianca. Lars does not use Bianca for sexual pleasure but instead for someone to love. Bianca plays a major role in this movie even though she is restrained from feeling, talking, or even being alive. Bianca’s character aids the development of the other characters including Lars, his brother, and the “real girl”, Margo. Bianca helps the development of Lars’ character by letting him express his feelings through her.

Bianca becomes “sick” helping Lars secretly see a physiatrist in his brothers’ interest. The doctor slowly begins to grow a relationship with Lars during check-ups for Bianca. He opens up to her explaining all of Bianca’s problems, such as her father and mother dying at a young age and her search for independence. Even though he explains these as Bianca’s problems they are truly his own. Bianca gives him a sense of relief from being bottled up all these years. Bianca also helps the development of Lars brother, Gus. When Lars first introduces Bianca to Gus and his new wife Gus automatically shuts the idea down in frustration.

He believes that it is ludicrous and Gus needs help. His wife tries her hardest to make Lars feel that Bianca is welcome. Gus eventually comes around to realizing that Bianca is a result of his own actions. Lars has created her character to comfort his wife and himself because of the way Gus has been treating Lars since their parents passed away. Towards the end of the movie the viewer can see a major change in Gus’ attitude from neglecting Bianca to accepting that she is a part of his brother. But, Bianca does not stop there.

Margo is the new girl at work who clearly has a major crush on Lars. Lars overlooks her attention because of his conflicts with himself and his ability to build a relationship. While Lars is in the doctors’ office the viewer learns that Lars has an issue with pain when skin comes into contact with his own this only further proves that Lars is scared of affection. He turns away from his brother’s wife Karin when she tries so hard to love him and do everything she can for him. Bianca helps develop Margo’s character because Bianca helps develop Lars’ ability to build a relationship.

After Bianca passes away, Lars opens up and gives Margo a chance leaving the viewer guessing. Throughout the movie Bianca becomes more than just a doll made for sexual desire; she is a symbol in every character that is introduced to the viewer. Bianca shows the insecurities in Lars, the remorse in Gus, and the love in Margo. Although Bianca cannot talk or show emotion her character development in the town helps play out the development in the loved ones around her. “Lars and the Real Girl” opens eyes to show that characters do not have to be alive to be alive in others.

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Dramatic and Significant in Act 2 Scene 3 Macbeth

Title: How does Shakespeare make this scene both a significant and dramatic moment in the play? In Shakespeare’s play Macbeth there are a lot of dramatic, exciting and tragic occurrences in many of the scenes. Although in the beginning, Shakespeare foreshadowed the tragedies that were to come nothing could have prepared the audience for what took place in Act 2 scene 3. This is the scene in which King Duncan is found murdered causing shock and panic in all the characters on stage.

He dramatizes the scene by portraying the discovery of the King’s body, by emphasizing the shock and disbelief of the characters, by the flattering description given of Duncan and by revealing to the audience the deceptive characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. Duncan is the King of Scotland. He went to Macbeth’s castle to commend Macbeth in his bravery in the war against Scotland. However what he did not know was that his death was planned before his arrival.

Although we the audience only meet Duncan briefly Shakespeare provides us with an admirable view of Duncan’s character by the way the other characters describe him. For example when Duncan was found murdered Macduff had expressed his disbelief and outrage with the words: “Most sacrilegious murder hath broke ope/The Lord’s anointed temple, and stole thence/The life o’ th’ building! ” In this quote Shakespeare is comparing Duncan to God’s Temple. This gives the audience an idea of how kind and just Duncan really was.

Even Macbeth calls the king “graceful and renowned” although the audience is not quite sure whether he meant it or not. Macbeth refers to the king’s blood as “the wine of life” and his body as “the dregs that remain. ” In other words Duncan’s virtuous character was in his blood and now that it has been shed only the shell remained. Macduff was the one who discovered Duncan’s corpse. He was very much frightened and shocked to find his master dead. He had arrived on Duncan’s orders to wake him up early only to find the king murdered.

He comes out of the king’s chamber traumatized saying “O horror, horror, horror! /Tongue nor heart cannot conceive nor name thee! ” To him this is unbelievable. Shakespeare depicts the shocked tone through Macduff’s words “O horror, horror, horror! ” and through the exclamation marks to represent the tone of surprise in which Macduff spoke. There was a lot of commotion after that. Macduff awoken everyone by yelling and by ringing the bell to which Lady Macbeth responds “What’s the business, /that such a hideous trumpet calls to parley/The sleepers of the house?

Speak, speak! ” Lady Macbeth demands to know for what reason Macduff rung the bell awakening everyone that was sleeping. As everyone clambers in the tension and disbelief of the other characters start to build up emphasizing the drama of this scene. The audience is well aware that Macbeth was the one that killed the King and that Lady Macbeth helped him to accomplish the mission. So when they pretend they don’t know what happened it brings out one of the major themes of this play, deception. This scene reveals the duplicitous characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.

Shakespeare portrays Macbeth as a person with a conscience but not a moral one. Macbeth wants to be king but he would rather have someone else do the evil deed and take the fall while he becomes king. He nevertheless kills the king and feigns disbelief when the body is found. He also killed the two innocent guards who were framed for the murder calling it an act passionate fury. Although the characters onstage are yet to find out that Macbeth is deceitful the audience waits tensely for the moment in which all is revealed.

Lady Macbeth is also shown as a duplicitous character here in this scene. She is well aware of what took place since it was her master plan but pretends to be innocent when Duncan’s body is found. The irony in this scene is when Macduff trying to protect the Lady tells her “O gentle lady, /’Tis not for you to hear what I can speak: The repetition, in a woman’s ear, would murder as it fell” little does he know how ironic his choice of the word “gentle” is. He tells her that if he repeats the news to her she would die because of the tragedy.

However Lady Macbeth is not shocked at the news although she feigns it since she herself kept awake to see that the deed was done. Lady Macbeth earlier on the play retorts to Macbeth that she herself would have done it if she wasn’t born a woman; she originally cursed her ‘gentleness’ begging nature to take the gift of giving life away from her. She even advises Macbeth on how to be deceitful when she said “To beguile the time, Look like the time. Bear welcome in your eye, your hand, your tongue. Look like th’ innocent flower, But be the serpent under ’t. this shows that she is the more experienced one in being deceitful which is ironic since it’s Macbeth that is the ‘brave and worthy’ kinsmen. Shakespeare shows her to be a cruel woman who would stop at nothing for her husband’s success. This scene is a very dramatic one leaving most of the audience on their toes in anticipation and suspense dying to know what was going to happen. Later on we discover that Malcolm the crown Prince runs away leaving the throne. This is when the audience fully realizes that the Witches were telling the truth and that their final prophecy came true. Macbeth became King of Scotland.

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All the World’s a Stage, the Dramaturgy

All The World’s a stage “All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts” Shakespeare. Although Shakespeare wasn’t a sociologist, I think this quote profoundly sounds like Ervine Goffman’s ideas of dramaturgy and impression management. I agree with both Shakespeare and Ervine. We all have a part to play in this world and we do play it. To me Ervine Goffman’s ideas about self and dramaturgy are the most applicable social ideas in my own life.

He believed we do something called impression management. I have actually noticed myself using impression management every day. I have also noticed that in sociology we really need to understand face to face interactions of individuals to understand a society as a whole. He also believed in a concept called symbolic interactionism. He believed that social interactions are what make someone who they are. I believe that to understand his ideas better it is imperative that you know a little about him. Goffman was born June 11, 1922(Blackwood, 2011) to a Jewish Ukrainian couple in Canada.

Initially, he received his bachelors in sociology at the University of Toronto. Then he went to the University of Chicago to achieve his masters and doctorate. Chicago was the center for many micro-sociologists and symbolic interationists like Goffman. His ideas must have made him fit right in with all the other sociologists studying at University of Chicago. He also studied a year in Shetland and wrote a book called The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. This is where he refers to the theory of us always being onstage. He then went to Berkley to teach about Sociology and Anthropology (which he also studied).

Goffman also went onto to write about his ideas of total institution (the sociology term for somewhere completely blocked off from normal society). He wrote many books over his life time and he remained a very important man in the sociology world. He ended his writing career going back to address more evidence that we are all performers, he ended on the same note he started on. He passed on November 19th, 1982. ((Blackwood, 2011) Micro-Sociology is the study of a small group of people to understand how society works as a whole.

Ervine Goffman advocated this idea and used face-to-face interactions as a basis to understand sociology. I believe that this is a very true idea because without individuals there is no society. I also believe that how we act as individuals is what makes a society how it is. For example as individuals we actually enjoy conflict when the conflicts involves others. In high school I remember that everyone always wanted to stop in the hallway to watch people fight. On a larger scale society watches reality Television shows like “Bad girls Club” just to see these conflicts.

Everything we do individually affects us as a society. Another thing that Goffman believed in was how society is what makes us who we are, this is called social interactionism. Yes we make up society but in turn society molds us to who we are as well. For example a child is born completely without morals and values. These things are taught to the child by family and ultimately society. The child is taught killing is deviant and unacceptable. It is also taught that being overweight is a concrete stigma for females of society. Therefore if the child is a girl they will constantly want to be skinny, even at a young age.

My Humanities professor was talking about how his 8 year old daughter was called fat the other day in school. Now the young girl will not eat very much. This not something we are born with, these are learned values that society teaches. I have my own personal experience with social interactionism. My whole life society has shaped me to be who I am. It’s almost like a very subtle, yet powerful, form of peer pressure. For example I think that if it weren’t for the fact that society teaches that you should treat strangers with absolute respect I think I would have had a lot more conflicts with them.

Society teaches us to not get as angry with strangers as we do with our own friends and family members. Another thing Goffman believed was an idea called dramaturgy. Dramaturgy is the idea that we all act around people as if we were actors on a stage. He believed that the only time we acted as our true selves was when we are backstage and no one else is around to see us. I believe this is true of everyone in society. Of course there are those who have to act because it’s their job. Politicians, lawyers, servers, parents these people have to put up a facade so that others reactions server their purpose.

Not all of this acting is used for selfish purposes though. For example a parent doesn’t want their child to be scared so in a crisis they might smile and tell them everything is going to be all right, even if they know it’s not going to be alright. The final point I agreed with Goffman on was an idea called impression management. Impression management is similar to dramaturgy however it is how we are all the time. I use impression management every day. For example I am a server and I have to come off a certain way for my guests to like me or I won’t make any money.

I have to smile even when I’m stressed and I have to use a completely different voice when addressing my guest than I would use with anyone else. I also have to pretend I like things on the menu I have not even tried. In conclusion, I agree with Goffman’s theories on dramaturgy, impression management, micro-sociology, and symbolic interactionism. I concur with the fact that society shapes you to be who you are, it has definitely made me who I am. I also think that looking at how individuals interact with each other is imperative in finding out how society works.

You cannot understand the big picture without first looking at the small details. Impression management is a very important part of my life because it’s how I make a living. Finally dramaturgy is something we all do every day. We are actors on the stage of Society Citations 1. Blackwood, B. D. (2011, July 06). Blackwood. org. Retrieved from http://www. blackwood. org/Erving. htm 2. Travers, A. (1997). Reviewing sociology. Retrieved from http://www. reading. ac. uk/RevSoc/archive/volume10/number1/10-1e. htm

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Explore the Dramatic Significane of Lady Bracknell in Act 1

Explore the dramatic significance of Lady Bracknell in Act 1 Throughout Act 1, Oscar Wilde uses the character of Lady Bracknell as a highly comedic character who causes the entire play to come together by unknowingly creating a calamitous chain of events to occur by her refusal to let her daughter Gwendolyn marry to Jack Worthing. She is presented as strict, uptight woman who is very much the Matriarch of the family.

One way Wilde presents this idea is when Lady Bracknell is interviewing Jack on whether he should be allowed to marry Gwendolyn. In the interview Lady Bracknell is seen asking Jack questions such as “Do you smoke” this could indicate the void of old London society where more important issues weren’t considered as important in an world of extravagance, wealth and luxury such as the one they were living in.

Lady Bracknell is first and foremost a symbol of Victorian seriousness and the unhappiness it brings as a result. She is powerful, arrogant, ruthless to the extreme, conservative, and proper. In many ways, she represents Wilde’s opinion of Victorian upper-class negativity, conservative values, and power it is also thought that Wilde had fashioned Lady Bracknell by basing her on the hierarchy within it.

Her overshadowing presence in act one tells us how the mood and tone dramatically changes when she is in and out of the room, for example when she is not in the room Jack is relaxed and at ease with Gwendolyn, but when she returns and tells Jack to “rise from this semi-recumbent posture, it is most indecorous” he instantaneously stumbles to get up. It is her question on Jacks parents which eventually leads to the rest of the play falling together when she asks where his parents are, which he replies to that he was abandoned as a child, she comes up with a witty, hilarious remark of “to lose one parent, Mr.

Worthing, may be regarded as a misfortune. To lose both looks like carelessness. ” The idea of this statement is so ridiculous it is regarded as comical yet it also reveals that she will not Jack to marry Gwendolyn as she believes already that he is reckless and immature and his admission further proves that he is not responsible enough to marry her daughter. This sets of a series of events that lead to the eventual revelation at the end of the play and the humorous events in-between.

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Colonial Peru: History Takes a Dramatic Turn

It is hard to realize that historical accounts such as these could be so intriguing and actually reeks of scandals that could match any modern day soap opera could muster on television. The relationships, marriage, litigation and the drama are intensely strewn as each turn of events heat up.  Noting old court records and letters narrating the life of Francisco Noguerol de Ulloa, we become witnesses to his unwitting marriage to two women transformed into the main plot of Alexandra and Noble Cook’s book Good Faith and Truthful Ignorance (1991).

In the novel type historical account, the story begins as Noguerol receives a letter one day from his two sisters, who are nuns in a Benedictine convent.

Doña Ynés and Doña Ynésa Francisca, nuns in the Benedictine convent of San Pedro de las Dueñas, had corresponded occasionally with their brother who resided in Peru. But the mail was slow and undependable. This time they wrote to tell Francisco that his wife, Doña Beatriz de Villasur, had died, and to reprimand him for neglecting his own family. They desired, above all else, his return (p. 7).

Apparently, his two sisters schemed to convince their brother to go back home, telling him that his wife, Doña Beatriz de Villasur had died. Rather than going home, Noguerol took a new wife, Doña Catalina de Vergara, in a grand ceremony “among knights and people of much authority and quality.” But when the happy couple did return to Spain, they were greeted with a royal litigation: not only was Noguerol’s first wife was still alive, King Philip II wanted him arrested for bigamy.

This sparked the beginning of a complicated legal drama in the 16th century Latin America that trailed all the way to the Vatican, where Pope Paul IV decreed that Noguerol could keep his second wife. As the story unfolds, the readers are treated to a dose of bickering lawyers and sexual intrigue–including a lengthy debate over whether Noguerol first had “carnal intercourse” with first wife or second wife.

We could draw out from the book about colonial Peru’s adherence to marriage customs, such as the endowment of dowry by the wife’s family. Francisco Noguerol’s first marriage demonstrates the importance of the dowry and is an example of the “arranged marriage” that was rampant during those times. In the story, we have learned that as a young man in Spain, Noguerol agreed in a marriage arranged by his mother against his will. To wit:

The marriage between Francisco and Beatriz had been arranged by their families. It was a business transaction between a wealthy merchant and less affluent gentry, where personal wishes of the young people about to be linked were not considered relevant. Doña Costanza, a widow of only four years, settled a modest annuity on the young couple, but her son’s allure lay in his status.

The Noguerols descended from a notable family in Galicia and could clearly be categorized as hidalgos. Cristóval de Santander was a merchant who could afford to endow his daughter with an enticing sum in order to attract a husband with a higher social standing. The parents had negotiated a mutually satisfying deal, and their children could only dutifully accept the terms.

Francisco had protested; Beatriz had remained silent. They were betrothed, and the reluctant groom sweetened his fate with the delectable dowry. On 21 December 1530 Francisco Noguerol de Ulloa, who must have been about twenty years old, acknowledged to have received from “Cristóval de Santander my father-in-law” 30,000 maravedis “for the dowry and marriage that you have promised me, and that you have agreed to give with Doña Beatriz de Villasur, your daughter and my spouse.” On 29 January 1532 Francisco accepted another “1,000 reales of silver that are worth 34,000 maravedis, that I receive as partial payment of the dowry,” (p. 43).

After receiving a substantial dowry, Noguerol left for America, where he played a role in the Peruvian civil war and amassed a good-sized fortune. Noguerol’s second marriage was by his own choice and especially his wife’s choice, but it further demonstrates the importance of property for marriage. In his second marriage, Francisco received another large sum of money:

Doña Catalina de Vergara had agreed to marry Francisco Noguerol with the condition that he would take her back to Spain and even extracted an oath to that effect from her suitor. On the fifth day of October of 1549, the groom signed a receipt for all the goods Doña Catalina was bringing as dowry, worth some 3,105,000 maravedis (p. 25).

Before he was slapped with a bigamy suit, Noguerol did not know that his first wife is still alive. He married again in Peru several years after he received letters from his two sisters, who were nuns in Spain. They erroneously informed him that his first wife had died. Though neither spouse was in any way coerced into this marriage, both were careful to choose a marriage partner with sufficient property to constitute an excellent match. But, it turns out the wives were the ones who gave large sums of money to the man they chose to marry.

As soon as she learned that her husband had remarried. Dona Beatriz de Villasur initiated the dramatic bigamy suit after Noguerol began concluding his affairs in Peru and had sent a substantial amount of money to be invested in Spain, thereby alerting her and her relatives to his present prosperity.

The suit was first litigated before the Council of the Indies prior to Noguerol’s arrival in Spain. When he returned, he went to the ecclesiastical court to have his first marriage annulled. The suits and countersuits lasted several years and included a long period in which Noguerol was imprisoned and not permitted to live with his second wife. The Council of the Indies finally ruled in favor of Dona Beatriz, declaring Noguerol a bigamist. He was fined and exiled from several Spanish cities for several years, but he was not ordered to return to his first wife.

During that time, records such as administrative documents, the proceedings of the judiciary, and the minutes of both Andean and Spanish cabildos (town councils)–were also useful, especially when analyzed document by document specifically to compare Andean and Spanish views. Punishments for bigamy could be as heavy and could even cost the life of the offender. One person, Don Juan, cacique of Collique, offered buried treasure to the Spanish official who wanted him hanged for bigamy. He successfully tricked the Spanish, at least for a short while, by sending another woman in the place of his favorite mistress to the home of a good Christian woman for religious instruction (Ramirez, 1996).

During the two and a half centuries in which the Peruvian Inquisition functioned (from 1570 to 1820), some forty autos da fé were held. In these ceremonies, the maximum punishments — “relajación” (delivery to secular authorities) or death — were enforced as was forced reconciliation with the Catholic Church. Of the three thousand persons probably tried during the entire history of the Lima tribunal, only 48 were condemned. to burn at the stake.

The classic and always useful Historia del tribunal de la Inquisición de Lima first published by José Toribio Medina in 1887 contains a statistical summary of crimes listed most often in the Inquisition records. Heading the list is bigamy (20 percent of the cases); practicing the Jewish faith (17 percent); witchcraft (12 percent); heresy (10 percent); and solicitation by clergymen (7 percent) (see Medina 1956, 2:406-7). The leading position of bigamy can be explained by the great distance, the lengthy separations, and the difficulties in communicating that made the New World a likely setting for the proliferation of marital ties (Hampe-Martinez, 1996).

Paulino Castañeda Delgado and Pilar Hernández Aparicio (1985) explored the development of bigamy trials over the two and a half centuries of the Lima tribunal. They pointed out considerations of a canonical nature in the treatment of marriage and polygamy by the Catholic Church, above all during the Counter-Reformation.

These authors demonstrated that double marriages were more common in the Indies than in Spain, a phenomenon readily explained by the distance, lengthy stays, and difficulty in communicating from the New World. Like the witchcraft trials, the number of bigamy cases increased progressively in the jurisdiction of the Lima Inquisition. Between 1700 and 1820, these two misdeeds represented almost half of all cases tried.

In Good Faith and Truthful Ignorance, Doña Catalina, who is the second wife, sought the needed favorable ecclesiastical ruling for Francisco. Thus, the couple appealed to the Papacy and they were endowed a Papal brief. The Pope and the Salamanca apostolic judge ruled in favor of Noguerol and Dona Catalina, returning them to married life together. Regarding marriage, Church law was more powerful than civil law.

The authors found documentation for money sent much later to a member of the Roman curia, which suggests that the favorable Papal brief may have been influenced by a venal under­ling. When Francisco Noguerol died, Doña Beatriz again sued Doña Catalina for the return of her dowry and half the joint earnings. The ecclesiastical court reversed their judgment and ruled in her favor. Rather than continue the litigation that might endanger her grandson’s inheritance, Dona Catalina offered to settle out of court and paid Dona Beatriz an amount much larger than the original dowry.

In the book, the legal position of women in Spanish colonial society had been featured. These were established by codes written in the thirteenth century (the Siete Partidas ) and the early sixteenth century (the Leyes de Toro ) and was reinforced by a corporate view of society that equated the authority of the paterfamilias in the nuclear family with that of the king in the monarchical state. In the public sphere, women could not vote, become lawyers or judges, or hold public office (Arrom, 1985).

Married women needed the permission of their husbands to engage in many transactions, including buying or disposing of property, lending or borrowing money, and forming business partnerships. In terms of inheritance under Spanish law, daughters and sons inherited equal shares of their parents’ property, and a widow generally received half of the couple’s community property on the death of her husband. Any dowry a woman brought to a marriage legally reverted to her when her husband died or if the marriage was legally dissolved. Until that time, however, the husband could administer the dowry and could keep any interest that it earned (Zulawski, 1990).

In Good Faith and Truthful Ignorance, we could draw out the rule before that in the matter of guardianship of their own children, women’s rights were limited. Only the father could give consent for a child to marry, and a widow became her own child’s legal guardian only if her husband had not named anyone else in his will.

 For their work, Cook and Cook have woven a commendable picture of marriage, relationships, litigation and the status of women in 16th century Spain and Peru. Packing it with lots of historical accounts and careful presentation of arguments, we could visualize both sides of the story as seen in the documents themselves and resisting the temptation to speculate without convincing evidence. However, there have been parts that felt short. Like the analysis of the Papal brief that countered the ruling of the Council of the Indies when they favored Noguerol. But, all in all, the work is commendable because the unexpected decision make the readers forget that we are reading historical accounts, which are usually boring. The writing style is exciting as it definitely intrigues it its readers to finish the story till the end.

Works Cited

Arrom, S.A. The Women of Mexico City, 1790-1857, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press 1985, p. 77.

Castañeda, P.H. and Aparicio, P.H. The crimes of bigamy in the Inquisition of Lima, Missionalia Hispanica, Madrid, vol.  42, no. 24174, 1985.

Cook, A. P. and Cook, N.D. Good Faith and Truthful Ignorance: A Case of Transatlantic Bigamy. Duke University Press, 1991

Hampe-Martinez, T.  Recent Works on the Inquisition and Peruvian Colonial Society, 1570-1820, Latin American Research Review, vol. 31, 1996

Ramírez, S.E. The World Upside down: Cross-Cultural Contact and Conflict in Sixteenth-Century Peru, Stanford University, 1996
Zulawski, A. Social Differentiation, Gender, and Ethnicity: Urban Indian Women in Colonial Bolivia, 1640-1725, Latin American Research Review, vol. 25, no. 2, 1990

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The movie fracture is an example of a psychological drama

The movie fracture is an example of a psychological drama, played by set of talented movie actors. Among the talented actors in Hollywood, Anthony Hopkins and Ryan Gosling are chosen to play the two lead roles of the movie. A multi awarded and one of the most popular actors in his time and at present, Anthony Hopkins played the lead role in the movie fracture as the Tem Crawford.

Who was a local engineer who had attempted to murder his wife after discovering that her young wife Jennifer that was played by another young talented actress Embeth Davidtz, which was having an affair with local police detective. On the other hand, Ryan Gosling a talented actor as well, plays the critical role of the movie as the young and promising district attorney who is about make a defining moment of his career as a lawyer moving to a much glamorous law firm.

From the moment Ted Crawford discover that her young wife Jennifer is having an affair with a local police detective, he then starts to master plan the process of killing her wife. One day after making all the necessary plans, Crawford held his wife Jennifer inside their house and he shot her on the head in point blank range. This incident cause alarm to the community and police respondents starts to move all over the place.

Among the entire hostage negotiator who responded on the crime scene, only one detective Nunally was allowed to enter the house where Crawford shot his wife. Upon entering the crime scene he saw Ted Crawford on the floor and was shocked when he sees Jennifer his long time lover that was in the other room swimming on her own blood. Due to this crime Ted Crawford was held liable for shooting his wife and will face court trials.

This case was handled by Willy Beachum, a young and talented district attorney as his last case before moving to a better position in a law firm. With his record of 97% successful conviction cases Willy Beachum had achieved as a local district attorney, he accepts to handle the case before leaving district attorney’s office. With the belief that this case will no longer be a difficult one for this case is an open case of attempted murder, Willy does not made the needed preparations as much as he did on his previous cases. Apart from Willy’s knowledge he did not thought this case will be a battle of psychological intelligence between him and Ted Crawford. In the end, Ted Crawford was acquitted on doing frustrated murder on her wife Jennifer.

In relation of the movie fracture by Anthony Hopkins to business law,  the scenario of the battle between the two leading character of the movie Ted Crawford and Willy Beachum on the court could be perfect to cite. Furthermore, this movie has something to do with law cases such as frustrated murder and probably business law in terms of actions of the leading role. Business law is often characterized as corporate law that was divided into many different areas. One of its is the law of negligence or malpractice.

In the movie fracture, Ryan Gosling as the young successful district attorney Willy Beachum, may violated some the law of malpractice. This law is type of professional negligence in which a practitioner in a professional field is generally accepted failure to perform or achieve professional standards as required to their duty. In the case of Willy Breachum that was portrayed by the famous actor Ryan Gosling, as a district attorney he may possibly violated the law of malpractice in which he failed to perform professionally on the case of Ted Crawford.

It is understandable though in court trial a winner and a loser are inevitable. However, on the movie fracture the public district attorney Willy Beachum had possibly committed negligence since he do not give enough attention and did not make needed preparation upon handling the case of Ted Crawford resulted to the not guilty verdict of the court to the person on trial.

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Drama Journal Entry

Wk6 Assign: Project 1 – Journal – Drama Part II 1. What is your reaction to this week’s play: “Fences”? My reaction is that Troy Maxson has made a lot of mistakes in his life, but finally has settled on the right track. He has a wonderful wife, a son, and a steady job. But when Troy’s son brings home a request that causes him to look back and dwell on the bitter racism in his unfulfilled past, Troy’s stable life takes a downward spiral.

As the Maxson family loses contact with each other and relationships change in the blink of an eye, each character must fight through their inner demons to overcome the conflict that has overtaken their family. 2. What do you feel is significant about this play? (Discuss possible themes and the author’s intentions. ) Troy, being an uneducated black man living in the south had many challenges and obstacles to overcome.

In the end, the apple doesn’t fall too far from the tree. Rose’s character reminds us why our children need an education and woman rights need to be acknowledged and fought for. When she finds out her husband is cheating and at 54 he is going to be a father again. Rose has nowhere to go thick or thin, good or bad, Rose is stuck. 3. What do you think is the value of this dramatic piece and the form of literature it is written in? Why has this play become a classic, and why is it so highly regarded? ) Fences is one of those rare works of literature that is able to take a real-life situation and turn it into something deeply meaningful and important. It is one of the most accurate and intriguing depictions of relationships between people that I have ever read. August Wilson strikes a perfect balance of plot and dialogue and ends up with a definite home run. It was literature written in Drama.

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Colonial Peru: History Takes a Dramatic Turn

It is hard to realize that historical accounts such as these could be so intriguing and actually reeks of scandals that could match any modern day soap opera could muster on television. The relationships, marriage, litigation and the drama are intensely strewn as each turn of events heat up.  Noting old court records and letters narrating the life of Francisco Noguerol de Ulloa, we become witnesses to his unwitting marriage to two women transformed into the main plot of Alexandra and Noble Cook’s book Good Faith and Truthful Ignorance (1991).

In the novel type historical account, the story begins as Noguerol receives a letter one day from his two sisters, who are nuns in a Benedictine convent.

Doña Ynés and Doña Ynésa Francisca, nuns in the Benedictine convent of San Pedro de las Dueñas, had corresponded occasionally with their brother who resided in Peru. But the mail was slow and undependable. This time they wrote to tell Francisco that his wife, Doña Beatriz de Villasur, had died, and to reprimand him for neglecting his own family. They desired, above all else, his return (p. 7).

Apparently, his two sisters schemed to convince their brother to go back home, telling him that his wife, Doña Beatriz de Villasur had died. Rather than going home, Noguerol took a new wife, Doña Catalina de Vergara, in a grand ceremony “among knights and people of much authority and quality.” But when the happy couple did return to Spain, they were greeted with a royal litigation: not only was Noguerol’s first wife was still alive, King Philip II wanted him arrested for bigamy. This sparked the beginning of a complicated legal drama in the 16th century Latin America that trailed all the way to the Vatican, where Pope Paul IV decreed that Noguerol could keep his second wife. As the story unfolds, the readers are treated to a dose of bickering lawyers and sexual intrigue–including a lengthy debate over whether Noguerol first had “carnal intercourse” with first wife or second wife.

We could draw out from the book about colonial Peru’s adherence to marriage customs, such as the endowment of dowry by the wife’s family. Francisco Noguerol’s first marriage demonstrates the importance of the dowry and is an example of the “arranged marriage” that was rampant during those times. In the story, we have learned that as a young man in Spain, Noguerol agreed in a marriage arranged by his mother against his will. To wit:

The marriage between Francisco and Beatriz had been arranged by their families. It was a business transaction between a wealthy merchant and less affluent gentry, where personal wishes of the young people about to be linked were not considered relevant. Doña Costanza, a widow of only four years, settled a modest annuity on the young couple, but her son’s allure lay in his status. The Noguerols descended from a notable family in Galicia and could clearly be categorized as hidalgos. Cristóval de Santander was a merchant who could afford to endow his daughter with an enticing sum in order to attract a husband with a higher social standing.

The parents had negotiated a mutually satisfying deal, and their children could only dutifully accept the terms. Francisco had protested; Beatriz had remained silent. They were betrothed, and the reluctant groom sweetened his fate with the delectable dowry. On 21 December 1530 Francisco Noguerol de Ulloa, who must have been about twenty years old, acknowledged to have received from “Cristóval de Santander my father-in-law” 30,000 maravedis “for the dowry and marriage that you have promised me, and that you have agreed to give with Doña Beatriz de Villasur, your daughter and my spouse.” On 29 January 1532 Francisco accepted another “1,000 reales of silver that are worth 34,000 maravedis, that I receive as partial payment of the dowry,” (p. 43).

After receiving a substantial dowry, Noguerol left for America, where he played a role in the Peruvian civil war and amassed a good-sized fortune. Noguerol’s second marriage was by his own choice and especially his wife’s choice, but it further demonstrates the importance of property for marriage. In his second marriage, Francisco received another large sum of money:

Doña Catalina de Vergara had agreed to marry Francisco Noguerol with the condition that he would take her back to Spain and even extracted an oath to that effect from her suitor. On the fifth day of October of 1549, the groom signed a receipt for all the goods Doña Catalina was bringing as dowry, worth some 3,105,000 maravedis (p. 25).

Before he was slapped with a bigamy suit, Noguerol did not know that his first wife is still alive. He married again in Peru several years after he received letters from his two sisters, who were nuns in Spain. They erroneously informed him that his first wife had died. Though neither spouse was in any way coerced into this marriage, both were careful to choose a marriage partner with sufficient property to constitute an excellent match. But, it turns out the wives were the ones who gave large sums of money to the man they chose to marry.

As soon as she learned that her husband had remarried. Dona Beatriz de Villasur initiated the dramatic bigamy suit after Noguerol began concluding his affairs in Peru and had sent a substantial amount of money to be invested in Spain, thereby alerting her and her relatives to his present prosperity. The suit was first litigated before the Council of the Indies prior to Noguerol’s arrival in Spain. When he returned, he went to the ecclesiastical court to have his first marriage annulled. The suits and countersuits lasted several years and included a long period in which Noguerol was imprisoned and not permitted to live with his second wife. The Council of the Indies finally ruled in favor of Dona Beatriz, declaring Noguerol a bigamist. He was fined and exiled from several Spanish cities for several years, but he was not ordered to return to his first wife.

During that time, records such as administrative documents, the proceedings of the judiciary, and the minutes of both Andean and Spanish cabildos (town councils)–were also useful, especially when analyzed document by document specifically to compare Andean and Spanish views. Punishments for bigamy could be as heavy and could even cost the life of the offender. One person, Don Juan, cacique of Collique, offered buried treasure to the Spanish official who wanted him hanged for bigamy. He successfully tricked the Spanish, at least for a short while, by sending another woman in the place of his favorite mistress to the home of a good Christian woman for religious instruction (Ramirez, 1996).

During the two and a half centuries in which the Peruvian Inquisition functioned (from 1570 to 1820), some forty autos da fé were held. In these ceremonies, the maximum punishments — “relajación” (delivery to secular authorities) or death — were enforced as was forced reconciliation with the Catholic Church. Of the three thousand persons probably tried during the entire history of the Lima tribunal, only 48 were condemned. to burn at the stake.

The classic and always useful Historia del tribunal de la Inquisición de Lima first published by José Toribio Medina in 1887 contains a statistical summary of crimes listed most often in the Inquisition records. Heading the list is bigamy (20 percent of the cases); practicing the Jewish faith (17 percent); witchcraft (12 percent); heresy (10 percent); and solicitation by clergymen (7 percent) (see Medina 1956, 2:406-7). The leading position of bigamy can be explained by the great distance, the lengthy separations, and the difficulties in communicating that made the New World a likely setting for the proliferation of marital ties (Hampe-Martinez, 1996).

Paulino Castañeda Delgado and Pilar Hernández Aparicio (1985) explored the development of bigamy trials over the two and a half centuries of the Lima tribunal. They pointed out considerations of a canonical nature in the treatment of marriage and polygamy by the Catholic Church, above all during the Counter-Reformation. These authors demonstrated that double marriages were more common in the Indies than in Spain, a phenomenon readily explained by the distance, lengthy stays, and difficulty in communicating from the New World. Like the witchcraft trials, the number of bigamy cases increased progressively in the jurisdiction of the Lima Inquisition. Between 1700 and 1820, these two misdeeds represented almost half of all cases tried.

In Good Faith and Truthful Ignorance, Doña Catalina, who is the second wife, sought the needed favorable ecclesiastical ruling for Francisco. Thus, the couple appealed to the Papacy and they were endowed a Papal brief. The Pope and the Salamanca apostolic judge ruled in favor of Noguerol and Dona Catalina, returning them to married life together. Regarding marriage, Church law was more powerful than civil law.

The authors found documentation for money sent much later to a member of the Roman curia, which suggests that the favorable Papal brief may have been influenced by a venal under­ling. When Francisco Noguerol died, Doña Beatriz again sued Doña Catalina for the return of her dowry and half the joint earnings. The ecclesiastical court reversed their judgment and ruled in her favor. Rather than continue the litigation that might endanger her grandson’s inheritance, Dona Catalina offered to settle out of court and paid Dona Beatriz an amount much larger than the original dowry.

In the book, the legal position of women in Spanish colonial society had been featured. These were established by codes written in the thirteenth century (the Siete Partidas ) and the early sixteenth century (the Leyes de Toro ) and was reinforced by a corporate view of society that equated the authority of the paterfamilias in the nuclear family with that of the king in the monarchical state. In the public sphere, women could not vote, become lawyers or judges, or hold public office (Arrom, 1985).

Married women needed the permission of their husbands to engage in many transactions, including buying or disposing of property, lending or borrowing money, and forming business partnerships. In terms of inheritance under Spanish law, daughters and sons inherited equal shares of their parents’ property, and a widow generally received half of the couple’s community property on the death of her husband. Any dowry a woman brought to a marriage legally reverted to her when her husband died or if the marriage was legally dissolved. Until that time, however, the husband could administer the dowry and could keep any interest that it earned (Zulawski, 1990).

In Good Faith and Truthful Ignorance, we could draw out the rule before that in the matter of guardianship of their own children, women’s rights were limited. Only the father could give consent for a child to marry, and a widow became her own child’s legal guardian only if her husband had not named anyone else in his will.

 For their work, Cook and Cook have woven a commendable picture of marriage, relationships, litigation and the status of women in 16th century Spain and Peru. Packing it with lots of historical accounts and careful presentation of arguments, we could visualize both sides of the story as seen in the documents themselves and resisting the temptation to speculate without convincing evidence. However, there have been parts that felt short. Like the analysis of the Papal brief that countered the ruling of the Council of the Indies when they favored Noguerol. But, all in all, the work is commendable because the unexpected decision make the readers forget that we are reading historical accounts, which are usually boring. The writing style is exciting as it definitely intrigues it its readers to finish the story till the end.

Works Cited

Arrom, S.A. The Women of Mexico City, 1790-1857, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press 1985, p. 77.

Castañeda, P.H. and Aparicio, P.H. The crimes of bigamy in the Inquisition of Lima, Missionalia Hispanica, Madrid, vol.  42, no. 24174, 1985.

Cook, A. P. and Cook, N.D. Good Faith and Truthful Ignorance: A Case of Transatlantic Bigamy. Duke University Press, 1991

Hampe-Martinez, T.  Recent Works on the Inquisition and Peruvian Colonial Society, 1570-1820, Latin American Research Review, vol. 31, 1996

Ramírez, S.E. The World Upside down: Cross-Cultural Contact and Conflict in Sixteenth-Century Peru, Stanford University, 1996
Zulawski, A. Social Differentiation, Gender, and Ethnicity: Urban Indian Women in Colonial

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Drama Script About Office

“OFFICE WORKERS” Cast: * Den Mae Pangilinan as Cheng Shi( in Sales Department ) * Cristine Joise Causo as Ms. Quin (Manager of Sales Department) * Analyn Miranda as Lee Min/ Rhen Yue ( in HR Department ) (VP in Merchandising) * Jennica Dela Cruz as Jing Shi ( CEO ) * Jeffrey Nartates as Mr. Roy (in Sales Department) * Joseph Dela Cruz as Patrick Li ( Manager in Merchandising Department ) * Angelica Javate as Lyn Shao ( VP ) * Gracielle Ann Garcia as Ms. Rhue ( Employee ) * Charmaine Dela Cruz as Ms. Yao ( Assistant Manager of Manager in Merchandising Dep’t. * Joanalene Tanangonan as Ms. Yi ( Secretary of Jing Shi ) Directed by: Group 5 Submitted to: Mrs. Jennifer G. Fronda SYNOPSIS: Cheng Shi is a MBA graduate who has everything handed to her because she is the future successor of Jingshi Department Store. However, her mother worries she will not make a good manager and decides to train her by having him work as an entry-level employee for a year. During the year she has to live on her own salary and never reveal her true identity, or she will have to renounce his succession right. Shi could not have survived the year has it not been for Mr. Roy’s office survival guide. Mr.

Roy is a Jingshi marketing specialist who has just saved her first Php 50, 000 for the down payment on a house. She works very hard to achieve her goal. Together, Roy and Cheng accomplish the impossible, which is to shine on the bottom of the office pyramid. SCENE 1: Narration Narrator: My name is Christian Roy, an employee in Sales Department of Jing Shi Department Store. I’ve been in the workforce for four years, never treat others, don’t buy clothes that cost more than Php. 1, 000, don’t go to the movies, don’t go to KTV (Karaoke), don’t take the taxi, I’m so frugal because I want to buy my own house where mom and I can live in.

Today is the day I’ve been anticipating most. Heaven sees all our hard work. As an office boy, I swallow my pride, endure and suffer through anything, work overtime everyday and don’t feel tired, never fight back when my boss yells at me, Im frugal with my money, and from my limited income, I’ve saved first 50, 000 pesos of my life. Although this 50, 000 pesos is just a little dent in the global economy, it’s a big step in my life. This 50, 000 pesos put me one step closer to my dream of buying a house. Some people may think that the life of an office boy is very boring, but I don’t think so one bit.

I love WORKING! (AT THE OFFICE) ( 8:00 am ) Ms. Quin: Hey! Ms. Lee Min, may I ask what you are doing? Let me see what you are holding? -Ohh.. you aren’t trying to clock in for Christian Roy from Sales, are you? Ms. Min: of course not, manager. -I’m afraid that once Roy get’s here, he won’t be able to find her card, so I’m holding it for him. Ms. Quin: What are you holding when he’s not here! Clocking in for others is seriously against company policy. You’re in the HR Department and you didn’t know that rule? I don’t want to complain about you young ones, we all work hard to… Ms.

Min: Manager, there’s a hot guy. Ms. Quin: Where’s the guy? (Min will get the card of Roy on the hand of manager. Roy will clock in at exactly 8:00 am) Mr. Roy: Yes! (Dance) Ms. Quin: That’s enough. Mr. Roy, you got lucky. If not, I was thinking that your history of four years of perfect attendance would have been ruined. Mr. Roy: Manager, from now on, I’ll leave my house earlier. Ms. Quin: In the afternoon, I’m having a meeting with the CEO. Hurry and prepare the past three months of sales performance report and put it on my desk. Ok? Mr. Roy: Manager!

But isn’t it your responsibility to gather the sales report for meeting? Ms. Quin: oh yeah! (smile) Of course that’s something that I, as manager, have to report. But you’re responsible in gathering the data. Get on it! Now! (The steps of Ms. Quin would cross Ms. Min) Ms. Quin: Move! (Ms. Min will act threateningly to Ms. Quin) SCENE 2: AT THE OFFICE OF MANAGER (AFTERNOON) Ms. Quin: I told you to prepare a sales report and you really did gather all this crap for me. Take a look. The numbers are so squished and condensed; CEO will get angry at the sight of it. (angry) (sigh) didn’t I tell you before?

Pick a few goals, think of some slogan, so when everyone’s in the meeting, ‘ho hey’ or “wow” all the managers will applaud you and say that you’re the best. Here, do it again. Look for yourself, such a thick stack, are you turning in a thesis? Listen carefully. The version that you redo cannot be more than two A4 pages. Put it on my desk when you’re done. Got it? Mr. Roy: yes! I got it. Ms. Quin: I still have a few more meetings. (exit) SCENE 3: (AIRPORT) Ms. Cheng Shi: Ms. Yi, I’m here. Which car are you driving to pick me up? What? I don’t care. If it doesn’t fit, that’s your problem. (Angry) Gossh. become irritated) Background Music (Department Store) Ms. Yi: Good morning Maam. Ms. Cheng Shi: Why did you bring me to the department store? Ms. Yi: The President told me to bring you here directly. Ms. Cheng Shi: Why’s she so impatient? Can’t she let me first take a rest? She isn’t wanting to discuss my inheriting the company, is she? Ms. Yi: I’m not sure maam. SCENE 4: CEO OFFICE Ms. Cheng Shi: Mom. Did you take a look at the proposal which I mailed you before I returned? Great, isn’t it? Ms. Jing Shi: I looked at it. Of course I looked at it. It’s the proposal that wanted to tear down the old neighborhood around the department store.

From now on, you’ll start at the bottom of the company. Work hard. Cheng Shi: Stop kidding around. The point of sending me to the US to get an MBA is so that I can inherit the company and become the CEO. I’m ready! Ms. Jing Shi: You’re ready… for what? Are you ready to ruin my life’s work? Your studying in the US, tell me how much of my money you spent! Other people can get their degree in two years. You took five years. When you were a student, you didn’t wake up in the day and didn’t sleep at night. Exactly what you were doing, think I don’t know? Ms. Cheng Shi: Mom, I admit that in the past, I liked to play a little too much.

But right now, I’m set on expanding the business. I understand your intention to have me start from the bottom. I can make do with starting from Manager. Ms. Jing Shi: Manager? Ms. Cheng: Yes. Ms. Jing Shi: All right. From now on, you are the new employee in the Sales Department of Jing Shi Department Store. Go and start as an assistant. Ms. Cheng: No, Manager. Ms. Jing: Start as an assistant. In the future, you can only spend the money that you earn. And you must sign these five clauses. One, you must not reveal your identity at the company. Two, your year-end performance must be above “very good”. Three, you can’t use my money.

You can’t use your credit card. Four, you can’t live at home. Five, you can’t reveal this contract. If within a year you haven’t violated this contract, then I will consider your inheritance of this company. Ms. Cheng: What if I violate the contract? Ms. Jing: Then, that means you don’t have the ability to survive in the workforce, so don’t even talk about managing. Why are you laughing? Ms. Cheng: What did I do that made you look down on me? I don’t want to inherit the company anymore, all right? SCENE 5: CEO OFFICE (Knocking the door) CEO (Ms. Jing): come in. Ms. Shao: President CEO: you’ve worked with me the longest.

You understand my daughter too. I think that you would agree my decision. Will you help me to discipline my daughter and take the opportunities I offered to her? Ms. Shao: (agree) CEO: Jing Shi Department Store is like my daughter. I don’t want to ruin her life and to destroy her of the other. Ms. Shao: Don’t worry. Leave it to me. CEO: Thank you. SCENE 6: HR DEPARTMENT ( AT THE VP OFFICE) Ms. Shao: Cheng, your mother sent you abroad to study, not to play. MS. Cheng: I did. I even got my diploma. (take a coffee) all she wanted was that diploma. Ms. Shao: let me tell you, your mother is serious this time. If you show her good results… Ms.

Cheng: Auntie Shao, you’ve worked with her more than 10 years, you don’t know her past time, do you? She takes great joy in rejecting me. No matter how good a job I do, she’ll never be satisfied. I sometimes question whether I’m her biological daughter. Ms. Shao: of course you are! Why am I telling you all this? (sigh) then use your actions to prove to your mother that she’s wrong. This is your contract (give the pen) unless you don’t have the guts. Oh. And from now on please call me “VP Shao” Ms. Cheng: Yes VP Shao. May I ask if you have any other orders? Ms. Shao: yes. This is your account book. Also Mr.

Ralph has already rented a house for you. From now on, you have to move out and live on your own. The keys and address are inside. Ms. Cheng: (open the envelop) 5, 000? Is it dollars or euro? Ms. Shao: Philippine peso Ms. Cheng: Impossible! Ms. Shao: Possible! Ms. Cheng: My expense for one night is more than 3, 000! Ms. Shao: you should know this is the first time the company’s paid a salary in advance. Your future salary will be deducted to reflect that. You have to understand. The company’s been in business for more than ten years. This is the first time that an employee’s been paid in advance. So you should manage your money wisely.

So, what do you think? You can’t afford to play this game? Ms. Cheng: (smile) can I not? Ms. Shao: of course. Then I call you this in future? Ms. Cheng: call me what? Ms. Shao: sissy. Ms. Cheng: I’ll play with her. (sign to contract) SCENE 7: SALES DEPARTMENT Ms. Quin: Mr. Christian Roy! What is this? Look, this page is filled with tiny characters. If you’re so good with small font sizes, why don’t you edit a dictionary? Mr. Roy: (sigh) I’ve already tried my best to focus on the important points, but there is too much data. 2 pages of A4 is not enough. Ms. Quin: A4 was just an example. Take it as an example. Got it?

What are you trying to say by making the font so small? Do you want me to hold magnifying glass when I report it to the CEO? How can you comprehension be so low? Mr. Roy: then let me go and increase the size. Ms. Quin: no. never mind. Since, you’ve already done it, got to the meeting with me. Mr. Roy: Meeting? Ms. Quin: What? Are you questioning me? I’m letting you see for yourself how we high class managers hold an inter department meeting. If you aren’t at a certain level, you can’t even attend. It’s your luck to be able to go with me. Cherish and seize this opportunity, got it? Remember, after we go in, only speak when I tell you to.

Don’t start a fire for me! Mr. Roy: yes sir. Ms. Quin: move. Move! Get on it. SCENE 8: SALES DEPARTMENT Ms. Quin: What? Did you go to the wrong department again? Ms. Min: Manager Quin.. this is the new employee in the Sales Department, Cheng Shi. This is her resume. Then, she’s all yours. Bye. Ms. Quin: bye.. , Ms. Cheng. Ms. Cheng: yes? Ms. Quin: you studied management. Ms. Cheng: yes. Ms. Quin: hey.. Ms. Cheng: yes? Ms. Quin: if you sent directly from HR, it means you have some connections. Tell me, what’s your connection? Ms. Cheng: I applied for the position myself. No one referred me. Ms. Quin: then listen to me Ms. Cheng Shi. The ost important department in Jing Shi Department is our Sales Department. Under my great and fine guidance, we have the highest performance of all departments. Ok. Ms Shin, do you really think that just because your last name is “Shin”, you’re the relative of the president or something? Hello no! the sales goal for our department is “do what I tell you to” ok? Hey you (pointing out Roy) this newbie is your responsibility. Mr. Roy: ok. She’s in good hands (Shin will step closer to Ms. Lou) Let me first introduce to you our co-workers. Ms. Cheng: it’s time for my lunch. (back out) Mr. Roy: hey Cheng, its working hours, where are you going?

Ms. Cheng: I already told you, to lunch! It’s almost noon. Mr. Roy: I was introducing your co-workers and you didn’t care. Is that the attitude a Newbie should have? Ms. Cheng: then may I ask you what attitude should a newbie have? Mr. Roy: respect your boss! Ms. Cheng: so it doesn’t matter whether the boss is right or wrong, everyone should shut up and blindly follow. That shouldn’t be called respect. Mr. Roy: Oh my! I don’t care. Anyway, manager wants me in charge. If you perform badly, I’m responsible. Ms. Cheng: I’m really hungry. If you have anything to say do it over lunch!. Mr. Roy: grr.. SCENE 8: CONVENTION OFFICE

CEO: Jing Shi Department Store has always been the top performer of the department store industry. But this season, our sales have slumped badly. The gap between our sales and other five big department stores is narrowing. About this, I believe that each department has already come up with a proposal to reverse this trend. Manager Patrick Li, you go first. Mr. Li: Director, the Merchandising Department has always been able to attract the top brands. Of course, in the future we will to expand our market share. However, the performance of Sales department.. (Smile) the companies that we work with have all had problems.

CEO: where’s VP Cruz of Sales? Ms. Quin: Director, VP Cruz has taken the day-off, so I, Ms. Quin, am temporarily taking her spot today. CEO: then does Sales have any thoughts on the matter? Ms. Quin: we do. The Sales Department is “always be ready”. Christian Roy will report to you. Mr. Roy: Manager, you didn’t ask me to prepare anything. Ms. Quin: I don’t care whether or not you’re prepared. Go for it! Here yes. Mr. Roy: Director, after a long observation period conducted by our department, we found that the companies we work with also work with many other stores. This means the brands lack exclusiveness. Ms. Yao: Ms.

Lou, the Merchandising Department has already brought in world-class brands. If you don’t think that’s enough, please describe in detail what has to be done, so that we can improve. Mr. Roy: ahh.. hmm. Sorry Director but I don’t know we need first to conduct a new proposal again. Ms. Yue: Ms. Lou, don’t tell me you only have ideas but no concrete plan of action? How about this? CEO: Sales Department will take care of this case. Now, Mr. Quin how many days do you need? SCENE 9: SALES DEPARTMENT Ms. Rhue: hey, why did you started a fire and in front of Director too? What we need to do now? Mr. Roy: I was just giving an example.

Who knew things would turn this way? Ms. Yao: You’re so pitiful Cristine Lou. You’re really a girl we should care about. I have an idea that could help you. Mr. Roy: how? Ms. Yao: easy. Just make an appointment with other competent store.. Ms. Cheng: (laugh) are you kidding Ms. Yao? Do you know guys why sales in the company have fallen? Mr. Roy: who knows? Ms. Cheng: because employee like you guys. You’re either stupid (staring at Lou), take pleasure in other misfortune (looking at Ms. Yao), complain after the fact (looking at Rhue), or have the attitude that it’s best to keep to yourself. I’d be shocked if the company’s sales increased.

Mr. Roy: (take a coffee) excuse me. Ms. Yao: besides criticizing and complaining, is there anything else you can do? Ms. Rhue: Correct! Ms. Cheng: I really want to do something, but I don’t have the opportunity. Ms. Rhue: there are opportunities. How could there be none? You can help Cristine Lou to settle this issue. Ms. Cheng: Please take responsibility for your own action. Not my doing. Mr. Roy: Ms. Cheng Shin, I don’t need a newbie who flips through magazines during office hours to help me. Ms. Cheng: thank God. I don’t have any interest in helping a boss who has only experience but no capability. Mr.

Roy: what did you say? SCENE 10: NARRATION Ms. Cheng made a secret proposal that can solve the company’s problem. All staffs and employers applaud Ms. Cheng for her great ideas and she is now promoted as the manager replacing its old one which is Ms. Quin. Ms. Cheng experienced some problems but only Roy helps her to come up. That’s why they became friends. Lately, Ms. Jing Shi becomes more proud to her daughter. Christian Roy is not the best or the hardest worker, neither is he the worst. They enjoy working because it gives him the money to enjoy life. They are the new generation of office workers. Ending: Dance Craze

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The Impact of Korean Tv Dramas on Taiwanese Tourism Demand

Tourism Economics, 2009, 15 (4), 867–873 Research note: The impact of Korean TV dramas on Taiwanese tourism demand for Korea HYUN JEONG KIM School of Hospitality Business Management, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-742, USA. E-mail: [email protected] edu. MING-HSIANG CHEN Department of Finance, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC. E-mail: [email protected] edu. tw. HUNG-JEN SU Department of Management, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC. E-mail: [email protected] edu. tw. This study examines the effects of popular Korean TV dramas on Taiwanese outbound travel to Korea between 1997 and the end of 2005.

The popularity of Korean TV dramas began with the drama Fireworks, first shown in Taiwan from July to September 2000. Based on that information, the data were divided into two subsamples: January 1997 to September 2000 and October 2000 to December 2005. The Chow tests revealed a significant structural change in the total number of Taiwanese visitors to Korea between the two sample periods. Additional analyses indicated that a significant structural change was attributable mainly to the increase in pleasure travel, further demonstrating the strong effects of Korean TV series in Taiwan.

Empirical results support the concept of film-induced tourism. Keywords: TV drama; Korea; Taiwan; outbound travel; Chow tests Traditionally, South Korea has focused on exporting manufactured goods. However, recently, the country has become known for exporting entertainment products. In May 1994, the Korean Presidential Advisory Board on Science and Technology released its first report regarding the impact of digital technology on economic development. The report pointed out that the Hollywood film Jurassic Park generated revenue equivalent to foreign sales of 1. million Hyundai cars (Shim, 2002). The comparison between Hyundai cars and 868 TOURISM ECONOMICS Hollywood films drew the country’s attention to the importance of media content to the national economy. Since then, the Korean government has declared the high value-added audiovisual industry as one of the national strategic industries for the next century. In 1995, the government enacted the Motion Picture Promotion Law, with incentives such as tax breaks to encourage corporations to invest in the film industry (Shim, 2002).

Korean TV dramas did not travel much beyond the national border until the late 1990s. Along with the Korean government’s support for the film industry, Korean TV dramas began to be broadcast in Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Russia (Lin and Huang, 2006). The Taiwanese media coined the slogan ‘Korean Wave’ in 2001, in response to the phenomenal popularity of the Korean pop culture in Taiwan (Chang et al, 2005). Not only has Taiwan been engulfed by the ‘Korean Wave’, but also Japan, China, Singapore and Malaysia (Lin and Huang, 2006).

The popularity of Korean TV dramas in Taiwan began with Fireworks, first aired in 2000. The programme was an enormous success and it was rerun several times over the years, thereby forming the foundation of the ‘Korean Wave’ in Taiwan (Sung, 2008). Since Fireworks, more than 100 Korean soap operas have been shown in Taiwan (Lin and Huang, 2006). The Korean TV programmes have led to a dramatic change in the negative image associated with Korea; for example, roughness, violence and a lack of cultural refinement (Sung, 2008).

Taiwanese people are now more willing to purchase Korean consumer goods (Onishi, 2005), join an international trip to Korea (Onishi, 2005) or learn the Korean language (Sung, 2008). Lee (2005) argued that the popularity of Korean TV dramas and movies overseas could launch a second economic boom for South Korea, particularly benefiting the entertainment and tourism industries. Lee (2005) stated that according to the export statistics of South Korean TV dramas, Taiwan was a leading importer (24. 5%), followed by Japan (19%), China (18. 6%) and Hong Kong (3. %). Accordingly, this study tests the influence of the popularity of Korean TV series in Taiwan on the number of Taiwanese tourists travelling to Korea. Although previous studies have discussed the effect of films on tourism (Tooke and Baker, 1996; Riley et al, 1998), no formal statistical tests have been performed to examine the significant increase in visitation and there has been no focus on a specific overseas audience. Taiwanese tourism demand for Korea: from 1980 to 2005 Geographically, South Korea and Taiwan are very close to each other.

After World War II, both countries perceived each other as political allies until the early 1990s. For 12 years (1980–1992), the number of Taiwanese visitors to Korea increased gradually from 76,995 to 302,184, with an average annual growth rate of 14. 59% (see Figure 1 for the monthly travel flow from Taiwan to Korea). However, in August 1992, Korea severed diplomatic ties with Taiwan to pursue its relationship with China. In 1993, the travel flow collapsed dramatically, by almost 60%, after the end of the political relationship.

The low Taiwanese demand for travel to Korea lasted about eight years (1993– 2000), with a negative annual growth rate of –8. 84%. Taiwanese tourism demand for Korea Total outbound departures 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 1 869 1 2 3 4 Taiwanese tourist arrivals to Korea 50,000 1 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 2 3 4 Figure 1. Monthly time series of total Taiwanese outbound departures (all countries) and total Taiwanese tourist arrivals in Korea: 1/1980–12/2005.

Note: Dotted line 1 – end of political relationship between Korea and Taiwan (8/1992). Dotted line 2 – earthquake of 21 September (9/1999). Dotted line 3 – start of the popularity of Korean TV series in Taiwan (10/2000). Dotted line 4 – outbreak of SARS in Taiwan (4/2003). Starting in 2001, the number of Taiwanese tourists travelling to Korea increased rapidly, although political ties were not renewed. Experts attribute the sudden travel flow to Korea to the unprecedented popularity of Korean TV dramas in Taiwan (Onishi, 2005). The growth rate of the travel flow to Korea (28. 9%) in a short period is impressive: 108,831 in 2000 to 368,205 in 2005. One sharp decrease occurred in 2003 because of the negative effect of the SARS outbreak in Taiwan on Taiwanese overseas departures. However, the number of Taiwanese visitors to Korea rebounded quickly. In 2004, to accommodate the strong tourism demand for Korea, Taiwan signed a new aviation agreement with 870 PLEASURE 40,000 TOURISM ECONOMICS BUSINESS 300 250 30,000 200 20,000 150 100 10,000 50 0 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 0 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 OFFICIAL 3,000 2,500 2,000 60 1,500 40 1,000 500 0 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05

OTHER 100 80 20 0 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 Figure 2. Monthly time-series data of Taiwanese tourist arrivals in Korea: different purposes for visitation (1/1997–12/2005). Korea to resume flights between the two countries, ending a 12-year suspension on regular flight services (Government Information Office, 2005). Data, hypotheses and tests of structural changes Figure 1 presents monthly time-series data of total Taiwanese overseas travel (all countries) from January 1980 to December 2005; data were obtained from various issues of the annual report on tourism by the Taiwan Tourism Bureau.

Figure 1 also plots the monthly data of total Taiwanese outbound travel to Korea over the same period. Data were collected from the Korea National Tourism Organization’s (KNTO) Taipei office. Figure 2 illustrates monthly data of Taiwanese arrivals to Korea in terms of purposes for visiting: pleasure, business, official and other. Data from the KNTO Taipei office were available for only nine years, from January 1997 to December 2005. KNTO (2006) reported that in 2005 pleasure trips accounted for 94. 1% of the total Taiwanese travel to Korea; in the same year, business, official and other categories accounted for only 0. 23%, 4. 86% and 0. 10%, respectively. To examine whether the popularity of Korean TV dramas in Taiwan has a Taiwanese tourism demand for Korea 871 significant impact on Taiwanese travel to Korea, we hypothesize that there is a structural change in the total number of Taiwanese trips to Korea before and after October 2000. This date is selected because the first popular Korean TV drama, Fireworks, ended in September 2000. To investigate the ffects of the popularity of Korean TV dramas further, we test if there is a structural change in total outbound departures (all countries) before and after October 2000. We expect no structural change in total outbound departures if the significant increase in Taiwanese overseas travel is restricted to South Korea, due to popular Korean TV dramas rather than the overall growth of outbound travel in Taiwan. In addition, we apply the same hypothesis to the different purposes for visitation (business, pleasure, official and other) to see which type of visit is affected more significantly by the popularity of Korean TV series.

Accordingly, the following hypotheses are tested: • Hypothesis 1: There is a structural change in the total number of Taiwanese visitors to Korea before and after October 2000. • Hypothesis 2: There is a structural change in the total Taiwanese outbound departures before and after October 2000. • Hypothesis 3: There is a structural change in the number of Taiwanese pleasure trips to Korea before and after October 2000. • Hypothesis 4: There is a structural change in the number of Taiwanese business trips to Korea before and after October 2000. Hypothesis 5: There is a structural change in the number of Taiwanese official trips to Korea before and after October 2000. • Hypothesis 6: There is a structural change in the number of trips of the other category before and after October 2000. We used two Chow tests, namely the Chow breakpoint test and the Chow forecast test, to ensure the consistency of structural break test results. To perform the tests, the full sample period is divided into two subsamples: January 1997 to September 2000 and October 2000 to December 2005.

The results of the Chow breakpoint test (Table 1) show a significant structural change in the total number of Taiwanese visitors to Korea, but no structural change in the total Taiwanese outbound departures before and after October 2000. In addition, structural changes are detected in pleasure travel and official travel, but no significant structural change is found in business and other travel. In conclusion, the Chow breakpoint test results support Hypotheses 1, 3 and 5. Table 1. Tests of a structural change in the number of Taiwanese visitors: before and after the popularity of Korean TV series.

Tourist arrivals Total outbound departures Total Pleasure Taiwanese visitors to Korea Yes Yes Yes Yes Business Official Other Chow breakpoint test Chow forecast test No No No No Yes No No Yes 872 TOURISM ECONOMICS The Chow forecast test produced similar results, with a minor difference in the results of travel purposes (Table 1). Structural changes are detected in the total number of Taiwanese visitors to Korea, pleasure travel and other travel; no structural changes are found in the total Taiwanese outbound departures and business and official travel before and after 2000.

Therefore, Hypotheses 1, 3 and 6 are supported. Discussion and conclusion This study conducts tests of structure changes to examine the effects of popular Korean TV dramas on Taiwanese outbound travel to Korea from January 1997 to December 2005. The two Chow tests demonstrate a structural change in the total number of Taiwanese visitors to Korea between two periods: before and after October 2000 (before and after the showing of the Korean drama Fireworks).

In addition, the fact that there is no structural change in the total number of Taiwanese outbound departures suggests that the significant increase in travel flow to Korea is an independent phenomenon, not associated with the overall growth of outbound departures in Taiwan. Chow tests, using travel purposes, do not show that business travel has a significant structural change, indicating that the number of Taiwanese travellers coming to Korea for business is not changed significantly before nd after 2000. For official and other travel, the results of two Chow tests are mixed; therefore, it may be difficult to support the existence of a structural change. Among four groups, only pleasure travel consistently shows a structural change through both Chow tests. This indicates that pleasure travel most likely drives a structural change in the total number of Taiwanese visitors to Korea before and after 2000, thereby further demonstrating the significant effects of popular Korean dramas in Taiwan.

If Korean TV dramas, staged in Taiwan over the past few years, were linked to travel motivation, the effect would be seen on pleasure trips rather than other types. Overall, this study presents strong evidence regarding the effects of film on overseas travellers and supports the concept of film-induced tourism (Tooke and Baker, 1996; Kim et al, 2007). After diplomatic ties ended in 1992, South Korea was perceived by the Taiwanese as a violent country and one that overnight traded loyalty and faith for economic gains (Choe, 2001).

Although this study does not measure the image/perception change, it is reasonable to assume that the popular Korean TV dramas have had a positive influence on the image of Korea, thereby leading to more Taiwanese pleasure trips to Korea. This study, therefore, confirms indirectly that movies, specifically TV dramas, can be an effective vehicle to change the perception of a certain destination country and further ease political conflict between two countries by stimulating social/pleasure travel flow (Kim et al, 2007).

The film-induced tourism of this study is therefore in line with earlier notions that tourism is likely to act as a positive force to promote peace by reducing tension and suspicion (D’Amore, 1988). The great success of Korean TV dramas in neighbouring Asian countries such as Taiwan seems to offer an opportunity to consider countries further away than Asia. Due to globalization, outbound travels from the West to the East (and vice versa) are increasing constantly. The West may learn Asian culture, Taiwanese tourism demand for Korea 873 specifically Korean culture, through Korean dramas or movies.

Therefore, the Korean government should develop the deeper understanding resulting from film-induced tourism to promote South Korea as a more appealing travel destination in the world. Future research directions The analysis of the present study is at a general level, breaking down Taiwanese arrivals only by total and purpose of visit. It is useful to identify the detailed profile of Taiwanese visitors drawn by popular Korean TV dramas. Hence, it is recommended that future research of this kind includes demographic variables such as gender, age and occupation.

In addition to Taiwanese tourists, similar analyses should be performed using visitors from other countries/places where Korean TV programmes are broadcast. Currently, the film-induced tourism demand for Korea is being generated from East and South East Asian countries where the ‘Korean Wave’ exists strongly. In Asia, each country has its unique cultural character and economic power. Some demographic or behavioural differences may be found among these Asian visitors to Korea. References Chang, H. , Chen, Y. , and Liu, Z. 2005), ‘Korean Wave swept through and took away a large chunk of money’, China Times, 12 May 12 (http://news. chinatimes. com/Chinatimes, accessed 12 October 2007). Choe, Y. (2001), ‘Asia dreaming of Korea’s pop singers and actors’, Korea Herald, 11 September (http://kn. koreaherald. co. kr/SITE/data/html_dir/2001/09/11/200109110034. asp, accessed 13 October 2007). D’Amore, L. (1988), ‘Tourism: a vital force for peace’, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol 15, pp 269– 270. Government Information Office (2005), Foreign Relations, Government Information Office, Taipei, Taiwan. Kim, S. S. , Agrusa, J. Lee, H. , and Chon, K. (2007), ‘Effects of Korean television dramas on the flow of Japanese tourists’, Tourism Management, Vol 28, pp 1340–1353. KNTO (Korea National Tourism Organization) (2006), ‘Overview of Korea’s tourism industry’ (http://www. knto. or. kr, accessed 13 October 2007). Lee, D. (2005), ‘Winter sonata drama fever’, UNIORB: Asian Trend: Japan/South Korea (http:// uniorb. com/ATREND/Japanwatch/wsdramafever. htm, accessed 12 October 2007). Lin, Y. , and Huang, J. (2006), ‘Marketing of South Korean tourism using TV mini series’, Business Review, Vol 5, pp 61–65. Onishi, N. 2005), ‘Roll over, Godzilla: Korea rules’, The New York Times, 28 June. Riley, R. , Baker, D. , and Van Doren, C. S. (1998), ‘Movie induced tourism’, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol 23, pp 919–935. Shim, D. (2002), ‘South Korean media industry in the 1990s and the economic crisis’, Prometheus, Vol 20, pp 337–350. Sung, S. (2008), ‘The high tide of the Korean Wave III: why do Asian fans prefer Korean pop culture? ’ Korea Herald, 4 February. Tooke, N. , and Baker, M. (1996), ‘Seeing is believing: the effect of film on visitor numbers to screened locations’, Tourism Management, Vol 17, pp 87–94.

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Discuss the Dramatic Devices Williams Uses in the Play to Suggest

Discuss the dramatic devices Williams uses in the play to suggest that Blanche is doomed. A Streetcar Named Desire is a tragedy that is unlike a traditional tragedy in that the characters in it are not struck by some calamity or fall because of unwise choices on their part. Instead, we enter the play in the delayed aftershocks of a tragedy that has befallen the main character, Blanche, as she attempts to hold on to whatever remnants of her beautiful past she can, but ultimately fails due to a combination of her past that catches up to haunt her, and also because of the rough-handed, misogynistic, and brutally pragmatic Stanley.

Throughout the play, Williams hints and ultimately cements the idea that the audience will see Blanche fall. This is done through a blend of symbolism, character interaction, musical and auditory cues that foreshadow Blanche’s ultimate fall from beautiful to insane. Blanche’s tragic past is hinted by Williams to audiences even in Scene 1 by the analogy of the names of the streetcars and place that Stella and Stanley live in.

In Scene 1, Blanche tells Eunice about how she got to Stella and Stanley’s place; “They told me to take a streetcar named Desire, and then transfer to one called Cemeteries and ride six blocks and get off at – Elysian Fields” Blanche’s journey on New Orleans’ streetcars represents the journey of her own life up to now. The streetcar named desire is an allusion for the life she lived after her late husband, Allan, died. Blanche was a promiscuous woman who had sex with random men for the superficial attention she longed for.

After, she transferred to a streetcar named Cemeteries, a name for a place of the dead. This must’ve represented that part of her life where she has been ostracised by her hometown of Laurel for her various affairs, that probably disrupted the social and marital affairs of those in the town. After all, that was the “death” of her time of “desire”. Finally, she arrives at Elysian Fields, Stella and Stanley’s place. Elysian Fields is a place of Greek Mythology, a transition area for the afterlife.

Just as Blanche as “died”, she has gone to rest in Elysian Fields. In the myth, Elysian Fields was just an area for souls to go to before moving on to their next stage in the afterlife. This alone is enough to show that Williams hasn’t intended for Blanche’s story to end in Elysian Fields. Blanche’s tragic past has effectively “killed” her, and just as she must move on from Elysian Fields as per myth, her past is due to catch up with her and continue to wreak havoc on her.

Furthermore, we see Williams’ use of the dark imagery of “Cemeteries” and “Elysian Fields”, as opposed to any more heavenly images (say, “Heaven”) to suggest that Blanche’s journey after Elysian Fields to be anything rosy – which is ultimately the case. Another way Williams shows that Blanche is destined to doom is through her absolute juxtaposition to life in New Orleans. By showing her as not being able to adapt to and accept life in the seemingly balanced and progressing New Orleans, Blanche is ultimately doomed to be something forgotten and left behind, like an old obsolete symbol of the Old South.

From Scene 1, we see Blanche physically standing out in the rough and tumble world of New Orleans, from her striking white clothes in the colourful world of New Orleans, and her delicate description of being a “moth”. As the play unravels, we see she is unable to adapt to any new situations New Orleans throws at her. She never changes her high register speech which starkly contrasts Stanley and crew’s pidgin English and she constantly ignores the spreading truth about her.

Even her sister, who is of same background as her, is able to accept the “rougher” life in New Orleans, and this difference is put across by when Stella tells Blanche about her and Stanley’s wedding night. Stella is “thrilled” by Stanley’s barbaric smashing of the lightbulbs, while Blanche is horrified by it. It is obvious that Stella has at least partially assimilated into New Orleans life, while Blanche never does so throughout the play. By holding on to her beautiful dream of her past life, we see that Blanche sets herself up for disaster by never being able to break away from the past and head forward into the future.

Her juxtaposition in New Orleans till the very end of the play serves as a reminder that she is a relic from the Old South and could never survive in the radically changing New Orleans, and is destined to die out with the old traditions. Auditory cues in the play also serve as a symbol as Blanche’s imminent disaster. The Varsouviana Polka appears when Blanche is being confronted with her past and the truth, such as when Mitch confronts her about her true age and the truth about her past.

The polka symbolises disaster to Blanche, playing when she witness the traumatic death of her husband and whenever situations in the future bring these feelings of disaster to her. The Polka never goes away during the play, instead, we see that the polka is a recurring symbol in the play, showing that disaster has followed Blanche to New Orleans and is affecting her in every facet of her new life there. For example, in the scene where Mitch confronts Blanche about her past, we see the Polka being distorted, coupled with what seem to be Blanche’s hallucinations of the night Allan died.

When Stanley provides Blanche with the bus ticket to go back to Laurel, “The Varsouviana music steals in softly and continues playing”, which represents the disaster Blanche faces should she go back again. As such, we see the Polka (and hence, disaster) never leaving her, instead representing the disastrous past creeping out on her, as it becomes more distorted and skewed throughout the play, representing her confused and deteriorating state of mind and doomed destiny.

Ultimately, the polka is also there to play along with her downfall, : where, “The Varsouviana is filtered into weird distortion, accompanied by the cries and noises of the jungle” to symbolise the final destruction of her humanity (the jungle), and her deteriorated mental wellness (the distortion). Other notable examples of music used in the play to represent doom are songs like Paper Moon, that Blanche herself sings. Say it’s only a cardboard moon, sailing over a paper sea, but it wouldn’t be make believe, if you believed in me. Without your love

It’s a honky-tonk parade Without your love It’s a melody played in a penny arcade It’s a Barnum and Bailey world Just as phony as it can be Paper Moon by Ella Fitzgerald, a song about make-believe and props for show, is quite fittingly sung by Blanche, who all this while has lived in her make-believe world of her former glory. Such songs surfacing in the play, especially by the perpetrator herself cements the idea to audiences that Blanche is in fact a phony in her own right, and thus cannot survive in the very “real” world of New Orleans.

It is yet another indicator that Blanche cannot and has not accepted the harsh future and reality of this life. It is extremely befitting to Blanche that it is true that if someone believed and truly loved her, she need not live out a make-believe world, where she is as white and as beautiful and as false as a paper moon. As such, songs like Paper Moon show audiences that Blanche embodies the person who cannot move from fantasy out to reality, and is doomed to live out in her fantasy world where she is like a paper moon – a move that ultimately spells her insanity in the harsh real world of New Orleans.

The foreshadowing of Blanche’s doomed destiny is also portrayed through other minor characters actions. The Mexican flower seller, an old lady close to death, sells flowers for the dead, as if to foreshadow Blanche’s imminent “death” from reality, while Shep Huntleigh’s continued absence as Blanche’s “saviour” shows not only her disillusions about who she really is now as a woman, as well as serve as a reminder to audiences that it seems nothing can pluck Blanche out from her dire situation in New Orleans.

Blanche is stuck in New Orleans miserable with the increasingly abusive Stanley, and no former beau can offer escape. Williams hints from the very beginning of the play that Blanche is doomed, but it is events throughout the play that signal her refusal and inability to move from fantasy to reality, that cement with audiences that Blanche has little hope of being released from her predicament.

A Streetcar Named Desire is littered with small but extremely significant events to show that Blanche is still the paper moon she sings about, and thus leads to her ultimate fall from the pititful facade of grace we were introduced to at the start of the play, to the hopeless state of delusion she ends up in after New Orleans and the people in it are unable to fed her fantasy anymore.

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Dramaturgical Perspective

Dramaturgical Perspective The dramaturgical perspective was developed primarily by Sociologist, Erving Goffman who recast the theatrical metaphor dramaturgy into a sociological term, meaning that social life is like a drama or stage play where intricacies of social interaction could be observed and analyzed, and people can perform in a manner that communicates how they would like others to perceive of them. Goffman stated that, “All actions are social performances that aim to give off and maintain certain desired impressions of the self to others” (Crossman, 2012).

Central to dramaturgy are the front and back regions. The front region is in essence the stage where the performance occurs. Examples of the front region are the teacher’s classroom, the public speaker’s podium, and the waiter’s restaurant dining room. It’s what the audience sees and the setting for a carefully choreographed and ordered performance. The back region is where all the activity that audience does not see, that is crucial to the front region performance occurs (Monnier, 2010).

Symbolic interactions are more related to how people look at things and how their perception affects their behavior. In America it is considered rude to blatantly stare at another individual, in certain parts of Africa, for example, that is not the case. Curiosity is a norm and it is not considered rude to stare (Henslin, 2011). Americans also have a much larger personal space bubble than many other cultures. An American doesn’t stand close enough to a stranger to accidentally brush up against them if they can at all help it.

Someone from South America, who is accustomed to standing in close proximity to an individual he/she is conversing with may take offense if the individual they’re speaking to continues to move away. On the other hand, an American will likely feel quite uncomfortable participating in conversation with an individual standing closer than approximately two feet (Henslin). Therefore, symbolic interactions happen without much thought, which is different from dramaturgy, which is a well thought out and prepared way of conducting oneself.

Ethnomethodology is the study of how people use their perceived commonsense to make sense out of life (Henslin, 2011). It’s the background assumptions individuals take for granted about the world that determine our behavior in our social life. They are culture driven, unstated rules that people tend to stand by and violate only with risk of offending or concerning others. For instance, a young man would probably not take a first date to a strip club.

There’s no written rule covering that issue, but commonsense would tell him that would not be an acceptable behavior. Although ethnomethodology does involve some thought, it still differs from dramaturgy as it is largely influenced by societal norms rather than just what image they’re desiring to portray to others. A recent interaction I had that involved dramaturgical concepts was an appointment with administration at my son, Vinnie’s school regarding his classroom placement for next year.

Vinnie tests on the lower end of the reading spectrum and all of his teachers, past and present have commented that he has trouble staying focused and is easily distracted, but never causes any trouble; therefore, he tends to fall through the cracks. Having trouble with his current teacher holding him accountable for work completion has been an issue; therefore, I’m quite concerned about Vinnie’s placement next year. I carefully utilized the back region and prepared a spread sheet of my concerns along with specific examples, and readied myself to express them in a confident, respectful, but determined manner.

I’d thought about questions and/or statements that would potentially be posed to me, and prepared as best I could on how to respond appropriately without wavering from the outcome I desired, which was a specific teacher. Along with myself, the Academic Director, Curriculum Specialist, and the Intervention Specialist were present at the ‘front region‘ meeting. Everyone was prepared with appropriate data. I stated my concerns, which were both acknowledged and validated, everyone was extremely courteous and showed appropriate concern for Vinnie and the issues I disclosed.

Each person in attendance discussed issues pertaining to their own expertise regarding Vinnie and a consensus was reached. Everyone left the meeting feeling something positive had been accomplished, and each individual’s social performance seemed to accomplish exactly what they’d desired. A deeper sociological significance that resulted is that administration now knows that I am a concerned and very involved parent, but not overtly demanding without reason and/or the willingness to discuss and negotiate.

I learned that administration is truly concerned about individual students and will accommodate to the best of their ability in order to ensure the success of each. References Crossman, A. (2012). About. com: Sociology: Dramaturgical perspective. Retrieved from http://sociology. about. com/od/D_Index/g/Dramaturgical-Perspective. htm Henslin, J. M. (2011). Essentials of sociology: A down to earth approach (9th ed. ). Pearson. Monnier, C. (2010). Global Sociology: Social interaction. Retrieved from https:// globalsociology. pbworks. com/w/page/14711252/Social%20Interaction

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Critical Analysis of Dramatic Irony in Hamlet

Critical Analysis of Dramatic Irony in Hamlet Ophelia loves Hamlet although we believe he doesn’t feel the same way towards her by the way he treats her at certain times in the play, but he truly in the end does show he loved Ophelia. This incident manipulates audience sympathies, develops character and develops the conflict of the play. It manipulates the audience sympathies because it’s showing something that the audience has probably seen in reality.

When there’s an incident like this occurring in real life, people will feel sad because of the negative things that are happening to a person. In this incident, the audience knows that she’s been falling for Hamlet, and still the audience would prefer seeing the best outcome happen to Ophelia, though the audience knows the reason for it to not happen, therefore the audience sympathies become manipulated. This incident develops the character because by Hamlet not feeling the way she does towards him, it gives the audience an insight on how Hamlet feels about women.

In this case, the audience can see that Hamlet’s disgust of his mother’s sudden marriage makes him become an antagonist towards women. He thinks they’re all alike, easy to persuade like his mother was persuaded by his uncle and in haste too. It develops the conflict of the play because throughout the play, a new negative feeling of Hamlet’s, always becomes expressed, and follows one after another. It builds on to the play, which makes Hamlet say later on, “to be or not to be. Each time Hamlet feels bad the more he doesn’t value his life and the more he feels like being dead. In conclusion, this is how the incident has an affect. It does so many things to the play, like how it brings out a character, how it reaches out to an audience, and how it builds on the conflict. This incident is one of important parts of the play because without it, we may not see Hamlet the way we see it now.

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Rise of Modern Drama

The Rise Of Modern Drama It is known as one of theatre’s greatest periods today. The modern drama period is shaped by world-changing forces, such as industrial-technological revolution, democratic revolutions, and an intellectual revolution that would disrupt earlier conceptions of time, space, the divine, human psychology, and social order. As a result, a theatre of challenge and experimentation emerged.

Realism, the movement with the most pervasive and long-lived effect on modern theatre, was conceived as a laboratory in which the ills of society, familial problems, and the nature of relationships could be “objectively” presented for the judgment of impartial observers. Its goal, of likeness to life, demanded that settings resemble their prescribed locales precisely and seem like rooms from real life in which one wall have been removed.

Related article: What Led to the Rise of Political Parties in the 1790s

Henrik Ibsen, a playwright, initiated the realistic period with plays focused on contemporary, day-to-day themes that skillfully reveal both sides of a conflict through brilliantly capturing psychological detail. An independent but concurrent movement, naturalism, would be an even more extreme attempt to dramatize human reality without the appearance of dramaturgical shaping. While realist plays would address well-defined social issues, naturalist plays offered a simple “slice of life” free from dramatic convention.

With the same reverence for nature, the human being was conceived as a mere biological phenomenon whose behavior was determined by heredity and environment. A counterforce to realism, initiated by symbolism, began in the late nineteenth century that would expand into what might be called antirealism theatre. Symbolism would contest realism’s apparent spiritual bankruptcy with a form that would explore, through images and metaphors, the inner realities of human experience that cannot be directly perceived.

A focus on traditional aesthetic values, such as poetry, imagery, and profundity would reflect the importance of purity of vision over observation, abstraction and enlargement over the mundane and ordinary. The movement spread quickly and affected every aspect of theatrical production. Symbolism’s contestation of realism gave rise to an era of “isms,” during which the aesthetics of dramatic art assumed a new social and political significance.

Such “isms” became, in time, used consciously as stylization in new dramatic formats. Such antirealistic theatre does not discard reality but enhances it with symbol and metaphor, elucidates parable and allegory, deconstructs and reconstructs subjects through language, scenery, and lighting, and finally uses the theatre’s own theatricality explicitly. Briefly examining eleven of these movements makes the diverse qualities and perspectives within naturalism theatre apparent.

From the emotional and “irrational” perspectives of Theatre of Cruelty to the rational and thought-provoking nature of Intellectual Comedy, pre-World War II naturalism approaches such as Expressionism, Theatricalism, and the French Avant-Garde challenged and extended the limits of theatrical art. Through redefining the importance and function of language, extending the concept of character to include abstract forces or archetypes, reconstructing stage imagery through metaphoric scenery and lighting, and exploring themes often tinged with anxiety, such isms and stylizations have created much of the theatrical language used on today’s stages.

Following World War II, the modern Theatre would introduce new theatre practices and reawaken theatre’s sense of social responsibility, while the Theatre of the Absurd would express the futility of all action and pointlessness of all direction. Philosophical Melodrama accepted the Absurd’s premise that humans are alone in a silent universe, but takes it as a challenge to creating an effective life.

The Comedy of Contemporary Manners would unmask the ridiculousness of social convention, while Political Satire ruthlessly reveals the hypocrisies and exploitations of political and economic systems within a comedic and often highly stylized framework. The Case Study uses, most often, medical problems as a perspective for philosophical investigations, frequently taking the audience into and back out of the “patient’s” experience. By contrast, the ostensible realism of Surrealism is actually suffused with a menacing obscurity and mythic symbolism that seeks out

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One Man Two Guvnors Drama Review

One Man Two Guvnors review In a packed theatre, full of audiences from all ages who continuously have a smile on their face; currently rated as a high five stars, One Man Two Guvnors could not be a funnier performance to watch. As soon as I entered the theatre, it was completely packed. I also saw many people from different age groups; this gave me a feeling that the show would be entertaining enough to get people from all ages to come and see the show. The environment of the theatre was very formal, as there was a red and gold layout and it was also very clean.

Before the show started there was country singers, this was a very good way to introduce the show as the song was very upbeat and got me feeling more excited. They were dressed in checked shirts and suits; this gave me the feeling straight away that it would be based before the 2000s, which I was right as it is set in 1963. These country singers also came in a few times during the show and sang many more lively songs which I loved hearing and sung with my friends. The main character that stood out the most to me was the well-known actor James Cordon, whom played a failed skiffle player named Francis who is in need of a job… and a meal!

He gets himself in a shuffle, as working as a servant for two masters whom are currently enemies. Many words could describe Francis; funny, dopey, confused, loud, sociable, at times annoying. Not only did he make the audience laugh, he also spoke to them too! For example, asking the audience who has a sandwich, which made the audience get more involved with Francis. He also did return a sandwich and a few other treats when asked! He had also made the audience a part of the performance as he needed some volunteers to get up on stage and help him out in the jobs he had to do. Such as, lifting a trunk and needing help on food preparations.

My favourite scene that made Francis impress me the most was when he had to keep his two guvnors away from each other and at the same time serve them both food, whilst they was both opposite doors away from each other in the same hotel! His greedy behaviour of taking some food out of the dishes and keeping them for himself was absolutely hilarious. This is also the scene where he chose someone from the audience to help him take some food and store it in his pot. The way parts of this scene was off script yet still so on track and funny impressed me and I laughed the most at this scene.

I also thought that the staging had a big impact to the audience. There were many different scene changes that looked so realistic; the living room, the Brighton pier, the upstairs hotel in The Cricketers Arms and the street outside it. The stage was spacious enough for the actors to move around freely, I still had a clear view even though I sat at the right at the top upper circle. The lighting on stage was very bright as the scenes were mostly indoors or in daylight. The music had suited the plays environment as the music was very upbeat, lively, loud and cheerful.

Many instruments were played together to make many amazing songs and sounds. The play would stop in between, the curtains would draw and each time I got more inpatient wanting another song to come. The country singers who sang the songs gave me a warm, yet energetic feeling as I and the audience were clapping along to the rhythm, not to mention singing at the chorus. If these country singers did not perform, the overall play would not have been the same! Another scene that I also enjoyed a lot would be the ending scene, where Francis’ two jobs were revealed, all problems are sorted and the truth comes out.

The two love birds are finally together and it’s all just like a fairy tale. This was a good way to end the performance in a happy atmosphere. Overall, I recommend that everyone should watch this performance as they will laugh their socks off just like the rest of the audience. I would rate the play a high 4 star performance as it was a fantastic, memorable experience that definitely made my day and is worth the watch. James Corden as his character Francis James Corden as his character Francis Rachel and Stanley whom are in love Rachel and Stanley whom are in love

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Literary Theory Essay on Dryden’s ‘an Essay on Dramatic Poesy’

Mimesis, the Greek word for imitation, has been of major importance in the history of aesthetic and literary theory. It is the earlier way to judge any work of art in relation to reality and to decide whether its representation is accurate or not. Though this mode starts from Plato, it runs through many great theorists of Renaissance up to some modern theorists as well. A literary work is taken to be a representation of reality or of any aspect of it.

Plato holds a rather negative view on mimesis; he sees the work of an artist as a simple imitation of imitations, a work that is removed from the essence of nature and one that represents imagination rather than truth, thus introducing the audience to a world of illusions. Aristotle, on the other hand, treats imitation as a basic human faculty, which expresses itself in arts like Literature, music and painting. Unlike Plato, Aristotle believes that it is ungrateful to consider imitation as a mere copy or reflection of reality since it involves a complex meditation of nature that reveals human creativity.

It is therefore considered as a human Art. This essay deals essentially with the neoclassical conception of Mimesis, and the attitude of the neoclassicist John Dryden towards the ancient literary theory. Neoclassicism was a widespread and influential movement in literature and visual arts enduring from the early 17th century until around 1750 . Neoclassical writers looked to ancient Greek and Roman writers for inspiration and guidance and reaffirmed literary composition as a rational and rule-bound process, requiring a great deal of craft, labor and study.

Central to neoclassical literary theory and practice was the concept of imitation; In the Neoclassical view , Mimesis has been understood as the imitation of nature as objects or phenomena , which means in effect , that literature imitates other modes of discourse , such as philosophy ,ethics , rhetoric , the natural and social sciences , religion , psychology or linguistics . Neoclassicists believed that writers should strive to achieve excellence by imitating those great writers of the past rather than by trying to be original and innovative.

The essence of Art thus becomes reinvention and rediscovery. The complex notion of nature, which was closely related to the notion of imitation, referred to aspects of the real world and human behavior, to what was central, timeless, and universal in human experience. The Neoclassical writers generally saw the ancients such as Homer and Aristotle as having already discovered and expressed the fundamental laws of nature . Hence , the external world, including the world of human action , could best be expressed by modern writers if they followed the path of imitation already paved by the ancients.

Invention was of course allowed but only as a modification of past models, not in the form of a rupture. The Neo-classicist theorist John Dryden is known for his support of the theory and practice of the Greek and Roman writers of antiquity and his belief in the necessity of a continuation and development of the rules set by the ancients. Dryden and his contemporaries looked upon the ancients as their models. By “the ancients” they generally meant the ancient writers.

Seneca provided the model for tragedy, Terence and Plautus for comedy, Virgil for epic, Horace and Juvenal for satire, Pindar for odes, and Horace for literary criticism. Of all the ancient Roman writers, Dryden respected Virgil the most and repeatedly acknowledged him as his master and guide. Dryden emphasizes the importance of following the classic models with a sense of innovation and originality. He believes that poetry has a historical development, and he wishes “that poetry may not go backward, when all other arts and sciences are advancing. This refers to his belief in the ability of following the models and the experience of the ancients and trying to get beyond them. The neoclassical era is not particularly sensitive to originality and invention, but Dryden believes that originality is to be preferred to good imitation, and is a greater proof of genius. Dryden opposes Aristotle in believing that the plot is the first of all elements in a play and the basis on which the others are built, he believes that it’s rather the author’s language, the diction and thought, that form the basis of a play.

He also opposes the strongly conventionalized characters and plots of Roman comedies, asking for a wider imitation of nature, although he also appreciates the advantages of structural simplicity, but the interest of the plot and the characters is also to be found in variety and not simply in a well-defined structure. In variety we recognize human behavior, real life, and the essence of nature. John Dryden’s essay “An essay on Dramatic Poesy” gives an explicit account of neoclassical theory of art in general.

He defends the classical drama standing on the line of Aristotle, saying that it is an imitation of life, and that it reflects human nature clearly. The essay is written in the form of dialogue concerned to four gentlemen: Eugenius, Crites, Lisideius and Neander. Neander seems to speak for Dryden himself. Eugenius takes the side of the modern English dramatists by criticizing the faults of the classical playwright. Crites defends the ancient , he opposes the use of rhyme in plays and argues that through the moderns excel in science ,the ancient age was the true age of poetry .

He notes that poetry is now held in lower esteem , in an atmosphere of ‘Few good poets and so many severe judges’ , his essential argument is that the ancients were faithful imitators and wise observers of nature which is ‘ill represented in our plays ‘ he states that ‘they have handed down to us a perfect resemblance of her (nature) which we , like ill copiers , neglecting to look on , have rendered monstrous and disfigured’ Lesideius defends the French playwrights and attacks the English tendency to mix genres.

He defines a play as a just and lively image of human nature, representing its passions and humors and the change of fortune to which it is subject, for the delight and instruction of mankind” A definition that is very different from Aristotle’s; the latter has defined tragedy not as the representation of ‘human nature’ but as the imitation of a serious and complete action. Neander who speaks for Dryden himself, favors the moderns, respects the ancients, and is critical to rigid rules of drama. He defends rhyme if it is in proper place .

Neander argues that tragic comedy is the best form for a play; because it is the closest to life in which emotions are heightened by both mirth and sadness. He complains that the Ancients were either tragedians or comedians, and that it is easier to attain perfection in this way, writing only the kind of thing one does best. He states that this natural gift has to be controlled by techniques; the good writer must know the emotions he is depicting, and he must not get carried away by them in order to remain credible in the eyes of the audience. He also finds subplots as an integral part to enrich a play.

Neander favors the violation of the unities of time , place and action because it leads to the variety to the English plays, he argues that the unities have a narrowing effect on the play . The violation of unities helps the English dramatists present a mere, just and lively image of human nature. Neoclassicism comprised a return to the classical models, literary styles and values of ancient Greek and Roman authors , but if Dryden is neoclassical , it is in the sense that he acknowledges the classics as having furnished archetypes for drama , but modern writers are at liberty to create their own archetypes and their own literary traditions.