Categories
Free Essays

The War on Drugs – Is a hard-line approach working to combat the use of harmful drugs? Discuss arguments for and against current systems of drug control.

Abstract

Internationally during this century and the last, the debate about the war on illegal drugs has been fuelled by arguments both for and against their legalisation or prohibition. Both of these approaches to managing illegal drugs have their advantages and disadvantages. Each of these shall be discussed and critically analysed in this essay to seek to understand if a hard-line approach is working to combat the use of these harmful drugs. The results from this evaluation shall then be summarised briefly in the conclusion to this essay.

1. Introduction

Internationally during this century and the last, the debate about the war on illegal drugs has been fuelled by argument both for and against their legalisation (see as an example: DuPont & Voth, 1995; Leuw & Marshall, 1994; Nadelmann. 1988) or prohibition (see as an example; Benjamin & Miller, 1991; Wilson, 1990). Both of these approaches to managing illegal drugs have their advantages and disadvantages. Each of these shall be discussed and critically analysed in this essay to seek to understand if a hard-line approach is working to combat the use of these harmful drugs.

2. The legalisation of drugs

Some have argued that the only way to manage the distribution and negative effects of illegal drugs is to decriminalise them or to legalise them (Haden, 2004; Thornton, 1998). This is where the distribution and the control of drug markets are managed (Thornton, 1991) via implementing appropriate legal controls (Grossman, Chaloupka, & Shim, 2002). However, this approach to managing illegal drugs has a number of advantages and disadvantages.

3. The advantages and disadvantages of legalizing drugs

Some arguments for the legalisation of drugs are derived from an emotional basis (Ostrowski, 1989) such as, a number of human or civil rights would no longer be abused under the banner of conducting a drug war (Kleiman, & Saiger, 1989) or drugs should not be legalised as this would be morally wrong (John, 1992). Furthermore, legalising drugs would not enable us to overcome the underlying causes of most drug misuse, which may arise through socio-economic circumstances such as, poverty, unemployment, homelessness, boredom, a lack of opportunity or mental health problems (Inciardi, 1999). Each of these arguments is not logical, as they are subjective in nature and derived from the personal opinions or beliefs of different parties.

Comparatively, some arguments are based on logic, which advocates the legalisation of drugs such as, there would be a dramatic decrease in crime (Wisotsky, 1990).Profits made by criminals would be reduced, as would corruption. As users would no longer be classified as criminals, would this reduce the burden on public systems such as, the criminal justice system or on the police and customs (Inciardi & McBride, 1991).The profits made from the sales of drugs could be reused to create effective treatment or educational programmes (Joffe & Yancy, 2004). This may also help to reduce the number of drug related deaths (Clark, 1992). However other logical arguments also show why this may not work as a small minority could continue to use drugs irresponsibly, because of this there may still be deaths or crimes committed because of illegal drug use (Inciardi & Saum, 1996). Legalisation and regulation can only get rid of problems associated drugs, not organised crime or poverty (Kornblum, 1991).

From examining these emotional and logical arguments, it is clear that the legalisation of drugs is a complex subject, which could potentially resolve a number of societal issues. However, it will not redress all of the problems, which have been associated with the use of illegal drugs. From this perspective, one can see that there is no easy answer to whether drugs should be legalised, though the logical benefits and disadvantages, which have been presented here, seem to outweigh the emotional ones.

What is clear is that these opinions on the war on drugs, which have been expressed through each of these sources of information, cited here are highly personal, even when they are presented as logical arguments. The fact remains that statistics and information can be manipulated to support ‘what if’ scenarios both for and against the arguments to legalise drugs. However, the other side of this argument is that the use of illegal drugs should be prohibited.

4. Illegal Drugs and their prohibition

From another perspective, some have argued that the use of illegal drugs should be prohibited (see as an example: Basov, Miron & Jacobson, 2001; Drucker, 1999; Miron & Zwiebel, 1995). However, this approach to managing illegal drugs has a number of advantages and disadvantages, which are derived from both emotional and logical arguments.

5. The advantages and disadvantages of prohibiting of illegal drugs

Some of these arguments are based on emotional reasoning, as some believe that prohibition undermines human rights, as many individuals may be treated in an unjust way as the authorities suspect that they are using or distributing drugs (see as an example: Gilmore, 1995; Hunt, 2004). Others believe that prohibition is morally correct (Husak, 1992) and that the actions of those who sell or use drugs should not go unpunished (Gordon, 1994). Alongside these arguments for and against the prohibition of drugs through legal means, there are also a number of arguments, which are based on logic. For example, there are a number of reasons why prohibition should not be used to control illegal drugs such as it creates and fuels differing types of criminal activity which may be derived from prostitution, gang activities, monetary fraud or violence (Nadelmann, 1992). Many actually believe that no form of prohibition has been successful to date in stopping or controlling the sale or use of drugs (see as an example: Chambliss, 1995; Gahlinger, 2004; Miron, 1999) and therefore a new approach such as their legalisation should be tried. The criminal justice system is currently overloaded with drug related cases and this problem could be resolved by taking this approach (Kuziemko & Levitt, 2004). However, other advocate that the advantages of prohibition are that it helps to control and regulate crime related drug activity (Wodak, 1998), it ensures that those that break the law by producing or supplying drugs are punished according (Becker, Murphy & Grossman, 2004) and that without these legal penalties for drug enforcement the situation could spiral out of control (Miron, 2001).

Therefore, again we are faced with a number of emotional and logical arguments from a number of sources, which are based on ‘facts’. This shows how difficult it is to understand and resolve this complex issue as one has difficulty deciding between a punitive approach which has not worked to date and the ‘what if’ situations which may arise if this approach to drug enforcement and legalisation is changed. The emotional and logical arguments both for and against the prohibition of illegal drugs are difficult to weight up as each has it merits and it is hard to know which of these is most viable due to the complex nature of the aforementioned problems. To this end, one may either favour prohibition or not, depending upon their personal perspectives, values or beliefs.

6. Conclusion

From the above one can see that there a number of arguments which are based on emotional or logical bases which may be used to argue for the legalisation or the prohibition of illegal drugs. However, when you consider the first of these one can see why the legalisation of drugs and their use may be logically advantageous from a number of perspectives. The arguments presented here seem to just ’make sense’. Comparatively when we examine the arguments both for and against the prohibition of illegal drugs, one does not disprove the other, as it is easy to agree with both sides of this argument. In regards to this, the strongest and clearest argument, which has been presented here, is the logical argument for the legalization of drugs. The advantages of taking this approach to changing drug enforcement seem to far outweigh any of the disadvantages. To this end, when we consider the question which was posed at the beginning of this essay regarding whether or not the war on drugs should take a hard-line approach is and if this is working to combat the use of these harmful drugs. The answer to this question logically is no, this is not the correct approach based on the evidence which has been presented here. Furthermore, this approach does not appear to be working, therefore it may be time to seek to stop debating and to start to change out legal systems to seek to ascertain if the legalisation of these drugs is advantageous as the ‘what if’ situations presented in this essay say it will be.

References

Basov, S., Miron, J., & Jacobson, M. (2001). Prohibition and the market for illegal drugs. World Economics, 2(4), 113-158.

Becker, G. S., Murphy, K. M., & Grossman, M. (2004). The economic theory of illegal goods: The case of drugs (No. w10976). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Benjamin, D. K., & Miller, R. L. (1991). Undoing drugs: Beyond legalization (p. 195).

Chambliss, W. J. (1995). Another lost war: The costs and consequences of drug prohibition. Social Justice, 22(2 (60), 101-124.BasicBooks.

Clark, A. (1992). The economics of drug legalization. University of Essex, Department of Economics.

Drucker, E. (1999). Drug prohibition and public health: 25 years of evidence. Public Health Reports, 114(1), 14.

DuPont, R. L., & Voth, E. A. (1995). Drug legalization, harm reduction, and drug policy. Annals of Internal Medicine, 123(6), 461-465.

Gahlinger, P. M. (2004). Illegal drugs: A complete guide to their history, chemistry, use and abuse. Penguin. com.

Gilmore, N. (1995). Drug use and human rights: privacy, vulnerability, disability, and human rights infringements. J. Contemp. Health L. & Pol’y, 12, 355.

Gordon, D. R. (1994). The return of the dangerous classes: Drug prohibition and policy politics. New York: WW Norton.

Grossman, M., Chaloupka, F. J., & Shim, K. (2002). Illegal drug use and public policy. Health Affairs, 21(2), 134-145.

Haden, M. (2004). Regulation of illegal drugs: An exploration of public health tools. International Journal of Drug Policy, 15(4), 225-230.

Hunt, N. (2004). Public health or human rights: What comes first?. International Journal of Drug Policy, 15(4), 231-237.

Husak, D. N. (1992). Drugs and rights. Cambridge University Press.

Inciardi, J. A. (Ed.). (1999). The drug legalization debate. Sage.

Inciardi, J. A., & McBride, D. C. (1991). The case against legalization. The Drug Legalization Debate. Newbury Park, California, 45-79.

Inciardi, J. A., & Saum, C. A. (1996). Legalisation Madness. Public Interest, 123, 72-82.

Joffe, A., & Yancy, W. S. (2004). Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth. Pediatrics, 113(6), e632-e638.

Johns, C. J. (1992). Power, ideology, and the war on drugs: Nothing succeeds like failure. No.: ISBN 0-275-94167-1, 218.

Kleiman, M. A., & Saiger, A. J. (1989). Drug legalization: the importance of asking the right question. Hofstra L. Rev., 18, 527.

Kornblum, W. (1991). Drug legalization and the minority poor. The Milbank Quarterly, 415-435.

Kuziemko, I., & Levitt, S. D. (2004). An empirical analysis of imprisoning drug offenders. Journal of Public Economics, 88(9), 2043-2066.

Leuw, E., & Marshall, I. H. (Eds.). (1994). Between prohibition and legalization: The Dutch experiment in drug policy. Kugler Publications.

Miron, J. A. (1999). Violence and the US Prohibitions of Drugs and Alcohol. American Law and Economics Review, 1(1), 78-114.

Miron, J. A. (2001). Violence, Guns, and Drugs: A Cross?Country Analysis*. Journal of Law and Economics, 44(S2), 615-633.

Miron, J. A., & Zwiebel, J. (1995). The economic case against drug prohibition. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(4), 175-192.

Nadelmann, E. A. (1988). The Great Drug Debate: I. The Case for Legalization. Public Interest, 92, 3-31.

Nadelmann, E. A. (1992). Thinking seriously about alternatives to drug prohibition. Daedalus, 121(3), 85-132.

Ostrowski, J. (1989). Moral and Practical Case for Drug Legalization, The. Hofstra L. Rev., 18, 607.

Thornton, M. (1991). Economists on illegal drugs: A survey of the profession. Atlantic Economic Journal, 19(2), 73-73.

Thornton, M. (1998). The potency of illegal drugs. Journal of Drug Issues, 28, 725-740.

Wilson, J. Q. (1990). Against the legalization of drugs. Commentary, 89(2), 21-28.

Wisotsky, S. (1990). Beyond the war on drugs. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.

Wodak, A. (1998). Health, HIV infection, human rights, and injecting drug use. Health and Human Rights, 24-41.

Categories
Free Essays

The War on Drugs – Is a hard-line approach working to combat the use of harmful drugs? Discuss arguments for and against current systems of drug control.

Abstract

Internationally during this century and the last, the debate about the war on illegal drugs has been fuelled by arguments both for and against their legalisation or prohibition. Both of these approaches to managing illegal drugs have their advantages and disadvantages. Each of these shall be discussed and critically analysed in this essay to seek to understand if a hard-line approach is working to combat the use of these harmful drugs. The results from this evaluation shall then be summarised briefly in the conclusion to this essay.

1.Introduction

Internationally during this century and the last, the debate about the war on illegal drugs has been fuelled by argument both for and against their legalisation (see as an example: DuPont & Voth, 1995; Leuw & Marshall, 1994; Nadelmann. 1988) or prohibition (see as an example; Benjamin & Miller, 1991; Wilson, 1990). Both of these approaches to managing illegal drugs have their advantages and disadvantages. Each of these shall be discussed and critically analysed in this essay to seek to understand if a hard-line approach is working to combat the use of these harmful drugs.

2. The legalisation of drugs

Some have argued that the only way to manage the distribution and negative effects of illegal drugs is to decriminalise them or to legalise them (Haden, 2004; Thornton, 1998). This is where the distribution and the control of drug markets are managed (Thornton, 1991) via implementing appropriate legal controls (Grossman, Chaloupka, & Shim, 2002). However, this approach to managing illegal drugs has a number of advantages and disadvantages.

3. The advantages and disadvantages of legalizing drugs

Some arguments for the legalisation of drugs are derived from an emotional basis (Ostrowski, 1989) such as, a number of human or civil rights would no longer be abused under the banner of conducting a drug war (Kleiman, & Saiger, 1989) or drugs should not be legalised as this would be morally wrong (John, 1992). Furthermore, legalising drugs would not enable us to overcome the underlying causes of most drug misuse, which may arise through socio-economic circumstances such as, poverty, unemployment, homelessness, boredom, a lack of opportunity or mental health problems (Inciardi, 1999). Each of these arguments is not logical, as they are subjective in nature and derived from the personal opinions or beliefs of different parties.

Comparatively, some arguments are based on logic, which advocates the legalisation of drugs such as, there would be a dramatic decrease in crime (Wisotsky, 1990).Profits made by criminals would be reduced, as would corruption. As users would no longer be classified as criminals, would this reduce the burden on public systems such as, the criminal justice system or on the police and customs (Inciardi & McBride, 1991).The profits made from the sales of drugs could be reused to create effective treatment or educational programmes (Joffe & Yancy, 2004). This may also help to reduce the number of drug related deaths (Clark, 1992). However other logical arguments also show why this may not work as a small minority could continue to use drugs irresponsibly, because of this there may still be deaths or crimes committed because of illegal drug use (Inciardi & Saum, 1996). Legalisation and regulation can only get rid of problems associated drugs, not organised crime or poverty (Kornblum, 1991).

From examining these emotional and logical arguments, it is clear that the legalisation of drugs is a complex subject, which could potentially resolve a number of societal issues. However, it will not redress all of the problems, which have been associated with the use of illegal drugs. From this perspective, one can see that there is no easy answer to whether drugs should be legalised, though the logical benefits and disadvantages, which have been presented here, seem to outweigh the emotional ones.

What is clear is that these opinions on the war on drugs, which have been expressed through each of these sources of information, cited here are highly personal, even when they are presented as logical arguments. The fact remains that statistics and information can be manipulated to support ‘what if’ scenarios both for and against the arguments to legalise drugs. However, the other side of this argument is that the use of illegal drugs should be prohibited.

4.Illegal Drugs and their prohibition

From another perspective, some have argued that the use of illegal drugs should be prohibited (see as an example: Basov, Miron & Jacobson, 2001; Drucker, 1999; Miron & Zwiebel, 1995). However, this approach to managing illegal drugs has a number of advantages and disadvantages, which are derived from both emotional and logical arguments.

5. The advantages and disadvantages of prohibiting of illegal drugs

Some of these arguments are based on emotional reasoning, as some believe that prohibition undermines human rights, as many individuals may be treated in an unjust way as the authorities suspect that they are using or distributing drugs (see as an example: Gilmore, 1995; Hunt, 2004). Others believe that prohibition is morally correct (Husak, 1992) and that the actions of those who sell or use drugs should not go unpunished (Gordon, 1994). Alongside these arguments for and against the prohibition of drugs through legal means, there are also a number of arguments, which are based on logic. For example, there are a number of reasons why prohibition should not be used to control illegal drugs such as it creates and fuels differing types of criminal activity which may be derived from prostitution, gang activities, monetary fraud or violence (Nadelmann, 1992). Many actually believe that no form of prohibition has been successful to date in stopping or controlling the sale or use of drugs (see as an example: Chambliss, 1995; Gahlinger, 2004; Miron, 1999) and therefore a new approach such as their legalisation should be tried. The criminal justice system is currently overloaded with drug related cases and this problem could be resolved by taking this approach (Kuziemko & Levitt, 2004). However, other advocate that the advantages of prohibition are that it helps to control and regulate crime related drug activity (Wodak, 1998), it ensures that those that break the law by producing or supplying drugs are punished according (Becker, Murphy & Grossman, 2004) and that without these legal penalties for drug enforcement the situation could spiral out of control (Miron, 2001).

Therefore, again we are faced with a number of emotional and logical arguments from a number of sources, which are based on ‘facts’. This shows how difficult it is to understand and resolve this complex issue as one has difficulty deciding between a punitive approach which has not worked to date and the ‘what if’ situations which may arise if this approach to drug enforcement and legalisation is changed. The emotional and logical arguments both for and against the prohibition of illegal drugs are difficult to weight up as each has it merits and it is hard to know which of these is most viable due to the complex nature of the aforementioned problems. To this end, one may either favour prohibition or not, depending upon their personal perspectives, values or beliefs.

6. Conclusion

From the above one can see that there a number of arguments which are based on emotional or logical bases which may be used to argue for the legalisation or the prohibition of illegal drugs. However, when you consider the first of these one can see why the legalisation of drugs and their use may be logically advantageous from a number of perspectives. The arguments presented here seem to just ’make sense’. Comparatively when we examine the arguments both for and against the prohibition of illegal drugs, one does not disprove the other, as it is easy to agree with both sides of this argument. In regards to this, the strongest and clearest argument, which has been presented here, is the logical argument for the legalization of drugs. The advantages of taking this approach to changing drug enforcement seem to far outweigh any of the disadvantages. To this end, when we consider the question which was posed at the beginning of this essay regarding whether or not the war on drugs should take a hard-line approach is and if this is working to combat the use of these harmful drugs. The answer to this question logically is no, this is not the correct approach based on the evidence which has been presented here. Furthermore, this approach does not appear to be working, therefore it may be time to seek to stop debating and to start to change out legal systems to seek to ascertain if the legalisation of these drugs is advantageous as the ‘what if’ situations presented in this essay say it will be.

References

Basov, S., Miron, J., & Jacobson, M. (2001). Prohibition and the market for illegal drugs. World Economics, 2(4), 113-158.

Becker, G. S., Murphy, K. M., & Grossman, M. (2004). The economic theory of illegal goods: The case of drugs (No. w10976). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Benjamin, D. K., & Miller, R. L. (1991). Undoing drugs: Beyond legalization (p. 195).

Chambliss, W. J. (1995). Another lost war: The costs and consequences of drug prohibition. Social Justice, 22(2 (60), 101-124.BasicBooks.

Clark, A. (1992). The economics of drug legalization. University of Essex, Department of Economics.

Drucker, E. (1999). Drug prohibition and public health: 25 years of evidence. Public Health Reports, 114(1), 14.

DuPont, R. L., & Voth, E. A. (1995). Drug legalization, harm reduction, and drug policy. Annals of Internal Medicine, 123(6), 461-465.

Gahlinger, P. M. (2004). Illegal drugs: A complete guide to their history, chemistry, use and abuse. Penguin. com.

Gilmore, N. (1995). Drug use and human rights: privacy, vulnerability, disability, and human rights infringements. J. Contemp. Health L. & Pol’y, 12, 355.

Gordon, D. R. (1994). The return of the dangerous classes: Drug prohibition and policy politics. New York: WW Norton.

Grossman, M., Chaloupka, F. J., & Shim, K. (2002). Illegal drug use and public policy. Health Affairs, 21(2), 134-145.

Haden, M. (2004). Regulation of illegal drugs: An exploration of public health tools. International Journal of Drug Policy, 15(4), 225-230.

Hunt, N. (2004). Public health or human rights: What comes first?. International Journal of Drug Policy, 15(4), 231-237.

Husak, D. N. (1992). Drugs and rights. Cambridge University Press.

Inciardi, J. A. (Ed.). (1999). The drug legalization debate. Sage.

Inciardi, J. A., & McBride, D. C. (1991). The case against legalization. The Drug Legalization Debate. Newbury Park, California, 45-79.

Inciardi, J. A., & Saum, C. A. (1996). Legalisation Madness. Public Interest, 123, 72-82.

Joffe, A., & Yancy, W. S. (2004). Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth. Pediatrics, 113(6), e632-e638.

Johns, C. J. (1992). Power, ideology, and the war on drugs: Nothing succeeds like failure. No.: ISBN 0-275-94167-1, 218.

Kleiman, M. A., & Saiger, A. J. (1989). Drug legalization: the importance of asking the right question. Hofstra L. Rev., 18, 527.

Kornblum, W. (1991). Drug legalization and the minority poor. The Milbank Quarterly, 415-435.

Kuziemko, I., & Levitt, S. D. (2004). An empirical analysis of imprisoning drug offenders. Journal of Public Economics, 88(9), 2043-2066.

Leuw, E., & Marshall, I. H. (Eds.). (1994). Between prohibition and legalization: The Dutch experiment in drug policy. Kugler Publications.

Miron, J. A. (1999). Violence and the US Prohibitions of Drugs and Alcohol. American Law and Economics Review, 1(1), 78-114.

Miron, J. A. (2001). Violence, Guns, and Drugs: A Cross?Country Analysis*. Journal of Law and Economics, 44(S2), 615-633.

Miron, J. A., & Zwiebel, J. (1995). The economic case against drug prohibition. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(4), 175-192.

Nadelmann, E. A. (1988). The Great Drug Debate: I. The Case for Legalization. Public Interest, 92, 3-31.

Nadelmann, E. A. (1992). Thinking seriously about alternatives to drug prohibition. Daedalus, 121(3), 85-132.

Ostrowski, J. (1989). Moral and Practical Case for Drug Legalization, The. Hofstra L. Rev., 18, 607.

Thornton, M. (1991). Economists on illegal drugs: A survey of the profession. Atlantic Economic Journal, 19(2), 73-73.

Thornton, M. (1998). The potency of illegal drugs. Journal of Drug Issues, 28, 725-740.

Wilson, J. Q. (1990). Against the legalization of drugs. Commentary, 89(2), 21-28.

Wisotsky, S. (1990). Beyond the war on drugs. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.

Wodak, A. (1998). Health, HIV infection, human rights, and injecting drug use. Health and Human Rights, 24-41.

Categories
Free Essays

Nevada on the Move of Importing Prescription Drugs

Assembly Majority Leader Barbara Buckley heads on the plan to import prescription medicines from Canada. Backed by other officials, cause-oriented groups, unions, doctor’s associations, and senior citizens, she together with other lawmakers, are now pushing to finalize the regulations to enable Nevadans to purchase drugs from Canadian drugstores which are lower-priced and more economical. The legislation is eyeing to implement the law by April 20 of this year.

In line with this, Attorney General George Chanos has taken a stand to further modify the current rulings with regards the issue at hand. He said that possible federal Food and Drug Administration directives may be violated, resulting to legal consequences.

Buckley, also the chief sponsor of the program, is headstrong to obtain the approval. She vows to work in achieving authorization as she claims to consider of her constituents who purposely go to Canada just to buy their daily medicinal needs. The final elements of the legislation are now being scrutinized by the board to meet the set deadline.

These sections being worked on are the accreditation procedures of the Canadian pharmacies allowed to market medicines within the state. It is also required that these pharmacies have toll-free phone lines,  e-mail access, and the ability to get in touch with their customer’s doctor in cases the latter can’t present a valid prescription.

The board is also looking at the guidelines as to when, where, and why the pharmacy can decline a purchase. The law also states that generic Canadian drugs can not be sold except when sold also in the same generic form in their country. The rules ensuring the safety of the drugs are being prioritized as well. The Canadian drugs cannot enter the state unless approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and Health Canada.

It is assumed the people of Nevada will not only be benefited from the cheaper drugs that will soon be available to them. The regulation also aims to control unauthorized websites that are selling drugs to the US; drugs that are not tested safe and effective by the proper US health departments. The law also seeks to castigate agencies, companies, and individuals who are pursuing illegal prescription drugs importations within the constituency.

It is not a secret that a lot of US citizens are actually flying to Canada or are getting their medicine from Canadian sources. Buckley aims to regulate these transactions, make it legal if it is, while still protecting the interests and rights of the people, particularly the Nevadans.

Activists against the law on the other hand, would like to postpone the ratification until after every single detail is straightened out. They are pushing for lawmakers to launch a special session with regards this particular law. Those who on the pro-implementation side believe changes can be done in the regular legislative session next year. Currently, the vote stands 4 to 3 favoring the execution of the new law.

http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/nevada/2006/mar/01/030110077.html

http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/N/NV_CANADIAN_DRUGS_NVOL-?SITE=NVCAP&SECTION=STATE&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT&CTIME=2006-04-20-20-06-12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Categories
Free Essays

National Social Issue: Drugs and substance

The problem of drug and alcohol abuse among youngsters has become a social and concern of national importance that merits closer attention and demands significant thrust and efforts by parents, teachers and government. This problem of drug and alcohol abuse takes especially severe implications in case of youngsters due to their greater vulnerability in becoming confirmed addicts of these substances ( Langfield, MacIntyre and Turner, 2006).

Statistics from Office of national drug control policy point out that over half the students in USA over half the students in USA try out at least one illegal drug before passing out high school, and around two third of them have at least drunk once (Fact Sheets). It’s also reported that use of illicit drugs and alcohol among American youngsters is highest in the industrialized world (Haier, Maddi and Wadhwa, 1996).

Causes of substance abuse

Adolescents turn towards drugs and alcohol due to a number of reasons that include disturbed family background, history of substance abuse in the family, pressures from peers and friends, as a reflection of prevailing social trends and some times just for experimentation purpose (Prichard and Payne, 2005). Their peers or friends, public trends, and general acceptance of limited drug use that is considered social and normal initiate a large number of teenagers to substance abuse.

Youngsters are indeed under great pressure to use drugs due to pressure from their immediate social interaction, and because drug use is seen as sign of growing up. In this regard, reports and surveys have strongly indicated that once youngsters understand the dangers associated with drug abuse, there is a significant reduction in drug abuse among them.

Many youngsters turn to drug abuse feeling they are invincible before drugs and thereby get entrapped in the vicious circles of alcohol and drug addiction (Prichard and Payne, 2005). Generally youngsters are initiated in the drug cycle with a relatively less dangerous but highly addictive drug marijuana. Later on they are motivated to use more dangerous and potentially life threatening drugs such as crack, cocaine, and heroine, making them completely depended on drug. Increasing instances of substance abuse also finds hand of organized drug mafia whose business depends on increasing the size of their spread by popularizing the concept that drug use is common and therefore acceptable (Cherry, Dillon and Rugh, 2002)..

Effect of Substance Abuse

Dependence upon drugs abuse creates a whole set of medical, social, and psychological problems for the youngsters that adversely affect their normal development and growth path while creating an equally traumatic experience for their parents and peers. The persistent use of drugs and alcohol cause depression, moods swings, sudden volatile behavior, seizures, lack in concentration, lack in coordinated speech and behavior, stupor and increased suicidal tendency in the adolescents (Prichard and Payne, 2005).

Other problems related to drug and alcohol abuse are disrupted family life, self isolation and seclusion, disruption in functioning of central nervous system, and renal and hepatic failures (Haier, Maddi and Wadhwa, 1996).  Heavy drug abuse leads to permanent damage to brain tissues, cause lasting depression, irritability, mood swings, inability to take decisions, reduction in cognitive and intellectual abilities, isolation from family and friends, increase in suicidal tendency, coma and even death.

Remedy of substance use

The problems related to drugs and alcohols are systematic, long term and need consistent monitoring, support and treatment, something that is only possible in the family setup (Langfield, MacIntyre and Turner, 2006). Individual treatment is seldom effective as its effects are short termed and in the absence of any preventive motivation and check adolescents tend to fall back to the use of drugs and alcohol.  Therefore the problem requires a systematic, comprehensive and all out approach to attack its foundation. The government, in coordination of society needs to evolve policies and programs that prevent youngsters from being initiated into the drug use (Rivers and Shore,1997).

An important step in this effort is to identify the youngsters who have already used/abused drug once and ensuring that they are not led to further abuse of drugs and/or alcohol. In this regard, federal student drug testing program is a major initiative that aims to make students aware of their own drug abusing habits without exposing them or embarrassing them before their friends and family members (Rivers and Shore,1997).

The mission should also aim to spread awareness against performance enhancement drugs in sports academies and sporting teams, as these drugs encourage students to take illegal drugs at later stages. This priority should also focus on making younger people aware of better health options, educating them on full range of dangers associated with drug abuse, the permanent debilitating effect of drugs like cocaine, marijuana and heroine on their family relation, health, career and entire life (Haier, Maddi and Wadhwa, 1996).

The program must aims at launching a comprehensive media program to educate youngsters on all the aspects of drug abuse. It also includes the intention to induce help from families, schools, sports coaches, teachers and community leaders in to reinforce the message that drug use is extremely harmful, dangerous and leads to irreparable loss (Cherry, Dillon and Rugh, 2002).

The substance abuses prevention policy should further aims to use public health infrastructure to intervene in the initial period of drug abuse. An integrated aspect is to use medical institutions as a screening procedure and providing treatment to every one, whether they can afford institutional treatment or not. The program should also includes patients risk assessment by physicians to estimate their potential of drug abuse (Haier, Maddi and Wadhwa, 1996).

The final priority in program should be concerned with attacking the well structured and deeply rooted drug trade by targeting foundation of drug business, such as agricultural production of many drugs, their transportation and distribution network, its organizational and hierarchical system and its transportation system (Cherry, Dillon and Rugh, 2002). This strategy promises impressive results with certain elimination of major drug cartels, elimination of cocaine trade and make significant progress in bringing down the size of organized drug market. In this regard United Sates is committed to closely interact with international community to share information and collectively act against the drug trade.

Reference

Andrew Cherry, Dillon, M.E, Rugh, D. 2002. Substance Abuse: A Global View. Greenwood Press. Westport, CT.

Haier, R.J. Maddi. S.R. Wadhwa. S.R. 1996. Relationship of Hardiness to Alcohol and Drug Use in Adolescents. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Volume: 22. Issue: 2.

P.A. Langfield, M. MacIntyre and J.G. Turner. 2006. Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Abuse. 27.02.2007. http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/consumer/10216.html

Prichard J.  and Payne J. 2005. Alcohol, Drugs and Crime: A study of Juvenile in Detention. Australian Institute of Criminology. 27.02.2007. http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/rpp/67/06_chapter2.html#1

P. Clayton Rivers and Elsie R. Shore. 1997. Substance Abuse on Campus: A Handbook for College and University Personnel.Greenwood Press.Westport, CT.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Categories
Free Essays

National drug control treatment strategy critical analysis

Drug abuse is a serious health problem causing illnesses or injuries affecting every community in every major social problem of crime, violence, and child abuse. Both pharmacological and environmental factors play a vital role in the treatment of drug abuse and correlated disorders focusing on the structure and dynamics of the total personality.

Focus on the three areas of health care, criminology, and education were recently emphasized on the policy created by the President’s National Drug Control Strategy based on the core principles of: stopping drug abuse before it starts, healing America’s drug users, and disrupting the market. (ONCDP 2007). The programs efficiency on the first two principles most likely will lessen the population with little injections on enhancements of culture change. Is there a relationship with the drug abuse and American culture?

Looking on their idea of disrupting the market, I fear it will disrupt not the market but the modesty and integrity of the marginal police workforce involved in the trade. Trade means money. Operations cannot account to the last centavo. Trading means gain from deal. It could set precedence for corruption. Can Americans endure both drug trafficking, corruption and terrorism at the same time? How does one label the three wars now?

The ongoing intelligence collection and interagency review of counterdrug-intelligence missions determined how federal, state, and local drug control efforts were misled on the third principle. This does not stop newcomers becoming drug traffickers where intercepted illegal substances appraised drug’s black market value. Raising the prices generates higher income for drug traffickers and for the network of accomplices created for the disruption. (Riley 1996).

This will ultimately result to corruption in terms of network integrity that may hold contempt to the existing policy in particular. Trust is very unmanageable if one works with the other side. It is between good and evil now. Human personality is usually disrupted by the evil one’s surroundings bring. It will eat you like a disease. Although the population of drug abusers will lessen temporarily due to the inflation, they will see to work with the alternative of prostitution and other forms of choice of slavery to get what they wanted. It will give rise to two criminal acts: prostitution and government corruption.

The leadership and direction to state and local governments must not be limited to the relationship between drugs and cost. It must be focused on the reduction of the availability of illegal drugs by prohibition of its entrance and manufacture within the country itself. Maybe there should be a review on the policy dedicated to this type of arrest. War on drugs does not mean alliance and allegiance on the ones whom you wage war. Integrity is very important. Stop the entrance and the manufacture, you will lessen the abuse. The government shall not hide their inability to find resolution to the entrance and manufacture by legally trading with the illegal traffickers. It does not make sense pulling your state to damnation.

The first two principles are correlated: the beginning and the end of drug abuse. Heal the abuser when it starts, a rosebud, and heal the ones considered as hard core, a full bloom rose. Observed what becomes of a full bloom rose, it withers and dies! Drug treatment being integrated with the national health care program is a very good move indeed.

It expands access to abuse treatment, its choices, and awareness through massive education. The approach raises drug addiction as a public health issue by the availability of abuse prevention and treatment services before reaching the criminal justice system. The cornerstone of the policy does not implicate any change in the culture system of the Americans including programs for a new climate of belongingness and lesser independence.

If you want to control your family, don’t make policies and acts that will make the stand of the youth stronger. Independence is very personal. It contains a lot of meaning and a lot of action. Why can’t the government take a look on their policies for families? What are the basic psychological reasons of adapting drugs? Is it not support and belongingness? If they can’t find that relationship within the scope and context of their respective family then they will continue to seek external factors that can satisfy what they need no matter how comprehensive the treatment and the programs of the government for drug abuse. (Brannen & O’Brien 1996).For me the plan is not that realistic.

The President has to consider listening to the voice of the American people like when he led them to war in the Middle East for conducts of terrorism. We are not just talking about functions, economy, and egos here. We are talking about lives: Lives of the American people. Violence can never be a cure for peace. Revenge will always be there. We have to find a way to resolve these wars without producing more body bags. The goals are simply not achievable. He got to listen to the voice of the American people and the voice of his inner conscience.

References

Brannen, J. & O’Brien, M. (1996). Children in families: Research and Policy.

Routledge. p. 117.

ONCDP. (2007). The President’s national drug control strategy February 2007.

Retrieved April 13, 2007.

Riley, K.J. (1996). Snow job?: The war against international cocaine trafficking.

Transaction Publishing. pp. 40.

 

Categories
Free Essays

Prescription Drug Abuse Paper

Marc Boubelik Engl 102 MWF 3:00pm Yuan Ding 26 March 2012 Abuse of Prescription Drugs in the U. S. “Prescription drugs are the number-one drug problem that we face today,” says David Rotenberg, executive director of the adolescent treatment center at the nonprofit Caron Foundation. “They are more widely prescribed, more widely available, and more widely abused by adolescents than they have ever been before. “(DiConsiglio, 1) Abuse of prescription drugs is one of the fastest growing problems for young adults in the U. S. today.

It is a concerning problem because of prescription drug’s widespread availability and little known negative side effects. Prescription drugs are being abused by many young adults and college students. This research paper will focus on the types of drugs abused, where these drugs are coming from and the reasons for abuse, and the dangers of unknown side effects of abuse. Many different prescription drugs are abused for academic purposes as well as recreational purposes. First let’s take a look at one of the most popular abused drugs, Adderall.

Adderall is by definition a prescription stimulant. It is composed of dextroamphetamine and amphetamine. It is normally prescribed by doctors to patients who suffer from Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and people who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). To these patients, Adderall has a calming effect with an improvement in focus and can sustain attention for longer periods of time. Adderall comes is classified by two types, instantaneous release (IR) and extended release (XR). The first has a faster onset and is usually multiple doses are taken in a day.

Extended is released in time controlled amounts and is usually taken at the beginning of the day. Adderall is cousin to such drugs as speed and methamphetamines. To adolescents without either disorder, the drug has a stimulating effect on the nervous system. It seems to increase focus and alertness in the abuser. “There are no hard statistics on how many college students use Adderall. A University of Wisconsin study put the number at 20 percent. Our informal survey at colleges in this region suggests that some 25 percent of students have used Adderall at least once to study or to party. (Jaffe/Chip 42) Adderall is a schedule II drug, which defined by the DEA as “a category of drugs considered having a strong potential for abuse or addiction but that have legitimate medical use. ” Another commonly abused prescription pill is powerful painkillers, like Oxycodone (OxyCotin) and Vicodin. These types of medications are usually prescribed to patients with injuries of extensive pain or for patients to take post-surgery. “Nearly 15 percent of high school seniors admitted abusing painkillers like OxyContin, according to the 2009 “Monitoring the Future” survey conducted by the University of Michigan. This is a startling statistic, especially since 24% of high schools students also partake in episodic and binge drinking. What does this mean? Just because these pills can be found around the house, teenagers think that they can’t be that harmful for your body. When taken in large doses painkillers can create a euphoric “high” feeling in the abuser. These painkillers can come in liquid, tablet, capsule, and extended release form. These types of painkillers are derived from opioids, the same stuff that heroin is composed of. Because it shares some of the same properties as heroin, it is very addictive in nature, physically and emotionally.

Tolerance develops quickly to these drugs, which leads abusers to chase the same feeling as their first experience, often spiraling into full blown addiction. Now that we’ve covered what types of drugs are commonly abused by young adults and college students, how are these drugs obtained and why would adolescents want to abuse them? In the mind of a typical U. S. college student, drug abuse is not uncommon. There have been widespread coverage on binge drinking and alcohol abuse within college campuses, but what about prescription drug abuse?

Where are these pills coming from? College students diagnosed with ADHD are popular kids around any given campus. Most college students looking to score some Adderall usually obtain it through a friend or an acquaintance. Pills can range anywhere from 3 to 30 dollars a pill. Using Adderall is seen as a way to get an upper hand when it comes to academics. Students will pop a pill to study, take a test, and even for fun. In an age where procrastination is common, students will do anything to cut their learning curve of classroom curriculum and make up for poor time management.

Students report that when taking prescription stimulants they feel an increase in alertness and concentration. Students also report weight loss as a (sometimes desired) side effect. In the article “Got Any Smart Pills? ” authors Harry Jaffe and Alex Chip tell the story of a college student at Duke University named Kirk. Kirk was an average student who worked hard to get into Duke’s pre-medical program, but once he got there he found it hard to compete with the other students. Coupled with the party scene at the school, it’s no wonder his grades were sub-par. One day his frat brother picked up on his distress and offered him Adderall.

Kirk had never popped a pill for academic or recreational purposes, but after taking the drug and cramming 14 hours straight for a test with positive results, he made it a staple in his academic routine. His abuse slowly progressed as the semester went on. During finals week he took a total 200mg of Adderall over five days and during his fourth and final test, his heart began to beat faster than normal and his temperature hit 103. 5 degrees. After a trip to the hospital, he stopped abusing the prescription drug almost entirely. The rule of moderation applies to prescription drugs.

They have done wonders for the human race, but if taken in excess, they become harmful to the body, for example, increasing heart rate, altering senses and perceptions, and many other negative side effects. As well as being used as an academic stimulant, Adderall and prescription stimulants are used as a recreational drug, usually at much higher doses, to produce a mild “high” effect. Adderall is also commonly taken to purposely stay awake all night during the weekends to accompany long nights of drinking, a very dangerous combination. Painkillers like Oxycodone and Vicodin are abused solely for recreation.

When taken in high doses, the opiate-derived pills create a sensation of euphoria and relaxation. These prescription drugs are obtained very similar to Adderall, through friends with prescriptions. In the article “Problem Pill. ” Author John DiConsiglio tells the story of 18 year-old Chasey. Chasey started abusing OxyCotin at age 17 under the illusion that prescription drugs were safe to abuse; she became victim to its addictive grip. She used the drug to deal with her emotional pain. So why do many adolescents choose to abuse prescription drugs instead of other popular substances like alcohol and marijuana?

Experts believe “pill popping” is common because it’s hard to detect. Pills are odorless, abusers won’t stumble over words or slur their speech, and the pills are also easy to conceal and carry (DiConsiglio 2). Another speculated reason that this type of abuse is so popular is that kids think it’s safe just because it’s prescribed by a licensed doctor. This leads us to our final topic, what are the dangers and side effects of abuse? Different prescription drugs come with different risks. Let’s relate back to Kirk’s story. His heart rate increased beyond normal and his temperature rose to dangerous levels.

According to Scholastics Choices article “Prescription Stimulants”, “Abusing prescription stimulants can also result in increased blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature, as well as nausea, headaches, anxiety, psychosis, seizures, stroke, and heart failure. ” Although students know the risks of ingesting prescription stimulants like Adderall, many still choose to abuse them. Prescription drugs are very useful and helpful to us if we take them at recommended doses at scheduled times, however when young adults and college students abuse them they have little regard for dosage or a set schedule.

Another concern is combining these pills with other commonly abused substances. Alcohol consumption is often very prevalent on college campuses. When alcohol and prescription drugs are combined, they can have potentially fatal results. Mixing pills with different pills could also land you in the hospital. As I mentioned earlier, prescription medicines can become physically and mentally addictive similar to other drugs such as cocaine and heroin,. Tolerance to these drugs can increase rapidly, resulting in the abuser taking higher doses to achieve the same effect. Most prescription drugs come with a long list of negative side effects.

Some side effects of Adderall include increased heart rate, difficulty sleeping, vomiting, diarrhea, chest pains, dizziness and many more. A few side effects of Oxycotin include drowsiness, mood shifts, difficulty breathing, loss of consciousness, and many more. You can now see why prescription drugs are a growing problem in the U. S. Prescription drugs can be as dangerous as any drug. I’ve covered just what drugs are popular choices for abuse, the reasons why they are abused, and the dangers of abuse. Putting an end to adolescent abuse of prescription drugs is a difficult problem and the solution isn’t simple.

Awareness for prescription drug abuse is being raised and needs to continue being raised as the problem itself grows. All we can ask is that America doesn’t become a nation that runs off pills. Works cited DiConsiglio, John. “Generation Rx. ” Scholastic Choices 25. 4 (2010): 8-11. OmniFile Full Text Select (H. W. Wilson). Web. 1 Mar. 2012. DiConsiglio, John. “Problem Pill. ” Scholastic Choices 26. 4 (2011): 14-17. OmniFile Full Text Select (H. W. Wilson). Web. 16 Mar. 2012. Jaffe, Harry, and Alex Chip. “Got Any Smart Pills? ” Washingtonian 41. 4 (2006): 41-47. OmniFile Full Text Select (H.

W. Wilson). Web. 1 Mar. 2012. Jardin, Bianca1, Alison1 Looby, and Mitch1 Earleywine. “Characteristics Of College Students With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Who Misuse Their Medications. ” Journal Of American College Health 59. 5 (2011): 373-377. OmniFile Full Text Select (H. W. Wilson). Web. 1 Mar. 2012. “Prescription Stimulants. ” Scholastic Choices 26. 6 (2011): 16-17. OmniFile Full Text Select (H. W. Wilson). Web. 1 Mar. 2012. Rasminsky, Abigail. “High And Mighty. ” Dance Spirit 12. 7 (2008): 116-118. OmniFile Full Text Select (H. W. Wilson). Web. 1 Mar. 2012.

Categories
Free Essays

Television: the Undiscovered Drug

Television has brain-washed the majority of our youth. The first thing I hear as I get home are TV mumbles. I open the door and to no surprise there is my younger brother in full motion on the coach, hand in remote, flipping through channels. My brother could not be any more of a coach potato. He watches TV all day and night. I refer to him as the human TV guide. So much endless television can dull our minds, take away time from completing important activities, and has exposed us to a world of violence. First off, Television has dulled the mind of our youth easily.

Youths today are used to having their information passed to them on a silver platter. Not as many teens like to read anymore because it involves too much work. My brother hates to read, not only because there are words involved in that activity, but also because it is now impossible for him to visualize the world presented within the book. It is also impossible for him to focus on a book because of the short attention span he has developed, and reading books just takes too much time for him. Television presents the world to him, a different world every thirty minutes, which holds his attention.

Similar article: Teenagers’ Leisure Time

This now leaves him no mental work to do, except to decide which channel he would like to watch. Because watching television requires no mental work, the brains of the adolescents that watch television are not stimulated enough. This may lead to a slower learning process, which would then explain my brother’s inability to memorize the multiplication table. Second, Television consumes time youths should be dedicating to more important and more essential things in their lives. Television takes away time that should be devoted to homework.

When my brother gets home from school, he will immediately flip the television on, leaving his homework for later. When he finally decides to do his homework, the television will remain on, and he will sit on the couch with his books propped up in front of him, giving it only half of his attention. Homework takes longer to complete, and it probably will not be his best work since only half of his concentration was focused on it. Television also takes time away from quality family time. Most adolescents do not have a strong family connection.

Families whose only time together is at the dinner table will waste precious quality time with their heads turned towards the television. The youth of today lose the strong morals and values they can get when spending time with their family. Television can even take away time from friends. When I spend time with my friends, I like to talk with them or go out. When my brother spends time with his friends, they spend the whole day watching the television. Their conversation revolves around what they are watching on the television. Most teens have the majority of their day devoted to the television. Lastly,

Television has exposed a world of violence towards our youth causing them to be apathetic towards situations. Many television shows make at least one of the three aspects, violence, drugs, and sexual immorality, a normalcy. Adolescents of today model their behavior after characters who live in world of violence, and they do not realize that what they are doing is wrong because to our youth, whatever they see and hear on television is right. For example, my brother has become a lot less sensitive towards all his friends at school. He thinks its okay to laugh if somebody gets hurt accidentally even if it could be serious.

Or abruptly scream nonsense! He also believes its okay to manipulate people as long as he gets his way. Violence on television is glamorised and styled, and watching it does not hurt. So maybe this contributes to my brothers way of thinking their is no consequences. It is pretty short sided to blame everything on television because my brother should know what is “right” and what is “not” but how can he be really sure when television glorifies all sorts of violence? In Conclusion, When television was first invented, its purpose was to bring the family together and perhaps present a way in which we could receive information faster.

In modern times, the television has managed to affect our youth in various ways we would not have imagined. The family gathering concept has disappeared. We have accomplished a faster way to transmit information, but it was a little too much information a little too fast for the wrong audience. I suppose my brother chooses to react this way because he is already too accustomed to being a coach potato. Television has taken over our way of life and we must stop the effects it has had on our youths and our society before it is too late.

Categories
Free Essays

Drug Control

We Must Do Better About Drugs As we know, all countries in the world prohibited hard drug, but it means that we are safe and far from drugs? Definitely not! Drug eliminated from aboveboard; still lived under the night. Prescription drug abuse is the Nation’s fastest-growing drug problem; smuggling of drug can never disappear (2011 National Drug Control Strategy 4). By the way, women’s involvement in drug trafficking in recent years has expanded dramatically (Campbell 233). Spreading of Drug decreases a nation’s physical quality, psychological condition, and life expectancy.

Because no country could afford those integral losses bring from pressure of public medical benefit, no one open hard drugs. Drug is the demon, which come in from crack of door, continue his villainy that should be bar out. We cannot wait to raise awareness of drug control; we cannot wait to improve our tactics; we cannot wait to arrest more loss happen. Executions of prohibitions, living examples of suffering, and confirmed side-effects warn us must focus on the issue. Prohibition in worldwide was actually helped. Making a general survey of our history, people have experienced full of wound bring by drug abuse.

In 1840, opium was used by British government as weapon to raise the certain of invasion in China. The plentiful opium destroyed Chinese army, caused factory deficit of labors, and induced a mass of sliver outflow. The nightmare had drop away already. Today, smuggling of drug are still rampant. The grim axiom defining today’s Afghanistan, 85 percent of whose citizens are farmers, farmers who cultivate fields of poppies, is that its economy relies on two dueling revenue streams (Draper 58). At May 2, 2011, United States Government Accountability Office acted Office of National Drug Control Policy.

The document focused on three areas where substantial short-term progress can make a significant different in people’s lives—prescription drug abuse, drugged driving, and prevention. The document points out that whether struggling with an addiction, worrying about a loved one’s substance abuse, or being a victim of drug related crime, millions of people in this country live with the devastating consequences of illicit drug use. Overall the economic impact of illicit drug use on American society totaled more than $ 193 billion in 2007, the ost recent year for which data are available. Drug-induced deaths now outnumber gunshot deaths in America, and in 17 states and Washington, D. C. , they now exceed motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of injury death. In addition, 1 in every 10 cased of HIV diagnosed in 2007 was transmitted via injection drug use, and drug use itself fosters risky behavior contributing to the spread of infectious diseases nationwide. Furthermore, studies of children in foster care find that two-thirds to three-quarters of cases involve parental substances than high-achieving students.

Finally, Americans with drug or alcohol use disorder spend more days in the hospital and require more expensive care than they would absent such disorder. This contributes to almost $ 32 billion in medical costs per year—a burden that our communities, employers, and small business cannot afford to bear. This document planed to achieve two goals in 2015. The first one is curtail illicit drug consumption in America; the second one is that improve the public health and public safety of the American people by reducing the consequences of drug abuse. 2011 National Drug Control Strategy 1) Still nowadays, some individual continues the tragedy about drug abuse. Bad trip is generic name of symptoms after taking hallucinogen. They start small and can snowball into anxiety, fear, paranoia, and paralysis. People experiencing a bad trip may appear withdrawn and silent or visibly upset, scared or wild. They may curl up into fetal position. Sufferer may feels like his is going insane, or losing control or dying. And he may get caught in circular thoughts, like a hall of mirrors.

The anxiety may trigger breathlessness or even a full-blown panic attack (Lawrence 28). K3 is a kind of hallucinogen, which just is ban in Kansas for only one month. Before its ban, so many people experienced bad trip from it. After the poor nice feeling, billowy terrible emotions will come. Some people may black out when they driving or do something, the disruption would cause accident. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, roughly one in eight weekend, nighttime drivers tested positive for illicit drug. Wu et al. 358) In 2009, drivers who were killed in motor vehicle crashes (and subsequently tested and had results reported), one in three tested positive for drugs. One in eight high school seniors self-report that in the last 2 weeks they drove a car after using marijuana( Lu et al. 111). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) claimed that more than 27,000 people died from drug overdose death in 2007. Drug is the Dementor, a kind of monster in Hurry Potter, which living relys on people’ blessedness and soul.

Apiate caused low physical quality, dysendororisiasis and anaphrodisia; ice and other amphetamine would lead to over exciting, which likely cause violence crime, also make permanent physical injury to brain; taking heroin may live in 20 years, however, taking ice must get mad in five years; also, marijuana increase lung cancer rate; LSD, Lysergids may caused schizophrenia (Jafari 373). According to a survey of Addiction Treatment Centre in Yunnan China, rate of drug relapse closes to one hundred percent (Zhu et al. 641).

Drug and alcohol use affects health outcomes, job opportunities, family life, military preparedness, and academic outcome. It is necessary for us to raise awareness against any kinds of drugs. Also government should improve job market to ensure the livelihood of poor people, thus they did not have to plant or charge drug for money, expressly in some barren regions. At the same time, strong policy is important for drug control. Prescriptive drug use should be limited and customers have to register their name and information. Severe punitive measures will be effective, and powerful immigration control will be helpful.

Government and school have responsibility to let students know how bad drug is. Milton Friedman, Noble Prize in Economic Science owner in 1976, had claimed that “Reason with the potential addict, yes. Tell him the consequences, yes. Pray for and with him, yes. But I believe that we have no right to use force, directly or indirectly, to prevent a fellow man from committing suicide, let alone from drinking alcohol or taking drugs. ” (Thompson 546) He believed that we seem decided to make the same mistake as Alcohol ban in early 1920. Is that true?

The right way to reduce suffering drug brings to us is making drug legal? Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth. Spreading of Drug decreases a nation’s physical quality, psychological condition, and life expectancy. Because no country could afford those integral losses bring from pressure of public medical benefit, no one open hard drugs. It’s not true that drug control leads to high price of it; it’s not true that drug control cause poor quality drug which more harmful to physical; it’s not true that drug control convenient people “plant” charge of concealing drug to others.

This monster breaks up happiness family, rein people’ life which should have bright light, destroy a nation doomed eternally. That’s drug’s truth. People need control themselves away from drug, human also do. Prohibition of drug is an effective way. Some people consider that drug control already start an end of drug age. The fact is that although sun was here, the dark still remain in nook. Human became stronger because of our reason and automatic control. However, drug could broke our magic clear brain, let us mad or decadence and lose our brave emotions and logical.

As we cannot sure to control us from nerve disturb, far away from drug is the most sensible choice. Before we try it, we can choose take it or not, however, after taking, reason and knowledge and intelligence forfeit their power to stop calamity happening. So, just take care! ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Hypophora. This sentence asks a question that will be answered immediately after. [ 2 ]. Antithesis. Expresses opposite concepts to highlight emphasis on the topic. [ 3 ]. Parallelism. The state of being parallel or of corresponding in some way. [ 4 ].

Metaphor. The sentence in order to show that the two things have same qualities. [ 5 ]. Anaphora. The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses. [ 6 ]. Parallelism. The state of being parallel or of corresponding in some way. [ 7 ]. Parallelism. The state of being parallel or of corresponding in some way. [ 8 ]. Oxymoron. Apparently contradictiory terms appear in conjunction. [ 9 ]. Metaphor. The sentence in order to show that the two things have same qualities. [ 10 ]. Parallelism. The state of being parallel or of corresponding in some way. 11 ]. Hypophora. This sentence asks a question that will be answered immediately after. [ 12 ]. Parallelism. The state of being parallel or of corresponding in some way. [ 13 ]. Anaphora. The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses. [ 14 ]. Parallelism. The state of being parallel or of corresponding in some way. Metaphor. [ 15 ]. Oxymoron. Apparently contradictiory terms appear in conjunction. [ 16 ]. Metaphor. The sentence in order to show that the two things have same qualities. [ 17 ]. Analogy. Comparision between one thing and another.

Categories
Free Essays

Monkey Drug Trials Experiment

Title: Monkey Drug Trials Experiment Authors: Deneau, Yanagita & Seevers Year: it was done in 1969 Purpose: The purpose of the experiment was to look at the effects of self-administration on drugs, drug abuse, and drug dependence in humans, by testing it on monkeys. They wanted to observe whether a monkey would become addicted to drugs or not, and to understand better the effects of drugs. Method: First a method was developed, to teach the monkeys how to self- administer the drugs through intravenous catheters.

Then the psychologist injected the monkeys for the first time the drugs. Because they were several monkeys each one received a different drug, some received cocaine, morphine, amphetamines, nalorphine,mixtures, chlorprmazine, mescaline, codeine, pentobarbital, ethanol, and caffeine. The researchers observed a behaviour right afterwards the administration, and after some days they started to provided the prepared drug solutions to the monkeys to see, if they were going to self administer or not, afterwards they were already taught how to do it. Results:

The results show that in consequence of the drug administration the monkeys became dependent on the drugs. The animals were out of their mind, that some tried desperately to escape and they broke their arms. The monkeys that took cocaine suffered convulsions, some other monkeys ripped off their own fingers (possibly because of hallucinations). Another monkey taking amphetamines took all of the fur from his arm and belly, and in the case of cocaine and morphine mixed, the monkeys died after two weeks. The psychological dependence of the drug effects occurs when the monkey oluntarily starts the self-administration of the drug. The monkeys developed psychological dependence on morphine, codeine, cocaine, d-amphetamine, pentobarbital, ethanol, and caffeine. All of the drugs except caffeine produced psychotoxicity. Monkeys didn’t created a psychological dependence on nalorphine, morphine-nalorphine mixtures, chlorpromazine, mescaline or physiological saline These experiments also showed that the monkey’s biological traits were similar to the human ones, and conclude that the key factor on drug abuse is the psychological dependence.

The researchers founded the reason why drug abuse takes place and how can a psychological treatment will help people give up the drug addiction. Discussion: The experiment was very controversial because it was very unethical and the monkeys suffered a lot of pain, and in some cases died of overdose. The Helsinki declaration was founded in 1964 and since here they have been updating principles of good practice in this kinds of experiments. They say, “Welfare of animals used for research must be respected”. Since here the ethical views for non-humans subjects started.

Later on the APA gave instructions to determine whether an experiments on animals is acceptable or not. For example animal research should not harm the animal or distress it on any way. If the researchers don’t follow this code, they wont be allowed to keep on with the experiment. In the case of this experiment was already done, but that’s why still now a days is very controversial and shocking, and is listed in one of the 10 most unethical psychological experiments. Personal opinion: This experiment in my opinion was useful to psychology.

But I don’t agree with the methods that were applied. The researchers taught some behaviours to the monkeys that unless humans never show them how to do they will never do it by themselves, like self-administrating drugs, it is not something that in their natural environment are going to learn, so they are alienating the monkey from its normal behaviours. In my own opinion I know, that monkeys have very similar biological traits in compare to humans, and in this case I did find it useful because thanks to it, late in that times esearchers found the main key on drug dependence which is the psychological dependence the desire to always get more of the drug and feel what it makes you feel over and over again. Nowadays if they realize this experiment, we will say it’s not something new to humanity, that drugs create certain effects on the human body and clearly creates psychological dependence, but back in those days the use of drugs was just starting and this knowledge was not so obvious and known by so many people.

I do agree it was unethical, doing those sort of things to the monkeys and probably In some cases there can be many differences between animal behaviour and human behaviour, therefore results for one another cannot be generalised. I would never do it, but after the realization of it, you analyse a little and the results are very useful, to act and treat on time a drug addiction. Sources * Psue76, “Monkey drug trails 1969” <<http://psue76. wordpress. om/2012/04/29/monkey-drug-trials-1969/ >> * Springer link “Psychopharmacology” <<http://www. springerlink. com/content/l448655516107246/ >> * Mind power news “ 10 most unethical psychological experiments” <<http://www. mindpowernews. com/UnethicalExperiments. htm>> * Psychology Hawks “Psychology gone bad: when animals pay the price for science. ” <<http://psychohawks. wordpress. com/2010/04/02/psychology-gone-bad-when-animals-pay-the-price-for-science/>>

Categories
Free Essays

Assignment Week 6: Sleep Deprivation, Disorders, and Drugs

Any of us if not more than some have experienced some difficulty sleeping. This can happen because of a number of things: We worry about some sort of troubling thing to come or one that has passed, or there is the all too famous insomnia, which gets the best of us from time to time. There are many times in my life that I have had trouble sleeping, whether it was from one of my three children being sick, my husband being sick, me being sick, or my mind just running from here to there which happens quite frequently.

The last time I recall that I had not gotten enough sleep would have been when my middle child had to have oral surgery. I don’t really know if it was because she was going under and she hadn’t been before, if it was the fact that my little girl was going to have surgery for the first time. I tried for several hours to fall asleep, but my mind would not stay still. I finally decided to get up and try to doze off to the television, after that did not work I made some coffee and worked on my assignment. When it was time to get up my husband and my little girl I was exhausted, as if I was at work all day.

I drove us to where we needed to go with no problem, but as we sat in the waiting room I dozed off for a few hours. As I woke it felt as if I had not slept as all, I was still exhausted. After the surgery was over and the care plan for her was set we left for home. I had got a huge cup of coffee from a convenience store, as I drank it I felt more tired. I slept for about 30 minutes on the way home, and when I got there I felt so awake. However, as I went in and settled down for a little bit, I felt more tired than I ever had.

Unfortunately though I needed to take care of my other two children, which was a very hard task at hand, even with the help of their father. I was finally able to get to sleep that night however it was a rough start to the next day. When I am unable to get to sleep I tend to sleep more than normal, and as I wake I am dragging all day and feel as I need more sleep. As I read chapter 14 Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian Rhythms, I am better understanding of why my body reacts the way it does if I get too much sleep or not enough sleep.

When reading about the recuperation theories of sleep it made a lot of sense to me. I believe it is reasonable that we need to sleep in order for our bodies to revitalize its self, and that at some point if we were to develop a total sleep deprivation it could result in one’s death. We do know that we are in need of some sleep, however, we are still uncertain about how much sleep we much have. It is also know that many years ago people slept much more and today a person usually sleeps anywhere from seven to nine hours of sleep.

According to the circadian theories of sleep, we possess an internal timing mechanism, called a circadian clock. I fully support the belief that we are programmed or have developed a habit of sleeping at night. I believe that we choose to rest and relax not only for our health, but also because we like it so much. I believe that we experience Microsleep from time to time as well. Mucrosleeps are short periods of sleep when we shut our eyes for a few seconds either while sitting or standing. I remember while I was working I had stayed up all night, when I went to work I was completely exhausted.

I had to get something out of the walk in cooler, since it was a hot day out I sat on a crate and I dozed off for just a second, and ended up jerking awake. We do not know exactly how much sleep a human should sleep and exactly why it is necessary to need sleep. There are many types of sleep disorders, one in particular would be insomnia. There is insomnia that involves disorders of getting to sleep and staying asleep and hypersomnia, which includes disorders of sleeping too much. Causes that can influence insomnia are, for example, if a person is experiencing physical pain.

This could influence a person when falling asleep or staying asleep. There are drugs (hypnotics) that can help a person to fall and stay asleep but they have negative effects. Prescribing benzodiazepines, like valium, have side effects as a person can develop a tolerance and might have to increase the dose of that specific drug. In addition, they are also addictive. Another insomnia disorder is called sleep apnea. A person with this disorder stops breathing during sleep, which makes him or her wake up and then go right away to sleep. This disorder is very common in older or overweight people.

There is also nocturnal myoclonus (a body twitches and keeps a person awake) and restless legs syndrome. In hypersomnia, narcolepsy is the most well-known disorder. A person with this disorder complains about daytime sleepiness and falls asleep almost anywhere. Another symptom of narcolepsy is cataplexy, in which a person can lose muscle tone while being awake. This can make a person sit down suddenly or in the extreme, cause a person to drop down to the ground. Then there is sleep paralysis (unable to move when going to sleep or awakening) and hypnagogic hallucinations (dreaming while being awake).

There are drugs such as stimulants and tricyclic antidepressants that might help; however, they are very addictive and can have side effects like not wanting to eat. There is also the hormone melatonin, a natural hormone produced in the brain, which is also manufactured commercially and is associated with sleeping, but the studies are still inconsistent and debatable. (Pinel, 2011) As we know we need some sort of sleep to function normally or on a normal basis, without it we could face some pretty severe consequences. If there are problems they make medication that can help with those problems, which will allow us to sleep.

Categories
Free Essays

Rough Draft on Drug Wars

Rough Draft Thousands upon thousands of lives have been taken due to the huge demand for drugs crossing from Mexico into the United States. The murder rate is extremely high, and has caused so much chaos between both countries because of this. Drug dealers in the United States contact drug dealers in Mexico, and vice versa, to cross the drugs between borders illegally. A high percentage of the time, either of the drug dealers from both sides will have a scape goat swim the border while carrying high amounts of drugs with them, or will attempt to cross it over smuggled in a vehicle.

In Mexico, it is extremely corrupt and even the law enforcement is involved in the crossing of drugs illegally. This being done causes so much conflict between the two countries and it’s very scary for anyone living in the Mexico side of it, because wars will break out over the drugs almost daily and many people’s lives end up being taken because of this. Innocent people can be caught in between a gun fight and their lives are in extreme danger, which is another reason why this drug war continues to go on.

Many families try and flee their country to come into the United States so their families do not have to live in danger, but if being caught trying to cross over illegally, there are extremely harsh consequences. It is sad to know that millions of families have to live in fear and are too scared to leave their houses because they are scared of being caught in between one of the many gun fights that break out. There have been many cases where the Mexican Cartels will hire the elderly people of Mexico, and sometimes even children, to be their drug traffickers, putting them at extreme risk of being badly hurt, incarcerated, or even murdered.

The Mexican Cartels believe that using children or the elderly will make it look less likely to be any type of illegal activity, but in the mix of it all, they have had many of them hurt or in extreme trouble with the law. Drug wars are not only held between the United States and Mexico; there are so many other places dealing with the same problem and that is why we need to raise awareness on the situation more than we already have. There have been many attempts in causing this fight to end, but it is too big of a fight for anyone to be able to get ahold of everyone causing this chaos.

Any drug cartel around the world could careless who gets ahold of their drugs as long as they’re making money, and they are putting our younger generations at risk of becoming addicted to the drugs they are passing out to the world. Addiction is so high and the effects are incredibly bad. The effects of addiction could either be hereditary, or something one has seen throughout their lives causing them to do exactly as they had seen. There needs to be more educational programs out there to teach every one of the effects of addiction.

The strong effects of drug use affect your body and can eventually begin to start to deteriorate over time. Your brain, muscles, respiratory system, liver, and every part of your body will begin to deteriorate after long periods of using illegal substances. Drug use especially affects your brain and the way you allow your thoughts to flow. Drug users are very irresponsible and can only go on with their lives if they are getting high. It is a horrible thing to get into and can cause the one with the disease to not even be able to enjoy life anymore without feeling the effects of the drug they are addicted to.

The way I believe we should educate others on the causes and effects of addiction are to hold seminars and educate the younger children in grade school. People who are educated on the extreme effects of drug use might actually not get into them with proper education. Those who were never educated on the effects of drug use are most likely going to be the ones to fall victim of peer pressure and eventually get into drugs themselves. In other cases, it is hard to avoid and can be picked up as a child, seeing family members or other individuals doing drugs.

We should educate everyone, as well as having no tolerance laws when it comes to hard drugs and giving longer sentences to those who are caught with the drugs, instead of letting them off on probation or parole. Many people would completely disagree with allowing marijuana to be legal, but if you think about it, it could eventually cause the drug violence to end around the world. Marijuana has the least effects out of all the drugs in the world, and although people take it to the extreme, it is honestly a harmless drug and should not be causing this many people to have their lives taken over it.

Categories
Free Essays

The Epidemic of Teenagers Using Drugs

The Epidemic of Teenagers Abusing Drugs Krystyn Romualdo COM/156 November 18, 2012 Jackie Hudspeth Jr The Epidemic of Teenagers Abusing Drugs To have known so many people that have struggled with drug addiction in their teenage years it has become very apparent what a vital time in one’s life it is to know the dangers of abusing drugs as a teenager. Even though not all teens abuse drugs, it is an epidemic in the United States because more teens are turning to drugs to escape or use out of boredom.

Take my younger brother for instance; he has struggled with drug addiction from the time he was a teenager into his early twenties. My brother Matthew started off smoking pot and drinking socially out of boredom. Then he found the drug crack cocaine to escape from reality as his world came crashing down around him. Once he found that drug he went overboard and started stealing electronics and pawning them for money to buy his drugs. From there he would also beg people for money and obtain it to get his fix. He would clean up for about a week at a time but would fall right back into it.

He would blast his music in his room while he was high on drugs. He would also disappear for days at a time while on a drug binge. After stealing everything in my mother’s house my mother finally committed him to a drug rehabilitation center. The first one failed. The second one failed. Matthew just could not get off the drugs. He to this day struggles with drug addiction, and he is now twenty four. However Matthew is just one of many with stories like these. Let us look at how many others are a part of this vicious cycle known as drug abuse among teens.

A lot of teenagers abuse drugs for a variety of reasons, stress from school, social acceptance or low self-esteem, self-medication, misinformation, and easy access to name several. Seventy three percent of teens of teens report the number one reason for using drugs is to deal with the pressures and stress of school. This was done by the Partnership for a Drug-Free America (2010). They have to deal with the pressures of being socially accepted, what clothes they are wearing if they are “cool” and the overall stress of their schoolwork. Self-medication being nother reason teenagers use drugs is huge. One self-medicates to deal with all types of stress that they feel like they cannot cope with. There was a study conducted in 2009 that reported an estimated seventy percent of teens suffer from undiagnosed clinical depression perhaps at some point in their life. Depression is a leading cause and effect of why teens turn to drugs. Many teens are unaware that they have an underlying mental or mood disorder that is causing them to use illegal or prescription drugs to self-medicate and cope with their symptoms.

Teenagers abuse drugs due to misinformation with studies showing that many teenagers do not know the effects of drugs. Most teens do not see any major risk with abusing drugs. Forty one percent of teens mistakenly believe that it is safer to abuse a prescription drug over a street drug. Teens also abuse drugs for social acceptance. They want to be accepted by their peers so they do drugs just to be part of a group or clique. Another reason is low self-esteem. People who feel down on themselves are more likely to abuse drugs to feel better about themselves.

Easy access is one of the main reasons teenagers easily get addicted to drugs. Almost fifty percent of teenagers say it is easy for them to get marijuana; seventeen percent say it is easy to get methamphetamine; fourteen percent mention that it is easy obtain heroine and over fifty percent of teens say it is easy to get prescription drugs from their parents’ medicine cabinets. Let us explore how one teenager became addicted to drugs by going through the medicine cabinets of his own family. This teenager was a football star and had made more wins for his team than he can count.

But he started to have troubling pain in his hamstring. He decided at first to just walk it off instead of going to the doctor. This teenager walked it off until he could not endure it anymore. He remembered that his father had a surgery a while back. So he searched for the medication and found a prescription pill bottle that said Percocet on it. The bottle said to take every four to six hours for pain. Now Percocet is a strong painkiller that is highly addictive. This teenager was unaware of its high addiction level so he started to take them as directed.

When he ran out of those he found more prescription painkillers from his brother’s medicine cabinet because he had to win the big game. Once he found his brother’s medicine he had enough to last him to win the big and final game. He won the big game but afterwards he ran out of medicine. He started to get sick and began to experience hot and cold sweats and realized he was physically addicted to prescription drugs. He had to go through withdrawals to realize he was physically addicted to the drugs. But withdrawals are just one of many results of using or abusing drugs.

There are many bad outcomes to abusing drugs. Some teenagers just waste away their lives. Others hurt the ones they love by stealing from them or treating them horribly when they are coming down off their high. Some teens become very violent and out of control towards everyone around them. Some teens run away and disappear for life. Other teenagers get raped not even knowing it unless someone tells them what happened unless they were awake during the rape. A rising problem among teens and drug use is teen pregnancy.

Minimally, one million teenage girls become pregnant annually, reports the Women’s International Network News (1992). One study of youth in three urban areas found that between twenty nine and forty two percent of the girls studied reported being pregnant at least once before the age of seventeen (Huizinga, Loeber, & Thornberry, 1993). The effects of this has caused a decline in furthering education and an incline in single parenthood as most young men do not stay to support the child or even be there for the teenage girl during pregnancy let alone post-partum.

Another bad outcome is teenage violence. Teenagers are particularly vulnerable to violence and victimization. They are at a high risk for interfamilial emotional, physical and sexual abuse (Strom, K. , Oguinick, C. M. , & Singer, M. I. Page 3, 1995). They experience twice the amount of violence adults do. Some of the violence includes theft, assault, and rape. On a ten point scale drug abuse was at an 8. 5 for teens being at a high risk (Stephens, G. Page 2, 2010). It is not all grim as there is hope. There are many resources to help teenagers overcome the use of drugs. One is in the schools.

Knowing that school drop outs and failure in school are contributors to drug use it is clear how critical it is to have an educational facility with competent, caring teachers working with parents and the community (Stephens, G. Page 3, 2010). However, most teens in this digital age, do better turning to campaigns such as Above the Influence and Under Your Own Influence. Under Your Own Influence was a campaign that started off in several schools and ran a campaign from 1992 to 1995. Above the Influence is a campaign that still continues today on a national level. Both were started to get kids to stay off marijuana but

Above the Influence has turned into a national campaign to stay off all drugs. Be Under Your Own Influence was found to reduce marijuana uptake in an earlier randomized community trial. It was re-branded as Above the Influence by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (Slater, M. , Kelly, K. , Lawrence, F. , Stanley, L. , & Comello, M. Page 1). Above the Influence not only serves as a television media campaign but has its own website with tons of information and help such as testimonials, ways to help a friend and interactive communications to keep kids off of drugs and above the influence of them.

Even though not all teens abuse drugs, it is an epidemic in the United States because more teens are turning to drugs to escape or use out of boredom. We have experienced my own personal account of knowing someone addicted to drugs. You have seen the numbers of how easy it is for teens to get drugs and why they abuse them. We have seen how prescription drug abuse comes about. We have explored some of the outcomes of drug abuse and what resources are available to help teens overcome or abstain from drug abuse. If you know a teenager abusing drugs, help them help themselves and get them the help that they need.

References (American Psychological Association). Strom, K. , Oguinick, C. M. , & Singer, M. I. (1995). What do Teenagers Want? What do Teenagers Need?. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 12 (5), 345-359. (American Psychological Association). Lindstrom, M. (2011). PAIN PILLS?. Odyssey 20(7), 30. (American Psychological Association). Stephens, G. (2010). Youth at Risk: A New Plan for Saving The World’s Most Precious Resource. Futurist, 44 (4), 16. (American Psychological Association). Johnson, A. O. , Mink, M. D. , Harun, N. , Moore, C. G. , Martin, A. B. Bennett, K. J. (2008). Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Journal of School Health, 78 (10), 554-561. doi:10. 1111/j. 1746-1561. 2008. 00343. x (American Psychological Association). Slater, M. , Kelly, K. , Lawrence, F. , Stanley, L. , & Comello, L. (2011). Assessing media campaigns linking marijuana non-use with autonomy and aspirations: “Be Under Your Own Influence” and ONDCP’s “Above the Influence”. Prevention Science: The Official Journal of The Society For Prevention Research, 12(1), 12-22.

Categories
Free Essays

Does Trainspotting Glorify Heroin and Drug Taking?

DOES TRAINSPOTTING GLORIFY HEROIN AND DRUG TAKING? Danny Boyle’s outstanding adaptation of Irvine Welsh’s stunning novel “Trainspotting” has managed to stir some trouble since its release in 1996. Most reviews call it shocking but no matter how shocking it still ranks as one of the best Scottish movies. The film caused debates about drug use, specifically heroin, as it neither condones the use of heroin nor shuns those who have become addicted to the drug. There are many valid arguments stating that the movie glorifies heroin and other drug usage.

Take, for example, during the opening scenes of the movie, Renton (the main character) tells the audience that he wouldn’t choose life, and that he has no reason for this and continues – “who needs reasons when you’ve got heroin? ”. He’s telling the audience that life is nothing compared to heroin, he’d rather choose to rot his life away and throw his money away on an illegal, life destroying drug and that he can’t justify it. He’s glorifying heroin by stating that heroin negates any reason for choosing a responsible and safe life.

It is clear how people believe that the movie glorifies heroin as this is not the only point in the movie that heroin is said to be better than life. Later on in the opening scenes, Renton lists some of the things you worry about in life (bills, food, football and relationships) but finishes by saying – “all the things that really don’t matter when you have a sincere and truthful junk habit. ” This list includes things that are relatively essential to a healthy life – food for the obvious reasons, football or other hobbies so that life isn’t all work and relationships that make people happy and sane.

Apparently, however, a junk habit is worth so much more than things that can make humans happy. “Junk”, a word used to describe filth or garbage, is better for your life than food or relationships. This clearly glorifies heroin as it’s taking human needs and saying that heroin is much better and more important. On the contrary however, the film is not biased. It does not just glorify heroin and other drugs, in fact, at some points the film even shows the extreme damage that drugs can do.

Take the scene where Renton is going cold turkey for instance. In this scene, Renton has a frantic dream in which he is threatened by Begbie, he visualises Spud in a prison outfit and Tommy is shown to look sick and weak. He also visualises baby Dawn, the infant that died earlier in the movie, crawling along the ceiling before twisting her head and dropping on his face. This sort of dream can cause great psychological damage, Renton could suffer from recurring nightmares due to his hallucinations and end up mentally ill.

Not only does Trainspotting show the psychological effects of drugs but also the dangers of heroin use. Later in the film, Tommy contracts HIV from a dirty needle. This isn’t the end of Tommy’s sicknesses. He buys a kitten for his ex who declines it and Tommy has to keep it. He takes terrible care of it as he is drugged up most of the time and the cat begins to defecate all over his flat. This causes Tommy to get toxoplasmosis which causes him to have a stroke and he dies in his flat. His lack of sobriety was the problem.

If he hadn’t have been using heroin, he could have got his girlfriend back, avoiding the kitten issue and not getting toxoplasmosis but unfortunately he was using heroin which shows how heroin can swiftly destroy a life. In conclusion, Trainspotting finds the perfect balance and neither glorifies nor condemns those that use heroin or any drug. The arguments on one side are negated by arguments on the other so it is not possible to say that Trainspotting is biased when it comes to the glorification of heroin and drugs.

Categories
Free Essays

Drugs Addiction

Al Akhawayn University Center for Academic Development Information Literacy Skills 1212 Fall 2010 The causes of drugs addiction Prepared by: ABDELAZIZ Under the supervision of: Dr. AHMED KABEL The causes of drugs addiction: Addiction

Nowadays, drugs addiction is considered as one of the most widespread phenomena in our modern societies. Everyone in this modern world has become aware of the dangerous consequences of being drug addicted, yet opium, cocaine, marijuana, cannabis, and many other kinds of drugs have been used for centuries and are still widely used today by a large proportion of people from different age, sex, and economic status. But, before looking at the factors that push people to take drugs, let us first define drug addiction.

According to Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER), “Drug addiction is a dependence on a street drug or a medication. When you’re addicted, you may not be able to control your drug use and you may continue using the drug despite the harm it causes. Drug addiction can cause an intense craving for the drug. You may want to quit, but most people find they can’t do it on their own. ” In fact, people often underestimate the complexity of drugs addiction and the fact that it has become a contemporary illness that is similar to other chronic diseases such as diabetes, asthma, or heart disease.

Moreover, many people used to think that people addicted to drugs were just morally weak; hence, they believe that drug abusers are able to stop “this habit” if they are only willing to do so. However, recent scientific advances have allowed us to know much more about how exactly addictive drugs impact and change the brain, and how stopping drug abuse is very complex and not only a matter of willpower. But, the real problem is that many people still do not have a clear idea about the causes behind addiction.

For most of them, according to Hamid Ghodse, “the cause or causes of drug dependence are not known, or more specifically, it is not known why do some people become addicted while others in the same situation do not” (10). The causes of drugs addiction are numerous and very attached with each other, but the most important factors that interact to lead to this phenomenon are: person’s biology, social environment, and age or stage of development.

It is, obviously, very important to determine whether genetic factors play a significant role in the process of addiction or not at all. Actually, finding genes which predispose to drugs addiction may undoubtedly be very helpful since it will “aid in the identification of the biological processes involved in the addiction condition and ultimately allow the development of treatments to counteract the abnormal end-point of the processes” (Paul R. Buckland, 1769).

Therefore, countless researches, studies, and genetic approaches have been ongoing for many years in order to find any association or linkage between genetic factors and drugs addiction. As a matter of fact, many of these researches could come up with great results and very useful conclusions. For instance, Hamid Ghodse stated in his book “Drugs and Addictive Behaviour: A Guide to treatment” that “the discovery within the body of endogenous receptor systems for a number of psychoactive substances has revived interest in a link between drug dependency and genetic predisposition” (19).

In addition, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), “genes that people are born with, in combination with environmental influences, account for about half of their addiction vulnerability. ” In the same context and quoting from experts, Abramovitz, Melissa wrote in her article titled “Addiction” that “genetic factors that affect how the brain responds to drugs play a big part in pushing people toward drug addiction, and researches have found several genes linked to nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol addiction. Also, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER) reported that “once a person has started using a drug, the development into addiction may be influenced by inherited traits. ” Therefore, most of researchers confirm the idea that genetic factors play a crucial rule in the process of addiction. However, Paul R. Buckland came up with so many important results, which are in fact a little bit different from the ones stated above, by reviewing and evaluating almost all the studies and evidence that claim the existence of genetic factors in the process of addiction.

So, he found that “the phenotype for addiction to drugs is not well defined, and the heritability of addiction to drugs of abuse is far from clear and may be small compared to that of many other complex disorders” (1773). Moreover, he concluded saying that “many candidate genes put forward so far as susceptibility genes may be unrelated to the underlying process referred to as addiction but, rather, are related to the propensity to take drugs in the first place” (1769, 1770). But, that does not mean that there is no association between genetic factors and addiction process.

In fact, Paul R. Buckland himself has confirmed that there are some genetic studies that have reported a great number of success and could ultimately find some linkage between genes and addiction, but he ended highlighting “the need for even larger samples and new statistical methods or new experimental approaches to identify fully the genes involved in the disease process” (1771, 1772). Of course, genetic factors are not the only cause behind drug addiction; no one can become addicted to drugs if s/he has never started using drugs.

Accordingly, there may be other factors that affect the predisposition to drugs abuse. Actually, a person’s environment includes many different influences that seem to play a significant role in initial drug use. At the first glance, it may spring to many people’s minds that local social problems such as poverty, ignorance, unemployment, break-up of local communities, drug pushers are the main causes of drugs addiction, but according to Hamid Ghodse “these often-repeated phrases may well be contributory factors,…but they are not the causes of drug dependence” (11).

On the other hand, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER) both consider environmental factors, including one’s family’s beliefs and attitudes, exposure to a peer group that encourages drug use, the socioeconomic status and quality of life in general, as the most important influencers that shape addictive behaviour.

In fact, Hamid Ghodse, also, illustrates these factors clearly by showing us how “peer networks can provide opportunities for drug use and support this behaviour” (16) and how “the importance of peer networks reflect the support or lack of support that the child is receiving at home and the importance of the parent-child relationship as a protective factor against the use of drugs” (16).

Therefore, he gives us some situations in which family may play a significant role in the initiation of drug abuse: Factors such as family disruption, criminality and drug abuse of parents and siblings have all been identified as important predisposing factors for drug abuse later on, as have inadequate or ineffective parental supervision and enforcement of rules…while satisfactory family relationships and climate, and emotional support to adolescents are influences that appear to delay or diminish initiation into drug use, they can only be developed over a long period of time and attempts to make up for their absence by measures such as a sharp increase in parental control of the adolescent’s behaviour may lead to increased rather than diminished drug abuse (16). In addition to genetic and environmental factors, the age or the stage at which a person starts consuming drugs may have a considerable impact on the process of becoming drugs addicted. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), “Although taking drugs at any age can lead to addiction, the earlier that drug use begins, the more likely it is to progress to more serious abuse. For instance, one study concerning alcohol addiction which is almost the same as the case of drug addiction showed that “teens who begin drinking alcohol with their friends before age 15 are four times likelier to become alcoholic than are people who wait until age 21 to drink” (National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), quoted in Abramovitz, Melissa). In the same context, Hamid Ghodse said that “adolescent drug abuse is of particular importance not only because of the potential for drug-induced harm in a young person but also because taking drugs in childhood and adolescence is a strong predictor for drug abuse in adulthood” (17). Moreover, observations as such, he said, “have led to theories that suggest that using one drug leads on the consumption of more dangerous drugs with a higher dependence liability” (17).

Besides, one other reason that we may discover when seeking causes that are related to the stage of initiating using drugs is prescriptions. According to Hamid Ghodse, most of drug-dependent individuals have personality disorders such as low self-esteem and confidence, high anxiety, low assertiveness, and tendency towards hypochondria, so they begin to take some sedatives and tranquillizers or even drugs as self-medication or as treatment prescribed by a doctor to overcome these problems (15, 17). The problem is that many people become addicted to these treatments by continuing using them as Jeffrey Kluger shows in his article The New Drug Crisis: Addiction by Prescription.

According to Kluger many people become addicted to some prescriptions such as Opioid, Oxycontin, Vicodin, and Hydrocodone while trying to find a treatment to some diseases like cancer pain. In conclusion, it is true that taking drugs for the first time may be a voluntary decision, but factors such us person’s biology, social environment, and age or stage of development undoubtedly play a considerable role in the process of addiction. Genetic factors that affect how the brain responds to drugs and environmental factors, including family’s beliefs and attitudes, peers’ ethics and behaviour, and socioeconomic status, in addition to the culture and the age or the stage at which a person starts using drugs all contribute in shaping addictive behaviour.

The problem with drugs is that once a person starts consuming them, s/he may not be able to give up abusing them; hence, we should all be aware that drugs addiction is not just a normal habit that we can stop whenever we want, but rather a complex illness and a serious disease that makes the consumer lose self-control and ability to make right decisions. In fact, drugs addiction is a contemporary chronic disease that can cause harmful long-term consequences not only on the user but also on those around him, but as a matter of fact we can prevent ourselves from all these troubles by just avoiding initiating its causes. Works Cited Abramovitz, Melissa. “Addiction. ” Current Health 2; Sep 1999: 26. Print. Buckland, Paul R. “Will We Ever Find the Genes for Addiction? Addiction, volume 103 number 11, November 2008, pp 1768-1776. Jeffrey, Kluger. “The New Drug Crisis: Addiction by Prescription”. Time September 13, 2010: p46-49. Print. Ghodse, Hamid. “Drugs and Addictive Behaviour: A Guide to Treatment. ” London: University of Cambridge Press. 2002. Print. Mayo Clinic staff. Drug Addiction, MayoClinic. com, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2009, web. November 2010. (http://www. mayoclinic. com/ health/ drug-addiction/DS00183). National Institute on Drug Abuse, Drug Abuse and Addiction, MedicineNet. com, MedicineNet. Inc, 2010, Web. 21 November 2010. (http://www. medicinenet. com/ drug_abuse/article. htm).

Categories
Free Essays

Internet: The New Drug of Choice

Internet! The New Drug of Choice It is difficult in these modern times to find anyone who doesn’t use the Internet. I am not speaking of North Americans (but mainly N. Americans), but the rest of the world is quickly catching up. China already has more users than Canada and the US put together. According to Internet World Stats (2012), China has 538 million online frequenters and 82. 5% of the Korean population use the Internet. Korea’s penetration rate is third with England leading the way at 84% and Germany at 83%.

Canada doesn’t have a big enough population to make a dent in the number of people using the Internet, but 81% of Canadians do use it, which was a higher penetration percentage than the US at 78. 3%. Currently only 41% of China is using the Internet, once their economy improves and more people get connected, China is likely to take over the Internet. North Americans might need to start learning Chinese to get their daily news. With so many people online I started to wonder; is it safe for us to be using the Internet?

Before I delve deeper I wanted to point out that because I am also a frequent Internet user, this question also pertains to me, so I decided that it only made sense to write this report in the first person. When I decided to start researching about if the Internet is safe for us, it seemed to me that the best place to research about the Internet would be online. I typed in web browser “Is the Internet bad for us? ” and “Does the Internet make us crazy? ” I was shocked at the number of results that popped up. It took some sifting through to find what I needed. It seems that the biggest concern about the Internet is “online addiction”.

Some people might think it is the pornography or some of the other content or even the technology itself, but these only factor into the big picture of addiction. After a little research I realized that my true question wasn’t “is the Internet bad for us”, but the real questions are “why is Internet addiction bad? ” The Internet is not bad, it has some many advantages over other media and it so very useful in our lives. The Internet and video games help increase choice reaction time, spatial skills, scientific problem solving skills, multitasking abilities and intelligence (Greenfield, Brannon, and Lohr, 1996).

The elderly use the Internet to keep their brains stimulated by using it to gain information and keep in contact with family. Actually everyone is doing that, not just the elderly. The Internet is like drinking wine, if not in moderation, it can be harmful for us, but in moderation the Internet can produce a wonderful experience. However, also like wine or any alcohol, the Internet can become an addiction. In fact addiction has become so bad that in China, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea (Cafferty, 2012) treatment centers have been established to help people with online addiction.

Near may home in the city of Nagoya, the Futoko Shien Center received 327 individual requests for consultation for online game addiction from the beginning of this year. (Doi, 2012) That is only in one city in one country. China seems to be one of the worst places I have found in my research. It has become so bad that boot camps have developed to help young help rid their problem. Wired. com featured a story in 2010 about a boot camp in China, “The Qihang camp promised to cure children of so-called Internet addiction, an ailment that has grown into one of China’s most feared public health hazards. (Stewart, 2010) And according to Scientific American online, “as much as 14 percent of urban youth there—some 24 million kids—fit the bill as Internet addicts, according to the China Youth Internet Association. ” (Mosher, 2011) I myself have noticed that I am slowly using the Internet more since I bought a smartphone last year. I would say I am an addict and I definitely don’t want to counseling, but I am starting to worry. So why do some people think the Internet addiction is a bad thing if it stimulates the brain and creates intelligence and multitasking abilities, Dr.

Grohol director on the Mental Health Net, makes a good point “I don’t see how they can see the Internet as a disorder, but not look at a bookworm who reads 10 hours a day and not say he’s a book addict. ” (Brown, 1997) The criticism the Internet receives in not a new phenomenon, Psychologists have been studying the effects of the Internet for almost 20 years. And in the last 20 years Internet use has sky rocketed, meaning effects and studies have increased as well. Psychiatrist Kimberly Young of Saint Bonaventure University in New York State, even designed a self- assessment test in 1998 because of Internet addiction concerns.

Numerous studies have linked excessive online use to depression, poor school performance, increased irritability and more impulsiveness to go online. ” (Mosher, 2011) One problem is that people are losing sleep because they get lost in the Internet for hours upon hours and turn into zombies as they deprive their brains and bodies of fuel and rest. Recently in the Japanese newspaper, The Daily Yomiuri a report about online addiction stated “A 19-year-old vocational school student recalled how one morning, he woke up at 6 a. . on a sofa, still clutching his mobile phone. “Damn it! I was probably asleep for two hours,” he said. Then he leaped up from the sofa and began fiddling with the phone again. Sometimes he was so preoccupied with the games that he forgot to sleep, he said. ” (Doi, 2012) One such documented case in Taiwan, a boy ended up in the Asylum after his iPhone usage reached 24 hours a day. (Dokoupil, 2012) At first I thought that that must be a rare case. But more and more cases like this are being uncovered all over the world.

Just recently in American news Jason Russell became famous twice; the first time was for his amazing documentary he aired on YouTube called “Kony 2012” which was one of the most viral movies to hit the web “clocking more than 70 million views in less than a week. ” (Dokoupil, 2012) He then became famous again after having a nervous breakdown and marching through the streets naked and talking to himself rampantly. Before putting the document online Jason was not an excessive user of the Internet, but after his video went viral, he couldn’t get enough of his new found addiction.

In the first four days after his successful video premiere he only slept 2 hours, which is a probable cause to his breakdown. I personally have never stayed up that long, but I do feel quite bizarre after being online for 10 hours. I have been warned since I was a child that lack of sleep will deter my performance at school, work and even sports. But of course most of humans don’t spend days at a time online without sleeping. Most normal humans have jobs, although many of our jobs involve the Internet these days, and still manage our daily lives of chores and eating and sleeping.

But I wasn’t surprised to find out that most people including myself, I think especially those with smartphones, check their email and social sites more often than we realize. Dr. Larry Rosen, professor and past Chair of Psychology at California State University, surveyed 750 people, a spread of teens and adults and detailed their tech habits, their feelings about those habits, and “their scores on a series of standard tests of psychiatric disorders. He found that most respondents, with the exception of those over the age of 50, check text messages, email or their social network “all the time” or “every 15 minutes. More worryingly, he also found that those who spent more time online had more “compulsive personality traits. ” (Dokoupil, 2012) Without being aware of it, we above the “digital divide” are becoming compulsive, needy little onliners. People constantly feel the need to check their Internet for updates on our social sites, email, tweeters and blogs. I myself don’t blog or tweet, which I can say cuts some of my time on the net down to a little more of a sane time. It is amazing how quickly my friends reply to any and all emails and social site updates.

It is almost as if the message jumped out of their phone and into their eye while they were driving to work. People have become so connected that the Internet has become a distraction and to some, the most important thing in their lives. The author of “Is the Internet driving us mad? ” in Newsweek magazine claims that regardless of age, most people send or receive about 400 texts a month. The average teenager processes about 3700 texts a month. Also many of these same people, two thirds, sense their phone vibrating in their pockets when in fact it is not.

Researchers call it “phantom-vibration syndrome. ” It is evident that we have become dependent on the Internet that we drool in anticipation waiting for a message or call or any kind of update to fulfill our hourly or for some minutely dose of feeling wanted and or accepted. I myself have felt the “phantom-vibration” a few times, but I don’t think enough to warrant it as a syndrome. I have been witnessing the dependency for the Internet on an everyday basis as everyone around me; mostly younger people seem to always have a reason to have their smartphone out.

At school, older kids are sending messages to each during class time and even when sitting together on their free time. It seems that the Internet provides better conversation than their friends sitting across from them. I cannot say that I am not innocent from this same intervention and have been known to hope online at while waiting for friends to buy their ice cream or something of that nature. We are so dependent on the Internet, not only individually, but also a group. Hurricane Sandy, a terrifying hurricane, hit New York causing more than 150 fatalities.

In the November 3rd issue of Newsweek’s online magazine released a feature about the Heroes of the Hurricane. One of the reports was of the “Heroes” who guarded and protected an Internet hub, considered to be very important to the world, because it is “one of the fastest connections between world financial centers; it maintains Internet connectivity for en­tire regions of the country. ” (Keller, 2012) I remember about years ago reading reports that the Internet caused depression and loneliness. I think that depression can be triggered by so many things, especially in those who more prone to depressive feelings.

As for the loneliness factor, I always believed that the Internet was addictive because it replaced feelings of loneliness because people are more connected to more people. It is true that it reduces face-to-face interaction, but it increases interaction with people. Researchers have found that “internet use was associated with increased well-being and social involvement. ” (Kraut, 2002) Because of the Internet I socialize more with people who are not within close distance which makes me feel happier that I can keep in touch with them. I probably have a better relationship with my mother than I did when I lived at home and before smartphones.

During the Tohoku earthquakes and Fukushima crisis in 2011 the internet help people all over Japan talk to each other and others from abroad; the whole country might have felt lonely or separated from the rest of the world if it weren’t for the Internet. So what cause these emotional and mental changes in people who absorb themselves with the Internet too much. Besides Internet is just like reading books, watching television and listening to the radio in one package. In recent reports, it has been revealed that “brain scans hint excessive time online is tied to stark physical changes in the brain” (Mosher, 2011).

These physical changes caused by the over stimulation of the parts of the brain that deal with attention, multitasking, spatial awareness etc. are extracting from the parts of other parts of the brain. Dave Mosher describes the latest findings in his online report with Scientific America’s online magazine. One set of images focused on gray matter at the brain’s wrinkled surface, or cortex, where processing of speech, memory, motor control, emotion, sensory and other information occurs. The researchers discovered several small regions in online addicts’ brains shrunk, in some cases as much as a 10 to 20 percent.

The affected regions included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area and parts of the cerebellum. What’s more, the longer the addiction’s duration, the more pronounced the tissue reduction. The study’s authors suggest this shrinkage could lead to negative effects, such as reduced inhibition of inappropriate behavior and diminished goal orientation. But imaging neuroscientist Karl Friston of University College London, who helped pioneer the VBM technique, says gray matter shrinkage is not necessarily a bad thing. The effect is quite extreme, but it’s not surprising when you think of the brain as a muscle,” says Friston, who was not involved in the study. “Our brains grow wildly until our early teens, then we start pruning and toning areas to work more efficiently. So these areas may just be relevant to being a good online gamer, and were optimized for that. ” Although we can alter our brains through practice like the rest of our body, we still need to have the will power to make these changes. Maybe for many online addicts, the morphing of their intelligence to certain cortex might be rewarding for them.

But it is evident that for many of us who need to work and have face-to-face conversations and have proper behaviour, need to reduce our Internet time. I personally want to keep the “grey matter” of my brain from shrinking because it is accountable for dealing with speech, memory, motor control, emotion, sensory, and other information. (Dokoupil, 2012) We know that exercise is good for our bodies’; it has been pounded into us since we were little children. Eat healthy food, exercise 3 times a week, stay away from sugars etc. , has been taught to us by media, teachers and parents.

Now we need to exercise our brains as well. The Internet is one form of exercising certain parts, but we need to exercise all parts of our body. Think about how ridiculous someone would look if they only spent their time pumping iron to make their only their shoulders really big and barely did any movement to strengthen their legs. That person would look like a balloon with the string tied to the bottom being their legs. Not only would that person look silly, but probably would fall over when then tried to walk. That is similar with what is slowly happening to our brains with the more time we spend on the Internet.

Internet addiction is causing too much exercise on only one part of our brain and not enough on the other. With more and more reports stressing the problems of Internet addiction, depression, compulsive behaviour, sleep deprivation and lack of memory; it is difficult to ignore the issue. Obviously scorning the Internet is not the solution, since it isn’t the Internet’s fault; it is the lack of control that we humans possess to control our desire for social acceptance, informational and visual stimuli, and the speed of which we can retrieve these desires.

I am sure if the Internet was as slow as it was in 1995, this topic would be moot. But now the evidence is clear and people need help, just like there is help for alcoholics and drugoholics. All users of the Internet, there are few that aren’t users; need to use the Internet sparingly or at least with some control. Limit the amount of time spent on the Internet, especially consistent hours, the brain needs a rest. To help the grey matter in our brains it is important to involve ourselves in face-to-face conversation for speech. Exercise is also important as it always has to maintain motor control.

Memory is one of the most important issues dealing with grey matter; playing trivia games or not being dependant on the auto phonebook in our phone is a great way to improve memory. Once I am finished this report will go outside and try to not use the Internet for at least the weekend, not even on my smartphone. Internet addiction is a serious issue that hopefully in the future psychologists and the public will get a better at dealing with. References Bercovici. J. , (July 10. 2012) We’re All Internet Addicts, And We’re All Screwed, Says Newsweek. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved November 10, 2012 from website: http://www. orbes. com/sites/jeffbercovici/2012/07/10/were-all-internet-addicts-and-were-all-screwed-says-newsweek/ Brown, J. (1997). BS detector: “Internet addiction” meme gets media high. Communications Study 421: Being Online. Gackenbach, J. (Phd. ). Athabasca University, 2006 (pp. 101). Carlson, B. , (June 5, 2010). Nicholas Carr on the ‘Superficial’ Webby Mind. The Atlantic. Retrieved November 10, 2012 from website: http://www. theatlantic. com/entertainment/archive/2010/06/nicholas-carr-on-the-superficial-webby-mind/57610/ Cohill, A. , (December 31, 2004). Is the Internet good or bad for us?

Design Nine. Retrieved November 10, 2012 from website: http://www. designnine. com/news/content/internet-good-or-bad-us Doi, H. , (Oct. 17, 2012) Online gaming addictions growing more serious. Daily Yomuiri Online. Retrieved November 10, 2012 from website: http://www. yomiuri. co. jp/dy/national/T121016001977. htm Dokoupil, T. , (July 9, 2012). Is the Web Driving Us Mad? Newsweek Magazine. Retrieved November 10, 2012 from website: http://www. thedailybeast. com/newsweek/2012/07/08/is-the-internet-making-us-crazy-what-the-new-research-says. html Greenfield, P. , Brannon, C. and Lohr, D.

Categories
Free Essays

Drugs

2010 Caribbean Secondary Catalogue www. pearsoncaribbean. com New for 2010 See Page 8 See Page 15 See Page 17 Some of the celebrated local authors you will ? nd in this catalogue. Lorna Down Rosalyn Kelly Earl Lovelace From Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Ever since we began publishing in the Caribbean over 60 years ago, we have been committed to using the best local authors and to producing resources speci? cally for the region. We offer: ? Excellent programmes to match the CSEC syllabus. ? Country-speci? c resources for individual regions and islands. ? New and established ? ction writers from across the

Caribbean region as part of the Caribbean Writers Series. Let’s Work with English (page 5 and 9) Marjorie Brathwaite Maths Connect (page 11) The Schoolmaster The Wine of Astonishment (page 6 and 8) Michael Anthony Alecia McKenzie From Trinidad and Tobago From Jamaica Country-speci? c publishing Making the Grade in BGCSE English Language (see page 5) Jamaica Maths Connect (see page 12) Integrated Science for Jamaica (see page 18) Maths Connect for Trinidad and Tobago (see page 12) Integrated Science for Trinidad and Tobago (see page 18) Social Studies for Lower Secondary (page 19) Cricket in the Road Green Days by the River

High Tide of Intrigue The Year in San Fernando (page 6 and 8) Doctor’s Orders (page 9) Zee Edgell MBE Opal Palmer Adisa Maria Roberts-Squires From Belize Belize From Jamaica Jamaica From Grenada Beka Lamb Time and the River (page 6 and 8) It Begins with Tears (page 9) more info ? To ? nd out more about local resources or if you are an author from the region, please contact your local representative – details on the back cover of this catalogue. October All Over (page 9) Books for Caribbean Secondary Schools We offer a unique range of high quality resources to match the requirements of schools in the Caribbean region.

The resources provide comprehensive coverage of the main curriculum areas, plus materials for teacher support. Should you wish to discuss these materials please don’t hesitate to contact your local representative as listed on the back cover. If you are looking for primary school resources, please ask your local representative for a catalogue. Contents Contents HEINEMANN EXAM SUPPORT …………………… 2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE ………. 4 MATHEMATICS ……………………………………….. 12 Ordering Details Ordering Details To view any of these products products Contact

Contact your local representative (details on back cover) or Pearson Education International Customer Services Services Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex, CM20 2JE, UK UK Edinburgh Tel +44 1279 623925 Tel +44 Fax Fax +44 1279 623627 623627 [email protected] com email: [email protected] com Prices Prices in this catalogue were correct at the time of going to catalogue of going to press, and there will be no general price increase until 1st press, and there will be no general price increase until 1st January 2011. However, prices January 2011. However, prices may change without notice change without notice on and the prices of items n individual titles, and the prices of items not yet published published are provisional. are provisional. Dispatch Dispatch Goods dispatched from the warehouse customer’s Goods are dispatched from the warehouse to customer’s shipper free of charge. If the customer has no shipper, shipper, shipper free of charge. If the they will be charged. All insurance for goods in transit to for they will charged. destination is the responsibility of the customer. destination the responsibility of the customer. Rights and permissions Rights and permissions For For rights and translation enquiries relating to any of our our chools titles, please contact us at [email protected] com please [email protected] com schools For permissions enquiries please For permissions enquiries please contact us at [email protected] com [email protected] com For For enquiries relating to accessible material for relating accessible material for visually impaired visually impaired students, please contact us at [email protected] com. [email protected] com. Information Information For information about the titles shown in this catalogue the titles shown in this catalogue please contact your local representative. See the back cover local representative.

See please for contact details. for contact details INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY …………………… 15 SCIENCE …………………………………………………. 17 SOCIAL STUDIES ……………………………………… 21 ACCOUNTS AND OFFICE ADMINISTRATION . 22 HISTORY………………………………………………… 23 HOME ECONOMICS ……………………………….. 23 MODERN LANGUAGES……………………………. 24 VOCATIONAL RESOURCES ……………………….. 27 key to symbols y y CSEC CAPE ® This symbol indicates Th prescribed texts for the pr CSEC Syllabus. CS T

Th ® This symbol indicates BGCSE RR prescribed texts for the pr CAPE syllabus. CA This Th symbol indicates prescribed texts for the pr BGCSE syllabus in the B Bahamas. This sign indicates that the title or series features resources for teachers. This may be as notes in the back of the books or a separate teacher’s guide. This T product has extra support material available online The T product has an accompanying CD-ROM a This T symbol indicates tit ti titles that are recommended reading for the CSEC re English syllabus. CSEC and CAPE are registered trade marks of the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC).

With the exception of World of Poetry for CXC and World of Prose for CXC, the publications in this catalogue are independent publications and have not been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by CXC. Heinemann Exam Support HEINEMANN EXAM SUPPORT Promoting success in exams for BGCSE, CSEC and CAPE Heinemann offers a wide range of resources to support exam syllabuses used in the Caribbean region All the resources shown here are written speci? cally for Caribbean Secondary Schools to help your students prepare for the Caribbean Secondary Education Certi? cate (CSEC), the Caribbean Advanced Pro? iency Examinations (CAPE), and the Bahamas General Certi? cate of Secondary Education (BGCSE). English BGCSE Mathematics English Science CSEC CSEC Social Studies CSEC Accounts CSEC and Of? ce Administration 2 CSEC Information Technology History y CSEC English CAPE Great teachers inspire English Language and Literature A World of Poetry for CXC CSEC This edition meets the requirements of the revised CSEC syllabuses A and B in English. Poems cover a wide range of themes and subjects and include a balance of well known poems from the past as well as more recent works. ? Anthology includes poems from the Caribbean and the rest of the world. Contains notes on each poem and questions to provoke discussion, as well as a useful checklist to help students with poetry analysis. ? Contains practical guidance for students on how to tackle examination questions, with examples of model answers for reference. ? A World of Prose for CXC CSEC This edition meets the requirements of the revised CSEC syllabuses A and B in English. Stories have been chosen from the Caribbean and the rest of the world for their appeal in terms of content and approach. ? Each story helps to develop students’ skills of appreciation and analysis of the short story form. Anthology also includes notes on each story with background information on the authors, as well as a useful glossary of terms. ? Contains practical guidance for students on how to tackle examination questions, with examples of model answers for reference. ? CXC Success Revision Guides CSEC These excellent notes provide students with practical help in understanding the narrative, structure, ti tt use of literary techniques, themes, humour, language and style of the relevant book or play. ordering details The Chrysalids Notes by Samuel Soyer 978 0 435975 39 5 ?5. 20 A Raisin in the Sun Notes by Dr. Joyce Stewart 978 0 435975 29 6 5. 40 A Brighter Sun Notes by Liz Gerschel & Frank Green 978 0 435975 26 5 ?5. 40 Julius Caesar Notes by Frank Green 978 0 435975 22 7 ?5. 40 Shane Notes by Frank Green 978 0 435975 20 3 ?5. 40 A Separate Peace Notes by Liz Gerschel 978 0 435975 23 4 ?5. 20 4 A Man for All Seasons Notes by Frank Green 978 0 435975 24 1 ?5. 40 Annie John Notes by Dr. Joyce Stewart 978 0 435975 27 2 ?5. 40 authors Mark Mcwatt lectures in the ctures in the ur Department of English at the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill and Hazel SimmonsMcDonald is Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Humanities at the University of the West Indies,

Cave Hill. ordering details A World of Poetry for CXC 978 0 435988 01 2 ?9. 30 authors David Williams lectures in lec ectures in the Department of English at the University of the West Indies, and Hazel SimmonsMcDonald is Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Humanities at the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill. ordering details A World of Prose for CXC 978 0 435987 98 5 ?9. 30 English Language and Literature CXC Let’s Work with English CSEC more info o CXC Let’s Work With English has been written speci? cally for your 4th and 5th form students’ preparation for CSEC English – A Examination (Basic and General Pro? iency). The book consists of twenty clearly structured units organized around motivating themes. An abundance of useful exercises, practice examinations and comprehensive appendices are provided. Please see page 9 for information for in information about Let’s Work With English for lower secondary. ordering details CXC Let’s Work with English 978 0 435987 29 9 ?13. 95 Practice Exercises for CSEC CSEC English Language more info o Improved and updated, this popular text has been revised to match the latest CSEC English Language syllabus Practice Exercises may ses may es be used by itself, or as a revision uide for Let’s Work with English (see page 9). Practice Exercises for CSEC English Language: authors is a complete revision programme for CSEC English A candidates ? includes examination practice for Papers 1 and 2 ? includes two full-length test papers ? includes practical guidance on summarising, and tackling the creative writing section of the exam. ? The author is Jacqueline acqueline Cousins, who is based in Jamaica. ordering details Practice Exercises for CSEC English Language 978 0 435983 16 1 ?6. 75 Making the Grade BGCSE The ideal companion for students taking the Bahamas GCSE English Language examination

Written in conjunction with the Ministry of Education, Youth, Sports and Culture, Making the Grade provides expert guidance on how to master the skills necessary for success in the examination. It contains: ? ? ? ? ? ordering details Making the Grade 978 0 435988 02 9 ?14. 35 an opening chapter summarising current grammar and sentence construction, correct spelling, word choice and punctuation chapters providing guidance on Continuous Writing (Paper 1), Listening Skills (Paper 2) and Comprehension and Directed Writing (Papers 3 and 4) numerous activities for students to test their skills exam-type’ exercises, with student answers and comments from examiners practice examination papers and answers. 5 t +44 1279 623925 f +44 1279 623627 @ [email protected] com w www. pearsoncaribbean. com English Language and Literature Literature Exam Support CSEC CSEC Prescribed Texts Songs of Silence with CXC Study Notes Curdella Forbes 978 0 435089 09 2 more info o The Wine of Astonishment with CXC Study Notes Earl Lovelace 978 0 435033 40 8 ?6. 60 A Midsummer Night’s Dream (Heinemann Shakespeare) 978 0 435026 46 2 ?6. 99 The African Writers Series ters Series er provides a wealth of classic and ontemporary literature from acclaimed African authors from across the continent. A Grain of Wheat Ngugi wa Thiong’o 978 0 435913 56 4 ?9. 25 Death of a Salesman Arthur Miller 978 0 435233 07 5 ?7. 99 King Lear (Heinemann Advanced Shakespeare) 978 0 435193 09 6 ?5. 95 Much Ado About Nothing (Heinemann Shakespeare) 978 0 435026 47 9 ?6. 99 Pride and Prejudice Jane Austen new! ?6. 60 978 0 435126 07 0 ?7. 75 The Tempest (Heinemann Advanced Shakespeare) 978 0 435193 07 2 ?5. 95 CAPE new! CAPE Prescribed Texts BGCSE BGCSE Prescribed Texts more info o The Caribbean Writers Series Writers Ser Series offers a wonderful range of itles from a variety of new and established authors from across the Caribbean. more info o Beka Lamb without study notes Zee Edgell 978 0 435988 47 0 ?6. 60 Heinemann Shakespeare akespeare ke Macbeth (Heinemann Shakespeare) 978 0 435026 44 8 ?6. 99 Opening up Shakespeare to all your students and offering a complete guide to studying the play, Heinemann Shakespeare titles also include: Miguel Street V. S. Naipaul 978 0 435989 54 5 ?6. 60 The Merchant of Venice (Heinemann Shakespeare) 978 0 435026 45 5 ?6. 99 Things Fall Apart Chinua Achebe 978 0 435913 50 2 ?8. 25 CSEC • an introduction to Shakespeare’s theatre and anguage. CSEC Recommended Reading A Kestral for a Knave Barry Hines 978 0 435124 60 1 ?7. 75 Animal Farm George Orwell 978 0 435121 65 5 ?7. 75 Arrow of God Chinua Achebe 978 0 435905 30 9 ?9. 55 Aunt Jen Paulette Ramsay 978 0 435910 12 9 ?6. 60 Bad Girls in School Gwyneth Harold 978 0 435215 17 0 ?6. 60 Beka Lamb with CXC Study Notes Zee Edgell 978 0 435988 46 3 ?6. 60 Boy Who Was Afraid, The Armstrong Sperry 978 0 435120 17 7 ?7. 75 Christmas Carol, A Charles Dickens 978 0 435124 05 2 ?7. 75 Concubine, The Elechi Amadi 978 0 435905 56 9 ?8. 25 Crick Crack Monkey Merle Hodge 978 0 435989 51 4 ?6. 60 Efuru Flora Nwapa 78 0 435900 26 7 ?8. 60 Enchanted Island, The Ian Serraillier 978 0 435121 00 6 ?7. 75 Flowers for Algernon Daniel Keyes 978 0 435123 43 7 ?7. 75 Frangipani House Beryl Gilroy 978 0 435899 36 3 ?6. 60 Grass is Singing, The Doris Lessing 978 0 435901 31 8 ?8. 60 Green Days by the River Michael Anthony 978 0 435989 55 2 ?6. 60 Great Expectations Charles Dickens 978 0 435126 00 1 ?7. 75 Great Gatsby, The F. Scott Fitzgerald 978 0 435123 24 6 ?7. 75 Guardians, The John Christopher 978 0 435121 76 1 ?7. 75 Harriet’s Daughter Marlene Nourbese Philip 978 0 435989 24 8 ?6. 60 Harvest of Thorns Shimmer Chinodya 978 0 435905 82 8 8. 00 Hound of the Baskervilles, The 6 • activities after main scenes to increase understanding. 978 0 435126 09 4 ?7. 75 • clear explanations and summaries. English Language and Literature CSEC RR I Am David Anne Holm 978 0 435123 71 0 ?7. 75 I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Maya Angelou 978 0 435124 27 4 ?7. 75 Island of the Blue Dolphins Scott O’Dell 978 0 435121 08 2 ?7. 75 Jane Eyre Charlotte Bronte 978 0 435126 02 5 ?7. 75 Joys of Motherhood, The Buchi Emecheta 978 0 435913 54 0 ?8. 25 Leopard, The V. S. Reid 978 0 435899 37 0 ?6. 60 Machine Gunners, The 978 0 435124 57 1 ?7. 75 Matilda Roald Dahl 978 0 435123 98 7 ore info o New Windmills offers a large s of ffers la large range of ? ction titles for 11-16 year olds from classic texts to contemporary literature. ?7. 75 Miguel Street V. S. Naipaul 978 0 435989 54 5 ?6. 60 Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH Robert C. O’Brien 978 0 435121 97 6 ?7. 75 Old Man and the Sea, The Ernest Hemingway 978 0 435122 16 4 ?7. 75 Pick of the Crop Nailah Folami Imoja ~ River Between, The Ng ug~ wa Thiong’o 978 0 435989 66 8 ?6. 60 978 0 435905 48 4 ?8. 25 For more information on tion on Heinemann CXC and BGCSE resources go to: www. pearsoncaribbean. com/csec Road to Canterbury, The 978 0 435122 59 1 7. 75 Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry Mildred D. Taylor 978 0 435123 12 3 more info o ?7. 75 Schoolmaster, The Earl Lovelace 978 0 435989 50 7 ?6. 60 Secret Garden, The F. Hodgson Burnett 978 0 435120 03 0 ?7. 75 Shane Jack Schaefer 978 0 435120 35 1 ?7. 75 www Silas Marner 978 0 435126 04 9 ?7. 75 www. africanwriters. co. uk rs. co. uk co uk k Silver Sword, The Ian Serraillier 978 0 435120 39 9 ?7. 75 www. caribbeanwriters. co. uk So Long a Letter Mariama Ba 978 0 435913 52 6 ?6. 85 Splendid Journey, The Honore Morrow 978 0 435120 06 1 ?7. 75 www. pearsoncaribbean. com/ newwindmills The Cay Theodore Taylor 978 0 435121 79 2 7. 75 To Kill a Mockingbird Harper Lee 978 0 435120 96 2 ?7. 75 To Sir, With Love E. R. Braithwaite 978 0 435121 48 8 ?7. 75 Treasure Island R. L. Stevenson 978 0 435120 82 5 ?7. 75 Village by the Sea, The 978 0 435122 90 4 978 0 435122 24 9 ?7. 75 978 0 435908 30 0 ?8. 25 White Fang Jack London 978 0 435120 27 6 ?7. 75 Wind in the Willows, The Kenneth Grahame 978 0 435122 74 4 ?7. 75 Wuthering Heights Emily Bronte 978 0 435126 08 7 ?7. 75 Z for Zacharia Robert C. O’Brien 978 0 435122 11 9 ?7. 75 A Man for All Seasons 978 0 435233 20 4 ?7. 99 An Inspector Calls 978 0 435233 20 4 ?7. 99 A Streetcar Named Desire 78 0 435233 10 5 ?7. 99 Death of a Salesman 978 0 435233 07 5 ?7. 99 Glass Menagerie, The 978 0 435233 19 8 www. pearsoncaribbean. com/ plays ?7. 75 Walkabout James Vance Marshall ~ Weep Not, Child Ng ug~ wa Thiong’o www. pearsoncaribbean. com/ shakespeare ?7. 99 CSEC RR CSEC RR Plays Shakespeare Macbeth (Heinemann Shakespeare) 978 0 435026 44 8 ?6. 99 Romeo and Juliet (Heinemann Shakespeare) 978 0 435026 49 3 ?6. 99 The Merchant of Venice (Heinemann Shakespeare) 978 0 435026 45 5 ?6. 99 Twelfth Night (Heinemann Shakespeare) 978 0 435192 04 4 ?6. 95 7 t +44 1279 623925 f +44 1279 623627 @ [email protected] com w www. earsoncaribbean. com English Language and Literature Caribbean Writers Series Dilemmas of Deokie new! Carol Sammy Set in the outskirts of San Fernando, Trinidad, Dilemmas of Deokie follows nineteen-year-old Deokie Ramoutar as she struggles to come to terms with the challenges her country faces and her emerging ambition to transform her own life and the lives of those around her. The novel portrays the close community surrounding Deokie, the life of her family and her friends, with its laughter, heartache and occasional tragedy. Most of all it explores the feelings of a younger generation getting to grips with the con? cting demands of traditional cultural expectations and the heady attractions of contemporary life. Dilemmas of Deokie 978 1 408231 28 9 Publishing January 2010 …a stirring exploration of what it means to be sensitive, introspective, patriotic, adolescent and female in the present-day Caribbean, permeated by the lure of a materialistic American lifestyle. Sam Soyer, Assistant Examiner for CXC ?6. 60 Caribbean Writers Series full list Michael Anthony David Franklyn Cricket in the Road and other Stories 978 0 435980 32 0 ?6. 60 Green Days by the River r 978 0 435989 55 2 ?6. 60 High Tide of Intrigue 978 0 435989 56 9 6. 60 The Year in San Fernando 978 0 435989 43 9 ?6. 60 RR Children of the Sea 978 0 435215 19 4 Mint Tea and Other Stories 978 0 435989 32 3 ?6. 60 Frangipani House ?6. 60 978 0 435215 17 0 ?6. 60 978 0 435899 38 7 ?6. 60 www. 978 0 435989 51 4 ?6. 60 978 0 435989 49 1 RR Bad Girls in School ol RR RR ?6. 60 978 0 435989 50 7 ?6. 60 978 0 435988 80 7 ?6. 60 Lewis Henry Zee Edgell Beka Lamb with CXC Study Notes RR Beka Lamb without Study Notes BGCSE s Time and the River 978 0 435988 46 3 ?6. 60 978 0 435998 47 0 ?6. 60 978 0 435215 18 7 ?6. 60 The Gaulin and the Dove Merle Hodge Crick Crack, Monkey y

Nailah Folami Imoja RR RR 978 0 435989 66 8 ?6. 60 RR RR Evan Jones Stone Haven Curdella Forbes Songs of Silence CSEC e CSEC 978 0 435989 57 6 ?6. 60 Earl Lovelace The Schoolmaster r RR RR The Wine of Astonishment CSEC t 8 978 0 435899 36 3 Beryl Gilroy Gwyneth Harold Christine Craig Pick of the Crop p ?6. 60 English Language and Literature Ian McDonald and Stuart Brown (eds. ) The Heinemann Book of Caribbean Poetry Paulette Ramsay 978 0 435988 17 3 ?6. 60 Alecia McKenzie 978 0 435988 27 2 ?6. 60 V. S. Naipaul ?6. 60 The Leopard d 978 0 435899 37 0 ?6. 60 978 0 435987 45 9 ?6. 60 978 0 435988 26 5 ?6. 60 78 0 435911 97 3 RR RR ?6. 60 Jacques Roumain 978 0 435989 54 5 RR RR ?6. 60 Marlene Nourbese Philip Harriet’s Daughter r 978 0 435910 12 9 RR RR V. S. Reid Doctor’s Orders Miguel Street t Aunt Jen n Maria Roberts-Squires 978 0 435989 24 8 RR RR Masters of the Dew ?6. 60 Opal Palmer Adisa October All Over Derek Walcott It Begins with Tears 978 0 435989 46 0 ?6. 60 Selected Poetry Let’s Work With English FREE! Each book in the course has an course ha an ou has accompanying cassette to develop oracy skills in each ‘listening and speaking’ task. The cassettes and Teacher’s Guide are freely available from your agent.

Series Editor: Rod Ellis Authors: Hazel Simmons-McDonald, Lorna Down, Leonie St Juste-Jean, Joyce Stewart Let’s Work With English adopts a lively task-based approach to teaching English in Caribbean secondary schools. Each of the books’ units includes motivating, theme-based tasks divided into the following sections: listening and speaking ? studying literature ? reading and responding ? Alternatively, the Teacher’s Guide can be downloaded from www. pearsoncaribbean. com/ teacherguides learning to communicate ? studying grammar ? improving writing. ? more info o Please see page 5 for information for in information bout Let’s Work with English for CSEC level. ordering details Let’s Work with English Book 1 978 0 435987 26 8 9. 70 Let’s Work with English Book 2 978 0 435987 27 5 9. 70 Let’s Work with English Book 3 978 0 435987 28 2 9. 70 Heinemann English Dictionary 5th Edition This resource is comprehensive and accessible and has been updated to offer hundreds of new de? nitions, a clearer layout, subject-speci? c terms and a new grammar section. Heinemann International Students’ Dictionary ordering details Heinemann English Dictionary 5th Edition 978 0 435104 24 5 ?11. 50 ordering details Heinemann International

Students’ Dictionary 978 0 435972 08 0 ?9. 25 With over 40,000 headwords this dictionary gives students support and con? dence in using English accross the curriculum. 9 t +44 1279 623925 f +44 1279 623627 @ [email protected] com w www. pearsoncaribbean. com English Language and Literature Heinemann English Readers Raising achievement through reading in English ? ? ? ? ? 10 Fast paced ? ction, fascinating non-? ction and informative science readers appeal to the whole class. 90 graded titles levelled into Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced bands. Comprehensive language support. Advice for parents and teachers.

A programme organiser is available for each level including photocopy masters. more info o Please contact your local ur local representative for more details or visit www. pearsoncaribbean. com/her English Language and Literature Great teachers motivate Mathematics Heinemann Mathematics for CXC CSEC A. W. Binks, Y. Ramsay, I. Edwards-Kennedy, G. Pope and R. Hollands A ? rm foundation in CSEC Mathematics Written speci? cally for Caribbean secondary schools, Heinemann Mathematics for CXC provides a ? rm foundation in mathematics and raises the competence and con? dence of students as their CSEC examination approaches.

The friendly approach of the text makes the study of mathematics both stimulating and enjoyable, and ample opportunities are provided for students to consolidate what they have learnt. Heinemann Mathematics for CXC provides: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? completed and annotated worked exam questions in each chapter numerous practice exercises chapter summaries to emphasise key concepts review tests and interim tests to monitor progress examination-type questions to assess students’ progress revision planner with diagnostic questions answers to all exercises and tests investigations for project work, activities, and problem-solving questions. rdering details Heinemann Mathematics for CXC 978 0 435983 17 8 ?15. 40 authors The authors are all experienced l experienced mathematics educators who have a clear understanding of what examiners expect from students. Fundamental Mathematics for the Caribbean A. W. Binks, Y. Ramsey, I. Edwards-Kennedy, Rev S. Jackson, R. Hollands, and C. Lutchman Accessible maths for students of all abilities Fundamental Mathematics for the Caribbean, a three-book course for 11-14 year olds, uses a ‘spiral’ approach so that topics are covered in the same order at a higher level each year. The course provides a ? rm foundation for CSEC.

The books provide: ? relevant, well-presented examples that place each topic in a motivating context ? numerous exercises ? ‘review tests’ and ‘interim tests’ to monitor progress ? extra ‘investigations’ for project work to encourage mathematical thinking. Answers to tests and exercises, as well as a simple glossary of essential mathematical terms, are found in each book. 12 ordering details Fundamental Mathematics for the Caribbean Book 1 978 0 435983 20 8 ?8. 30 Fundamental Mathematics for the Caribbean Book 2 978 0 435983 21 5 ?8. 65 Fundamental Mathematics for the Caribbean Book 3 978 0 435983 22 2 ?8. 65

Mathematics Caribbean Maths Connect Raising standards through a modern approach Written by a team of experienced Caribbean educators, Caribbean Maths Connect is a motivating lower secondary maths course matching syllabus requirements across the Caribbean. ? Real-life case studies show how maths is used in everyday life. ? Helps students tackle questions by showing clear worked examples. ? Overview, objectives and explanations reinforce the key ideas and aims of each unit. ? Encourages the development of critical thinking skills and independent learning. ? Assessment and reviews allow teachers and students to check rogress. To help you make the most of the course, each textbook has an accompanying Teaching Resource CD-ROM providing ? exible and exciting reinforcement, extension and testing materials. ? Term plans offer a proposed structure for working through the books with your students. ? ‘Getting started’ worksheets introduce key topics. ? ‘Thinking further’ worksheets allow you to extend topics. ? Thousands of practice exercises to supplement every chapter in the textbook. ? Searchable glossary of key words. ? Flexibility to create your own exercises to meet the achievement level of your students. rdering details Caribbean Maths Connect Book 1 978 0 435989 97 2 ?9. 15 Caribbean Maths Connect Book 2 978 0 435989 98 9 ?9. 65 Caribbean Maths Connect Book 3 978 0 435989 99 6 ?9. 65 You have the ? exibility to create as many versions of the tests in each book as you like. Maths Connect 1 Teaching Resource CD-ROM 978 0 435081 60 7 ?10. 50+vat Maths Connect 2 Teaching Resource CD-ROM 978 0 435081 61 4 ?10. 50+vat Maths Connect 3 Teaching Resource CD-ROM 978 0 435081 62 1 ?10. 50+vat 13 t +44 1279 623925 f 44 1279 623627 @ [email protected] com w www. pearsoncaribbean. com Mathematics

Jamaica Maths Connect Developed speci? cally for the Jamaica lower secondary Mathematics curriculum A motivating mathematics course developed speci? cally for the Jamaica curriculum. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Demonstrates relevance of mathematics in everyday life with real life ‘maths at work’ case studies. Helps students tackle questions on their own with clear worked examples. Objectives and aims for each unit are clearly outlined. Students can practice and consolidate learning through progressive exercises. Progress and understanding can be checked by students and teachers with assessment and review exercises.

High achievers challenged with ‘investigations’ designed to take things further. Can be used with the Caribbean Maths Connect Teaching Resource CD-ROM (see page 13). ordering details Jamaica Maths Connect Book 1 978 0 435891 51 0 ?9. 85 Jamaica Maths Connect Book 2 978 0 435891 52 7 ?9. 85 Jamaica Maths Connect Book 3 978 0 435891 50 3 ?9. 85 Trinidad and Tobago Maths Connect Developed speci? cally for the Trinidad and Tobago lower secondary Mathematics curriculum. Raise standards in mathematical achievement with this motivating course developed in line with the Trinidad and Tobago Maths curriculum. ? ? ? ? ? ? 14 Demonstrates relevance of mathematics in everyday life with real life ‘maths at work’ case studies. Helps students tackle questions on their own with clear worked examples. Objectives and aims for each unit are clearly outlined. Students can practice and consolidate learning through progressive exercises. Progress and understanding can be checked by students and teachers with assessment and review exercisese. High achievers challenged with ‘investigations’ designed to take things further. Can be used with the Caribbean Maths Connect Teaching Resource CD-ROM (see page 13).

Categories
Free Essays

Comparing Plan Columbia and the Merida Initiative

The purpose of this paper will be to make a comparison between the Colombian drug cartels at the turn of the century with the mexican cartels today. The object of this comparison will be to determine the effectiveness of large scale millitary intervention against drug cartels. I will assess weather this comparison is not only justified but in any way usefull in understanding how fight a well funded well armed non-state enemy.

This is a response to public comments by high ranking United States officials making this comparison (most notably secretary of state Hillary Clinton) while pledging a significant amount of American resources to such an effort. I will also attempt to answer all of the various questions that are begged by this nature of action. Most people do not realize the sheer lucrativeness of the drug trafficking business especially on an industrial scale. “The (Mexican) cartels have built a network of dealers in 231 U. S. cities from coast to coast, taking in about $39 billion in sales annually, according to the U. S. Justice Department. ” (*1)

To put that into perspective, In 2009 Canada’s total annual military expenditure was just over half (21 billion USD) of the total annual profit of the Mexican drug cartels in the United States. (*2) Comparing Columbia and Mexico The 1st thing that is obvious when making this comparison is the fact that Mexico is over twice the size of Columbia both in land mass and in population. In terms of governance Columbia was in a state of profound political instability from as early as the 1940’s while Mexico enjoyed a relatively stable PRI government following he Mexican civil war.

Geographically the two countries have nothing in common but their proximity to each other. Mexico is a largely flat terrain that poses no real problems to transportation and offers little in the way of cover. By Contrast Columbia has a large mountainous area covered in tropical forests, the majority of the drug production takes place is these remote areas. From a governmental standpoint, the Colombian government is largely decentralized compared to the federal structure in Mexico.

Due to the federal government and the larger tax base the Mexican government has some extra capacity when it comes to overall resources available before assistance. As far as the method in which the governments of these two countries approach dealing with traffickers is quite diffrent, Mexico has up until very recently preferred to use it’s police forces to deal with drug traffickers while Colombian governments have preferred to use their military as a police force, which is more common in most Latin American countries. The Mexican Cartels

There are essentially two major Cartel groups within Mexico that fight each other for a large piece of the drug trade. The first is made up of the Tijuana cartel and the Gulf cartel make up the first major group and operates primarily out of North of East Mexico. A group known as “The Federation” is made up of of many smaller cartels and “is led by representatives of the Sinaloa, Juarez and Valencia cartels”. (*3 p. 4) members of this group as scattered all throughout the rest of Mexico. Even though these groups are concentrated in certain areas there isn’t a place in Mexico that is off limits to any of these groups.

All of these groups operate independently and it is not uncommon for alliances to be fickle between drug traffickers. None of the Mexican drug trafficking organizations are known to have any political allegiances or stated long term goal other then to make money and control as much turf as possible in order to achieve that end while minimizing the damage to the people of their own groups. The Mexican cartels were not always as violent as they are today, the fall of the PRI along with a strengthening of the Mexican police force is said to have resulted in the upswing in violence.

Another contributing factor the recent escalation in violence is that since the fall of Major Columbian cartels (replaced mostly by smaller scale operations) Mexico and it’s drug trade began to have to fill the void that was left in the US market for a period of time, greatly strengthening their financial base and ability to purchase weapons and to employ a larger number of foot soldiers from poor communities (usually with family ties to promote increased loyalty to said group and a deeper anchor within the local community).

Florida was actually the main entry point for drugs during the early 80’s but the strengthening of the American navy and coastguard geared towards stopping smuggling led to Mexico becoming the transit point it is today. It is most important that though Mexican troops have been used largely due to the ineffective and corruption of the police department I would not classify it as a war. The army is simply there to do carry out the actions of a police force because he regular police for cannot be trusted. There is no way for either side to declare a complete victory. It is my opinion that even if every drug trafficker in Mexico dropped dead this morning there would be a new group forming to take it’s place by nightfall and it wouldn’t take them long to gain momentum capital and weapons. Likewise a drug gang can never truly triumph against the state without any political agenda.

The majority of the murders are between rival gangs, though there have been many police officers and politicians killed the battle is essentially between the cartel groups and each other not with the state. The increased military strength is simply a self defence response. I would argue that if the Mexican cartels were 1 hegemonic group you would probably see at least a 10 fold drop in violent crime. Columbia at the hight of the culumbian drug trade You cant tell the story of the Columbia drug trade without talking about Pablo Escobar.

In 1989 Forbes magazine estimated that was the 7th richest man the world with personal assets estimated at over 25 Billion dollars. This however is not what made him a unique, he was known as an extremely charitable man by many of the poor people in Columbia giving them land, housing, employment and even building football fields, building a lot of good will among the people something that you find little evidence of on the side of the Mexican cartels.

The Medellin cartel he was a part of is thought to have controlled about 80% of the cocaine market in the early 1990’s and was the most prominent of the Colombian cartels at the turn of the century. This cartel was rivalled by the Cali cartel who emerged largely due to weakening of their rivals the Medellin cartel. The biggest difference between Columbia at the turn of the century and the situation in Mexico today is the existence of the various guerrilla groups that existed in Columbia, many of which are still in existence.

The lines are often blurred between these guerrilla groups and the drug traffickers themselves. The standard arrangement between these guerrillas and drug traffickers was essentially protection of traffickers’ production and processing areas in exchange for a handsome percentage of the profits. The profitability on investment on cocaine grown in Columbia being about 200$ for every 1$ invested, there was more then enough capital to go around. The wars between these various guerrilla groups enveloped Columbia in a civil war since eginning in the 1960’s, this was far before Columbia drug trafficking organizations began to collaborate with the leftist guerrillas. By comparison Mexican cartels have no real political allegiances, their allegiance is to the dollar and the dollar alone. The fact that the terrain in Columbia is so difficult and access to remote areas is much more easy to control, these various groups are able to hold territory much more effectively then the Drug Cartels in Mexico.

The aspect of some of these guerrilla groups that really begins to attract the United State’s attention for obvious reasons is their leftist/socialist ideology. The oldest and most notable of these groups is FARC or “The revolutionary armed forces of Columbia”. This group has been fighting the Colombian national army as well as “right wing paramilitaries”. At first glance the conflict between these two groups seems to be one for control over the Colombian drug trade and various areas of Columbia where drugs are produced.

A closer look reveals a much more sinister reality. There are a number of noticeable irregularities in the accounts of the violence. Over the course of my reasearch I kept hearing certain terms to describe the columbian drug war that you dont hear when you read on the mexican drug war. Many mentions of human rights abuses as well as massacres with large numbers of innocent people being killed, you hear of much violence in mexico but are always termed “drug related murders” implying that those killed were afiliated in organized crime.

When you take a closer look at the ‘right wing guerrillas’, first of all it’s just about imposible to find a video of any of their leaders with any kind of mission statement or anything of the sort, second you cannot find any documentation anywhere of any known ally. Now, you tell me how does a heavily armed paramilitary group, even with drug money, take part in over 30 years of civil war including alleged armed conflict against the US millitary, without any support from any government or even any other criminal organization?

If everything where as it appears at 1st glance it results in a paradox, how does major international drug trafficking organization not even have ONE known ally/accomplice? It just doesn’t make any sense purely on a business level. If you look up any of the Mexican cartels as well as FARC you can find known allies. Additionally, why is there a right wing guerrilla group for decades with a right wing government in power? Finally, Why is one side of the guerrillas (FARC) involved in negotiations with the Colombian government and not the other?

Even if they were to sign a peace treaty they would still be at war. The conclusion that asking these questions leads you to is that the Paramilitary groups were actually an unofficial extension of the Colombian armed forces that traces it’s roots back it’s formation during the cold war where they were trained by US army officers in ‘tactics of counterinsurgency’ at the School of the Americas, these tactics are said to specifically target the civilian population without the support of which the guerrillas cannot continue to function.

This groups true purpose is to combat communist guerrillas by what ever means necessary. Statistics show that these right wing paramilitaries are responsible for 80’s of the ‘political killings’ in Colombia, which upon closer examination seem more like like acts of widespread political repression of the Colombian people spanning almost a half a century and crossing the line of human rights abuse with regularity virtually without any opposition from anyone internationally, opposed only domestically by FARC.

Accounts from former Colombian army officers allege that the national Colombian armed forces maintained contact regularly with right wing paramilitary groups and directed them to many of the areas where they are accused of committing human rights atrocities. (*9) It has been alleged that the right wing paramilitaries acting in concert with the Colombian national army tried to remove the rural population from certain areas altogether forcing them to become urban refuges and further isolating the FARC forces. In 2005 Columbia had the 3rd largest internal refuge population in the world.

Not only that but the paramilitaries are responsible for just as much if not more of the Colombian drug trade then FARC making ‘Plan Columbia’ truely appear to be a futile action according to it’s officially stated goals. Assessment of “Plan Columbia” 1998-2010 (lessons learned) Assessing the success of plan Columbia really depends on what you consider to be a success. If you consider the primary objective of the operation to be to simply return control of certain areas of Columbia back to the Colombian government then it would be considered a success.

However, if the primary objective was to irradiate the drug trade recent statistics show that though production of cocaine in Columbia did take a severe hit in the early 2000’s it has been on the Rise again since 2006. What this confirms is that the drug trade there has not ceased but in fact evolved to meet the challenges of a changed environment. Drug trafficking organizations today are still operating but simply doing it in a more discrete manner their predecessors. Another example of the evolution that ‘Plan Columbia’ sparked is the guerrillas branching out to other sympathetic paramilitaries and paramilitary terrorist groups.

Members of FARC have reportedly instituted the help of various allies IRA including the since the increased military pressure. An article in British newspaper The Telegraph (*8) highlights how the increased military presence in the countryside as well as an increase in the Colombian urban population has forced FARC forces to urbanize the way in which they conduct warfare. The article highlights significant advancements made by FARC in both explosives as well as counter intelligence and urban warfare.

FARC is currently considered the most well armed well trained and well funded guerrilla group in the world. The destruction of crops which was on paper, the primary objective of ‘Plan Columbia’ is something that is very temporary, unless you were to actually salt the earth there is nothing to prevent anybody from planting a new crop in the same place. The united states has increased the amount of toxic defoliant that is spays on Colombia and it’s citizens every year of ‘Plan Columbia’. Many have made the comparison to agent orange in Vietnam.

Many health problems have already been reported with relationship to the defoliant chemical and there are concerns that this chemical is starting to poison some the amazon basin and subsequently effecting other Latin American countries to the south. This defoliant kills all crops including the ones, many of the poorest peasants who grow bananas simply for subsistence have their whole crops destroyed on a regular basis. Some have raised the issue that perhaps this alone constitutes a grave human rights violation. A foreign power spraying toxic chemicals on the population of another is something that is unheard of in the past.

The most inditing fact to the type of military action undertaken is most obviously that it has been a commitment that the United States has not been able pull back on after over 6 years no decrease in spending in this area is expected. Not only that but now that the Colombian drug traffickers have evolved we’re seeing a resurgence in drug activity in the country. No matter how you look at it ‘Plan Colombia’ was almost a complete failure, Colombian left wing guerrillas persist, drug use in the US has never been higher, cocaine production in Columbia is increasing.

The only ay in which this operation is a success is that the overall violence seems to have died down and that in the paramilitary groups, which the US created in the 1st place have been disbanded and are no longer committing horrendous atrocities against innocent people for the sole purpose of turning public opinion against FARC. It might be viewed in that instance as a success, I was about half way into my research before I heard/read anything to do with FARC’s side of the story. Venezuela, Ecuador and Cuba are the only counties to formally voice support for FARC. (*10) Evaluating the Merida Innitiative

One the important things to know about the Merida initiative is that the entirety of the money (400 million to start) approved by the US congress all went to American companies, to train police, to build helicopters, not one dollar of the funding of this operation ends up in non-American hands. It is expected, as was the care with ‘Plan Columbia’ that the United states will exclusively employ private American defence contractors to do all the work on the ground. The reason for this is not strong enough to justify the use and possible loss of American soldiers.

Also use of American soldiers to fight an urban drug war such as the one in Mexico and might cause a PR nightmare if US Soldiers are viewed as firing on Mexican population, which the drug members of the cartels can hide in plain sight, unlike the Colombian guerrillas they are not in uniform. My investigation into ‘Plan Colombia’ led me to the conclusion that the comparison made by the US secretary of defence between Colombia at the turn of the century and the Mexican drug war today to be a very poor and unjustified one.

As previously stated I contend that the situation in Colombia was actually a war where as the Mexican situation is simply a police ineffectiveness issue. While the comparison between the who conflicts themselves is unjustified both ‘Plan Columbia’ and ‘The Merida initiative’ officially have a primary goal to reduce the outflow of drugs into the united states and can still be compared in that instance. The comparison is one that mostly highlights the extreme ineffectiveness not only in terms of result but in terms of cost of this kind of policy. It essentially doesn’t solve any of the problems of drug trafficking.

The demand in the US for drugs is the real source of this problem. Persistent Problems (police, penal system,banking) A continuing problem that has been acknowledged but not dealt with in any meaningful way in the fact that poor farmers who have been driven into poverty by the international agricultural business (and it’s dominance by the west) have no better feasible options then to grow the plants that are converted into drugs. In ‘Plan Columbia’ the Colombian government instituted a program to offer coca growers money to grow alternative crops, offering them a sum in the range of 2 million pesos a year (about 950$). *7)

Many coca farmers argue is not enough to live. When growing coca (rather then crops such as plantains and Pineapples) not only is the crop worth more but the drug traffickers come right to their doors to pick up the ‘coca paste’ they convert the plants to. When growing the crops they are being encouraged to grow they have to transport these tons of produce on “vehicles they don’t have, on roads that don’t exist to sell to markets both internal and external” that they don’t have access to and to compete with an international aggro business . ” (*7- 5:51)

It’ simply not a sound development plan. less then 20% of the Plan Columbia budget is allocated towards this end) instead the budget is spent on air fumigation spaying defoliant on coca cultures. Secondly the way that the penal system is set up just about everywhere in the world makes the incarceration of major drug lords almost completely futile, they still maintain control over their organization and administer it from prison. The leaders of the Tijuana and Gulf cartels made the agreement to unite while they were both in prison (*3 p. 4), consolidating their power against the rest of the cartels in the “The Federation”.

There is also a persistent (though easilly remedied) problem that the Mexican prisons themselves are not able keep powerful people in there. In the last year alone over 250 prison inmates have been broken out of prison by cartels, most recently 191 were released from from a prison in Tamaulipas by the Los Zetas cartel. This creates even more problems on other fronts, it makes it alot harder to extract information from prisoners then it is in the united states. If an inmate believes it’s only a matter of time before he gets out he has no reasons to co-operate in any way, no real threat to guard against.

Finally, probably the most important continuing problem is money laundering, this allows for drug operations to run smoothly by giving it a seemingly legitimate flow of cash to use for Bribes, buying up legitimate real estate and other things. Without being able to access the real money of drug kingpins makes it hard to do them any real damage that wont easily be recovered from in a very short time. Many large US banks are complicit in this activity and it is a massive source of capital for them. An article from the Bloomberg press highlights the involvment of American banks such as Wachovia Corp.

Bank of America and Wells Fargo’s direct complicity in money laundering operations for the mexican cartels. “Wachovia admitted it didn’t do enough to spot illicit funds in handling 378. 4 billion for Mexican-currency-exchange houses from 2004 to 2007. ” (*1) To say they didn’t “do enough to spot” 378 billion dollars entering their bank is laughable. There have reportedly been some efforts to pass more stringent anti-money laundering laws which have met some oppostion from the banking lobby for obvious reasons.

The police force continues to be a significant problem, all the training in the world still isn’t going to stop corruption, even if a relative victory is acheived and the army pulls out it would seem to me only to be a matter of time before things return to their previous state. Possible solutions In order to fix the problems associated with prisons I think a simple solution would be to transfer people associated to drug cartels to offshore or even just send them to the other side of the world somewhere a pay country X to keep them in isolation. Reducing their ability to communicate is key.

Something that I think the world may sooner or later move towards provided the proper technology be available is to curb the drug trade is simply an irradiation of hand held currency. Cash is what funds all of these organizations. This is why they have to launder drug money, it’s dirty, you cant buy jet planes and like with cash. If you eliminate cash, how can anyone buy drugs illegally? You cant have a large elligal operation which risks lives dailey if people can only barter for your drugs and every legitimate product is purchased through some form of debit entirely controlled by the government.

In conclusion I beleive that the Merida innitiative will probably succeed to a small degree in curbing violence but not the drug trade itself. I think it will be a costly (perhaps everlasting) failure as long as people are beating a dead horse with tactics that are proven not work. The more troubling aspect of this whole research paper for me is the notion that gets brought up by several in various documentaries I watched in doing research of the American government attempted to make security policy which violates many individual freedoms with respect to terrorism all encompassing.

If you can keep enforcing the notion that the drug is on the same wavelength as terrorism it gives you the right to treat all people involved in drugs (about 80% of Americans at least once in a lifetime) as people involved in terrorism and produce a progressive erosion of civil liberties which some already believe has gone to far with legislation such as The Patriot Act.

Operations in mexico and Colombia set a precedent for the United States intervening (without request in the case of mexico) in domestic affairs of it’s neighbours using military force. I would also argue that much of this action could be perceived as just another extension of the US military industrial complex in action.

References

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-06-29/banks-financing-mexico-s-drug-cartels-admitted-in-wells-fargo-s-u-s-deal.html

http://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/reports/docs/Canadian%20Military%20Spending%202009.pdf

http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf

http://blogs.mcclatchydc.com/mexico/2010/12/jail-breaks-and-cartel-manpower-woes.html

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1559348/IRA-training-haunts-Colombias-guerrilla-war.html

http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB166/index.htm

Categories
Free Essays

Drug Prevention Program

Business Concept Proposal| Drug Prevention Program For| Executive summary This report is a business concept proposal that will help us develop a business plan for our organization which is NBK and that eventually will benefit them. The CSR project that we have chosen is a “Drug Prevention Program” that will benefit both NBK and society.

In this proposal we first gave a small introduction about the company and what other CSRs the company is doing and then we included our aim and purpose of this project which is to increase the awareness level about this problem and provide some possible solutions and also to break all the cultural and society barriers about this specific issue. Then we went on our 4 SMART objectives which are what exactly we are aiming to achieve by the end of the project.

In order for us to analysis the market for our proposal we did a Macro and Micro analysis that will help us determine what is our strength and weakness points and what could be the opportunities and threats that we are facing. Another important part of this proposal is the financial projections. We did an estimated budget including profit and loss account and cash flow. After that we mentioned the requirements considered to ensure our project can be implemented like the logistical and operational requirements and how this may impact on the success of our project.

In the viability part we showed our costs and benefit to the organization and its return on investment. Last but not least we talked about the competitive and economic viability on how the different activities that we do will mark us as a strong competitor in the business and on an economic perspective this project is going to benefit the economy as it will provide new jobs for Kuwaiti people and even give them the opportunity to work at NBK. Introduction National Bank of Kuwait is holding an event called “Drugs Prevention program”. This program is nonprofit event.

This event is setup to spread awareness and take an actual action to people on drugs; or people that doesn’t know about drugs. Many people don’t release how it’s dangerous, serious issue and can cause death. Drug prevention program is will be arrange to give advices and nonprofit rehabs that can be beneficial for drug addicts. Those rehabs will be very helpful to the addicts we as the drug prevention program organizers will provides brochures with full details and contact information. Why we chose NBK? NBK is the oldest bank in Kuwait and it has a very good reputation.

Also it has been through a lot of CSR events in various sectors. The campaigns NBK did are Support of National Labor is our first priority, environmental initiative, health care initiative, sport initiative and contributions, education initiative, social care and philanthropic initiative, and conferences and seminars. The activities lies under the support of National Labor are NBK Academy, which intensive training for fresh graduate that joined the bank and High flier’s leadership program; this program is to develop future leaders.

As for environmental initiatives activities are hand-in-hand to preserve our beaches, this campaign launch to clean the beaches of Kuwait and Put your energy into saving energy NBK commenced its energy saving awareness campaign: ‘Put your energy into saving energy’, with staff and summer interns from NBK giving away more than 10,000 long life energy-saving light bulbs at the Avenues Mall. Health care initiative campaigns are breast cancer awareness give discounts for female employees to have a checkups and lectures and seminars for awareness and blood donation; many NBK employees donated blood for the blood hospital in Kuwait.

Sport initiative and contribution NBK organized walkathon to encourage people to have a better health and lifestyle. Whereas for education initiative; NBK has hosted high schools and universities to learn day to day operations. Social and philanthropic initiative events done by NBK are Do Good Deeds in Ramdan this campaign offer free ftr banquets and Somalia famine relief campaign was launched to donate money. The last but not least the conferences and seminars which were set to increase awareness about currents issue in the society.

One of the seminars was on the Global Financial Crisis and its Impact on the Region; which discussed the international outlook. Aim of the project The aim of this project “Drug Prevention Program” is to benefit the society and this fits in with NBK’s mission statement, which is to serve the national needs as a priority. This program will be good for the society as it will increase the awareness level by defining the problem, which is drug usage and then it introduces society to the ways they or the people they know can prevent it and help them find possible solutions and lead them to the right places where they can find treatments.

After we make sure people have enough knowledge to prevent this problem, we can expect drug usage to decrease, because they have been introduced to this problem and know all the negatives effects drugs have on the human body. There are a lot of controversial issues in our society and drugs is one of them, so it is very important to bring this topic up to the public and let them know that there is no shame for a drug abuser to admit that they have a problem and that they need to seek therapy.

There are also a lot of cultural and traditional barriers that could affect the processing of this program, so our goal is to breach and break all these barriers and expose a problem that is considered as a “Taboo” topic. It is essential to make a step now, because as we all see, it is a growing issue and the accessibility for drugs is really easy nowadays, that is why our society needs to open up their minds to these kind of problems or else it will affect our future generations. Key Objectives

Setting objectives is really important for any organization or a project because it will let us know what we are trying to achieve and it will increase our chances of success. Our objectives will deliver major benefits to this program and the most important one that it will define the purpose of this project. We set for our project 4 different objectives for our program (Operational, Marketing, Financial and CSR) and they are all SMART objectives. * Operational Objective: Conduct a seminar every two week in a different location each time while having diverse guest speakers in each location. Marketing Objective: To increase awareness and publicity of the program through sponsored events and media notifications by 20% within the next 3 months. * Financial Objective: To increase customer base of the firm by 7% by the end of the program as a result of the program’s positive effect on society. * CSR Objective: Increase community welfare by decreasing level of society’s drug administration 15% by the end of program. Having these objectives is like a powerful tool that will help us succeed and it will keep our team motivated and seeks more accomplishments. Feasibility Analysis Macro

Before venturing into a new project, it is important to assess the external environment of a business and what possible impacts can affect the project. The threats and opportunities are external factors that guide a project towards taking certain decisions over others. Social factors: Kuwait, as compared to the rest of the world, receives a generally higher average income. This shows that the majority of the population in Kuwait is on the higher side of the income range. Within the lifestyle changes are the increasing popularity of social media and its different usages within societies.

It is a powerful tool to reach as many people within society as possible. Social trends in Kuwait can affect the way people look at the Drug Prevention Program (DPP). Since drug abuse is a taboo topic, tackling it publicly would face some kind of hesitance by the public. Ensuring that local positive public figures as a part of our program would change the attitudes of people in Kuwait. It would garner more publicity and receive more entrants within the program. Technological factors: The increasing usage of technology in these times means more coverage for the DPP.

People surfing the net, using social media and/or browsing through the various forms of technologies can find (or be exposed to) items and events that are happening around them and more information about each finding. In order to reach a bigger range of people, the program needs to be technologically updated in terms of websites, social media and pop-up ads if necessary. Technology must also be used to enhance the quality of whatever is being presented and also to improve the organization and efficiency of what is being accomplished.

There is no firm, program or organization deemed to be successful without the usage of thorough technology. The marketplace for whatever that needs to be launched today needs strict technological requirements that need to be met so that it can connect to a wider audience. Environmental factors: There are many factors that influence industries and the industries affected by environmental factors (weather and climate changes) include tourism, agriculture and economic industries. However, there should not be much stress on what environmental aspects can affect the DPP because its nature is not affected by climate changes.

As long as there will not be any significant hazard, the environmental factors can be considered as off the radar for this type of DPP. Economic factors: An economy affects the way a society behave and it obviously alternate their decisions depending upon how high or low it is. If the local economy has resulted in higher interest rates, this will mean that firms will be less likely to invest in what might seem like an unpredictable gamble. This DPP needs sponsorship and is based on fund-raiser events to continue the progress of the program, and not much participation will happen if the economic times are low.

Another factor of economy is the strength of the currency. Kuwait has a very strong currency and its affects import/export activities, but that will not be an issue because the program does not need much of these activities. If inflation occurs, staff will need higher salaries and this will affect the planned budget. The salaries need to be raised so that the staff can be satisfied when being compared to other raised salaries within the fields and industries. Political factors: When political factors are mentioned, one automatically thinks of the laws and regulations that restrict an action or a project from fully taking shape.

Since drug abuse is a taboo topic, there are bound to be limits to what can be done through the project. The law in Kuwait prohibits the live showcase of drugs and substances that can be abused. This can somewhat hinder our performance because it will limit what the group can show a live audience to enlighten them on what needs to be stayed away from. If guest speakers in the form of previous users need to be brought in to enlighten the participants, there will be restrictions due to the law not allowing prisoners to exit their cells and talk about experiences only once their period is over.

This means that only ex-abusers who have finished their trials and prison time can enlighten the participants, the newly caught addicts will not be able to. It must be noted that the DPP will not focus much on current abusers who were caught abusing rather than those who willingly wanted to quit drug and substance abuse. Before continuing further with this project, legal framework needs to be conducted so that the project is validated and under the microscopic view of the government ensuring that no illegal limits are surpassed. Legal factors:

Laws banning against age and race discrimination will not affect the DPP heavily as the participation has no kind of restriction whatsoever. A participant does not even have to be an abuser, or even in contact with one. Since the jobs offered to the staff will not be permanent, there will not be a minimum wage assigned to what the individual salary amount is. There is a law in Kuwait that states: any Kuwaiti national working in the private sector will receive a fixed amount each month as an addition to what a firm is handing over as a salary.

This law will not be applied to the DPP because the vacant jobs offered are not permanent positions; it is only in the duration of the events that the assigned staff will be a part of the program. Permission needs to be granted from the governmental censors to give the program the green light to go ahead with the project. After permission has been granted, the banquet hall owners need to be aware of the purpose and activities of the DPP. Macro SWOT Analysis Strengths: * Controversial * Good Cause * Society’s Benefit Weaknesses: * No monetary ROI Costly * Taboo Opportunities: * Program Expansion * Rehab Formation * Brand Image Threats: * Public Decline * Influential Competition * Insufficient funding to continue This drug prevention program has strengths and weakness. The strengths are it controversial many people might disagree to expose the idea or issue; which is currently available and increasing radically. The good cause is that it spreading awareness and leading drug addicts to the right direction. This will benefit the society by having a better living and health.

The weakness are that there aren’t monetary ROI; zero profit and it cost a lot there will be a loss in return because this campaign is setup to have better youth to have better society. Its taboo because people in the Arab region see it as shame and don’t attempt that it exists. There are many opportunities for the program; which are to expand the program and format a rehab and boost brand image. The threats are the public decline which is the society not accepting the idea. Influential competition is another threat which other companies or banks can launch a campaign similar to ours.

The last threat is the insufficient funding; not having enough money or if NBK stops funding us. NBK’s CSR programs are successful due to the reason that it encompasses as many fields as it can possibly be a positive addition to. The strengths are the variety of areas that NBK is participating in to achieve and maintain an improved society. It has a diverse selection of activities: social, educational, philanthropic, sports-related and more. NBK has built a positive reputation for itself as a pioneer in merging its daily activities along with CSR activities for the improvement of society.

Currently, a weakness is that NBK is not a part of any project or program that supports the fight against drug and substance abuse. The DPP is the right step and opportunity to turn this weakness into strength. Another weakness for the CSR of NBK is that it does not necessarily include the entire society. Without this program, people into drug and substance abuse are sidelined and not given any help or guidance. The opportunities resulting from external factors are that NBK can further push its CSR boundaries and continue in pursuing other untapped fields that need to be brought to the general public’s eye.

NBK releases a CSR annual report that showcases their social responsibilities towards society. It lists what NBK has done the previous year in terms of initiatives and activities. This shows how the private sectors in Kuwait are competing to be the best CSR champions with the most good done to society. This benefits the society more than it benefits the firms competing to help and improve. An opportunity in the form of program continual rises due to the strong need for initiatives upping society’s standards. The next phase of the project can be adopted by NBK’s rival if the program proves to be a success.

Drug and substance abuse is a taboo topic in Kuwait even today. Not wholeheartedly knowing what the general public’s reaction is means that a threat is opposing the DPP. There are bound to be people who do not want to associate themselves with taboo topics such as drugs which mean that there will be some kind of a decline from a section of the public. It is vital to assess how the threats and weaknesses fare against the strengths and opportunities of this program. Financial Projections Cash flow| |  | Year 1| Year 2| Year 3| | | | | |  | Net profit| | | 105,050 | 105,050 | 105,050 |

Depreciation| | | 105,050 | 105,050 | 105,050 | Office Rent| | | 2,100 | 2,100 | 2,100 | Media costs| | | 93,500 | 93,500 | 93,500 | Staff| | | 11,000 | 11,000 | 11,000 | Transportation| | | 200 | 200 | 200 | Cash profits| | | 0 | 0 | 0 | Increase in CA| | | n/a| n/a| n/a| Net cash from operating activities| | | 0 | 0 | 0 | Renovations| | | 0 | 0 | 0 | change in FA| | | (850,000)|  |  | Net cash after investing activities| | | (850,000)| 0 | 0 | Capital induction| | | 105,050 | 0 | 0 | change in advance rentals| | | 6,300 | (417,600)| (104,400)| Net increase in cash| | | (738,650)| (417,600)| (104,400)| | | | | |  |

Opening cash balance| | | 0 | (738,650)| (1,156,250)| Closing cash balance| | | (738,650)| (1,156,250)| (1,260,650)| | | | | | | | | | (745,350)| (1,281,750)| (1,831,890)| | | | | | | Net Profit| |  | 26,933 | 479,733 | 493,473 | Inv Capital|  | | 0| 0| 0| ROI|  | | #DIV/0! | #DIV/0! | #DIV/0! | | | | | | | Net cashflow from operations| | | 26,933 | 479,733 | 493,473 |  | | | | | | | | | | | | Requirements In order for the project to be implemented, there are a few requirements that need to be taken in to consideration. To further promote this program, it has been decided that seminars will be held at different schools and universities.

To proceed with this we will need knowledgeable staff or speakers, and/or former addicts to speak at these seminars. Another requirement would be setting up booths and banners in Avenues, Marina Mall, and 360. Also for spreading the word about this program in less expensive way we will be designing different brochures and handing them out at the seminars and booths. Some of the other activities that will be done are fundraisers and getting different sponsorship’s to boost the program. For this to be done operationally speaking we will need sufficient staff to arry out the tasks and/or guest speakers, money for printing and equipment, vehicles, and having meetings and presentations. The staff will need to be able to design the brochures and banners, set up booths, and be knowledgeable about the program to deliver the message in meetings and presentations. Like most projects money is a key factor to get the job done. We will need money for gas, staff, printing, and other equipment. Technically the program is going to require computers for emailing and organizing with school officials and NBK members also to stay financially organized with sufficient data.

For this program to run smoothly we must also focus on logistics. Organization and planning are a must for determining which schools or universities and which dates are the most appropriate and effective. As mentioned earlier the three malls were chosen for the banners and booths, because they are the most popular and seem to be the most effective for reaching the target audience. Some good locations for the seminars could be reception halls and popular locations that can be rented, for the presentations and meetings on the other the NBK meeting room seems to be most suitable for our program.

Viability In terms of Return on Investment Viability, our project will not be gaining any monetary returns directly since it is a non-profit program. For the ROI formula we will calculate zero (no profit) divided by 105,050 (for one year) which will be equal to zero percent financial gain. The total investment required is 315,150 for the three years of the program. Our ROI for the first year will be zero. Competitive Viability Like any project, the Drug program will need to be viable and sustainable with regards to competition.

This means that our program can survive long-term and eventually gain profit while competing with similar programs in Kuwait. In Kuwait however, there is already some competition. One major competitor is the National Anti-Drug Committee. This committee was founded in 1989, and their main goals are similar to our program’s goals, which are to focus on the youth and the protection of the health of society. Also similar to our goals is the fact that they are trying to introduce some awareness amongst the education fields. Although there is some competition already in the market, we believe that program can become more competitive nce introduced, because we will be working with NBK which is a very popular bank, especially among the youth. The National Anti-Drug Committee is not well known in Kuwait, yet has been around for many years. Although this is true about the National Anti-Drug Committee, our program will still have a competitive advantage working with NBK. Also we are going to be introducing many guest speakers at different seminars through different schools. We will be bringing people who have abused drugs and overcame these issues, which will have a great impact on people in a society like Kuwait.

Another thing that our program is going to offer is setting up different fundraisers throughout Kuwait to raise awareness about the serious nature of drug abuse. These different activities that our project will be conducting will give our company and program a more competitive edge in the market. Economic Viability In order for our drug program to be viable economically, it will need to create different job opportunities and possibly attract people to work at NBK. This program is an extremely controversial activity in a society like Kuwait where the issue of drugs and drug abuse is a taboo subject.

By confronting the matter and showing people how serious and spread out this problem is in Kuwait already, we can show people that NBK cares about this and is not afraid to be associated with fighting it. The project for NBK will require staff and/or volunteers. This will create job openings for anyone interested. It may even attract people to work for NBK, because it shows that they care about and are giving back to society. This further promotes NBK’s vision to benefit the society where they function. References * Fattahova, N. (2012). Awareness campaign to prevent drug abuse . ttp://news. kuwaittimes. net/2012/08/22/awareness-campaign-to-prevent-drug-abuse/. Last accessed 11th Nov 2012. * Kuwait. nbk. (2012). About NBK. http://www. kuwait. nbk. com/about/disclosures/default_en_gb. aspx. Last accessed 10th Nov 2012. * Murray, J. (2012). Viability (of a business). http://biztaxlaw. about. com/od/glossaryv/g/viability. htm. Last accessed 9th Nov 2012. * Vyakarnam, S . Writing a business plan, clarification and preparation – the market approach. http://https://docs. google. com/viewer/. Last accessed 14th Nov 2012 Appendix

Cashflow| |  | Year 1| Year 2| Year 3| | | | | |  | Net profit| | | 105,050 | 105,050 | 105,050 | Depreciation| | | 105,050 | 105,050 | 105,050 | Office Rent| | | 2,100 | 2,100 | 2,100 | Media costs| | | 93,500 | 93,500 | 93,500 | Staff| | | 11,000 | 11,000 | 11,000 | Transportation| | | 200 | 200 | 200 | Cash profits| | | 0 | 0 | 0 | Increasein CA| | | n/a| n/a| n/a| Net cash from operating activities| | | 0 | 0 | 0 | Renovations| | | 0 | 0 | 0 | change in FA| | | (850,000)|  |  | Net cash after investing activities| | | (850,000)| 0 | 0 | Capital induction| | | 105,050 | 0 | 0 | hange in advance rentals| | | 6,300 | (417,600)| (104,400)| Net increase in cash| | | (738,650)| (417,600)| (104,400)| | | | | |  | Opening cash balance| | | 0 | (738,650)| (1,156,250)| Closing cash balance| | | (738,650)| (1,156,250)| (1,260,650)| | | | | | | | | | (745,350)| (1,281,750)| (1,831,890)| | | | | | | Net Profit| |  | 26,933 | 479,733 | 493,473 | Inv Capital|  | | 0| 0| 0| ROI|  | | #DIV/0! | #DIV/0! | #DIV/0! | | | | | | | Net cashflow from operations| | | 26,933 | 479,733 | 493,473 |  | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ROI Calculation Amount of Financial Gain Total Investment Amount 0 0 105. 050

Categories
Free Essays

Drug Addiction

DRUG ADDICTION AND DRUG ABUSE A Research Paper presented to the faculty of Cabalum Western College Iloilo City In partial fulfillment In English II by: What is drug addiction? Drug addiction is a complex brain disease. It is characterized by compulsive, at times uncontrollable, drug craving, seeking, and use that persist even in the face of extremely negative consequences. What Is Drug Abuse? Dennie Ho I am an independent freelance writer and editor with both a Bachelor’s and Master’s degree. I have worked professionally as an analyst in the government, higher education, and public relations industries.

I have been freelance writing for over eight years, including two with Demand Studios. The effects derived from abusing drugs will differ depending on the type of drug, but the basic pattern of drug abuse is the same: a compelling urgency to acquire and use the desired chemical substance. With drug abuse comes drug addiction and, as the addiction grows stronger over time, the impulse to use the drug grows more powerful: powerful enough to alter relationships, destroy health, interfere with work schedules and disrupt normal activities. 1. Definition Drug abuse entails the excessive and/or repeated use of chemical substances (in any form) in order to achieve certain biochemical effects. Significance * The abuse of drugs is coupled with addiction, and obtaining and using the drug becomes increasingly more important than any other thing in life: friends, family, employment or even children. Types * Drug abuse involves chemical substances known as street- or illicit-drugs (illegal due to their potential for addiction), as well as prescription drugs that are acquired for pleasurable use rather than medical necessity.

Consequences * The consequences of abusing drugs can be both physical and emotional, confounding the body’s normal biochemical processes, making normal functions difficult to perform and impairing cognitive abilities–like judgment–to dangerous levels. Effects * As described by the Mayo Clinic, stimulants increase blood pressure and metabolism resulting in powerful rushes of energy and difficulty sleeping. Depressants and barbiturates produce calming sensations and excessive relaxation by reducing blood pressure, heart rate and breathing to dangerously low levels. Potential Drug abuse over time chemically alters the brain’s neurological functions, causing extreme discomfort and pain when it is deprived of the drug. The Difference Between Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse Dr. Howard Samuels The terms “drug abuse” and “drug addiction” are sometimes used interchangeably and incorrectly. Although drug abuse may lead to drug addiction, they are two completely different terms. Drug Abuse Drug abuse is the misuse of any substance, legal or illicit. Some drugs, such as prescription medications and alcohol, may be used in an appropriate way and not be considered abused.

Taking prescription pills precisely how prescribed or having a single glass of wine with dinner are examples of not abusive drugs. Drug abuse occurs with these substances when they are taken in excess. Also, use of any illegal drug may be considered drug abuse, as it is not supposed to be used at all. Many illicit drugs are vulnerable to be abused because of their psychologically and physically addictive properties. Drug Addiction Drug addiction develops from repeated drug abuse, and also is believed to have genetic factors.

Addiction can be characterized by a complete overhaul of one’s motivational factors, in which the individual strives only to get high. Generally, other motivational factors such as school, work, family life, daily activities, and self-care lose their importance, as the drug becomes the only way the addict can find any happiness or relief. Addiction is always psychologically based with some causing physical addiction as well by changing the chemistry of the brain. Although an addict may find temporary relief from using, their life usually is not pleasant around them.

Although one who is abusing drugs may intentionally do so, an addict never wants to be an addict. As the drug is their only motivational factor, they cannot quit easily as nothing else gives them the same feeling they seek. Some form of treatment is often required to help addicts, whereas one abusing drugs may simply quit with their own willpower. All Addiction Articles * Drug Addiction * Meth * Methadone * Alcoholism * Ketamine * Cough Syrup * Valium * Dilaudid * Xanax * Suboxone * Sex * Drug Addiction Help * Oxycontin Statistics * How Drugs Can Become Addictive * Stages Intervention for Opiate Addiction * Drug Use in Prison * Athletes and Drug Abuse * Crystal Meth Rehab and Detox * Prescription Meds Post Surgery * Dangers of IV Drug Use * Heroin * Hydrocodone * Cocaine * Ecstacy * GHB * Inhalants * Demerol * Codeine * Ritalin * Adderall * Gambling * Drug Addiction Treatment * Drug Addiction vs. Drug Abuse * Drug Addiction Within the Family * Kids and Drugs * Vicodin * Defining Addiction * Olympic Doping * Current Events in War on Drugs * Alcohol Abuse Statistics * Love Addiction * Marijuana * Percocet * Substance * LSD * PCP * Spice Soma * Ambien * Morphine * Percodan * Nicotine * Cocaine Length in System * Drug Addiction Recovery Options * Genetic Aspect of Drug Addiction * Fact Sheet on Painkillers * Stigma * Malnutrition and Drug Use * Abstral: New Painkiller on the Market * Rich Kids Drug Use on the Rise * Agassi Crystal Meth Drug Admission * Bath Salt Addiction Causes of Drug Abuse Many people wonder about the causes of drug abuse. An underlying cause is the escape from emotional pain. Some people are physically predisposed to drug addition, whether emotional pain is present. 1. Emotional Issues The most prevalent cause of drug abuse stems from the addict’s need to escape from emotional pain. Any sort of trauma can lead to drug abuse. Job Loss * An unexpected disruption, such as job loss, can create a feeling of inadequacy and undermine a person’s confidence, leading him to flee the pain through drug abuse. Marital Difficulty * Arguments and discord in the marriage can lead to drug abuse. Drugs can provide a release from tension in the family. Genetics * A drug abuser can be susceptible to addiction because of her genetic makeup. Once the drug abuser experiments with a substance, the body will crave more.

Self-Medication * Self-medication can encompass all of the above issues for the drug abuser. He feels that he must relax, escape or mentally shut down through drug abuse. ————————————————- Causes of Drug Addiction Recognizing the causes of drug addiction can help prevent a person from becoming an addict. The motivators behind initial drug use or experimentation can lead to long-term use and becoming an addiction over time. ————————————————- Possible Causes of Drug Addiction Drug addiction can be found in many forms.

A person can be addicted to alcohol, prescription drugs, inhalants or other street drugs (cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines, etc. ). Understanding the reasons people are initially attracted to drug use can help stop future users from becoming addicts. Experimentation and curiosity are the first factors that draw many people into trying drugs. They want to feel that “high”, the sense of euphoria that comes with drug use. While this may lead to recreational use of drugs (using only in certain situations), it rarely leads to actual addiction unless other factors are present.

However, some drugs (like heroin) have are more likely to cause addiction than others resulting in an addiction from simple experimentation alone. Prescription drugs can turn people into addicts because they have conditions in which they need to take drugs in order to get relief. People become hooked on prescription drugs when they take more than the recommended dosage, take it more frequently than recommended and continue using the drug after their initial medical condition clears up. Elite athletes are susceptible to using drugs. They use them for performance enhancing abilities.

Steroids can make muscles bigger, while amphetamines help reduce or numb pain and allow people to play injured. Recently, major league baseball has come under fire for drug abuse. Although not as prominent, high school and college athletes have also been known to use drugs to enhance their performance. Others turn to drug use to cope with problems in their real lives. Whether it is past abuse (physical or sexual), school problems, work problems or relationship issues, drug use can help a person temporarily escape the realities of his/her life.

Being around drugs and being exposed to addicts can also lead to drug addiction. If a family member or close friend uses or is addicted to drugs, it seems more acceptable for other members to engage in similar behavior. It becomes a tolerated activity. Peer pressure is also a factor in turning people into drug addicts. Contrary to popular belief, peer pressure can happen at any age. Adults fall prey to peer pressure to fit into new social classes, new workplaces and new neighborhoods. Teenagers fight peer pressure on everything from looks to alcohol to sex to drugs.

In fact, using crystal meth is becoming a way for many teenage girls to fight the pressure that comes with needing to be thin and attractive. Teenagers can also fall prey to the rebellious attitude that they need to do anything their parents or those in authority say is bad. Easy accessibility to drugs and new, lower prices can also lead to drug addiction. Drugs can be found anywhere if a person simply asks. Street corners and alleyways are no longer the only place to find drugs. Schools, workplaces and even the family next door might be new places to find drugs.

With more drugs being produced, the price has also been driven down. Drug addiction can also be caused by using drugs to mask other mental problems. For example, depressed people frequently use drugs to escape their sad feelings. Schizophrenics find that some street drugs can control their hallucinations. Denial and hiding the problem just lead to more problems in the long run. Four Stages of Drug Abuse Regina Paul Regina Paul has been a full-time freelance writer and author for three years. She has published over 500 articles online and 10 books. Her articles are published at Associated Content, e-How. om, and The Fun Times Guide. Her books are published with Amira Press, Eternal Press, and Leap of Faith Publishing. Introduction * Drug abuse is now seen as a disease, rather than just a moral problem as it was in the past. These days psychiatric professionals have identified four stages of drug abuse, enabling them to help individuals regardless of what stage they may be in. First Stage: Experimentation * The first stage of drug abuse can start out with using a drug voluntarily with the intent to erase a personal problem, or out of curiosity or because of peer pressure.

For example, in the case of a personal problem, perhaps a man discovers his wife is cheating on him, and so he turns to drugs. When they appear to make him feel better, he moves from the first stage to the second stage of regular use. Second Stage: Regular Use * Someone that starts out experimenting with a drug and who likes the effects will often move on to regular use of the drug. In some cases, people will stop on their own even after they have begun regular use and they don’t move beyond stage two, but others move to stage three and begin exhibiting risky behaviors. Third Stage: Risky Behavior The transition from stage two to stage three of drug abuse varies from person to person, and it can sometimes be difficult to determine if the behavior a person is exhibiting is risky. In spite of this, if you believe the behavior of a loved one is risky, then you should tell your loved one. It is very easy to slip from stage three to stage four, which is dependence. A few examples of risky behavior are driving while high on drugs, doing target practice with a gun while high on drugs or jumping out of a second-story window under the influence of drugs. Fourth Stage: Dependence ; Addiction The characteristics of stage four are consistent drug abuse, always being high, not being able to function at work or at home, picking fights with loved ones, being incapable of rational thinking, engaging in risky behaviors such as taking drugs and driving or operating dangerous machinery while high, and legal problems that include receiving tickets for driving under the influence of drugs. If a person is in stage four they are addicted, and the problems mentioned above will continue to grow as the person’s psyche is affected for the worse by continual drug use.

Symptoms of Drug Abuse Drug, or substance, abuse is the habitual and exorbitant use of chemicals in order to produce a specific result or “high. ” Abuse can involve illegal drugs or prescription drugs. Continued use can result in an addiction that ultimately affects addicts’ work and home life as well as their health. 1. Physical Symptoms * Individuals may exhibit cycles of high energy or excessive sleep. Confusion or disorientation may be evident, along with slower speech, movement and reaction time.

Changes in appetite with a sudden weight gain or weight loss may be an indicator of drug abuse. You may notice changes in the type of clothing worn, such as long-sleeved shirts to hide needle marks, or you may find paraphernalia, such as syringes, roach clips (used to hold a small marijuana cigarette) and pipes. Other physical signs include red and watery eyes, runny nose, chronic sinus problems or nosebleeds, persistent coughing, trembling, irregular heartbeat and serious dental troubles. 2. Mental and Emotional Symptoms *

Drugs are abused for the purpose of achieving a “good” feeling. Signs of drug abuse can include cycles of unresponsiveness or being overly energetic and cheerful. Mood may change with heightened anger and irritability, and a lower threshold to become violent. Addicts may exhibit depression and apathy or paranoia and delusions. Other symptoms include hallucinations and silliness. 3. Behavioral Symptoms * You may notice a change in personality and attitude with drug abuse. Addicts may begin to socialize with different groups of friends and in different places.

Hobbies, interests and activities may change, and family becomes less important. They may exhibit suspicious or secretive behavior, lack of motivation and decreased ability to pay attention. They may begin to steal money or objects that can be sold. 4. Specific Symptoms * Marijuana produces red or glassy eyes, unsuitable laughter and talking with subsequent sleepiness, loss of motivation and interest, and weight loss or gain. Depressants result in clumsiness, concentration difficulties, slurred speech, poor judgment, contracted pupils and sleepiness.

The use of stimulants is evident by symptoms of euphoria, hyperactivity, anxiety, irritability, dilated pupils, dry mouth and nose, weight loss and excessive talking with subsequent depression or sleeping. Inhalants cause impaired vision and memory, watery eyes, nose or mouth rashes, nausea, headaches, drowsiness, appetite changes, irritability, anxiety and poor muscle control. The use of hallucinogens is exhibited by mood swings, paranoia, aggression, slurred speech, hallucinations, confusion and dilated pupils.

Heroin may be suspected due to needle marks, sweating, coughing and sniffling, vomiting, twitching, contracted pupils, loss of appetite and sleeping at odd times. 5. Support * If you believe someone you know is abusing drugs, it is important to understand that the decision to stop is entirely up to him. You can offer him support, but he must have the desire to quit. You can find a treatment facility or support group to help him get started. It may also help to involve your minister or rabbi, your family physician or a therapist.

The recovery is an ongoing process and an addict must work to overcome the withdrawal and to resist the drug cravings. What Are the Different Kinds of Drug Abuse? Someone with a drug abuse problem often displays general symptoms, regardless of the type of drug being abused: paranoia, confusion, overall attitude or mood adjustment, withdrawal from relationships or activities, abrupt changes in quality of work or school attendance. The specific signs of drug abuse, however, will differ, depending on the nature of the chemical. 1. Acute Alcohol Abuse The Handbook of Diseases describes the immediate signs of alcohol abuse as intoxication, loss of motor control (including walking and speech), alcoholic odor on breath or clothing, loss of memory and blackouts. Chronic Alcohol Abuse * The chronic signs of alcohol abuse are more subtle. This abuse can be seen in someone who has including difficulty focusing, uncharacteristic behavior (passive or argumentative), dysfunctional interpersonal relationships, declining school or job performance, and fixated attention on alcohol, according to the Handbook of Diseases.

Depressant Abuse * According to the American Council for Drug Education (ACDE), signs of the abuse of depressants (barbiturates—Amytal, Seconal; benzodiazepines—tranquilizers Xanax and Valium) include an intoxicated appearance (like alcohol, but without the noticeable smell). Signs of depressant abuse also include a lack of facial expressions or emotional responses, flaccid appearance, deflated or flat personality, and slurred or distorted speech. Stimulant Abuse The ACDE identifies the signs of stimulant abuse (amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, Ritalin) as hyperactivity, extreme energy, fidgeting, twitching, nervousness, irritable or argumentative, lack of appetite and sleep deprivation. Physiological signs include dilated pupils, dry mouth and lips, runny nose or nose bleeds, and sinus problems. Hallucinogen Abuse * The ACDE describes the abuse of hallucinogenic drugs (PCP, LSD, Ketamine or Special K) as including distortion (self, others, time, the senses), hallucinations, confusion, altered mood or behavior and slurred or incoherent speech.

Signs of hallucinogenic abuse also include physiological indications, such as extreme dilation of the pupils, warm skin, heavy perspiration and body odor. Narcotic Drug Abuse * Abuse of narcotics (opiate-containing drugs such as heroine, methadone, codeine, oxycontin and morphine) can be identified by lethargy, drowsiness, pupil constriction and slurred speech. Other clues include increased amount or frequency in taking pain medication and frequent trips to doctors and clinics for pain medication.

Categories
Free Essays

Cause and Effects of Drug Use in High Schools

Cause and Effects of Drug use in High schools The use of drug is becoming prevalence in today’s society. Drug abuse is referred to as intake of drugs by over does of the prescribed drug given by medical personnel or taking drugs on an individual’s personal interest or influence by some groups of people. Indeed, the term drug abuse is used to indicate excessiveness and frequent consumption of drugs regardless of whether an individual is depending on it or not. Drug abuse is chemical substances that exert mood-altering effects on the brain and which are capable of producing addiction.

They are abused for the feelings they produce. Drug use commonly begins in high school, usually with nicotine from cigarettes. The first cause is simple curiosity. Many teens have heard about drugs can be fun, can make a person feel and act different, and they are curious to experience them for themselves. Peer group influence is also one of the causes. The type of friend individual associate and relate with could lead one to partake in drug abuse. Young people take drugs to feel cool and impress their friends. Some teens will do whatever their friends do, just to fit in and follow the crowd.

They don’t want to be the only one not doing something; even it is something dangerous. Another reason young people take drugs is to escape their reality. Maybe their home life is not happy, maybe they have a boring job, or under lots of pressure in high school. In this case, they take drugs to get away that unhappy reality. They can feel a little braver, stronger, smarter, more beautiful or more important. Of course this doesn’t last long, but that doesn’t matter. For the brief time that the drugs are taking affect, the user can forget about the problems, responsibilities and limitations of everyday life, and escape to a fantasy world.

This is why they are so attractive to young people and despite their dangers. However, drug abuse can lead to drug dependence. It can damage the systems in the body, lead to nervous problem, and causes other health hazards. Internal organs could be equally affected by drug and substance abuse. The symptoms are increase heart and breathing rates and blood pressure, and decrease appetite. Side-effects can include sweating, dry mouth, blurred vision, insomnia, and dizziness. In addition users can feel restless, anxious and moody, become excitable and have a false sense of power and security.

Moreover, complaints of indiscipline in the school are mostly because of drug abuse. Drug abuse could also causes mental illness with the consequence of drop-out of school. It could cause decline in the societal moral and cultural values. The violent tendencies are also associated with drug abuse. According to those, abuse of drugs affects a person’s physical or emotional conditions, even both. Drug abuse can lead to poor performance of the students in the schools. Since majority of drug abuse among youths start in high schools, the facilities can have early detection and prevention by teach students the effect of drug use. Word count: 504

Categories
Free Essays

Drug Abuse and Prevention

Our society’s idea of prevention is to limit the availability of drugs (Hart & Ksir, 2011, p. 400), but this is not essentially the best way. Addiction affects everyone. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), substance abuse cost our nation “more than $484 billion dollars (The National Institute on Drug Abuse ). ” So although you might not be directly impacted by drug abuse, as a whole your tax dollars are spent on fighting the war on drugs. Currently there are several different types of substance prevention; however are they really our best option?

First is primary prevention, which is aimed at mostly young children who have never tried a substance or those who may have tried tobacco or alcohol (Hart & Ksir, 2011, p. 401). Benefits from this type of early intervention include encouraging abstinence, and teaching people the effects of potential drug use on their lives, emotions, and social relationships (Hart & Ksir, 2011, p. 401). There are programs that go to schools, and speak to children as young as 8 about drugs and the effects of drug use.

Secondary prevention is for those who have tried the drug in question or other types of drugs. This is supposed to prevent the use of more dangerous drugs, and also to prevent the use of the substances in a more dangerous way (Hart & Ksir, 2011, p. 401). This prevention is aimed more towards college students, who have tried drugs but have not suffered seriously from their drug use. This is not aimed at people who need obvious treatment (Hart & Ksir, 2011, p. 402). Let us look back on primary prevention. Most students have experienced a program called D.

A. R. E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education). Studies have shown that here is no proof that D. A. R. E. reduced the use of alcohol or drugs; it was found that it is actually 3 counterproductive (Hanson, 2007). The U. S. Department of Education prohibits schools from spending funding on the D. A. R. E. program, because they believe “it’s completely ineffective in reducing alcohol and drug use (Hanson, 2007). What D. A. R. E. oes is exposes young elementary school children to drugs they might not have know about before. There should be a better approach to primary prevention. Changing the age group to sixth graders is a start because they are the ones who are most likely to be exposed to drugs and alcohol. The programs should continuously follow up and collect data on the students to find out what approach is most effective. Every person is different, and if we combine selective and primary prevention we can cater programs to specific types of children.

Secondary prevention is designed for people who have tried the drug in question or a variety of other substances (Hart & Ksir, 2011, p. 401). The ultimate goal of these programs is to prevent the person who is using a certain drug from opening up to other, more dangerous drugs. The purpose is to stop them from endangering themselves more than they already have. The clientele in this case are usually people who are more experienced and have not had an extreme reaction to the drugs that they have used.

Therefore, they are not “in too deep. ” Many of the people that fall into this category are college students and programs aimed at encouraging responsible use of alcohol among college students are good examples of this stage of prevention (Hart & Ksir, 2011, p. 402). In order to attempt to prevent the transition from use to abuse in college students, they should think about starting these prevention programs at an earlier age. Nowadays, kids get started very early and by high school they are already exposed to alcohol and drug use.

It would be wise to open their eyes to what they are going to encounter in their college years and give them the proper advice so that they are prepared when they get to college. College students have a lot of free time on their hands and it is very easy to make a habit out of recreational drug use. I feel that if students knew what to expect, they won’t be as naive and vulnerable as they would be if they hadn’t been properly advised. Students at that age get involved in different things because they are making new friends and adjusting to a new lifestyle.

I think it would be a good idea for campuses to have clubs or programs run by students for students who are struggling with drug abuse, that way students know that they have someone to talk to who will help them if they need it. A prevention program that takes place at later stages of drug abuse is Tertiary prevention. Tertiary preventing is relapse prevention, or follow-up programs (Hart & Ksir, 2011, p. 402). This prevention refers to actions that can be taken to prevent a relapse from occurring and to help the person maintain a healthy status after therapy has lready been administered. For alcohol- or heroin-dependent individuals, treatment programs are the first order of priority (Hart & Ksir, 2011, p. 402). If a person has already been treated or are able to stop using without the help of anyone else, they enter another stage of prevention. This could be improved by having people who have already been through the program follow up with the clientele who are currently going through the same experience that they did. It is much easier for people to talk to someone who has been in the same position as them.

Having people who they can relate to and continue to guide them through their journey to stay sober is very encouraging. The universal drug prevention program is another kind of intervention which targets the whole community; its intention is to reach a large audience. This program focuses on the entire 5 group rather than the individual. These programs are implemented within the community, classrooms, and focus on prevention and life skills (Little, 2010).

A kind of Universal prevention program is the Caring Community Program which consists of a family- plus approach to reduce the risk of drug use by children (Little, 2010). These kinds of programs are quite beneficial in that they target the young. By the end of elementary a child has already been exposed to some form of drugs. By providing the sense of community it reduces drug abuse, street violence and psychological problems among children (Little, 2010). These types of programs promote motivation in school and academic achievement.

Another great benefit is that Potential benefits are expected to outweigh costs for everyone (Schaps, 2003). The downside to a program like this would be that because it’s made to focus on the group as a whole, individuals that are at a higher risk and constantly surrounded by drugs are getting the same attention as those that may have never seen drugs, These individuals may need more intervention to be able to stay away from drugs since access to them is abundant. A great way to better this program would be to intensify it in communities that drugs run ramped and easily accessed.

While still keeping the prevention program universal and targeting the whole community, it would be more impactful if altered in high risk communities to strengthen the program and make it more intensive. The Selective prevention program on the other hand targets subgroups of the general population that are determined to be at risk for substance abuse. Those who participate in this kind or program are recruited because they are known to have specific risk to substance abuse.

The groups targeted by these programs are both adults and children. Age, gender, family history, place of residence and victimization, or physical and/or sexual abuse may define the targeted 6 subgroups (Doyle, 2006). A benefit of this program would be that the selective prevention program is presented to the entire subgroup because the subgroup as a whole is at higher risk for substance abuse than the general population.

It targets those people that are being exposed to drugs more frequently or that are prone to abusing drugs rather than targeting all communities. Not all communities have the same drug exposure and accessibility to drugs. So it’s important to target specific communities. The weakness of this program is that the individual’s personal risk is not exclusively assessed or recognized and is based solely on a presumption given in his or her membership in the at-risk subgroup (Doyle, 2006).

There may be individuals in the subgroup that are at no risk for drug abuse whereas there may be someone in the group that is already using. If this is not known the one that is already using may not benefit at all from this program. Great ways to strengthen the selective prevention program is to go deeper, not only select at risk subgroups but asses individuals within the group to increase intervention with certain individuals that may be already using.

Categories
Free Essays

Narcotic Drugs

In this paper I will discuss the details the classification of narcotic drugs in criminal law, forensic evidence needed to obtain a conviction in a drug case. The term narcotic implies a state of lethargy or sluggishness. Pharmacologists classify narcotic drugs as substance that bring relief from pain and produce sleep. Unfortunately narcotic has come to be popularly associated with any drugs that is socially unacceptable, as a consequence of this incorrect usage many drug are improperly call narcotics.

Most drug laws in the United States incorrectly designated marijuana as a narcotic; even now many drug controlled laws in the United States including federal law, classify cocaine as a narcotic drug (Saferstein 2011, p193). A large number of drug users are in daily contact with a range of criminal justice organizations. The police enforce laws relating to illegal drugs and unlawful activities that surround drug use. It is important to recognize that relationship between drug and crime are unclear.

Drug use leads to crime; second crimes leads to drug use and third drugs and crime are related to social force (Hughes, p, 75, 2006). When a forensic chemist picks up a drug specimen for analysis, he or she can expect to find just about anything, so all contingencies must be prepared for. The analysis must leave no room for error because its results will have a direct bearing on the process of determine the guilt or innocence of a defendant.

There is no middle ground in drug identification either the specimen is a specific drug or its not and once a positive conclusion is drawn, the chemist must prepared to support and define the validity of the results in the court of law (Saferstein 2011, p204). When someone is accused of a crime involving drugs, more than likely the drugs were taken from their person or property will go from hand to hand as they are processed, analyzed, stored, and sent to the courtroom as evidence.

Every time a change of hands occurs, it must be documented to ensure that the evidence was not tampered with or handled negligently. The process that evidence goes through from the time it is seized to the time it reaches the courtroom is called the “chain of custody. Implementing chain of custody is necessary it’s the start of the foundation of the evidence in question, by showing the absence of alteration, substitution, or change of condition.

Specifically, foundation testimony for tangible evidence requires that exhibits be identified as being in substantially the same condition as they were at the time the evidence was seized, and that the exhibit has remained in that condition through an unbroken chain of custody. For example, suppose that in a prosecution for possession of illegal narcotics, police sergeant A recovers drugs from the defendant; A gives police officer B the drugs; B then gives the drugs to police scientist C, who conducts an analysis of the drugs; C gives the drugs to police detective D, who brings the drugs to court.

The testimony of A, B, C, and D constitute a “chain of custody” for the drugs, and the prosecution would need to offer testimony by each person in the chain to establish both the condition and identification of the evidence, unless the defendant stipulated as to the chain of custody in order to save time. Conclusion: Narcotic drugs will forever be around. It’s a complex problem throughout society. It affects people from the newborn stage to old age. Narcotic drugs, takes an enormous toll on lives and communities, especially in developing countries and its contribution to the overall burden and will to increase in the future.

Categories
Free Essays

The Effects of teenage drug abuse

Drugs had a terrible effect on teenagers. It is a bad habit because they don’t know the consequences. When teenagers use drugs, the negative effects can be seen in family relationships, academic performance, and even criminal. Drugs use often leads to a breakdown in family relationships. First of all, teens on drugs often stop communicating with parents such as they don’t want to go anywhere with their parents because they want to stay at home and use drugs. Second, teens may lie or begin acting strangely at home to protect their drug use.

For example, they don’t want anyone come inside to the room because they think the people can stolen his drugs. Finally, teens may begin to be violence. Specifically, they can hit you if you don’t give money when they ask you for more money to buy more drugs. Also Drugs affected their school. Teens may begin irresponsible in the school. First, students stop caring about schoolwork such as they don’t do their homework. Second, they may start bothering other kids at school. One consequence of drugs is they feel power for do everything.

Related essay: How Teenagers Spend Their Time Essay

Finally, they often skip school to be with their friends who do drugs. In particular, they think is better spending all the time with their friends who do drugs than go to school since they use drugs. If teens become addicted o drugs, they will do almost anything; sometimes even commit crimes, to get drugs. First, drugs are expensive, so teens usually run out of money to buy them such as they spend all their money they have to get more drugs. Next, they might begin stealing from their parents.

One effect of drugs is they don’t have more money, for this they begin to stealing. Then they may begin to kill people such as if you don’t give money when they ask you they can kill you to get the money for buy more drugs. In conclusion, Drug is the result of bad habit and makes everyone crazy especially teenagers because drug use often leads to a breakdown in family relationships, teens may begin irresponsible in the school, and they will do almost anything like commit crimes.

Categories
Free Essays

Legalizing Drugs: The Ultimate Alternative to Cease the Drug War

For years, the United States has constantly been in the midst of a war. As a matter of fact, it is a war that is extreme, costly, and very exposed. Not only is it fought within the U.S. boundaries, but also in foreign shores. This so-called war is the War on Drugs. No one can argue that drugs are like a plague in our society. However, as bad as the effect of drugs on our society is, the effect of prohibition is worse. Federal government has spent billions of dollars on the struggle to end this war.

Even the state and local government have spent millions of dollars to cease this war. Local reformers also contribute to this war by generating their own versions of the war and by recruiting as many community groups and leaders as they can to further the effort, but it all seems useless because no favorable results have been obtained so far. The best way to cease this everlasting war is to legalize drugs. Legalizing drugs will help the community as a whole because it will save many lives, help reduce crimes rates, improve research for medicine, and increase the government’s income.

By legalizing drugs, hundred of lives can be saved each year. Many of the deaths that are now categorized as “drug overdose” are, in fact, caused by drugs that are purer than the users’ accustomed dose. This will cause an overdose by merely taking the dose to which they are accustomed. Other deaths are caused by the drugs being “cut” or diluted with impure or dangerous substances. At present, drugs are cut with anything from relatively harmless things such as baking soda, powdered sugar, lactose and corn starch to poisons like strychnine and arsenic.

Legal drugs would fall under the supervision and standards of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), thereby insuring cleaner and purer drugs at consistent dosages. In addition, intravenous and intramuscular drugs could be packaged in single use syringes that are designed to be destroyed by the act of using them once. Thus, preventing the reuse and sharing of needles. This will reduce the spread of AIDs, hepatitis, and many other types of infections. Hence, more lives saved, as well as the reduction of burden on many public resources since many drug abusers cannot afford to pay for medical treatment. The government would have control of all drugs.

Once the government has control over the drugs, private industries would be in control of the sale of the drugs. Society learned from the, prohibition of alcohol during the 1920’s, “private industry is much easier to control compared to public industry or the black market” (Prohibition of Alcohol). Legalizing drugs with the appropriate regulation and control would severely limit the access of drugs to children. Just as minors cannot legally but alcohol, they would not be able to walk into a state regulated drug store and buy drugs. Under the present conditions, drug dealers do not care if he customer is 5 years old or 50 years old. These drug dealers are only concerned on the amount of money that goes into their pockets. New laws would be imposed to the people who can but drugs, how much a person can buy, and where the person can buy drugs. Therefore, this would create a safer and more organized society.

Legalizing and regulating drug production and sale will eliminate a plethora of drug crimes, as well as crimes related to drugs. Crimes such smuggling, producing and selling drugs would cease to be profitable. It will also limit the availability of funds to finance other crimes such as illegal gambling, prostitution, extortion and terrorism. Former Nobel Prize Winner for Economics, Milton Friedman states, “The legalization of drugs would simultaneously reduce the number of crimes and improve the respect for the law. It is hard to imagine any other single provision which could make a more significant contribution to the promotion of law and order (Legalization of Drugs).” Being one of the world’s leading drug-related crime nation, the United States needs to diminish the crime rate. The best option is to obtain this is by legalizing drugs or else like former U.S.

Secretary of State, George Schultz says “… will never obtain any results as long as we are unable to separate crime from the drug business and the incitement to criminality this causes” (Legalization of Drugs). Drugs will likely be cheaper. The supply would be relatively consistent. Market forces such as “supply and demand” will be less of a determining price factor. Nor will the risk factor to dealers and smugglers affect price. The cost of producing most illegal drugs is minimal, particularly in an industrial setting. Therefore, legalization will reduce crimes such as burglary, mugging, and prostitution.

Legalizing drugs would be useful in the medicinal world. It is probably one of the prime reasons why drugs should be legalized because it will be helpful for medical-related research. There are numerous ways in which drugs could be used in the medical field. For example, marijuana helps relieve pain caused by glaucoma. Glaucoma is a “group of eye diseases characterizes by an increase in intraocular pressure (Garcia, Matthews) ” in the eyeball causing damage to the optic disc and impaired vision which sometimes develops into blindness for many people every year.

Medical researchers found that as the dose of marijuana increases, the pressure within the eye decreases by up to a 30%, thus, lowering the risk of suffering from such a agonizing and dreadful disease (Garcia, Matthews). Cocaine is another drug which can be used because it was the first effective local anesthetic (Spillane, 2000). However, in the late 1880’s surgical procedures using local anesthetics was replaced by a general anesthesia solution.

Several countries South America such as Peru and Bolivia still use coca as both a general stimulant and for more specific medical purposes (Spillane 2000). There are, however, some recent and so far uncertain signs of reviving interests in cocaine from the medical institutions and even coca itself for other medical purposes to be used in researches as well as in diagnosis and treatments. Another illegal drug useful for medical usages is heroin. Heroin was once and is still used as a powerful pain-killer which is used to control intense chronic pains caused by severe diseases such as cancer and tuberculosis (Schaffer).

Researchers have found signs showing that heroin is significantly less harmful than most of the drugs which are given in its place. There are other ways drugs could be used for medical purposes, however, due to its illegal status there has not been many in-depth studies into the possible uses of illegal drugs as was initially hoped for. Not only will legalizing drugs help the medical community but it will take the medical world into a new horizon with these drugs.

The federal government does not know how to control the great amount of money that they have spent on the war on drugs, which still continues. Yearly, “the federal government spends around $20 billion dollars (Mann, 2001)” on issues related to the war on drugs. Not only does legalizing drugs help needy organizations, but it also helps the community. The money that the government annually spends on the drug war could be used for building rehabilitation centers for handicapped citizens, building more schools to educate people on drugs, or go into funds for a medical or scientific research. According to former chief of the Planning Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health, Theodore R. Vallance, “the legalization of the now illegal drugs would result in a net saving of $37 billion annual savings for the federal government (Vallance).” The federal government will also benefit from the increase in income due to taxation and licensing of drugs. Just like cigarettes and alcohol, drugs would be taxed.

The tax imposed on these drugs should vary on how the drug affects the individuals who take drugs. Marijuana’s side effects, which as “loud talking and bursts of laughter, lack of memory in conversations, and chronic redness of the eyes (Glantz),” should have a smaller tax rate because its side effects are less severe compared to cocaine and heroin’s side effects. By placing different tax rates on different drugs, according to their side effects, users would start using softer drugs and the usage of harder drugs would be less common because of its high cost. People would have to either start paying to obtain harder drugs or they would diminish their drug use. Drug sales are probably the largest untaxed markets in the United States and around the world, hence, if drugs were legalized, the money from taxing drugs would be used for more serious problems.

In short, legalizing drugs will benefit the community at a larger extent. The overly fought, absurd Drug War has been, is, and will continue to be an absolute failure if the United States continues to struggle with it like it has done. Instead, actions needs to be taken and the ultimate alternative is to legalize all drugs. By doing so, a number of lives are saved in many ways. Legalization helps reduce crime, making the community a safer place to live in. Legalization also allows for the exploring or research in the field of medicine. Lastly, the government can save money, but its income will also increase.

Works Cited

Garcia, G., Matthews, L. “Laser and Eye Safety in the Laboratory.” New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (1995): 102

Glantz, Meyer D. “Correlates and Consequences of Marijuana Use.” Washington D.C.: METROTEC (1984):37

Mann, Judy. “Money Spent of Drug War Could Be Put To Better Use.” Washington Post (D.C.) 17 October 2001: C12

Nadelmann, Ethan A. “An Unwinnable  War on Drugs.” New York Times. 26 April 2001: A23

Spillane, Joseph. Cocaine: from medical marvel to modern menace in the United States. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press (2000): 58-61

Schaffer, Clifford A. “Basic Facts About the War on Drugs.” Drug Reform Coordination Network. <http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/basicfax.htm#q16>

 

Categories
Free Essays

Analyzing the legalization of drugs

Introduction

The increase in the drug cases during the years has lead several propositions from various individuals, one of which is the legalization of drugs. Since the widespread use of illegal drugs has eventually persisted throughout the expanse of time, and with the failure to contain the issue of illegal drug use, one suggested solution is to amend the law by legalizing the use of drugs or by putting it finally under the control and mandate of the law.

However, the judicial system has had to cope with the situation. The need to reexamine the existing methods of managing and handling these drug cases proportionally rose with the persistence of illegal drugs amidst existing legal sanctions. This had led to the processing of drug cases not only in court but even outside the court. This is to cope with the great number of drug offenders of varying levels getting apprehended everyday.

There were several judicial strategies conceived in order to deal with the massive amount of drug cases. These judicial strategies include the creation of specialized divisions of a drug court in some trial courts, sped-up case processing procedures, deferred prosecution programs requiring court-supervised treatment and counseling and more. There are also combinations of these strategies, all to speed-up the processing of these cases. These cases are screened beforehand in order to know what degree and what level of judicial supervisions would be applicable for the case. This is also essential for early treatment intervention and rehabilitation of the offenders, so as to stop the continued drug abuse and the likelihood of crimes.

On the other hand, arguments for the legalization of drugs are constantly being hurled forward in order to finally resolve the existing contentions against the ill-effects of drugs as well as for the perceived benefits both the government and the individuals can actually obtain from legalizing these substances.

Arguments for the legalization of drugs

One of the most common drugs in the society today is Marijuana. It is known scientifically as the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, where the leaves are being dried up, rolled into sheets of paper and be smoked just like cigarette or tobacco. It is the most often used illegal drug in the world, known in various names all over, like “pot,” “herb,” and “Mary Jane.” Some users can make use of marijuana by mixing it into food substances or drink it by brewing it with tea. The addictive element of marijuana is its Tetrahydrocannabinol or THC content. The effect of marijuana would depend on how strong or how potent is its Tetrahydrocannabinol content, thus also giving various effects on the marijuana users (Dell and Snyder 630).

One of the reasons for finally legalizing drugs, especially marijuana, is founded on the historical context of the “illegal” substance. In America, for instance, those who lived in the area of Jamestown back in 1611 raised marijuana under the order of King James I for the purpose of crafting rope for the naval force of the British. The “herb”, as it has been called, also served as a medicinal substance specifically for George Washington who planted marijuana within the premises of Mount Vernon and that the plant was categorized as a prescription medicine until 1937 (Smith 101).

Marijuana also has positive sides which can be used as an argument for its eventual legalization. One of the beneficial effects of the use of marijuana rests on its utility for the control of symptoms, especially in chemotherapy procedures, as an “effective antiemetic” among patients with health profiles such as cancer and “AIDS patients with wasting syndrome” which led to “a greater ability to cope emotionally with disabling or life-threatening illness (Gorman 23).

Moreover, under the rule of Emperor Chen Nung of ancient China five centuries ago, marijuana has been declared as well as a plant that has medicinal value in terms of curing malaria, rheumatism, constipation, “absentmindedness” as well as the claims for mental and bodily disorders suffered by women (Grinspoon and Bakalar 3).

There is also the contention for the prospect of establishing a regulated drug market which can be a profitable source of government tax. This idea illustrates the observation that the widespread use of illegal drugs and its potential to be a market commodity can overcome the legal restrictions ascribed unto it.  A controlled degree of the regulation of marijuana, for example, creates, instead, an increase in government revenues that may outweigh or, at least, come close to the actual government payments on law enforcement against the production, distribution and consumption of marijuana (Caputo and Ostrom 475).

Refutations

Drug Abuse is one of the most common criminal cases in the society today. It is a form of substance abuse, just like alcoholism, since these illicit drugs are actually addictive in nature. Because of this, many people who are hooked on drugs cannot easily let go of the addiction, and would often lead to drug-related crimes like robbery, physical assault, or even murder. Not only does these drugs dangerous to others, but it is also harmful in the drug users’ body, causing the body to take into negative turns, like deterioration and organ failures.

When a person smokes or inhales marijuana smoke, he would usually feel rapid heart beats, loss of coordination and decreased sense of balance, slow reaction rate and a dry mouth. These are already signs of marijuana intoxication, along with the expansion of blood vessels in the eye, that’s why marijuana users usually have red eyes. The effects of marijuana would usually last two to three hours, where the marijuana user would usually tend to be sleepy. The negative effects of using marijuana would be hindering the user’s short term memory, wherein it would be difficult for him to remember recent events. This would usually lead to car crashes and other accidents, since their sense of coordination is greatly affected.

Another dangerous drug would be cocaine. This drug’s effect on the body is really damaging, where addiction to cocaine could bring about permanent damages in one’s body or even death. Cocaine has both short term and long term effects. The short term effects are immediately noticeable, but not that damaging as compared to the long term ones. The common short term effects are a feeling of boosted energy, a decrease in a person’s appetite, and a rather hyped heart rate and blood pressure.

There are still many other types of illegal drugs and similar forms of substances that create ill-effects to the overall health of individuals, oftentimes resulting for them to commit crimes that they could not have possibly committed had they not taken these illegal substances.

Conclusion

Although several illegal substances can actually bring forth benefits for individuals, the negative consequences outweigh these positive sides. Further, not all of these substances have positive effects when used, and that the negative consequences of illegal drug use oftentimes lead to crimes and violence. For these reasons along with the refutations against the legalization of drugs, it can be asserted that the legalization of drugs should not be taken as the ultimate measure for solving illegal drug issues. Rather, the reasons behind the legalization of drugs should be taken as a means in finding the deeper refutations against it.

References

Caputo, M. R., and B. J. Ostrom. “Potential Tax Revenue from a Regulated Marijuana Market: A Meaningful Revenue Source.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 53.4 (1994): 475-90.

Cocaine-Effects.com. “Cocaine Effects.” 2001.

Dell, D. D., and J. A. Snyder. “Marijuana: Pro and Con.” The American Journal of Nursing 77.4 (1977): 630.

Gorman, M. “Substance Abuse.” The American Journal of Nursing 97.11 (1997): 23.

Grinspoon, L., and J. B. Bakalar. “The History of Cannabis.”  Marihuana, the Forbidden Medicine. London: Yale University Press, 1997. 3.

Smith, G. R. W. “Possession of Marijuana in San Mateo County: Some Social Costs of Criminalization.” Stanford Law Review 22.1 (1969): 101.

 

Categories
Free Essays

Self Ratings of Dependency/Addiction Regarding Drugs, Sex

The purpose of this study “Self Rating Of dependency/addiction regarding drugs, sex, love, food: male and female college students” was to see if drug addiction and dependencies were related to each other in any type of way. They also wanted to see if they were related to addictions and dependency in other areas such as love, sex, food, ect. Some questions they asked themselves to help conduct the study was “to what degree do addictions to drugs, sex, love, and food correlate with each other? ”, “Are there meaningful sex differences in the addictions? ” so they gathered 9,313 college students to help them come up with an answer.

They start off with saying people like to be in control of them self’s not addictions being in control of them. When people have addictions people tend to feel a lack of control and usually when they feel weak in one area they are weak in other areas. These researchers feel that if you feel like you’re the victim there’s a relationship on being dependent on drugs, sex, love, food and so on. Some other things they thought were just because you’re addicted or dependent on something didn’t necessarily mean you were addicted or dependent to something similar to that.

For example; there are so many types of drugs out in the world if someone was addicted or dependent on a certain drug they didn’t have to dependent or addicted to other drugs. In order to get their results they grabbed 9313 students from the U. S and Canada. 3086 were male and 6230 were females. Now what they did was have each professor have their students fill out a long questioner that had questions about; sex differences, drugs and other addictions. After they were done with this they were told to fill out self- ratings.

Now self ratings were test that the person who is taking the test decides whether a question…………………………………………………………. They were given fourteen categories. Those categories were; alcohol, amphetamines, barbitures, being in love, chocolate, cocaine, coffee, cigarettes, gambling, having sex, heroin, marijuana, and food in general. And what they were suppose to do with this was on a scale of 0-100 choose a number that best fits with if they ever felt them self’s dependant or addicted to the categories.

Categories
Free Essays

Musical Influence on Drug Abuse

Musical Influence on Substance Abuse English 1302 Professor Young Sex, drugs and rock n’ roll. This commonly used phrase sums it up pretty well. It seems as though anytime I hear anything about a rock band, especially from the 1970’s or 1980’s there is some sort of drug abuse somewhere along the line with at least one or more of the band members, and this will usually result in the break up of the band or the death of a member.

Well I started getting sick of rock music getting a bad wrap when it comes to drugs and heavy drinking, so I want to know, does the music preference or type of music a band or person play have a direct link to the type of drug they prefer to use? Did that music cause the individual to use these certain drugs, or are people that already use these substances drawn to a certain type of music? There are any questions to be asked when looking at the different music genres and the people involved with its drug of choice.

Is crack and cocaine a problem in the ghetto’s because of rap music, or are these drugs in rap music because they were already prevalent in the ghetto’s? Do people take hallucinogenic drugs because it enhances the repetitive music they listen to, or are people getting into these type of drugs and then being drawn to that type of music because it intensifies the feeling of the drug. There are many questions that need to be asked and answered when it comes to musical preference and drug preference.

Some studies have been done, but I have yet to find anything conclusive, mostly just statistics about where people are going that do these drugs, not what they are listening to. I am to dig deeper into this issue and find out if there is something more than just the type of music or type of person. I feel as though some drugs are around certain types of music and people for a reason. Whether it is to intensify the listening pleasure of that individual, or if it has nothing to do with the music at all and it is just the individual’s preference.

I for one believe there is some sort of relationship between the two, I just don’t know what that is, yet. Rap music is one of the newest genres of music, but even rap has evolved to involve drug references in almost all of the most popular songs. A study done for addiction research and theory about changes in drug use being prevalent in rap songs showed that drugs were mentioned in 63% of rap songs, versus only about 10% of songs in other music genres.

Rap music saw a large influx in the use of lyrics about drugs starting in the early 1990’s with marijuana being the most frequented drug mentioned. Some could argue that the crack cocaine epidemic that started in the ghetto’s in the early 1990’s had a big influence in this, but then why is marijuana the most mentioned? My outtake on this is that people started using harder and harder drugs, making marijuana less taboo as the years went on, so now it is just second nature to talk about marijuana, it’s not as bad as it was once thought to be.

One example this article discussed was that rap artist Dr. Dre once said in a song “I don’t smoke weed or sinse, ‘cause it only gives a brother brain damage, and brain damage on the mike don’t manage. ” Then, one of his very next album was named “The Chronic,” and hit triple platinum. Ironic? Maybe a bit, but was he doing this purely to sell records, or was marijuana something Dr. Dre enjoyed and wanted to pay it tribute? I am going with the latter explanation. Seeing as how he has had many more songs since the release of that album glorifying the use of marijuana.

Next I wanted to take a look at the hard drugs and heavy drinking associated with the rock n’ roll lifestyle. If you take a look back at any great or largely influential band there is almost always traces of drug use and drinking. This has even proved to be the reason many of these bands do not still exist in today’s world. Try to find a picture of Slash, a guitarist for Guns n Roses, from the 1980’s, without him carrying around a bottle of Jack Daniels, it is nearly impossible. Most every rock n’ roll band from the 1980’s has a history of hard drug use and very heavy drinking.

Because of the rock music? Or is it that these artist have always enjoyed hard drugs and drinking, but now that they are in a successful rock band they can afford more of it. Did the entertainment industry ruin these artist by turning them into drug addicts and alcoholics? In all my readings it seems to point in one direction, and that is usually these people have always had issues with drug use or alcohol, but now, with little to worry about and more money pouring in than they know what to do with, combined with the rowd they are now associating themselves with, they let these substances take over their life, and before they know it, the situation is no longer controllable. The sad fact is that rock music is fast paced, fueled by drugs that keep people on the go and booze, because who doesn’t like a good stiff drink every once and a while. Rock n’ roll music has that “screw everything, lets have fun” mentality, when you mix that with a group of people that has a common interest in drugs or alcohol things tend to get a little out of hand.

Binge drinking, cocaine and heroin are the most common issues with substances that I have found about the rock n’ roll crowd. When people drink, especially in large amounts, inhibitions become lost, that coupled with the screw it attitude of rock music may help push someone to do those harder drugs that they would not normally do. From everything I’ve read, it seems as though rock music doesn’t cause people to do these things, but rather helps fuel these individuals decision to party harder and go further with their drug use.

Once alcohol, fast paced music and the right crowd of people are thrown into the mix, it is relatively easy to see how someone could fall victim to drug abuse and make poor decisions. One of the other types of music genres I wanted to take a look at was all the repetitive music out there, including, techno, dubstep, trance and house. I have known many people throughout the last few years that enjoy these types of music, some of them drug users, some of them not.

I have noticed that these people didn’t really have a drug of choice but rather did a little of everything, except for the hardcore fans. The people that go to big dance music parties or raves seem to like their hallucinogens more than any other drug. Where did this start though? This type of music is still relatively new in the grand scheme of things, so that tells me that maybe the music didn’t cause people to start using these drugs, but rather people that enjoyed using these types of drugs flocked to the repetitive music because of the way the drug enhanced it.

Now, I know that most of the hallucinogenic drugs gained their popularity with the rock music of the 1960’s and 1970’s, but when did it switch from rock music to techno or the repetitive music genres? Did it switch because the rock stars of the 1980’s preferred the harder drugs like heroin? In every article and book that I looked in, it seems to me that alcohol is responsible for this change. Once rock stars started with the heavy drinking the hallucinogens were pretty much taken off the table, from what everyone has told me, alcohol and hallucinogens just do not mix well.

So what is a person looking for a good time left to do? Go back to smoking marijuana, and that be it? Nope, it was time to move on to harder drugs and let the hallucinogens stay back with a different crowd. I know lsd and other hallucinogenics were around long before the popularization of repetitive music, so I can not put the blame on the music here, for this type of genre I believe that it is the drug that is responsible for the music. People are always looking for a way to intensify feelings, to go further than they did the last time they took a pill or snorted something.

The way for this to happen was to look at the sense of sound, and use it to further the feeling of an acid trip. The use of repetitive beats, sounds and noises puts the drug user in a state of mind where nothing can bother them, it allows the drug to completely take over, thus intensifying the trip. After taking a look at many different music genres, these three seemed to be the most obvious ones that use drugs and or alcohol either in lyrics or as a way for the artist or listener to escape reality, if only briefly.

Rap music did not become popular because of the crack cocaine problem in the ghetto’s, but one could easily argue that rap music helped crack become a nation wide epidemic because of the glorification in a lot of rap songs. Alcohol, cocaine, and heroin did not create rock n’ roll, sure it may have made it more interesting, but at the same time, it has ruined many artist’s lives that could have gone on to do great things for the music industry.

Not everyone that attends a rave or a techno party is doing acid or ecstasy, but that music genre as a whole would not be in existence would it not have been for these drugs. While I don’t think music alone causes people to ruin their lives with drugs and alcohol, there is definitely a link between music and drug use. Whether it’s the type of drug, or how much of the drug that person prefers doesn’t matter, through all my readings one thing is certain, drugs and music have a past together and will have a future.

Categories
Free Essays

Rights of Drug Administration

THE SIX RIGHTS OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION Right Drug Many drugs have similar spellings and variable concentrations. Before the administration of the medication, it is imperative to compare the exact spelling and concentration of the prescribed drug with the medication card or drug profile and the medication container. Regardless of the drug distribution system used, the drug label should be read at least three times: 1. Before removing the drug from the shelf or unit dose cart. 2. Before preparing or measuring the actual prescribed dose 3.

Before replacing the drug on the shelf or before opening a unit dose container (just prior to administering the drug to the patient) Right Time When scheduling the administration time of a medication, factors such as timing abbreviations, standardized times, consistency of blood levels, absorption, diagnostic testing, and the use of p. r. n. medications must be considered. 1. Standard Abbreviations—The drug order specifies the frequency of drug administration. Standard abbreviations used as part of the drug order specify the times of administrati0n.

The nurse should also check institutional policy concerning administration of medications. Hospitals often have standardized interpretations for abbreviations. The nurse must memorize and utilize standard abbreviations in interpreting, transcribing, and administering medications accurately. 2. Standardized Administration Times—For patient safety, certain medications are administered at specific times. This allows laboratory work or ECGs to be completed first, in order to determine the size of the next dose to be administered. 3.

Maintenance of Consistent Blood Levels—The schedule for the administration of a drug should be planned to maintain consistent blood levels of the drug in order to maximize the therapeutic effectiveness. 4. Maximum Drug Absorption—The schedule for oral administration of drugs must be planned to prevent incompatibilities and maximize absorption. Certain drugs require administration on an empty stomach. Thus, they are given 1hour before or 2 hours after meals. Other medications should be given with foods to enhance absorption or reduce irritations.

Still other drugs are not given with diary products or antacids. It is important to maintain the recommended schedule of administration for maximum therapeutic effectiveness. 5. Diagnostic Testing—Determine whether any diagnostic tests have been ordered for completion prior to initiating or continuing therapy. Before beginning antimicrobial therapy, assure that all culture specimens (such as blood, urine, or wound) have been collected. If a physician has ordered serum levels of the drug, coordinate the administration time of the medication with the time the phlebotomist is going to draw the blood sample.

When completing the requisition for a serum level of a medication, always make a notation of the date and time that the drug was at last administered. Timing is important; if tests are not conducted at the same time intervals in the same patient, the data gained are of little value. 6. P. R. N. Medications—Before the administration of any p. r. n. medication, the patient’s chart should be checked to ensure that the drug has not been administered by someone else, or that the specified time interval has passed since the medication was last administered. When a p. rn. medication is given, it should be charted immediately.

Record the response to the medication. Right Dose Check the drug dosage ordered against the range specified in the reference books available at the nurses’ station. 1. Abnormal Hepatic or Renal Function—Always consider the hepatic and renal function of the specific patient who will receive the drug. Depending on the rate of drug metabolism and route of excretion from the body, certain drugs require a reduction in dosage to prevent toxicity. Conversely, patients being dialyzed may require higher than normal doses. Whenever a dosage is outside the normal range for that drug, it should be verified before administration.

Once verification has been obtained, a brief explanation should be recorded in the nurses’ notes and on the Kardex 9or drug profile) so that others administering the medication will not be repeatedly contacted with the same questions. The following laboratory tests are used to monitor liver function: aspartame aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). The blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Crs), and creatinine clearance (Ccr) are used to monitor renal function. 2.

Pediatric and Geriatric Patients—Specific doses for some drugs are not yet firmly established for the elderly and for the pediatric patient. The nurse should question any order outside the normal range before administration. For pediatric patients, the most reliable method is by proportional amount of body surface area or body weight. 3. Nausea and Vomiting—If a patient is vomiting, oral medications should be withheld and the physician contacted for alternate medication orders, as the parenteral or rectal route may be preferred. Investigate the onset of the nausea and vomiting.

If itbegan after the start of the medication regimen, consideration should be given to rescheduling the oral medication. Administration with food usually decreases gastric irritation. Consult with a physician for changes in orders. Right Patient When using the medication card system, compare the name of the patient on the medication card with the patient’s identification bracelet. With the unit dose system, compare the name on the drug profile with the individual’s identification bracelet. When checking the bracelet under either system, always check for allergies, as well.

Some institutional policies require that the individual be called by name as a means of identification. This practice must take into consideration the patient’s mental alertness and orientation. It is much safer ALWAYS to check the identification bracelet. 1. Pediatric Patients—Never ask children their names as a means of positive identification. Children may change beds, try to avoid you, or seek attention by identifying themselves as someone else. Check identification bracelets EVERY TIME. 2. Geriatric Patients—It is a wise policy to check identification bracelets, in addition to confirming names verbally.

In a long-term care setting, residents usually do not wear identification bracelets. In these instances, only a person who is familiar with the residents should administer medications. Many errors may be voided by carefully following the practices just presented. Make it a habit to check the identification bracelet EVERY TIME a medication is administered. The adverse effects of administration to the wrong medication to the wrong patient and the potential for a lawsuit can thus be avoided. Right Route The drug order should specify the route to be used for the administration of the medication.

Never substitute one dosage form of medication for another unless the physician is specifically consulted and an order for the change is obtained. There can be a great variation in the absorption rate of the medication through various routes of administration. The intravenous route delivers the drug directly into the bloodstream. This route provides the fastest onset, but also the greatest danger of potential adverse effects such as tachycardia and hypotension. The intramuscular route provides the next fastest absorption rate, based upon availability of blood supply.

This route can be quite painful, as is the case with many antibiotics. The subcutaneous route is next fastest, based on blood supply. In some instances the oral route may be as fast as the intramuscular route, depending on the medication being given, the dosage form (liquids are absorbed faster than tablets), and whether there is food in the stomach. The oral route is usually safe if the patient is conscious and able to swallow. The rectal route should be avoided, if possible, due to irritation of mucosal tissues and erratic absorption rates.

In case of error, the oral and rectal routes have the advantage of recoverability for a short time after administration. Right Drug Preparation and Administration Maintain the higher standards of drug preparation and administration. Focus your entire attention on the calculation, preparation, and administration of the ordered medication. A drug reconstituted by a nurse should be clearly labeled with the patient’s name, the dose or strength per unit of volume, the date and time the drug was reconstituted, the amount and type of diluent used, the expiration date/ or time, and the initials or name of the nurse who prepared it.

Once reconstituted, the drug should be stored according to the manufacturer’s recommendation. • CHECK the label of the container for the drug name, concentration, and route of appropriate administration. • CHECK the patient’s chart, Kardex, medication administration record, or identification bracelet for allergies. If no information is found, ask the patient, prior to the administration of the administration of the medication, if he or she has any allergies. • CHECK the patient’s chart, Kardex, medication administration record for rotation schedules of injectable or topically applied medications. CHECK medications to be mixed in one syringe with a list approved by the hospital or the pharmacy for compatibility. Normally, all drugs mixed in a single syringe should be administered within 15 minutes after mixing. Immediately prior to administration, ALWAYS CHECK the contents of syringe for clarity and the absence of any precipitate; if either is present, do not administer the contents of the syringe. • CHECK the patient’s identity EVERY TIME a medication is administered. • DO approach the patient in a firm but kind manner that conveys the feeling that cooperation is expected. DO adjust the patient to the most appropriate position for the route of administration (for example for oral medications, sit the patient upright to facilitate swallowing). Have appropriate fluids ready before administration. • DO remain with the patient to be certain that all medications have been swallowed. • DO use every opportunity to teach the patient and family about the drug being administered. • DO give simple and honest answers or explanations to the patient regarding the medication and treatment. DO use a plastic container, medicine cup, medicine dropper, oral syringe, or nipple to administer oral medications to an infant or small child. • DO reward the child who has been cooperative by giving praise; comfort and hold the uncooperative child after completing the medication administration. • DO NOT prepare or administer a drug from a container that is not properly labeled or from a container where the label is not fully legible. • DO NOT give any medication prepared by an individual other than the pharmacist. ALWAYS check the drug name, dosage, frequency, and route ofadministration against the order.

Student nurses must know the practice limitations instituted by the hospital or school and which medications can be administered under what level of supervision. • DO NOT return an unused portion or dose of medication to a stock supply bottle. • DO NOT attempt to administer any drug orally to a comatose patient. • DO NOT leave a medication at the patient’s bedside to be taken “later”; remain with the individual until the drug is taken and swallowed. • DO NOT dilute a liquid medication form unless there are specific written orders to do so. BEFORE DISCHARGE: (1) Explain the proper method of taking prescribed medications to the patient. (2)Stress the need for punctuality in the administration of medications, and what to do if a dosage is missed. (3)Teach the patient to store medications separately from other containers and personal hygiene items. (4)Provide the patient with written instructions reiterating the medication names, schedules, and how to obtain refills. Write the instructions in a language understood by the patient, and use LARGE BOLD LETTERS when necessary. (5) Identify anticipated therapeutic response. 6)Instruct the patient, family member(s), or significant others on how to collect and record data for use by the physician to monitor the patient’s response to drug and other treatment modalities. (7)Give the patient, or another responsible individual, a list of signs and symptoms that should be reported to the physician. (8)Stress measures that can be initiated to minimize or prevent anticipated side effects to the prescribed medication. It is important to do this further encourage the patient to be complaint with the prescribed regimen.

Right Documentation Documentation of nursing actions and patient observations has always been an important ethical responsibility, but now it is becoming a major medicolegal consideration as well. Indeed, it is becoming known as the sixth right. Always chart the following information: date and time of administration, name of medication, dosage, route, and site of administration. Documentation of drug action should be made in the regularly scheduled assessments for changes in the disease symptoms the patient is exhibiting.

Promptly record and report adverse symptoms observe. Document health teaching performed and evaluate and record the degree of understanding exhibited by the patient. • DO record when a drug is not administered and why. • DO NOT record a medication until after it has been given. • DO NOT record in the nurses’ notes that an incident report has been completed when a medication error has occurred. However, data regarding clinical observations of the patient related to the occurrence should be charted to serve as a baseline for future comparisons.

Whenever a medication error does occur, an incident report is completed to describe the circumstances of the event. An incident report related to a medication error should include the following data: date, time the drug was ordered, drug name, dose, and route of administration. Information regarding the date, time, drug administered, and dose and route of administration should be given, and the therapeutic response or adverse clinical observations present should be noted. Finally, record the date, time, and physician’s ordered given. Be FACTUAL; do not state opinions on the incident report.

Categories
Free Essays

Drug Addiction as Depicted in the Movie “Ray”

I have watched two movies: “Ray” and “Traffic.”  I choose to focus on the movie “Ray” for a more realistic portrayal of drug abuse.  In this movie, drugs were used as a chief escape of the blind protagonist, Ray Charles Robinson, from the loneliness of being apart from the normal crowd of people who can see.    He resorted to drugs to forget his condition and to have a sense of belongingness.

The movie begins in the year 1948 up to 1979 when the state of Georgia made a public apology to Ray Charles for banning him for life from his refusal to perform in a segregated concert.  It was a time when racial discrimination was institutionalized, where Negroes (as they were politically called back then) were made to sit at the back of a bus with a “colored” demarcation line, where certain places where “for whites only.”

Such attitudes are not prevalent anymore today. Much has happened since the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s and America and the world has now learned to accept diversity of people’s colors and culture as part of life.  Black people who were called Negroes are now politically termed African-Americans.

Much has also changed in musical tastes since Ray Charles’ time.  He introduced what is now known as soul music which was a blend of gospel and R&B in “I’ve Got a Woman,” a song dedicated to his wife Della Bea.  It was considered sacrilegious at that time.  Nowadays, although soul is still alive, the music scene is full of hip-hop songs with sexually charged lyrics coupled with videos of the same taste. Gospel music is also slowly carving out a significant market niche and not anymore confined to places of worship.

The central character of Ray Charles is the compelling drug addict in the movie.  His downward spiral towards drug abuse started in 1948 in a small gig in a seedy Seattle club called The Rocking Chair.  The announcer, a midget man called Oberon, offered him marijuana or “weed” to calm Ray’s nerves before an impromptu performance.  This is a very believable scene since it was Ray’s first club performance and venture outside of Florida.  He was a nervous journeyman and considered a greenhorn.  It was within his character to be accepting of anything new and seemingly helpful to the current situation.

Later in the movie he was introduced to heroin by a member of his band, Fathead Newman.  Ray tried the drug out of curiosity despite his bandmates’ caution.  He found out that it could take him to places he had never been before, a description and justification of most drug addicts.  This was a believable portrayal because the movie shows his pitiful isolation from his mates while on the road. They would all go out after a performance while Ray was left to tend to himself alone.  His mates would oftentimes shoot themselves up with drugs in a room and prevent Ray from coming in.  There was an undertone of a need to belong and be part of a group coupled with the usual sense of adventure to try something new.

Throughout the whole movie, I see Della Bea, Ray Charles’ persevering wife, as an enabler.  She exhibits avoidance when she found out about Ray’s addiction to heroin.  She could not put up a strong argument with Ray so she compromised when their first child was born by telling Ray not to bring the road to the home she was trying to build for him and their kids.  This somehow meant that he must not openly do his drug routine at home so as not to badly influence the kids. This was also Della Bea’s way to keep the peace since Ray is a very strong-willed person to deal with.  She also repressed and restrained her own feelings of hurt at first to try to understand Ray’s addiction thus in a way became an enduring spectator of her husband’s addiction hoping that he would come to his senses for the bad habit to pass.

I have seen the movie previously and I see that Ray’s drug abuse could have been unnecessary.  He had a loving wife and they were blessed with three kids and affluence that was beyond his dreams.  Any ordinary person would have been thankful for the things he had.  However, he had his own demons to deal with and probably they were driving him to the edge of sanity and his only escape, a fast one, was the high that heroin brought to his senses.  One answer is clear though, drugs never contributed something good to his life.

Works Cited

Ray. Dir. Taylor Hackford. 2004. Videocassette. Universal Pictures, 2006.

Categories
Free Essays

Morality of Drug Use

 

In his book entitled “Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues,” Vincent Ryan Ruggiero formulated a criteria consisting of three elements, which criteria relates to respect for persons as a theoretical construct and a practical ethical standard for everyday decision making (Ruggiero, 78). These three criteria are obligations, moral ideals and consequences, which are all applicable to the determination of proper conduct in relation to drug use (Ruggiero, 79).

Moral Ideals.

Ruggiero explained his concept of moral ideals as distinct from obligations. For him, ideals are goals that characterize excellence, which goals are aimed at by different individuals (Ruggiero, 78). In particular, and in relation to respect for persons, he discussed that moral ideals assist a person in achieving respect for persons (Ruggiero, 80).

He also explicated that moral ideals could be composed of various categories, such as the “cardinal virtues” of old and the theological virtues of religious thinkers. He likewise posited that moral ideals could vary from person to person, or from culture to culture (Ruggiero, 81). This is an important proposition, because the differences in moral ideals determine the differences in treatment given by each person on varying actions. Thus, one person could regard a moral ideal as more than just that, for example as an obligation that requires compliance.

Applying this concept to the ethical issue of drug use, it would be concluded that the perspective could be viewed from a number of different perspectives, which also have varying moral ideals. This means that drug use could be viewed positively or negatively by different cultures or population, depending on their respective moral ideals.

For example, a population of medical practitioners such as doctors would hold on to the ideal that drug use is necessary in certain cases, such as in situations of a disease or illness that could only be cured by the administration of particular drugs. On the other hand, a population consisting of the religious whose faith dictates the avoidance of drugs would hold on to the exact opposite moral ideal. Thus, an ethical decision hinges on the moral ideals to which the population concerned adhere, because such moral ideals determine the kind of ethical decision that would probably be made in any given situation.

Obligations.

Ruggiero also discussed the notion of obligations as a criterion for determining respect for persons. His concept of obligations refers to the element of compulsion into doing a certain act, as determined by the situation involved or the relationship between or among parties (Ruggiero, 80). He likewise explained that different kinds of situations and interpersonal relations dictate the kind of obligations that are imposed on a person.

Viewing drug use in the light of Ruggiero’s concept of obligations, drug use could be ethically justified by formulating a situation such that the administration or prescription of medicinal drugs and the corresponding use is seen as an obligation on the part of the doctor and the patient to maintain the latter’s good health and long life.

Consequences.

Finally, Ruggiero discussed the concept of consequences, which refer to the effects of an action on a person (Ruggiero, 81).  He states that the effects could be classified into beneficial or harmful effects, or grouped according to kind, such as whether they are physical or emotional (Ruggiero, 81).

The most important aspect of Ruggiero’s discussion of the topic is his position that the benefit or harm caused by a specific act is determined by the impact of such an act on all persons involved, including the actor (Ruggiero, 81).

This criterion is relevant in the issue of drug use, because ultimately, any ethical decision on this matter hinges on its effects on the user. Therefore, drug use could be ethically justified if it is shown that there are health benefits that could favor the user or his community. On the other hand, proof that drug use only leads to individual or collective harm would tilt the favor against drug use.

In sum, Ruggiero’s three criteria are relevant in any discussion of the morality of drug use. These criteria provide practical knowledge with regard to the things that one should be looking at, prior to making an ethical decision.

Works Cited

Ruggiero, Vincent Ryan. Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues. 6th ed.