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Cairn Energy Strategic Analysis

INTRODUCTION

Cairn Energy Plc (“Cairn”) is an Edinburgh based publicly traded Oil & Gas Exploratory & Production (E&P) company dealing primarily within its operated assets in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Greenland (Cairn, 2009). Major products sold are crude oil and natural gas, produced from both offshore and onshore drilling blocks (Hoovers, 2009b).

Cairn was founded in 1984 by Sir Bill Gammell with initial operations in theUS. Following its IPO in 1988, Cairn is now publicly traded on the London Stock Exchange with 2008 revenues of $299.3 million and operating profit of $440.9 million – due to sales of assets and financing profit (Cairn, 2009).

BUSINESS SEGMENTS

Cairn’s businesses are divided broadly into two segments namely:

Cairn Energy Plc holds a controlling interest of 62.39% in Cairn India. Since its first oil major oil discovery in the Rajasthan fields of 2004, which was the biggest exploratory discovery in India since 1985, Cairn has focused exclusively on the acquisition of oil blocks and continuing exploration in the country (Cairn Financial Report, 2009).

Capricorn Oil Group is Cairn’s exploratory division that primarily focuses on the exploration of undiscovered oil fields, and is 90% owned by Cairn. Capricorn’s primary focus is on India and the discovery of new oil fields in the country. However Capricorn currently owns exploratory lease-agreements to 7 oil-blocks in Greenland, which are currently pending regulatory approval for oil production (Cairn Financial Report, 2009).

PESTEL

The following table is a macro economical analysis of how political, economical, socio-cultural, technological, environmental and legal factors affect the exploration and production (E&P) industry. The extent to which these factors affect the E&P industry is outlined on a cognitive rating scale from -2 to +2. -2 represents a strong negative effect, while +2 represents a strong positive effect on the E&P industry operating within those regions.

FACTORSEFFECT ON INDUSTRYLEVEL OF EFFECT
Political
Governments of oil producing nations are very involved in the exploration and production of oil and gas in their countries (Bindemann, 1999)E&P companies would have to subject themselves to government processes in order to gain access to production sharing agreements that enables them to explore and produce oil within their territory (Cairn, 2009)-1
Geopolitical developments and violence in some countries makes it unsuitable and very risky for foreign investments in exploration and production of oil and gas.The industry is subject to risky geopolitical violence, as oil installations are usually terrorist targets (Cairn, 2009). Companies have to pay high insurance premiums in order to secure their investments against such activities.-2
Economical
There is increasing competition amongst international governments seeking foreign investments in E&P.These industries, especially foreign oil companies, enjoy tax breaks and favourable corporate conditions such as incentives when looking to enter into countries such as India, Nigeria and Bangladesh (Rigzone, 2009)+2
Oil prices are determined by market factors such as the demand and supply in international markets (Proactive Investors, 2009).Inability to determine prices, poses a severe risk especially in times of low oil prices. Higher oil prices however results in greater than normal profits in the E&P markets (Cairn, 2009). E&P companies posted record profits in 2008 due to oil prices that went as high as $150 per barrel. However the inverse would be the case in the advent of a very low oil price (WSJ, 2009)-1
Socio-Cultural
Climate change discoveries have led to a change in lifestyle towards carbon efficient products in most developed countries (Hoovers, 2009)The change in lifestyle indirectly affects E&P companies as it may reduce dependence on oil and gas products over the long run.-1
CSR is increasingly becoming a method for large national and multinational companies to appease local communities where they operate (Cairn, 2009).E&P companies are not as effective in their CSR policies, in proportion with the level of pollution they create. They are greatly unpopular amongst locals.-2
Technological
Innovative exploratory and drilling technology, such as 3d seismic processing, modelling and sophisticated plant designs are increasingly becoming pre-requisites for successful oil drilling (Saic, 2009).These technologies make it easier for E&P companies to discover much more oil than they would have decades ago. Thereby increasing the likelihood of oil find, and higher returns on investment in exploration activities (Marketwatch, 2009).+2
Shifting attitude towards energy efficient technologies such as hybrid vehicles, electric and wind technologies are increasingly becoming the norm amongst the global public and the energy industry (Chicago Tribune, 2009).Global oil companies would need to adapt their strategy and start investing in renewable energy resources. E&P companies face the threat of a drop in demand for oil and gas, over the coming decades.-1
Environmental
Increased exploratory activities and global warming has facilitated oil discovery in previously unexploited territories (Reuters, 2009).Foreign oil companies, investing in new technology and territories like Greenland and India, are in a better position to reap these benefits (Energy Digital, 2009).+2
E&P activities result in carbon emissions that pose a serious threat to environmental sustainability.E&P companies face embargoes from national governments and international bodies that limit the level of their exploratory activities and the level at which they can expand their activities. They are also subject to extra taxation costs from national governments due to environmental pollution (Herald Scotland, 2009)-2
Legal
Oil producing countries in which foreign oil companies operate impose legal limitations and embargoes on their activities, and also limit their business flexibilities.The limitations and embargoes imposed greatly limit the growth potential of exploration and production companies operating globally (Economic Times, 2009).-2
Policy uncertainties and government breach of contract are increasingly becoming popular in some developing countries where foreign oil companies are seeking to build and develop their assets such as India and Bangladesh.E&P companies operating in these markets, such as Reliance Industries and Cairn Energy in India, need to engage in legal battles with the government in order to get contractual obligations fulfilled (Economic Times, 2009).-2

SUCCESS AND SURVIVAL FACTORS IN THE E&P INDUSTRY

The overall threat to the exploration and production industry, as a whole, is huge globally. Therefore any company in the industry seeking to gain competitive advantage against competitors, and survive in times of hardship – which may be caused by a drastic drop in oil prices, or severe terrorist activities – must adhere to these success and survival factors.

KEY FACTORS FOR SUCCESS

Government support through international trade agreements, tax incentives, beneficial fiscal policies, and suitable bidding processes are very essential for foreign oil companies seeking to explore and produce oil (Datamonitor, 2009). These benefits give these companies the impetus to explore for oil in recently unexplored territory, and increase the likelihood of an oil and gas find.

E&P projects are usually very capital intensive; therefore oil and gas companies need to have access to funds in order to partake in such expenditure (The New Nation, 2009). These funds usually range from a few millions to a couple of billion dollars, therefore access and availability is thoroughly essential for bidding, drilling, production or even transportation activities.

Strategic alliances between oil and gas companies are essential globally as it enables them to transfer assets and leverage resources amongst different projects, so as to capitalize on a broader geographical location and resource base (Hoovers, 2009b). The competitive rivalry in the E&P industry is therefore minimal by the need for these strategic alliances, enabling competing companies to hedge and share risks.

Successful oil discoveries are however the main determinants of success for E&P companies (Datamonitor, 2009). Non-oil bearing blocks are highly unprofitable for exploration companies. India and Greenland, where Cairn currently has the majority of its assets are poised to be largely promising countries, as major oil discoveries and production have already been reported. Greenland is also stated to contain 20% of the world’s oil reserves thereby making it a very profitable investment for Cairn and other indigenous oil companies, if that assumption holds true.

The global forces of demand and supply determine oil prices, therefore oil prices move in accordance to global need. Higher oil prices, such as was in 2008, was very beneficial for oil companies as it significantly increases their profit margins and leads to increased exploratory activities (Wall Street Journal, 2009).

The Availability of buyers is essential for E&P companies seeking to produce oil in large quantities and sell at a profitable price. Sometimes the government determines the buyers who an E&P company can sell to, such as is in India, and this reduces their chances for competitive bargaining.

Exploratory licenses are wholly dependent on E&P companies successfully bidding for leasing agreements (Bindemann, 1999). Inability to win leasing contracts would incapacitate the growth potential of the industry.

Profitability of E&P activities is dependent on the success rate of new oil wells drilled and the ability to increase production from existing wells. Capital availability and investment decisions are based on estimates on future oil prices (Hoovers, 2009).

Large oil manufacturers usually hedge against risk of exploration failures by investment in several oil producing states with large oil reserves, so a depletion of one reserve does not seriously impact on the company’s general business (Hoovers, 2009b).

SURVIVAL FACTORS

Continuous availability of oil and gas resources in the natural reserves of the country being explored.

The availability and access to large capital, though also a success factor, is a survival factor. E&P companies that are unable to form strategic alliances or gain access to large funds would be incapacitated during large capital-intensive projects that could boost their fortunes. They also need capital in order to gain exploration licenses from the government, before they could even begin producing or shipping oil or gas.

Lack of detrimental geopolitical factors such as terrorist activities that specifically target oil and gas installations in their vicinities. An example would be of exploration companies that are usually being subject to local terrorist activities in Nigeria, Iraq and Bangladesh.

High oil prices in global markets, which would ensure that exploration and production companies, investing a huge amount of capital in their businesses, would be able to break even as the oil prices in international markets determines the profit they make as businesses.

Prolonged global dependence on oil and gas products would ensure that demand for these products are still high. A divergence towards renewable energy source such as solar, wind and biological energy would reduce global dependence on non-renewable petroleum products, thereby stalling demand for such products in coming decades.

Adopting technologies that would make exploration and production processes more environmentally efficient would go a long way in appeasing international bodies who are bent upon imposing several climate related levies and taxies on the E&P industry. These taxes and levies would severely impact profits and growth potential into new markets such as Greenland, which is bent on preserving its ecosystem.

REFERENCES

ABC News (2008) Greenland the focus of global oil hunt, www.abc.net.au, (date accessed 07/10/2009)

Bindemann, K. (1999) Production-Sharing Agreements: An Economic Analysis. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. WPM 25

Cairn Financial Report (2009), Half-Yearly Report 2009, www.cairnenergy.com/investors, (accessed 08/10/2009)

Cairn (2009) Cairn: About Us, www.cairnenergy.com/aboutus, (accessed: 06/10/2009)

Chicago Tribune (2009) Cheap oil, but at what cost www.chicagotribune.com/features, (date accessed 06/10/2009)

Datamonitor (2009) Oil & Gas Exploration & Production Industry Profile: Global, www.esbscohost.net, (accessed 08/10/2009)

Economic Times (2009) India’s Oil and Gas story – The turning point, www.blogs.economictimes.com, (date accessed 07/10/2009)

EnergyDigital (2008a) Cairn Energy to lead commercial oil production inGreenland. www.energydigital.com, (date accessed 8/10/2009)

EnergyDigital (2008b) Chevron and Cairn sign with Bangladesh. www.energydigital.com, (date accessed 8/10/2009)

Herald Scotland (2009) Profitable oil deal by Cairn subsidiary boost shares,www.heraldscotland.com, (date accessed 08/10/2009)

Hindustan Times (2009) – Deora to review safety of Oil and Gas sites, www.hindustantimes.com, (accessed 09/10/2009)

Hoovers (2009a) Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Industry, www.hoovers.com, (date accessed: 06/10/2009)

Hoovers (2009b) – Cairn Energy Plc, www.hoovers.com (date accessed 06/10/2009)

Marketwatch (2009) Cairn Energy swings to loss after charge, MarketWatch:Energy, Oct2009, Vol. 8 Issue 10, p10-11, 2p

Proactive Investors UK (2009) Crude Oil Rebounds, Dragon Oil, Petrofac andCairn respond. www.proactiveinvestors.co.uk, (date accessed 08/10/2009)

Reuters (2009) India expects joint foreign/local energy bids. www.in.reuters.com, (date accessed: 7/10/2009)

Rigzone (2009) Tough time for India Licensing Round, www.rigzone.com,(accessed 09/10/2009)

Saic (2009) Exploration & Production. www.saic.com/energy. (date accessed:08/10/2009)

Wall Street Journal (2009) Lower costs give oil firms breathing room, www.online.wsj.com, (date accessed 07/10/2009)

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Critical Analysis on Nuclear Energy Development

Introduction

Radiation is a form of energy and different types of radiation have different amounts of energy. If radioactive waste gets out of its safe container and in to the environment it could contaminate the wildlife and people. A type of radiation is nuclear energy. Nuclear energy was discovered by lots of different people but it all started out in 1895, when Wilhelm Rontgen began passing an electric current through an evacuated glass tube and producing continuous X-rays. Nuclear energy is said to be safe compared to other energy sources.

The three safety issues with nuclear energy is controlling the rate of the reaction if the reactions is uncontrolled it could cause a meltdown and radiation could seep outside of the power plant. The next safety issue is managing the radioactive materials used in the reactors. The third and final safety issue is the security of the material, because if it gets in to the wrong hands it could cause a nuclear war. A nuclear reactor produces and controls the release of energy from splitting the atom. The electricity released is used to create heat which is then used to create steam which in the very end you end up with electricity. Amounts of radiation released into the environment are measured in units called curies and the dose that a person receives is measured in units called rem.

When it comes to nuclear energy there are a lot of regulations. The first regulation is that the nuclear power plant must be licensed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and while the reactors are being built they will be supervised at all time and there has to be a final inspection as soon as the reactor is finished. They do inspections quite often to check the condition of the plant and to make sure they are following the laws. The second regulation is storage containers. After a while the uranium will not be able to be used anymore but it is still very radioactive so they have to put it in safe containers and store it either at the plant or shipped to a storage facility. The third safety regulation is transportation. Trains, trucks, airplanes, and boats all transport radioactive materials. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the department of transportation have made rules about how much radioactive waste can be transported at one time. They do this because if there was a spill they want to keep the amount spilled to a minimum. The forth regulation is fire safety. Fire detection is so important that they have adequate fire monitoring systems. They also have a group of people that there only job is to watch for fires and if there is one to report it right away. Nuclear power plants are required to have one control station protected against fire in which workers can safely shut down the reactor if necessary. The fifth and final regulation is reports. The plant must report if they are shut down for any reason, any event that can negatively affect the plant even if it is out of their control, and they must report any airborne or liquid release of radioactive materials must be reported to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission if it exceeds the predetermined amount.

The waste that comes from these plants if they choose to send it somewhere goes to a remote location in southeastern Washington State called Hanford. In this desert about 2 million curies of radioactivity and thousands of tons of chemicals are stored there. There are many weapons and medical needs. The amount of nuclear energy out there right now poses the biggest threat to public health in human history. Medical planning and defense preparations for nuclear war have increased. There is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. Security seems to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law if there is any sign of weapons of mass destruction. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate and try to prevent the start of a nuclear war.

In 2008 there were some big changes made to the final FY funding bill which was then submitted to the Department of Energy’s office of Nuclear energy. Some of the programs received more than they had requested for while significant cuts were made to the budgets for other programs. The administration had requested for $801.7 million for the Office of Nuclear Energy’s. The Consolidated Appropriations Act provided $961.7 million which is $160 million over the requested amount.

Preparing uranium for a reactor is a long drawn out process it goes through the steps. The steps are mining, milling, conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication. These steps make up the first part of the nuclear fuel cycle. Uranium will spend about three years in the reactor before it goes through the second part of the nuclear cycle. The second part of the cycle includes temporary storage, reprocessing, and recycling before eventually disposing as waste. With a financial push from President Obama and even Bill Gates Nuclear energy is out in front of all the rest as an alternative to generating electricity with fossil fuels.

Radioactive decay is the spontaneous breakdown of an atomic nucleus resulting in the release of energy and matter from the nucleus. Fission is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus splits, or fissions, into fragments, usually two fragments of comparable mass, with the release of large amounts of energy in the form of heat and radiation. Fusion energy can also be produced by combining light nuclei in a process is called nuclear fusion.

The things that have gone on in Japan have been absolutely terrible. On March 11th is when the earthquake and tsunami hit Japan. The nuclear power plant had emergency procedures in place for an earthquake in Japan. The nuclear power plant has fuel in the reactors that gets very hot and continuous stream of water that runs by the heated fuel and carries the heat away. This fuel is designed to work in such a way that it will cool on its own if there are no continuing chain reactions. When the earthquake hit, the plant shut down as it was designed to do and emergency power went on. However, then the tsunami hit as well, and power was completely knocked out. Of the eight reactors, they were having problems with three. The combination of two natural disasters is what caused this issue.

Every nuclear power plant has to prepare for emergencies just like the one in Japan. Some of the rules you are supposed to follow when a power plant has an emergency are to listen to the specific warnings because you may be able to take care of the problem before it would get outside the power plant. Review your emergency handbook and be sure to tune your radio to the emergency alert systems channel to keep updated on what’s going on. Finally, evacuate to a designated reception center. Now there are different things you have to do when the emergency has already happened. If you are told to evacuate do not return home until officials say its okay, if you are told to stay inside and not come out do it and seek medical treatment if you have any unusual symptoms such as nausea which could be related to the radiation exposure.

My personal opinion on developing nuclear energy is that it is a good thing to have around because it produces energy and jobs. The bad thing about it is that it is very dangerous to have around. If there was ever an accident it could leak toxic radioactive waste everywhere. I think that we should not produce nuclear energy in the United States because it is too dangerous. I would be against it if the United States ever decided to put a nuclear power plant in Delaware Ohio. If something were to go wrong all the people and businesses around there could be hurt and the people could die. If we had a power plant in Delaware Ohio there would be no way they could store the radioactive waste here they would have to send it somewhere else which would cause more of a danger because then a spill could happen on their way to the new site.That is to close for comfort. If they decide to put more nuclear power plants in the United States they should put it out in the middle of nowhere. I think that would be the safest place for them to be.

References

Black, R. (2011, March 15). Japan quake: Radiation rises at fukushima nuclear plant. Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://www.bbc.co.uk//

Hanes, A., & Gleisner, J. (2009, October 24). Nuclear weapons and medicine: Some ethical dilemmas. Retrieved from National institutes of Health website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov//?

Nuclear fuel cycle. (2011, February). Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://www.world-nuclear.org//.htm

Nuclear power plants. (2011). Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://www.mass.gov/??pageID=eopsterminal&L=4&L0=Home&L1=Homeland+Security+%26+Emergency+Response&L2=Planning+%26+Preparedness&L3=Family&sid=Eeops&b=terminalcontent&f=mema_nuclear_power_plants_info&csid=Eeops

Pros and cons of nuclear energy. (2011). Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://timeforchange.org/and-cons-of-nuclear-power-and-sustainability

Safety regulations of nuclear power plants. (2011, February). Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/_5042817_safety-regulations-nuclear-power-plants.html

Sloter, K. (2011, March 17). What really happened– japan nuclear power plant crisis. Retrieved May 18, 2011, from http://umichsph.wordpress.com/?/?/?/really-happened-japan-nuclear-power-plant-crisis/

Staedter, T. (2010, March 17). Is nuclear energy safeRetrieved May 16, 2010, from http://news.discovery.com//nuclear-energy-safe.html

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knowledge about Solar Power and advantages of using natural energy

Abstract

This report is about Solar Power. Reader would be interested in reading this report because nowadays natural energy is very important and its’ importance increases every day. In report are included advantages, types, future and history of solar power. As well reader will find information about how solar thermal power works and what is the function of the photovoltaic panels. Also there is a comparison between Solar Power and other types of power sources. That will help you to understand importance of natural energy.

Nowadays Solar Power is not as popular, as it will be in the future, because installation of systems to get energy from sun costs a lot. These factors are also introduced in this work, to show, that people must pay more attention on natural energy, to reduce price and take all advantages of it.

Aims and objectives

This project was designed to generate knowledge about Solar Power and to learn advantages of using natural energy.

The objective is to explain people how to acquaint reader with solar power using examples and interesting facts.

Introduction

For thousands of years, people have been using sun for simple needs, such as drying clothes and growing food. But only less than age ago, people have been able to use it for generating power.

Majority of people are used to use fossil fuels and are not interested in using new sources of energy. But they would change their opinions and their habits after they learned more about damage made by fossil fuels and all the benefits of natural materials.

History of Solar Power

Many consumers thinks that solar power is a relatively new power source but thats not true. The sun has been known to be a source of energy dating back to ancient times. The ancient Greek were the first to use solar power to their benefit, as they built their houses into the side of hills to take advantage of the heat storage from the sun during the day that would then be released during the night. The ancient Romans were the first people to use glass windows to steal the warmth of the sun in their homes. They were so serious about the preservation of this solar energy that they erected glass houses to create the right conditions to grow plants and seeds.

While people were benefiting from solar power, the first solar collector was built only in 1776. The collector was built by a gentleman called Horace de Saussare. This invention attracted much interest in the scientific community through the 19th century.

In the interest of making use of solar power, Auguste Mouchout created a steam engine that was powered only by solar energy in 1861. This was an exciting event, but the invention was very expensive and it could not be reproduced or even maintained so the steam engine was quickly forgotten.

It was during the later half of the 1950’s that solar power saw its first mainstream usage. The first solar water heated office building was built during this time by an architect named Frank Bridgers. A short time later a small satellite of the US Vanguard was powered by a solar cell of less than one watt.

After such big strides in the 1950’s, the solar power really took off, because of cheap oil prices in the 1960’s, it was more affordable for people to power their homes with oil than it was to power their homes or offices with solar energy.

There was a rebirth of the solar power in the 1970’s with the steadily increased oil prices; in fact the US Department of Energy financed the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program. This program was responsible for the installation and testing of over 3,000 photovoltaic systems.

The 1990’s brought an even more mainstream interest in solar power. Solar power was seen as a great alternative to oil and petroleum products. During the 1990’s over one million homes had some form of solar power installed.

Today, solar energy is one of the most useful and commonly used source of energy all over the world.

Types of Solar Power


Solar thermal:

Solar thermal power is the process of taking heat from the sun to generate energy. This type of solar thermal power is usually installed in homes to reduce the cost of heating and cooling the dwelling. In many cases solar thermal power is used to power the hot water system in a home.

Solar thermal power can be used in a passive or active mode. A passive type of solar thermal system will use the convection to circulate the water where the active water heater uses a pump to circulate the water. Solar thermal power is also used to power turbines and even some machinery.

Solar electricity:

Solar panels and are used to convert sunlight into electricity; this is probably the most commonly seen type of solar power. This electricity can be used to power many different things in a home, such as appliances. This conversion of sunlight into electricity is done through the photovoltaic panels.

Advantages of Solar Power:

The most obvious advantage is that solar power is a renewable resource. The sun is available the world over and even though it may go behind clouds and it may go down at night, the sun is still available consistently enough to provide the power we need. In fact, the sun provides more energy than the whole world currently uses!
Another awesome benefit of using solar power is that it doesn’t pollute the environment in which we live. Solar power is not associated with toxins or greenhouse gasses like other forms of power are. Solar power is the only type of power that is not harmful to the environment.
An amazing thing about solar power is that it is free. You don’t have to pay for the sun. If you simply use solar panels or lights you don’t have to pay to run them. You do have to pay for the installation, but once this is done you get the power for free. In addition, solar cells don’t require the maintenance and they can last a life time so there is relatively little expense associated with solar power.
Another often overlooked advantage of solar power is that it is a silent type power. There is no need to use heavy machinery, as is the case when drilling for oil; the solar power just relies on the sun, which is silent. While most people don’t think about noise, when there is an absence of it suddenly we realize how noisy energy production currently is.

Future of Solar Power:

Solar energy has been used in some form or another since ancient times but the solar energy future remains wide open. The reason for this is that there are so many variables associated with how mainstream solar energy usage becomes. The biggest deciding factor of solar energy in the future is its cost.

Current critics of solar energy state that overall coal and other fossil fuels are just much more affordable, but while fossil fuels may be more economical in the short term, the damage on the environment must be considered!!!

Fortunately, the cost of solar power is coming down, which means that the future of solar power is looking good. How quickly solar power is the rule not the exception really has to do with cost. The more that the government pushes consumers toward a fossil free future, the more attention solar power will get and the more attempts will be made to reduce the cost and increase the production of solar power.

Conclusions:

In conclusion, the advantages of solar power are vast and far reaching. Not only does this type of power benefit the individual and their home, it benefits the environment that we all live in. Solar power could not only make energy costs plummet for one and all, it could make the earth a better place to be in the long run.

References:
Miss K. L. Barraclough “A guide to report writing for first year”, School of engineering, design and technology, The University of Bradford.
Mrs Elizabeth Gadd “An example report” Loughborough University Library, November 2008.
http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/solar.htm
Perlin, John (1999). From Space to Earth (The Story of Solar Electricity). Harvard University Press
Halacy, Daniel (1973). The Coming Age of Solar Energy. Harper and Row.
Mazria, Edward (1979). The Passive Solar Energy Book. Rondale Press
Bolton, James (1977). Solar Power and Fuels. Academic Press

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Drive to sustainable energy future: An assessment of efficiency of energy policies and legislation based on the Energy White Paper 2007 of UK in developing secure energy future

1.0 Introduction

The Energy White Paper 2007 set out by UK government emphasises the sustainable energy future by producing around 20% of our electricity from renewables by 2020 with the final intension of 40% energy from low carbon resources through investment in energy efficiency and clean energy technologies thereby creating “low carbon economy” to maximize economic opportunities (Department of Trade and Industry [DTI], 2007a). With the declining oil and gas reserves in the North Sea and the imminent termination of a number of nuclear stations raised the question of lights going out in the near future (Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform [DBERR], 2009). The apparent fragility of oil imports from Russia and the Middle and the predictive loss of one third of energy production in coming 12 years along with accelerating fuel import ratio sense a real catastrophic destruction of UK’s future energy security (DTI, 2007b). With the energy policy demonstrated in 2007 White Paper (Energy white paper, 2007) superseding the White Paper of 2003 (Energy white paper, 2003), UK government expresses a strong wishful thinking of future of secure energy, by suggesting development of renewables, energy efficient infrastructure along with strong policy currents would placate the impeding energy gap with an overarching vision of energy efficiency and security without replacing the nuclear base load (DBERR, 2008).

2.0 Major threats to UK energy scenario: predicting when
lights may go out?

2.1 Current Scenarios

The rapid move away from self-sufficiency to import-dependence of energy creates the challenging problem to UK. Currently we face, short term, medium and long terms problems with energy security; with the danger of interruption to energy supply from other European countries (Oil & Gas UK, 2009). Norway is the source of larger share of energy supplier of UK, with Russia, West and North Africa and the Middle East playing considerable part in import. Coal is mainly imported from South Africa and Russia (Department of Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform [DBERR], 2009). As the medium term risk, the scheduled termination of a number of coal-fired and nuclear power stations has led to questions of replacement power generation. The Government has estimated that this will amount to a ‘gap’ equivalent to around 30 per cent of today’s existing capacity (DTI 2006a). In the long term the fundamental concerns are about meeting future energy demand. In the first category, options for the UK’s temporary solutions to energy security

3.0 UK, Energy Security Scenario: The facts and Figures

3.1 Use of fossil fuels in the UK

According to DTI, 2006b about 90 % of the UK’s demand for energy is from fossil fuels. UK has become net importer of energy in 2005 after 28 years of continuous export, because of terminal depletion of oil reserves in Northern Sea (Oil & Gas UK, 2009). 2010 energy statistics shows an overall decrease in indigenous energy production of 5.8 per cent compared to second quarter of 2009 and the indigenous production was not meeting the net consumption leading UK to one of the net importer of fuel; this trend continued from 2004 onwards (Department of Energy and Climate Change[DECC], 2010). Table 3.a shows the data of primary fuel production of UK from 2008 to 2010.

Table 3.a: Indigenous production of primary fuels in UK, 2008-2010.

Source: DECC, (2010).

3.2 Consumption of total fuel

Total consumption of primary fuel was 209.6 million tonnes of oil equivalent in 2010 compared to a 2009 (temperature corrected with 0.2 degree Celsius colder than 2009, seasonally adjusted annualised rate). The consumption of coal and other biofuels (Solid) rose by 13.4 % during this period (Figure 3.b).

3.b: The consumption of coal and other biofuels, 1920-2006

Source: DECC, 2007

3.2.1 Highlights- 2010

Total production- 35.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent, 1.8 per cent lower than 2009.
Petroleum production- 6.2 per cent lower in the third quarter of 2009
Natural gas- 9.6 per lower than third quarter of 2009 and the third quarter of 2010.
Primary electricity output – 23.8 per cent lower 2009
Nuclear electricity output- 26.6 per cent lower within the same period (DECC, 2010)

3.3 Oil production, demand and consumption data

Almost 75% crude oil was supplied by Norway in 2009 (DBERR, 2009). Russia, Saudi Arabia and Algeria are also important suppliers for the UK (See Figure 3.c). Imports of petroleum products came from France, Germany, Kuwait and the UAE. The statistical report on oil production and consumption published by DECC, 2010 illustrated that, oil production fell in every year from 1999 to 2010, reaching the peak in 2006. Energy projections establish that the fuel scarcity and import dependence will rise from projected 4% in 2010 to 20% in 2020 (DECC, 2010).

Fig 3.c: UK crude oil imports by world region

Source: DBERR, (2009).

3.3.1 Highlights

Indigenous production of crude oil and – 6.2 % lower in third quarter of 2010 than a year earlier. Third quarter of 2010, UK witnessed net import of oil and oil products by 5.3 million tonnes. Imports decreased by 6.1 per cent over the same period
Overall, stocks of crude oil and petroleum products were 2.8 per cent lower at the end of the third quarter of 2010 than a year earlier.

Fig 3.d: Production of crude oil and NGLs

Source: DECC, (2010).

3.4 Gas and other gas products

Gas is the most used energy resource in UK than any other primary fuels, which provides 39% of the total energy requirements. Domestic sector primarily depends on gas for heating and other major purposes. Most of the UK’s gas imports are projected to be from Norwegian North Sea gas fields also piped through the UK-Belgium interconnector between Zeebrugge in Belgium and Bacton in Norfolk (Green et al, 2006). During the winter seasons, UK heavily depends on this source for meeting energy demands. Liquid Natural Gas (LGN) is also imported from Algeria in considerable amounts (Figure 3.d)

Fig 3.e: UK imports of gas by country/inter connector, 2005

Source: DTI, (2007).

3.5 Reliance on Norway

According to the projections of Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Norwegian energy supplies are expected to be continuously meeting UK’s fossil fuel needs for the next 20 years starting from 2008 with a total of 4.7 billion m3 oil equivalent (Norwegian Petroleum Directorate 2008).

3.6 Current Scenario (2010)

Total indigenous UK production of natural gas in the second quarter of 2010 was 5.0 per cent lower than in the corresponding quarter of 2009
Demand for gas in the second quarter of 2010 was 9.6 per cent higher than the level in the second quarter of 2009 (DECC, 2010). Figure 3.f shows 2010 scenario of UK’s net exports and imports of gas from Norway and other European countries.

Fig3.f: UK’s net exports and imports 2010 scenario

Source: DBERR, (2009).

3.7 UKCS Supplies

Based on the National grid’s 2010/11 forecast (NTS Deliveries) annual production of natural gas is 9% lower at 42. 2 bcm from 2009. From the 2010/11 projections yearly production begins at +/ – 10% and subsequently growing by +/- 2 per year. Figure 3.g shows actual annual UKCS supplies and demand since 2000/01 (Not weather corrected). The % import line relates to NTS demand including both Irish and IUK exports, if these were excluded, the % for imports would be lower (National Grid, UK, 2010).

The existing and development plans for import capacity is around 170 bcm/year and even higher if all proposals for LNG are included. This far exceeds the UK’s projected import requirements at the end of our 10 year planning cycle of about 65 bcm. The necessary energy gap is observed under the present projected scenario (Figure:3.h) and this could even go worst as the impeding energy issues are not solved with a systematic and well planned strategy, policy and work plan (Fuel poverty advisory group [FPAG], 2007)

Fig 3.g: National grid’s 2010/11 forecast on UKCS Supplies

Source: National grid, (2010).

Fig 3.h: UK gas production and demand, 2010.

Source: FPAG, (2007).

3.8 Energy prices

Current energy prices and the number of houses and other domestic, industrial sectors experiencing fuel poverty and deprivation is increasing leading to the serious questions of energy security and stability and effectiveness of energy polices in UK

3.9 Highlights

• Average coal prices were 11.4 per cent higher in real terms including and 12.6 per cent higher excluding CCL in Q2 2010 compared to Q2 2009. Heavy fuel oil prices were 27.4 per cent higher in real terms than a year ago (Figure 3.i)

• The Government said, last summer, that it expected electricity power cuts for the first time since the 1970s (FPAG, 2010)

Fig 3.i: Standard domestic energy bills, 2000-2010.

Source: FPAG, (2010).

4.0 Energy Policies and Regulations: Energy White Paper
2007

The UK 2007 Energy White Paper, released by the Department of Trade and Industries (DTI, 2007) makes an optimistic effort to put the UK on a path to cut carbon dioxide emissions by some 60% by about 2050, with real progress by 2020, producing around 20% of electricity from renewables creating “low carbon economy”. Renewable energy obligation (RO), ROC, Feed in Tariff (FIT), Energy Bill 2010/2011, Nuclear Energy Policies, 2008 provide clear idea that the objective improving energy efficiency should combine – individuals, businesses and industry, the government should encourage businesses and individuals to promote energy efficiency and self-generation by modern technologies though incentives (Banfill et al, 2008). Annexure 1, and 2shows energy policy changes Table 4.a shows various policies for energy efficiency and consumption established in Energy white paper 2007 (Renewables Advisory Board [RAB], 2010).

Table 4.a: White Paper 2007, Energy efficient policies

Source: RAB, (2010).

5.0 Energy Security of UK: Failure of UK operating policies
(2007- 2010) – Concerns

5.1 Generating capacity

According to Defra, 2011 figure the margin of capacity over demand falling away to just seven per cent by 2017 – which according to the Government’s own analysis is not enough to prevent a rising threat of power cuts (Defra, 2011)

• Gas –Other countries that rely on imports make sure that they have enough storage capacity or long-term contracts to secure supplies. Yet the UK has, at best, just 16 days of gas storage capacity, 38 compared with 99 in Germany and 122 in France (Defra, 2011)

• Nuclear and coal power – Nuclear stations- Hartlepool and Heysham (a total of 2.4GW) are disconnected, and Hunterston and Hinkley, are on reduced yield. Also 2 nuclear stations are planned to decommission by 2010 of 7.4GW and 9.8GW (10% and 13% of generating capacity). Expected closure of 12GW (15% of capacity) coal generating plant by 2016 aimed at CO2 reduction by Large Combustion Plant Directive (LCPD) of 2008 will cause a huge energy gap (National Audit Office, 2008). In context 23GW (30% generating capacity) have to find an alternate solution (DBERR, 2007).

• Renewables – UK is has good renewable resources, which certainly helps UK in its non-fossil fuel energy generation to a large extend. But unrealistic expectation of renewables totally replacing primary fuel is a totally negative choice (Douthwaite, 2009). When Germany from the mid-nineties, almost doubled their energy generation from renewables, UK remains third from bottom of the table of EU renewable energy use (EC, 2008).

RO has been inefficient by allowing the subsidies leaking from developers. The problems of surplus funds (buy-outs) given to ROC surrenders to government, instead of electricity generators. ROC returns and its periods are uncertain in the future for average men particularly for small scale generators with up to 20% commission, administration and set-up fees for the small scale feed out with unpredictability. Non Fossil Purchasing Agency has been gathering funds from RO to support NFFO and funds are given to Treasury rather instead of supporting renewable energy projects. From the DTI projection it is clear that continuing with the RO will not help to meet renewables target of 20% by 2020 (Thorpe, 2010).

BERR’s latest modelling for the UK, with banded ROC inputs included, gives an anticipated figure of 14% renewable electricity by 2020 (DBERR, 2011). This does not correspond to the projected level values. Market failure of renewables is also a growing problem the government is facing. Even though policies including FIT, and other promotions and incentives to encourage economic micro generation technologies, the poor market penetration due to various factors such as cost of infrastructure, vagueness of policies, improper implementation of policy by overlapping business integration and organizational strategy makes it a resistive development (Green deal group, 2008).

Oil- The alarming depletion of oil resources and increasing import is not apparently making a difference in the new policy views. Even though other European countries have gone so much of ahead in biodiesel and electrification of transport (King, 2008), UK lacks even plans to propose those solutions. UK is also falling behind in establishing smart grids (McCarthy et al, 2010).

Governmental efforts to fund small-scale were unrealistic, regularly reformed. The Low Carbon Buildings Programme (LCBP), has been farce by underfunded projects with ?6.5m as house hold grants, also they were set to decrease yearly with only ?1m in 2008/9. DTI forced a cap of ?500,000 on grant allocations, leading to the depletion of allocation after 12 hours and 75 minutes in March after the announcement. ?6 million LCBP house hold stream announced in 2007 March budget, was suspended during April due to uncertainty and delay. In a new house holder stream (2008) capped grants were at 50% of the cost for solar PV, or 30% for wind turbines and 30% for solar thermal hot water. This also has ended in 2009. Lack of long term planning, and investment are also main problems (Ofgem, 2009).

6.0 Possible Solutions to overcome the scenario

6.1 Assure capacity balance in the electricity market

by encouraging open market competition and transparent cost comparison energy alternatives and funding resources, also care should be given to demand side measures (Anderson, 2007).

6.2 Establish a security guarantee on gas supply

With clear understanding of energy security threats, emphasise should be given to maximise the import and market liberalisation of coals, fuels predominantly gas. In the globalisation scenario of LNG gas industry and shale gas value establishing an international trading network, is recommended rather than Eurasian supply chain.

Objectives should be

Establish long term trading contract with LNG and pipeline gas producers in Europe, Norway and international
Market liberalisation of energy in an international context (Mackay, 2009).

An optional extraction of oils from sources in arctic regions and ultra-deep water using non-conventional sources of oil can also be considered. IEA projects 7.2-8% global production of oil can be produced from non-conventional sources mainly from arctic region and Canadian oil- sands between 2005 and 2030 of about 116.3 million barrels per day (IEA 2006). Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies can be implemented to cut down the emission of CO2 , thereby promoting exploring maximum coal and other fuels, to facilitate market liberalisation and enhanced storage infrastructure can also be put in action (UKERC, 2009).

6.2 Reform the Climate Change Levy (CCL) to provide a floor price for carbon

Removing CCL from ‘downstream’ electricity supply and as an alternative to be, payable ‘upstream’ on the carbon content after its generation

The debateable levy should start from lower price and can be increased according to the industry till the point of an optimal floor price
Long term investment by increasing the life span of CCL to at least 25 years (Weiske, 2009).

6.3 Facilitate nuclear power

Nuclear power has gone down to 13% starting from 1997 to present and long-standing “U” turn refusal to upgrade the existing nuclear plants or establishing new apart from the proposed plant in 2020 should be taken in account. National Planning Statements nuclear power and Judicial Review should be done in the first place to avoid lights going out in the energy gap period (NERA and AEA, 2009)

6.4 Promote renewable energy (Macro and Micro)

Promote and invite businesses and competition for macro energy generations including on-shore and off-shore wind, incentivising major plans, establish offshore grids to avoid impact on marine renewable investments, possibility of searching for new potential resources like tidal power systems, establishing grid connections and other networks to ensure that it is being a major part of the energy producing resources (Vernon, 2007).
Policy development and renovations in Renewable obligation (RO) and Renewable company Obligations (RCO), to ensure that it gives the maximum support to domestic, and industrial sectors to adopt self-generation like micro generation (photovoltaic, small scale wind turbines, solar panels, biomass). Incentivise and encourage local people to micro generate. Renovating feed-in tariff as it is expensive and bureaucratic, and unrealistic, which is not accepted by the target groups making it a resistive even after years of establishments.
Vital and rapid policy establishments such as “green deal” with clear focus and leadership to suit to its basic idea during its operation, also to make sure that it is not becoming another wobbly green project in paper
Giving powers to councils to identify, demonstrate and establish audit, and establish bills and financial support policies for governmental recognition and permission for the final intension of group economic growth (McCarthy, 2010)

6.5 Reduce demand in the domestic sector: Housing standards and Green deal

It is essential to work with improving housing standards; bearing in mind those two-thirds of the gas Britain is used for domestic heating. In the context of this proper insulation and reducing space causing heat loss, improving standards for new construction, retrofitting the older homes and offices, in the first place than prioritizing the energy generation. It is also recommended to renovate FIT and sudden introduction and support for green deal of up to ?6,500 worth of energy efficiency at no upfront cost, with a higher limit for hard-to-treat homes:

6.6 Rebuilding Security

One of the other considerations should be to allow the participation of private, public and voluntary sector in financing, marketing to deliver the Green Deal and other governmental schemes and promoting education and awareness in microgeneration and energy savings. Considerations are to be given to conjunction with the Treasury, Green ISAs, green banking and creating new Green Bonds designed to consolidate within a single institution the existing disparate sources of public investment in the low carbon economy, such as the Carbon Trust and the Marine Renewables Deployment Fund (Forrest and Wallace, 2010).

7.0 Conclusion

The increasing energy security problems are grave concerns for UK. The current government trying to ostensibly to leave demand gap satisfied by market intervention of renewables and green policy supports, which is only addressing a very minor per cent of problems. Indecisiveness, procrastination and demand of financial economic infrastructure have been ever ending barriers highlighting problems to a more extend. In this context it is essential that a long term focussed, realistic strategies must be developed along with the support and renovation of policies to perform in a timely and successful manner. The energy security issues must be addressed bearing in mind that gas from the Middle East and Russia are only a part of the solution. Development of green energy generations like microgeneration (PV, Biomass, solar panels, wind energy) and macro (Wind turbines, Nuclear energy, hydro energy) are always a great choice. Investing and inviting businesses to operate these effectively is also a prerequisite. It is also necessary to focus on energy usage security to prevent drastic energy consumption figures, energy smart meters, peak energy tariff, are really helpful. It is also welcoming that these infrastructures are supported by strong policy and legislation with an aspiration of creating low carbon, high security energy climate. From the technical side, Market liberalisation, financing on CCS technologies to allow maximum exploitation of coal, immediate development of risk managed nuclear plants, policy support with minor changes in FIT and introduction of green deal without any financial burdens to domestic sectors are some of the realistic ideas which can be considered for a long term action.

8.0 References
Anderson, D., (2007). Energy Industry Markets and Climate Change paper for the Commission on Environmental Markets and Economic Performance (forthcoming)
Banfill, P.F.G., and Peacock, A.D., (2008). “Energy-efficient new housing – the UK reaches for sustainability”, Building Research & Information, 35(4), pp. 426–436.
Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (DBERR), (2007). Energy Markets Outlook, UK: HMSO
DBERR, (2008). “Meeting the Energy Challenge – A White paper on Nuclear Power”. UK
DBERR, (2009). Energy Statistics: UK
Department for the Environment, Farming and Rural Affairs (Defra), (2011). Digest of Environmental Statistics, London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO).
Department of Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (DBERR), (2011). Government response to the Renewables Obligation Consultation.
Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), (2007). Digest of United Kingdom Energy Statistics 2009, London: The Stationery Office (TSO).
Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), (2010). Digest of United Kingdom Energy Statistics 2009, London: The Stationery Office (TSO).
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), (2003). “Energy White Paper: Our energy future – creating a low carbon economy”, UK
Department of Trade and Industry (2006a) The Energy Challenge. Energy Review Report 2006 London: TSO
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), (2007a). Energy Statistics online resource, DUKES table 4.1 available at: www.dtistats.net/energystats/dukes4_1.xls. (Accessed on 15-05-2011).
Department of Trade and Industry (2007b) Personal communication with Clive Evans, 19 January
Douthwaite, R., (2009). “Cap & Share”, presentation given to the zerocarbonbritain2030 Policy, Actions & Economics seminar [unpublished].
European Commission (EC), (2008). Energy Sources, Production Costs and Performance of Technologies for Power Generation, Heating and Transport, the European Parliament, Commission of the European Communities. Available at:
Forrest, N., Wallace, J, (2010). The Employment Potential of Scotland’s Hydro Resources, Nick Forrest Associates, September 2009. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/299322/0093327.pdf. (Accessed on 15-05-2011)
Fuel Poverty Advisory Group (For England) (2007) Fifth annual report London: DTI, available at: www.dti.gov.uk/files/file38873.pdf. (Accessed on 15-05-2011).
Green New Deal Group, (2008). A Green New Deal: Joined up policies to solve the triple crunch of the credit crisis, climate change & high oil prices, London: nef.
Greene, D.L., Hopson, J.L., Li, J, (2006). Have we run out of oil yetOil peaking analysis from an optimist’s perspective, Energy Policy, 34(5), pp. 515-531. http://ec.europa.eu/energy/strategies/2008/doc/2008_11_ser2/strategic_energy_review_wd_cost_ performance.pdf . (Accessed on 15-05-2011)
International Energy Agency (IEA) (2006) World Energy Outlook 2006 Paris: IEA
King, J., (2008). The King Review of low-carbon cars Part II: recommendations for action, March 2008, London: HMSO.
Mackay, D., (2009). Sustainable Energy – without the hot air, Cambridge: UIT Cambridge Ltd.
McCarthy, J., (2010). UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory, 1990 to 2008: Annual Report for submission under the Framework Convention on Climate Change, AEAT/ENV/ R/2978 30/04/2010. Available at: http://www.naei.org.uk/reports.php. (Accessed on 15-05-2011)
Meeting the Energy Challenge, A White Paper on Energy”, May 2007, BERR
National Audit Office (NAO), (2005). Department Of Trade and Industry: Renewable Energy, report by the Comptroller and Auditor General, Hc 210 Session 2004-2005
National Grid (2010) “The potential for renewable gas in the UK”, January 2009. Available at:http://www.nationalgrid.com/NR/rdonlyres/9122AEBA-5E50-43CA-81E 8FD98C2CA4EC/32182/renewablegasWPfinal1.pdf. (Accessed on 15-05-2011).
NERA Economic Consulting & AEA, (2009). The UK Supply Curve for Renewable Heat, Study for the Department of Energy and Climate Change, July 2009, URN 09D/689. Available at: http://www.nera.com/image/PUB_ Renewable_Heat_July2009.pdf. (Accessed on 15-05-2011)
Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, (2008). The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf Stavanger: Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, available at:www.npd.no/English/Emner/Ressursforvaltning/Ressursregnskap.analyse/Ressursrapport_2008/ressrapp05.htm.
Office of the Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem), (2009). The Renewables Obligation Buy-Out Price and Mutualisation Ceiling 2009-10, 9 February 2009. Available at: http://www.ofgem.gov.uk/Sustainability/Environment/RenewablObl/Documents1/Press%20Release%20buy%20 out.pdf. (Accessed on 15-05-2011)
Oil and Gas UK (2009) “Gas – The UK’s Fuel of Choice”, Oil and Gas UK [online]. Available at: http://www.oilandgas.org.uk/issues/gas/. (Accessed on 15-05-2011).
Renewables Advisory Board (RAB), (2010). “2020 Vision – How the UK can meet its target of 15% renewable energy”. UK
Thorpe, D., (2010) Sustainable Home Refurbishment: The Earth scan expert guide to retrofitting homes for efficiency, London: Earth Scan
UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC), (2009). Making the transition to a secure low-carbon energy system, synthesis report, London: UKERC.
Vernon, C. (2009). Peak oil, presentation given to the zero carbon Britain 2030 Carbon Crunch seminars [unpublished].
Weiske, A. (2007). Potential for carbon sequestration in European agriculture, Impact of Environmental Agreements on the Cap, final version 16 February 2007, specific targeted research project no. SSPE-CT-2004- 503604. Available at: http://www.ieep.eu/publications/pdfs/meacap/D10a_appendix_carbon_sequestration.pdf. (Accessed on 15-05-2011) www.dti.gov.uk/energy/statistics/source/notes/page18916.html. (Accessed on 15-05-2011)

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The global group of energy and petrochemical companies is a multinational company with worldwide recognition

Introduction

BACKGROUND OF SHELL

Shell, a global group of energy and petrochemical companies is a multinational company with worldwide recognition. Shell is best known for its service stations and for exploring and producing oil and gas on land and at sea. In truth Shell deliver a vast range of energy solutions and petrochemicals to customers, produce and sell petrochemical building blocks to industrial customers on a global scale, invest in making renewable and lower-carbon energy sources, competitive for large scale use.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Corporate Strategy of shell

By being more upstream Shell aims to focus its investments on long term, high return projects to develop oil and gas resources, and grow the companies leading liquefied natural gas business. Downstream profits involves; generating more cash by reshaping integrated oil products and petrochemicals portfolio to enhance operations and focus on growth markets, particularly in Asia.

Shell believes that this strategy will improve their business performance and increase their contribution to sustainable development. “Stronger emphasis on our upstream activities and fast growing markets will help us deliver the energy the world needs for economic growth and poverty reduction”. Shell aims to increase focus on producing cleaner burning natural gas, in so doing reducing dependency on coal. Shell is aware that the growing demand for oil and gas presents sustainable development challenges. Producing and using this extra energy is only sustainable, and socially acceptable, if ways are found to combat the risks to the climate and avoid health, safety and environmental incidents. “We recognize that we will not achieve our strategy and improve business performance for our shareholders unless we respond effectively to these key environmental and social concerns”.

Deliberate or Emergent

“Deliberateness refers to the quality of acting intentionally. When people act deliberately they ‘think’ before they ‘do’. They make a plan and then implement the plan. A plan is an intended course of action, stipulating which measures an organization proposes to take”. (De-Witt & Meyer, 2004)

Shells’ planning does not take the form of complex and inflexible ten-year plans generated by a team of corporate strategists. Rather, the planning process generates a series of “what if” scenarios. “Scenario planning is the process in which managers invent and then consider, in depth, several varied scenarios of equally plausible futures with the objective to bring forward surprises and unexpected leaps of understanding”. The implementation of the planning process allows Shell to make strategic no matter what the future.

For a company like Shell it is necessary to have a deliberate strategy as well as emergent. Plans need to be outlined and addressed in order to set company objectives. Large oil spills or uncontrollable air emissions are never planned, for this reason it is important Shell pays attention to being emergent as then it can encounter any problems that may arise.

Below is a model showing the distinction between deliberate and emergent strategy.

Business Strategy

Business strategy is concerned with “how firms should go about creating a sustainable competitive advantage in each business in which they operate” (De-Witt & Meyer, 2004)

CRITICAL ANALYSIS

Internal Analysis

From literature review:-

Michael Porter identified the ‘value chain’ as a means of analyzing organizations strategically relevant activities in order to understand the behavior of costs. Competitive advantage results from carrying out those activities in a more cost-effective way than its competitors. The value chain tool is a great technique to employ in order to single out the firm’s specific competitive strengths and weaknesses. Porter identified primary and support activities as shown in the following diagram:

IMAGE SOURCE: mbaknol.com

As it can be seen above Porter has distinguished between the primary and support activities. For the purpose of this report focus will be given to the primary activities whose direct concern is with the creation and delivery of a product or service.

Inbound Logistics

“Activities associated with receiving, storing and disseminating inputs to the product, such as material handling, warehousing, and inventory”

Due to the size of Shell, and to ensure the smooth running of the many processes involved in a company of its size, there are strict rules to follow.

The 1st step of the inbound logistics is receiving. At Shell the initial step would be to find the oil. This is of huge importance and the company invests a lot of money to use statistical analysis to determine the location of oil. Once locating the oil it is essential for Shell to draw up exploration contracts with the countries within whose boundaries the oil was first established. Once the contracts have been approved and negotiations agreed the company can then start its drilling process. Shell’s subsidiary company “Shell Shipping” is used to ship oil to relevant locations. After the distribution of the oil to its desired location the next process is for it to be stored.

Outbound Logistics

“Activities associated with collecting, storing and physically distributing the product to buyers, such as finished goods warehousing, material handling and scheduling”

Having recognized how the company extracts and then stores the oil the next process is to successfully distribute that to customers. Having processed the oil in its refineries, the oil is driven out to relevant service stations throughout the country by freight management. Once it arrives at the service station the oil is distributed to different pumps and then is ready for use by its consumers.

Operations

During this stage of the value chain process, goods are manufactured or assembled. Due to the large number of processes involved in extracting and processing oil, we can establish how large the operation base is at Shell. Shell places a great emphasis on conducting operations in the right and accurate manner. It will be detailed in the operations as to how much fuel needs to be distributed to relevant service stations as well as stating what type of fuel is needed. This is sensitive data and incorrect judgments could result in huge revenue being lost.

Marketing and Sales

This area focuses strongly upon marketing communications and generating sales. Industry sectors like the oil industry have to try and differentiate their products from those of their competitors. Customers view their end product, petrol, just like that of any other commodity. Shell recognizes the need to build brand loyalty and to establish a returning customer base. The best way to do this is through advertisement. This report will move on to discuss how Shell has used advertising to its advantage.

Services

For Shell, after sale service is a difficult benefit to offer. However, as petrol is a consumable commodity it is not something that can be returned or exchanged. Once the petrol has been purchased by consumers it is not within the companies interests to accept an exchange. Shell believes it is necessary to maintain a good name and reputation. The customer satisfaction programme focuses on customer and consumer ratings at BP in comparison to relevant competition. Evaluations are based on actual experience with BP and its competitors. Measures attained in this way tend to be more operational in nature focusing on market execution.

External Analysis:

From Literature review:-

A PEST (Political, Economical, Social and Technological) analysis is used to analyse the external environment. Below a Pest analysis has been conducted;

Political: factors that need to concern shell are as follows:

Government Taxation
Shell having interest in Unsteady Countries
Government taxation is a concern for the oil industry because it is already heavily taxed and more taxes could start a process whereby people would start moving away from petrol to find cheaper more sustainable products.
Shell have interests in countries where there is no political stability or where there are chances of dangerous wars breaking out. Such as Iraq and Nigeria this is very damaging especially when a company like Shell has invested millions of Pounds on exploration and drilling.

Economical

The cost of petrol continues to increase causing consumers to wrongly blame the oil companies. The price of oil is managed by OPEC, an international price fixing body.

The OPEC MCs coordinate their oil production policies in order to help stabilise the oil market and to help oil producers achieve a reasonable rate of return on their investments. This policy is also designed to ensure that oil consumers continue to receive stable supplies of oil.

Social

Consumers are more ethically inclined and the ethical marketplace, in Britain alone, is currently worth 14 billion pounds. While petrol may not be seen as an ethical purchase, petrol companies can, as well as advertising their product, inform the consumer of the Company’s commitment to the environment. That is advertising the fact that they deal in sustainable energy products.

Technological

The oil industry is becoming aware of the need to produce efficient and environmentally conscious fuels. We can’t use fossil fuels forever as they are a non-renewable and finite resource. Research suggests that we should start using hydrogen. Hydrogen is a colourless, odourless gas that accounts for 75 percent of the entire universe’s mass.

Porters 5 forces

There are five stages to the Porters model. These are shown below.

Competitive Rivalry

One enduring characteristic of the oil industry has been change. Competitive rivalry in the oil industry is very high due to there being very little difference between the products of all the suppliers. BP has learned to be responsive to change and indeed to be at the forefront of the change process. It is not commonly known that oil is refined at shared premises, so in reality all petrol is the same, regardless of the company label given to it and as such competitive rivalry is high.

On 11 October 2007, BP announced their intention to simplify their organizational structure. From 1 January 2008, there are only two business segments exploration and production and refining and marketing.

Power of Suppliers

There are no direct suppliers of the oil industry, and in the case of Shell there are none whatsoever the company has subsidiary organisations to handle all aspects of what the company does. Countries could be defined as suppliers, since it is there that the oil comes from, but the effect over the oil companies is limited to the law.

Power of Buyers

Buyers have no power over the oil industry since oil is a commodity that is always in demand.

Threat of Substitutes

At present there are no substitutes for petrol. While hybrid vehicles are making their presence known, electric cars are not as powerful as fuel consuming cars and are not in demand by the consumer.

Threat of a New Entrant

It is difficult for a new company to break in to the oil industry as the cost of entry is pricey. Current competitors in the market are having a hard time finding new oil reserves.

Porters five forces model is essential in helping understand the industry in depth before any consideration is given to entering it.

Financial Reviews

Even though the accounts show profits and financial figures from the year 2001-2005, it can clearly be seen that BP has generated a greater amount of revenue. If the financial information is going to be compared to today’s age then BP still lie ahead.

Existing Strategy

An organization and its environment need to fit. This is expressed in terms of the classic SWOT analysis tool. The tool suggests that a sound strategy should match a firm’s strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) to the opportunities (O) and threats (T) encountered in the firms environment (De-Witt & Meyer, 2005)

SWOT Analysis

Strengths

The UK offshore oil and gas industry provides an important indigenous energy supply.
As well as being used for energy purposes, oil and gas have other uses, notably as a source of feed stocks for the petrochemicals industry.
Much of the UK industry boosts employment in areas where it would otherwise be very low as a result of the declines of shipbuilding, the UK steel industry and other large industrial sites.

Weaknesses

Large UK offshore oil and gas reserves are becoming more difficult to find and develop economically.
Some UK fields are depleted and companies active in the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS) are now faced with the burden of dismantling and disposing of offshore structures in an environmentally acceptable manner.
Variations in oil prices and the unpredictability of international politics mean that the UK offshore oil and gas industry fluctuates in response to these forces.

Opportunities

Many of the newer discoveries are smaller and more difficult to develop than most of the older fields, thereby presenting a commercial and technological challenge for the innovation of new, economically viable ways of extracting oil and gas.
Having now worked in the UKCS for several decades, UK companies, suppliers and consultants have built up extensive expertise that can be utilised overseas.

Threats

Large international oil and gas companies are placing a greater proportion of their resources in regions outside the UKCS, where development and operational costs are lower than they are in the UK.

FUTURE SPECULATION:-

Having critically evaluated the strategy of Shell I feel there is a need for them to improve in order to fulfill the desire to become market leader and overtake BP. The company emphasizes through its strategy that it is very environmentally and socially conscious yet its not doing a great deal different from other companies out in the market. I feel now is a good time for shell to invest in something new like hydrogen fuel cells or wind and solar energy. Hydrogen as a fuel is high in energy, yet a machine that burns pure hydrogen produces almost zero pollution

A new investment is expensive but the benefits are huge as it is a new innovation which has been on the cards for sometime. Investing in fuel cells will limit the damage caused to the environment as the technology is environmentally friendly. Millions of pounds, required to clean spillages/leaks, will be saved and a positive public image will be established if not further reinforced.

The company has done a lot of research into this technology so it is not something that they have not considered. In the future, hydrogen could also join electricity as an important energy carrier. An energy carrier stores, moves and delivers energy in a usable form to consumers. Shell realizes that hydrogen is a fuel for the future but it needs to be more pro active rather than re active. It should try and introduce this technology into the market

REFRENCES:-

Bibliography

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MOLLER, K. and RAJALA, A. 2007. Rise of Strategic Nets – New Modes of Value Creation. Industrial Marketing Management No 36 pp895-908.
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SHAFER, S. M., SMITH, H. J. and LINDER, J. C. 2005. The Power of Business Models. Business Horizons No. 48, pp199-207.

Websites

www.essentialaction.org/shell
www.shell.com
www.shell.com/static
www.juergendaum.com/news
www.ukeducation.org.uk
(www.alphonso.cipher-sys.com)
www.valuebasedmanagement.net
www.opec.org
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter20.html
www.keynote.co.uk

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Explain how the body obtains energy from fat, carbohydrates and proteins

Introduction

All living things requires energy to stay warm (mammals in this case) and to carry out other life process i.e. maintenance, growth, movement, daily activities etc. All of the dietary energy in humans is obtained from the main food sources including carbohydrates, fat and proteins. These major food types are also known as macronutrients and each has its own energy content that provides energy by breaking their chemical bond energy in food molecules. Sugars and fat generate higher energy levels than proteins in non photosynthetic organisms. Fat provide far more energy per gram than carbohydrate or protein for example carbohydrate and protein provides 16.8 KJ/g whereas fat provides 37.8 kJ of energy per gram.

Metabolism a set of chemical reaction plays an important role in providing energy that helps an organism to maintain life. Metabolic process is organised in different pathways that leads a chemical reaction to another through the help of enzymes and coenzymes. The breakdown of food molecules leads to a process known as oxidative phosphorylation that occurs in mitochondria. This process is essential for providing Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a primary source of energy for cellular activities. As the metabolic pathway is organised in to different stages, each stage should be explored in details to understand the process. Hence these stages will be explored later in the essay to answer the essay question in full.

Nutrients to Energy- Three Main Stages

The macronutrients presented in our food are the main source of energy for our body and all three nutrients must be broken down into smaller molecules before the cells can utilize them to produce energy. The breakdown of the larger molecules and oxidisation of those molecules are known as catabolism. The breakdown happens in digestion system where the breakdown is relatively similar for each nutrient. Specialised enzymes, a catalyst, digest specific polymers into monomers, for instant protease are specialised to catabolise proteins into amino acid and glycoside hydrolases turn polysaccharides into monosaccharides and fats are hydrolysed into fatty acids and glycerol by lipase. Oxidation of these molecules occurs once the small subunits are filtered into the cytosol of a cell through an active transport protein.

Glycolysis reaction, which happens under anaerobic conditions, is a metabolic pathway that takes placehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycolysis inside all living cells. Glycolysis breaks sugar molecules glucose, a 6 carbon atom, and fructose into two pyruvate molecules, that contains 3 carbon atoms in each molecule. A difference exists during the combustion of carbohydrate molecule that can occur anaerobically while this is not true for the other two macronutrients.

The transformation of glucose into pyruvate happens in 10 different stages. Each stage has a different enzyme to catalyse 10 different sugar molecules. In the first 5 stages, called preparatory phase, two molecules of ATP per each glucose molecule are used to provide energy to drive the reaction. At the start of last five stages known as pay off phase 2 NAD+ and GAPDH enzyme turn the NAD+ into a NADH molecule by pulling off a hydrogen molecule from GAPDH, two H+ are also produced at this stage. At the end of the stages two NADH are given and four ATP molecules are given from ADP plus P1. The resulted pyruvate proceeds to mitochondria from cytosol to lose two carbon dioxide molecules and change to two carbon acetyl group that joins with coenzyme A to produce acetyl CoA before it enters the citric acid cycle.

Triglycerides, main form of fat, are oxidised in order to break them into smaller units such as fatty acid and glycerol inside the cytoplasm. Fatty acids are activated in cytoplasm before they enter cytosol, a same medium for glucose to citric acid. The activation must be done before the oxidation of fatty acid begins. During the activation, fatty acids change to fatty acyl CoA and ATP turns into AMP. Glycerol is transmitted to the glycolysis while the fatty acids are oxidised through beta-oxidation inside the mitochondria. There are four main enzymes located in mitochondria, therefore a series of four stages occur that convert acyl CoA to acetyl CoA. Two molecules of carbon from an acyl CoA is shortened at each stage to create a molecule of acetyl CoA and a molecule of NADH and FADH2. The resulted acetyl CoA is passed to the citric acid cycle and NADH plus FADH is entered into the electron transport chain.

Proteins consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Although carbohydrates and proteins hold a similar structure but there is still a difference among their structure. Carbohydrates are made out of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen while protein has an addition of nitrogen and sulfur. Nitrogen is responsible for the creation of essential amino acids. There are all together 20 essential amino acids that build all body cells in animals. Body cell metabolise amino acids into fats or glycogen if excessive proteins are consumed in human diet. The breakdown of proteins to amino acids through digestion opens the path to energy metabolism of proteins.

If amino acids are used to generate energy it must be done through deamination process where amino acids are broken into their constituent parts. Vitamin B6 associate with its enzyme in transamination cause nitrogen to transfer to a kito acid causing amino acid to lose its nitrogen and amino group. Ammonia is synthesised when amino acid in transformed to L glutamate through transamination process. Ammonia produces urea that travels through the blood to the kidney and excreted in urine.

Now that urea is removed from the process the carbon skeleton of amino acids can be used in different ways i.e. for protein synthesis or ATP formation. Carbon skeleton can also be stored, mainly in livers, as glucose by gluconeogenesis. This starts by converting carbon skeleton into acetyl CoA so that the coenzyme can be transmitted to the citric acid cycle where acetyl CoA is oxidised to generate ATP. Gluconeogenesis (a metabolic pathway) aims to form glucose from using non carbohydrate carbon substrate including glycerol, glycogenic amino acid. The resulted glucose can be converted to glucose 6 phosphates from phosphoenolpyruvate. The end product is pyruvate; notice the end product of glucose in glycolysis is same. The process requires energy in order to provide energy during starvation in fasting or extreme exercise.

Citric acid cycle (also known as Kerb’s cycle) is a chain of eight reaction taking place in mitochondria. It is true for each macronutrient to go through this chain of cycle and the oxidation on all of the acetyl CoA carbons entered from different nutrients is similar. This is an important stage as most of the energy produced in mitochondria happens after this cycle is completed to produce molecule carrying electrons. The carbon present in acetyl CoA is fully oxidised to a CO­2 molecule during this reaction. Acetyl CoA filters its two carbon molecules to critic acid cycle and a reaction between acetyl and oxaloacetate produce citrate in the first chain of the cycle. Activated carrier molecules are generated from the oxidation of citrate molecules. Every cycle generates 3 NADH molecules, 1 GTP molecule and 1 FADH2 molecule. Two molecules of CO­2 are given off as waste. The NADH and FADH2 molecules carry hydrogen and electrons which then proceeds to an oxidative phosphorylation process. The oxidative phosphorylation provides most of the energy in the whole system. The cycle does not require oxygen to carry out the process but the oxidisation of pyruvate requires oxygen. Hence the cycle works under the aerobic condition.

The next and final step occurs along an electron transport chain in the mitochondrion inner membrane. The electron transport chain structure in four different proteins consists of five complexes. The high energy electrons from reduced electron carriers, NADH and FADH2, are bombarded to the electron transport chain where the electron moves from an electron donor to a terminal electron acceptor. These electrons are added to the NADH and FADH2 molecules in the citric acid cycle.

The electrons from NADH enters complex I where it’s oxidised back to NAD+. Therefore one electron is captured and joins a proton to form a Hydrogen atom and one electron is lost during NADH losses its hydrogen. The electron from the hydrogen carries onto next stage while the proton moves back the inner membrane after the production of FMN to FMNH2. The electron in last complex embeds to the molecules of O2 gas and combines to two H+ to produce water H2O. While the electrons travel through these four complexes and provides enough energy to pump H+ ions (protons) outside the inner membrane.

The concentration gradient of H+ is gained due to the movement of these protons. This gradient stores energy that is sufficient for the production of ATP by phosphorylation of ADP. This process is known as oxidative phosphorylation where the electron is in its lowest form of energy therefore all the energy from the food molecules are oxidised to synthesis enormous amount of ATP. There are approximately 30 molecules of ATP gained after the complete oxidation per molecule of glucose or fatty acids or amino acids to H2O and CO2. Complete combustion of proteins also produces NH3 as waste products.

Conclusion

As the essay reaches its conclusion we can suggest that these macronutrients follow a similar pathway to generate ATP. Although the means of getting to the citric acid cycle for each macronutrient is different i.e. fat must be activated before it enters cytosol whereas protein goes through deamination process, not true for either glucose or fat. Also the function of glucose and protein is quiet different glucose only provide energy to the cells but proteins can participate in protein synthesis to formation of enzymes and carry important materials through the body etc.

Molecular Biology of the Cell 4th edition, Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. New York: Garland Science; 2002.

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Critical Analysis of the viability of Renewable Energy

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

This Essay would tend to analyse and define Renewable Energy as a whole.It would also list and discuss types/main forms of renewable energy and its commercialization to members of the public.

The essay would aim to discuss economic importance of Renewable energy,new and future use of renewable energy as regards research and methods.

Finalise and suggest for safe use of renewable energy.

DEFINITION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

Renewable energy could be defined as energy which is extracted from natural resources such as,sunlight,wind,rains,geothermal heat and tides which in turn are renewable over and over.

TYPES/MAIN FORMS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

i.Wind Power

One hot type of alternative energy is wind power which is steadily growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 121,000 megawatts (MW) in 2008, and is widely used in European countries and the United States. While some people may feel these are hideous looking intruders, wind energy could generate 20 percent of the electricity needed by households and businesses in the eastern half of the United States by 2024.

ii.Hydropower

Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country’s automotive fuel. They have also recently been granted permission for building a huge dam in the heart of the Amazon rainforest which would generate a ton of hydroelectric power helping with Latin America’s demand for electricity. Unfortunately, this form of renewable energy may hurt the local indigenous people and have a negative impact on the environment.

iii. Solar Energy

In searching for a definition of renewable energy, you are bound to come across solar power which use photovoltaic cells to convert the radiation from the sun into usable energy. These extremely versatile systems can power everything from your small PUMA cell phone to massive building complexes. In fact, after Haiti’s horrendous and disastrous earthquake, solar cells easily replaced a dwindling diesel supply. Alan Doyle, a science editor at MSNBC, recently wrote that a single solar water purification system, recovered from the rubble by the Red Cross, is now purifying 30,000 gallons (over 110,000 liters) of water a day.

iv.Biomass

Biomass (plant material) is a renewable energy source because the energy it contains comes from the sun. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants capture the sun’s energy. When the plants are burnt, they release the sun’s energy they contain. In this way, biomass functions as a sort of natural battery for storing solar energy. As long as biomass is produced sustainably, with only as much used as is grown, the battery will last indefinitely.

In general there are two main approaches to using plants for energy production: growing plants specifically for energy use, and using the residues from plants that are used for other things. The best approaches vary from region to region according to climate, soils and geography.[

v.Biofuel

Brazil has bioethanol made from sugarcane available throughout the country. Shown a typical Petrobras gas station at Sao Paulo with dual fuel service, marked A for alcohol (ethanol) and G for gasoline.Biofuels include a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. The term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Liquid biofuels include bio alcohols, such as bioethanol, and oils, such as biodiesel. Gaseous biofuels include biogas, landfill gas and synthetic gas.

Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feed stocks for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil.

Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using trans esterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe.

Biofuels provided 2.7% of the world’s transport fuel in 2010.

vi.Geothermal energy.

Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast IcelandGeothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself, both from kilometers deep into the Earth’s crust in volcanically active locations of the globe or from shallow depths, as in geothermal heat pumps in most locations of the planet. It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites. Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth’s core.

Three types of power plants are used to generate power from geothermal energy: dry steam, flash, and binary. Dry steam plants take steam out of fractures in the ground and use it to directly drive a turbine that spins a generator. Flash plants take hot water, usually at temperatures over 200 °C, out of the ground, and allows it to boil as it rises to the surface then separates the steam phase in steam/water separators and then runs the steam through a turbine. In binary plants, the hot water flows through heat exchangers, boiling an organic fluid that spins the turbine. The condensed steam and remaining geothermal fluid from all three types of plants are injected back into the hot rock to pick up more heat.[citation needed]

The geothermal energy from the core of the Earth is closer to the surface in some areas than in others. Where hot underground steam or water can be tapped and brought to the surface it may be used to generate electricity. Such geothermal power sources exist in certain geologically unstable parts of the world such as Chile, Iceland, New Zealand, United States, the Philippines and Italy. The two most prominent areas for this in the United States are in the Yellowstone basin and in northern California. Iceland produced 170 MW geothermal power and heated 86% of all houses in the year 2000 through geothermal energy. Some 8000 MW of capacity is operational in total.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

Renewable energy is often considered as the best way to tackle global warming and climate change. The more renewable energy we use the less fossil fuel we burn, and less burning of fossil fuels means less carbon dioxide emissions and lesser impact to climate change.

There are really plenty of reasons to choose renewable energy over fossil fuels but we must not forget that renewable energy is still not ready to completely replace fossil fuels.

Some day it will be but not just yet. The most important thing to do right now is to further develop different renewable energy technologies in order to ensure that once this day comes world wouldn’t have to worry whether renewable energy will be able to deliver the goods or not.

Together with costs renewable energy will also need to improve its efficiency. For instance, average solar panels have efficiency of around 15% which means that lot of energy gets wasted and transferred into heat, instead of some other form of usable energy. However, there are many ongoing researches with the goal to improve efficiency of renewable energy technologies, some of which have been really promising, though we are yet to see some highly efficient and commercially viable renewable energy solution.

Renewable energy sector could decide to choose a “sit and wait strategy” because fossil fuels will eventually become depleted and renewable energy would then remain as the best alternative to satisfy world’s hunger for energy. But this would be a bad strategy for two reasons: energy security and climate change

Renewable energy is very popular topic these days and here are some advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy.

Like fossil fuels do so does renewable energy have certain advantages and disadvantages. Economy, ecology, and efficiency are only some of the factors through which we should look renewable energy when discussing its advantages and disadvantages.

As the name already suggests renewable energy sources cannot be depleted like this is the case with fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are limited, and therefore one day coal, oil, and natural gas will be depleted but the same scenario won’t happen with renewable energy sources because Sun will continue to shine, wind will continue to blow, etc. It is difficult to say how long will fossil fuels still be able to satisfy large part of global energy demand, some energy experts believe this is likely to last till the end of this century, but in any case once fossil fuels become depleted world will need to have already established alternative in form of renewable energy.

From the ecological point of view renewable energy has extreme advantage over fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are clean energy sources and unlike coal, oil, and natural gas release none or negligible carbon emissions. Fossil fuels on the other hand when burning release harmful carbon emissions that not only pollute our planet but have contributed to the severity of climate change impact.

The cost-competitiveness of renewable energy sources, despite the serious improvement in renewable energy technologies in the last couple of years still remains one of the biggest disadvantages of renewable energy. In order for renewable energy to become cost-competitive with fossil fuels lot more research will be needed to mostly improve efficiency of renewable energy technologies because efficiency and economy still outweigh positive environmental effects in eyes of many people.

Renewable energy also needs to work on energy storage solutions to ensure reliability of delivery because the most important renewable energy sources are intermittent (wind, solar), and are therefore not totally reliable.

The lack of tradition is also one disadvantage of renewable energy. Fossil fuels have long tradition, and many renewable energy sectors have just started developing. Tradition that fossil fuels have on their side has contributed to the development of powerful fossil fuel lobbies that have significant impact on politics, and these lobbies use this influence to get important decisions their way.

Many countries in the world rely on foreign oil import, and by developing their own domestic renewable energy sectors they would help decrease the dependence on importing oil from other countries, and would also diversify their own energy portfolio in the process.

The development of renewable energy sectors can also create many economic benefits for countries, mostly in form of many new green jobs.

CONCLUSION

. Source: REN21[16]

BIBLOGRAPHY

renewable energy.” Encyclop?dia Britannica. Encyclop?dia Britannica Online. Encyclop?dia Britannica, 2011. Web. 31 Jul. 2011. .

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Wind Energy and Power Optimization

Introduction

1. Overview

1.1. Wind energy

The wind energy is one of the sources of renewable energy which has many advantages over the non-conventional sources of energy. There are many topological and economical factors associated with the construction of the wind farm which decide upon the construction design of the wind turbine and the placement of the wind turbines in the farm.The main construction of the wind farm consists of the mechanical, civil costs and electrical costs. In construction of the wind turbines there are different types and designs of turbines used depending on the location, topography and the power output. The wind turbine generators convert kinetic energy of the wind into the electrical energy. Different types of generators are used in the conversion according to the application and the requirements.

1.2. Challenges

A single wind turbine is connected into the array of many wind turbines to form a wind farm which is utilized to generate electrical energy. The main consideration with the wind farm is the cost of installation and the power quality. Due to the non availability of the constant wind at all times the energy was highly unreliable, but due the new power electronic converter devices and manufacturing of the doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) the engineers have been able to overcome the problem. The power quality is the primary concern when the energy generated from the wind farm is connected to the main grid .The voltage unbalance at Bus-Bar, voltage fluctuations and reliability are the issues of prime concern in the power quality.

The main problems related to the power quality in the wind farm are:

1) Steady State voltage impact: It is the most common problem which is mostly related to the source and load of electric power. Due voltage drop in the line because of the presence of impedance there are voltage drops, which must be kept under the limits to avoid failure.

2) Dynamic voltage variations: The cause for the dynamic voltage variations is the same steady state voltage variations but they are studied for a shorter time intervals of seconds or fraction of second. These can be reduced by introducing variable wind speed system or by controlling the reactive power.

3) Harmonic Distortion: In the electric System due to non-linear loads and the power electronic devices there are distortions in the pure sine wave.

4) Voltage Transients: When an induction machine or a capacitor bank is connected in the system, the high currents are observed which might cause disturbance in the grid.

The need of the optimization in the wind farms is a need, to make the technology more efficient and more reliable. There are many tools used for the simulation of the wind farm but the tools used for the wind park grid connection optimization are the PSS/E and Spectrum Power CC which contains a module for the power system optimization.

1.3 Aims and Objectives

“Wind Park Grid Connection Power Optimization”

In the wind farm design a typical on/offshore substation which consists of the switchable reactive components and transformer tap changers should be modeled within a power system simulation package and replicated in the Siemens SCADA (Supervisory control and Data Acquisition) system using the software Spectrum Power CC.

The SCADA contains a module for power system optimization which has not been explored by the Siemens, the software has to be verified for the optimization of the wind farm and then the modeling is to be done which is achieved by proper learning of the software and implementation of the same in the real time SCADA software.

The results obtained from the network optimization algorithm model Vs SCADA system are to be verified and analyzed and based on the analysis the improvements or alternatives are proposed for further enhancement. In the past due to the limited work on the software, exploring of the tools and techniques in the software is another key motive in the process which will not only solve the optimization problem but will be beneficiary for future developments. However there are optimization tools developed using the Generic Algorithm for improving the reliability of the system.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Introduction

The wind energy is now one of the major sources of energy. Different designs of the turbines have been introduced to improve the reliability of the system. The main parameters which are taken into consideration in designing of the wind farms is the energy output, cost efficiency, the impact on the environment and the impact on the electric grid which mainly includes the integration into the existing electrical system and the power quality issues. These factors must be fulfilled before connecting into the main network to keep the existing system operational.

In the process of designing the actual system of the wind farms the modeling of the proposed design which is an important factor in the basic structure of the turbine, type of blades, turbine used etc. The analysis of both the mechanical and electrical properties of the structure of the wind turbine is done using different modeling tools like PSCAD, PSS/E, Dig Silent etc.[7][8]

2.2. Past Achievements

Power quality in the wind turbines is the important area of concern and assurance of the protection from all the disturbances has to be made to ensure the protection of the grid. The main power quality standards are static voltage level, voltage fluctuations, voltage transients, voltage harmonic distortion, voltage unbalance and voltage supply interruptions.

In the past the fixed speed electric turbines were used but now due to their drawbacks main being the inefficient control of the reactive power and power quality problems the variable speed turbines have been developed. A variable speed turbine keeps the generator torque constant and the speed changes which results in constant power in the system which is the essential requirement. There are many power electronic devices which are used in combination with the induction machine and the synchronous machine.

The structures developed in the modeling of the wind turbines are used in the analysis between the electrical and the mechanical structure of the wind-farm and also help in the dynamics interaction of the wind farm and electrical grid which enables the design engineers and owners to make an adequate study before the installation of the wind- farm. [1][2]

Various models have been developed earlier for specific studies in the wind turbine functioning using the Dig Silent and PSS/E software. Various calculations are performed by the utility engineers like the load flow analysis and the transient analysis of the models developed. The main objective of the load flow calculations is to identify the flows in the transmission lines, transformers and the voltage at different buses or nodes which is an integral planning of the planning and the design of the wind farm. The calculations are done under different scenarios to satisfy the conditions. The transient stability studies are done to calculate the transient response of the system under the disturbances. The synchronism, the damping of the oscillations of the machines are examined which play a vital role in the planning and interconnection of the wind farm. [4][9]

2.3. Current work

Many studies have been conducted on the stability of the wind-farms, but referring to the paper by David T.Johnsen on “Optimisation of the fault ride through strategy of a wind farm” which explains the optimisation and also the dynamic stability of the wind-farm by developing a procedure for an optimal fault ride through strategy for the wind farms. The dynamic simulations are developed and modeled in PSSE which illustrates the possibility of increasing the capacity of the wind farm by optimal fault ride through settings.

“The operational characteristics of the wind farm are optimised by adjusting the parameter settings of a model of a simplified PQ-generator while simulating in PSSE”. From the article it is observed that the “wind-farm consists of radial connection, consisting of two parallel and identical 132 Kv branches which are connected to a high level wind penetration”. Apart from the two wind farms an” additional wind farm (WF2)” is connected which is represented in the network by the “generic PSS/E model of a full converter turbine or a simple P-Q generator which represents as ideal power source.” The settings of the P-Q generator can be modified in the simulation by adjusting the active and reactive power in the system. To increase the stability and the loss of synchronism the “active power injection must be reduced to a low active power level as soon as the voltage dip is detected and a high value of reactive power during the fault increases the transferable limit of the active power during and after the fault. “

In the conclusion of the paper it is seen that the comparisons between the response of the “P-Q generator and generic FCWT model” illustrates that it possible for the “P-Q generator to successfully ride through the fault while the generic FCWT trips.”

“The main concerns regarding the dynamic power response in the process of optimisation are as follows:

1. The active power must be severely constrained during the fault sequence.

2. The maximum reactive power production has to be high and fast responding.”

Hence it is concluded from the paper that the fault ride through strategy can improve the capacity and the electric grid quality in the wind-farm. [3]

In an optimization model developed by the Strategic Energy Institute (Georgia Institute of technology) there are some input parameters like wind speed, Weibull parameter, investment, efficiency of generator and gearbox, speed etc and output parameters as optimal rotor diameter, optimal generator capacity, optimal RPM, torque and power produced. These parameters are drawn into a flowchart which consists of a wind turbine design optimization model. [10]

2.4. Future Prospects

The IEEE research paper on “Optimization of Electrical Connection Scheme for Large Offshore Wind Farm with Genetic Algorithm “at the Sustainable Power Generation and Supply (2009) represents a way of power system optimisation by Generic Algorithm .An analysis on an off-shore wind farm is made in which the optimisation of the electrical connection is converted into the factors of the “voltage level inside the farm, the voltage levels of substation, number of substations, location of substations, connection topology of substation and turbines”. Due to their non-linearity the optimization is done by Generic Algorithm and the analysis is done in the paper. [6]

A research paper presented in the Nordic workshop on Power and industrial electronics (2004) on Optimization of electrical system for a large DC offshore wind farm by Generic Algorithm” proposes an optimization based on Generic Algorithm where the input parameters are used as technical data and are optimised for minimum cost and maximum reliability. Based on the theory of natural evolution a Generic is developed which consists of “population of bit strings transformed into three genetic operators’ selection, crossover and mutation.” An optimization model is developed which computes cost and the reliability. The model consists of the input data, some rules, cost calculation, reliability evaluation and an optimum configuration with the help of generic algorithm. In the genetic optimization the “encoding and decoding of the chromosomes” is done which leads to computation of the cost and reliability, finally the mutation operator is used to improve the execution of the Generic Algorithm. [14]

In another IEEE paper by Kusiak.A et al (2010) “Optimization of Wind Turbine Performance With Data-Driven Models” a multi objective optimisation function is made which represents the wind power output, the vibrations in the train and the vibration in the tower to determine the wind turbine functioning. The concept of neural networks, an ES algorithm “the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA)” is used solving the model. The results obtained state that the vibration mitigation and power maximization can be done by adjusting the generator torque and blade pitch angle. [5]

In the “Small Wind Off-Grid System Optimization Regarding Wind Turbine Power Curve” paper by Simic.Z and Mikulicic.V (IEEE) there is another small hybrid off-grid system in which there is discussion on the impact of the power curve on the cost of the energy and amount of energy produced. The “HOMER micro power optimizing tool “was used for the optimisation, wind speed data was varied and the results were analyzed.

3. METHODODLOGY

3.1. Description

In the project as the simulations of the wind farm are to be carried out in the software package, the studying of the wind model layout is the prime important step which includes the components and specifications. The layout of the wind farm design mainly consists of an array of wind turbines, the electrical connections, on/off shore substation, transformer, On -Load Tap changers, Phase -to -Phase voltage controllers and shunt capacitor banks to improve the voltage quality of the system.

3.2. PSS/E

The optimal power flow software PSS/E is used in the analysis in which all the components are modeled and all the results are recorded. A brief description of the software is as follows:

PSS/E (Power System Simulation for Engineering):

“Power System Simulation for Engineering (PSS/E) is the major tool used in the course of the project which consists of a set of programs for studies of power system transmission and generation behavior in both steady state and dynamic situations. It can be used as a tool to analyze the power flow and the related network functions, the optimal power flow, balanced and unbalanced faults, network equivalent construction, as well as dynamic simulation.

The main software used is the Power System Simulator for engineering optimal power flow from Siemens which improves the overall efficiency and output of the system in addition to the normal power flow.

The software is mainly used for the today’s challenges of the regulated power supply which are as follows:

Reactive power scheduling
Voltage collapse analysis
Transfer capability investigation
Location based marginal cost assessment
Ancillary service opportunity cost assessment
Impact assessment
Base case development
Congestion analysis”

*The Above content is taken from the user manual of the Software PSS/E. [11]

As the software has been used earlier in the analysis of the power system so learning and implementing the software would not be a very difficult task and the analysis can be carried out using the manuals and other research material provided on the internet.

3.3. Spectrum Power CC

In the second and the important part of the project the same wind farm simulation model is modeled in the Siemens Spectrum Power CC software using the SCADA, the Distribution Network Analysis (DNA) which consists of Distribution system power flow (DSPF), Distribution System State Estimator (DSSE), Short Term Load Scheduler (STLS), Fault Management and Volt-Var Control(VCC).

The brief description of the software from the Siemens software reference manual of the Power Spectrum CC is as follows:

“Distribution Network Analyses (DNA) supports the following features:

Effective and efficient control of distribution networks
Increased supply quality and reliability
Optimal use of network equipment
Minimization of network losses
Detection and elimination of overloads in time
Efficient fault management

The elements which are to be used in the software for the analysis of the system along their main functions which are an integral part of the Spectrum Power CC Distribution Network Analysis are:

1) Distribution System Power Flow(DSPF):

“DSPF is mainly used to calculate the network status in the system configuration. The power flow solution calculates the voltages at all the bus-bars, the power and the reactive power at all the buses. The flows in the network are the most important parameters in the simulation. The limits of the system are analyzed and suitable optimization technique is used.”

2) Distribution State Estimator(DSSE):

“DSSE is mainly used for the real-time monitoring, control and optimization of the model. It estimates the active and reactive power values and corrects the data by using the techniques of mismatching of information. “

DSSE integrates the optimization process with the optimal power flow to calculate the flows which are then used to monitor the real time operation of the network.

3) Short Term Load Scheduler(STLS):

“STLS tracks the active and reactive power management of the power system loads and maintains the consumption for the loads in the network into a database. “

4) Fault Management:

“The main application of the Fault management is location of the fault, the fault isolation and service restoration.

The fault management consists of:

Fault location

Locating the faulty section or area of the network as closely as possible

Fault isolation

Isolating the faulty section or area of the network

Service restoration

Restoring power to de-energized non-faulty areas of the network

5) Volt-Var Control(VVC):

“Volt-Var Control (VCC) deals with the operations on the transformer with on-load tap changers, phase-to phase voltage controllers and shunt capacitors to improve the network operations. The main task is to improve the overall reliability and quality of the network.

VCC works on two operating modes:

Open loop: The settings after running the flow are not automatically executed; they are reviewed by the user.

Closed Loop: The settings after running the flow are automatically executed after VCC calculation.”

The main objectives which are to be fulfilled after the optimization of the system mainly consists of:

1) Minimize limit violations.

2) Minimize power losses and limit violations.

3) Minimize active power consumption and limit violations.

4) Minimize reactive power consumption and limit violations.

5) Maximize power revenue and minimize limit violations.

*(The description of the software has been taken from the reference manuals provided by Siemens .It has been edited and modified according to the data required, but still Quoted to be on safer side.)[12]

The above tools in the software are studied and then analyzed as the software is used for the optimal power flow for the first time, so understanding the software is a difficult task which may consume a lot of time and may require a lot of help from the external sources. If the results are required results not obtained on the software then if will become more challenging, and have to take the help of the specific team involved in creation of the power system optimisation tool in the software, which may include taking help from Siemens, Germany. Replicating the power system model on the software won’t be a challenging task, if all the main functions are studied and learned in detail. The results may be then obtained if the simulation is successfully modeled in the software.

3.4. Comparison

In the last step results of both the simulations will be compared and the analysis of the results obtained is done separately for both the softwares. The drawbacks of the Distribution Network Analysis software will be studied based on the results obtained from the comparison of the data obtained after running the simulations. A suitable alternative is then proposed, supporting the simulation and improvements in the design are implemented to obtain the desired results.

The proper explanations of the improvements supporting the outcomes are made as the improvements proposed in the software are then implemented by the engineers without the power system background.

4. PLANNING

4.1. Overview:

The project work has been planned and divided into a timeline which has been shown in the Gantt chart as attached in the report.

The project plan is made keeping in mind some delays due to the unavoidable circumstances and will be effective from the initiation till the completion of the project.

4.2. Project Risks:

In the Project as the modeling tools have to be used in the simulation of the wind farm so the availability of the software is a major concern. The power system optimization software PSS/E is available which won’t be a concern. As the software is complex and difficult to understand so it may take a longer time to understand the working. The help of the PhD students will be taken and the simulation will be made as simple as possible to remove the complexity from the model as it has to be modeled in a short duration. If necessary the use of simple optimization tools would be done like Dig SILENT, Power world Simulator etc.

In the another modeling software Spectrum Power CC provided by Siemens, the power optimization module in the software on which the simulation is mainly based is new, which may consume a lot of time learning the software, therefore suitable training will be taken by the experts so that, I can easily adapt the software and proceed with the work. The difficulties faced will be rectified by the Siemens Technical Team and PhD students at The University Of Manchester which will lead to the success of the project.

4.3. Gantt Chart

Risk Assessment Form

Dissertation Project: “Wind Park Grid Connection Power Optimization”

Risk DescriptionEffect on the projectAction Required
Non Availability of PCThe postponement of the project

Immediate availability of another PC

Non Availability of Software

Difficulty in modeling.

Immediate availability or some alternative modeling tool.

Data CrashA data backup is created.

A backup has to be created.

Power system optimization software use

Due to the non-familiarity longer time to learn the software.

Modeling will be kept simple and the help of PhD students would be taken for modeling.

SCADA software interfaceDue the first time use of optimization module there may be delays.

Help of specialized team is expected.

CONCLUSION

In the feasibility study above the methodology of the dissertation project is explained. The literature review highlights all the work done and the future prospects of the work that can be done in the research are. The project planning consists of the Gantt chart which is a layout of the working of the project which includes all the risks and different challenges during the project.

REFERENCES:

1)Eriksson.K .et al.(n.d.), “ System Approach On Designing An Offshore Wind Power Grid Connection” http://www05.abb.com/global/scot/scot221.nsf/veritydisplay/34ec041beda66334c1256fda004c8cc0/$file/03mc0132%20rev.%2000.pdf

2)Hanson.J and Hunger.T (n.d.) “Network Studies for Offshore Wind Farm Grid Connections – Technical Need and Commercial Optimization “ http://www.2004ewec.info/files/23_1400_juttahanson_01.pdf

3) Johnsen.D .et al. (n.d.) “Optimisation of the fault ride through strategy of a wind farm” http://www.frontwind.com/Paper%20Master%20Thesis.pdf

4) Kazachkov.Y and Stapleton.S (2004), “Modeling Wind Farms for Power System Stability Studies” https://www.ptius.com/pti/company/eNewsletter/2004April/Modeling%20Wind%20Farms%20for%20Power%20System%20Stability%20Studies.pdf

5)Kusiak.A .et al. (2010) “Optimization of Wind Turbine Performance With Data-Driven Models” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 1, NO. 2, JULY 2010 http://www.icaen.uiowa.edu/~ankusiak/Journal-papers/IEEE_2010_2.pdf

6) Lingling.H, Yang.F and Xiaoming.G(2009) “Optimization of Electrical Connection Scheme for Large Offshore Wind Farm with Genetic Algorithm” Sustainable Power Generation and Supply, 2009. SUPERGEN ’0910.1109/SUPERGEN.2009.5348118 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5348118

7) Petru.T (2001), “Modeling of Wind Turbines for Power System Studies” http://webfiles.portal.chalmers.se/et/Lic/PetruTomasLic.pdf

8) Petru.T and Thiringer.T (2002) “Modeling of Wind Turbines for Power System Studies” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO.4 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1137604

9) Sayedi.M (2009),”Evaluation of the DFIG Wind Turbine Built-in Model in PSSE” http://webfiles.portal.chalmers.se/et/MSc/SeyediMohammadMSc.pdf

10)Schmidt.M “Wind Turbine design Optimization” Strategic Energy Institute(Georgia Institute of Technology) . http://www.clemson.edu/scies/wind/Poster-Schmidt.pdf

11) “Siemens Energy manual Guide for PSS/E “(Available on internet)

http://www.energy.siemens.com/us/en/services/power-transmission-distribution/power-technologies-international/software-solutions/pss-e.htm

12) “Spectrum Power CC Manual”, Siemens Germany

13) Simic.Z and Mikulicic.V (n.d.) “Small Wind Off-Grid System Optimization Regarding Wind Turbine Power Curve” an IEEE paper.

http://bib.irb.hr/datoteka/309501.Small_Wind_OffGrid_ZS_final.pdf

14) Zhao.M, Chen.Z and Blaabjerg.F (2004) “Optimization of Electrical System for a Large DC Offshore Wind Farm by Genetic Algorithm “ NORDIC WORKSHOP ON POWER AND INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS 2004 – 037

APPENDIX:

General Risk Assessment Form

Date: (1)

11/5/2011Assessed by: (2)

Rajat Aggarwal

Checked / Validated* by: (3)Martin LorimerLocation: (4)

Siemens, ManchesterAssessment ref no (5)

Review date: (6)

Task / premises: (7)

Wind Park Grid Connection Power Optimization :Modeling of Power system

Activity (8)Hazard (9)Who might be harmed and how (10)Existing measures to control risk (11)Risk rating (12)Result (13)

Continuous use of computer Eyes pain , back pain , HeadacheMyself , May lead to fatigueProper Precautions while using computerLowT

Computer crashData crashDelay in projectData backupMediumA

FireDamage to the companyCompany working may be harmedFire Safety EquipmentsMediumA

Categories
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Advantages of Renewable Energy

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

1.1 Introduction

“In the last few years, the idea of having small-scale energy sources or micro-sources, distributed over a grid has gained a considerable interest. Innovations in the technology and changing economic and regulatory environment have been the main driver behind this growing interest in new distributed generation technologies. Distributed generation has offered a variety of benefits and has given the customers a choice for the electricity services best suited for them. An abundant amount of distributed generation technologies like micro-turbines and fuel cell are quite well known and being developed all across the world. However, there is another technology that has become viable only in last few years and is being developed to improve voltage control as well as the power quality. It is micro grid system technology [7].

A micro grid is a small-scale power supply network which is designed to provide power to individual consumers, small community or few building. Micro grids bear the promise of considerable environmental benefits, brought about by higher energy efficiency and by facilitating the integration of renewable sources such as wind turbines or photovoltaic arrays. By virtue of good match between generation and load, micro grids have a low impact on the electricity network, despite a potentially significant level of generation by intermittent energy sources. Although the ownership and operation issues for the micro grid concept have yet to be addressed, one possible way forward might be for a micro grid as intrinsically a local supportive project. In such systems, the consumers may be also the suppliers and so a more creative approach to load control may be possible in the joint interests of cost and efficiency [5]-[7].

Combining photovoltaics or wind turbine, fuel generator and a small battery requirement gives a microgrid that is independent of the national electricity network. In the short term, this has particular benefits for remote communities but more wide-ranging possibilities open up in the medium to long term. Microgrids could meet the need to replace current generation nuclear and coal fired power stations, greatly reducing the demand on the transmission and distribution network [5].

1.2 Motivation and Objectives

The aim of the research is working on RES (Renewable Energy Sources). Deeply understanding, knowledge and design of optimized small size micro grid power system from Renewable Energies including micro wind turbines, solar electricity and small hydro power system for micro generation of electricity to facilitate domestic homes or small businesses level.

Renewable Energies are the cheapest and reliable electricity generation sources in the world. We can increase benefits from RES due to increasing energy efficiency, reduce CO2 emissions for low carbon and climate change goals.

The objectives of the research include:

Research into renewable energy resources for small level micro generation of electricity for small businesses and domestic homes.
Investigate renewable energy resources and select economical, suitable and available source of energy for electricity micro generation in Scotland, UK.
Create optimized conceptual design of small scale micro grid system.
Control strategies which ensure the operation of micro grid power system capability to meet the requirements of specific load and controls.
Generation of electricity in the most reliable and efficient way with power system protection (grounding and safety issues).
Computing simulations of micro grid system design with controls (on-off load) and contrast the simulation results.

As a result the project’s effort and research into renewable energy resources on micro grid systems will contribute towards increasing energy efficiencies (on small businesses and domestic homes levels), low carbon economy as UK government plan & worldwide and energy cost effectiveness.

1.3 History of UK Electric Power System

In 1881 public electricity supply began in the UK but it was not properly established until 1926 with respect to growth and future direction. The electricity generation on large scale up to 2000MW usually coal fired power stations connected with high voltage transmission system network up to 400kV, distributed it on small scale or lower voltage feeders for supplying consumers at different voltages from 33kV-230V lower for domestic electricity users. A typical UK electricity transmission, distribution and public electricity supply system (adapted from R. Cochrane, Power to the people, CEGB/Newness Books, 1985) is shown below:

Figure 1.1: Electricity transmission and distribution system, to clarify on the example of UK public electricity supply (adapted from R. Cochrane, Power to the People, CEGB/Newness Books, 1985).

In 1989 the UK government introduced an Electricity Act for promoting competition and protect the consumers, also introduced an Office of Electricity Regulation (OFFER) with primary responsibilities, electricity industry was privatised and split into different parts under the new Electricity Act. The generating stations were privatised for selling their electricity on the open market; the privately owned managed transmission system was facilitated for the market with a number of Distribution Network Operators (DNOs). None of these ‘network owning’ companies bought or sold electricity their revenue came from the transmission or distribution of electricity.

Electricity Suppliers bought from the generators and resold to customers, the price being controlled by the market place. This situation existed, again in several forms, until today, when the New Electricity Trading Act (NETA) has altered pricing and charging methods [5].

1.4 Distributed Generation

Conventional power system is facing problems around the world due to gradual depletion of fossil fuel resources, global warming or environmental pollution and less energy efficiency. Due to having these problems, a new way of electricity generation locally at small scale or distribution voltage level by using more often non-conventional or renewable energy sources like wind power, solar photovoltaic (PV) cells, fuel cells, biogas, natural gas, micro-turbines, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, sterling engines and their integration utility distribution network. This type of electricity generation is termed as distribution generation (DG) and the energy sources are called distributed energy resources (DERs).

In another words we can say that distribution generation (DG) is an approach which employs small scale applications or technologies to generate electric power near to the consumer’s premises as shown in the diagram below [2]-[6]-[32].

Figure 1.2: Distributed generation system

The major issues about DG were investigated in late 1990s by the working groups of the International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE) and the International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED) in their review reports. According to several researches it shows that:

Distributed generation is normally smaller than 50 MW.
Distributed generation is not centrally planned by the power utility, nor dispatched.
The distributed energy resources or generators are mostly connected to the distribution system and usually voltage ratings are 230/415 V up to 145 kV [2].

In distributed generation mostly source of electric power is renewable energy sources (RES) which is one of the most important ways of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. There are also specific potential benefits using distributed generation, are under below:

Figure 1.3: Distributed generation benefits and services

Power system reliability increased using DG.
It is an emergency supply of electricity.
It reduces the peak power requirements.
Cost effective in the sense of generation, transmission and distribution.
Provision of ancillary services.
Improved power quality.
Cost reduction due to using very less land.
Improved infrastructure resilience and reduced vulnerability [83].

Consumers have become used to electrical power available on demand. They do not need to structure their load pattern, the entire responsibility for matching power and demand is placed upon the utilities, which must have enough generation available at all times. With more creative thinking about the way energy is supplied, used and controlled it may be possible to satisfy the demand for energy, but accommodate the fluctuating resources which are a feature particularly of renewable energy sources. This may be possible by ensuring a satisfactory mixture of sources and loads to enable the demand and supply to match [5].

1.5 Why Integration of Distributed Generation?

In front of several advantages provided by conventional power systems, the following benefits (technical, economical & environmental) by non-conventional or renewable energy sources have led to gradual developments and integration of distribution generation system:

Due to increasing load demand day by day the conventional power system brings about a continuous reduction of fossil fuel reserve. So, therefore most of the countries are paying attention on non-conventional or renewable energy resources for their alternate source of electricity demand.
Renewable energy resources are preferred over fossil fuels due to reducing environmental pollution and global warming. As a part of Kyoto Protocol, the UK, the Europe and many other countries representatives had meetings on reduction and cut down of greenhouse gases (carbon and nitrogenous) emissions [8]. Therefore they are working on renewable energy resources and integration of DERs would help to reduce greenhouse gases and generate environmental friendly clean power.
DG has more scope for utilizing CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plants to use waste energy to produce heat and electricity for domestic, commercial and industrial applications.
DG plants are often close to the consumer or on consumer sites at low voltage (LV), so it is a reduction of transmission and distribution capital investment and their (T&D) losses.
The power generation is on consumer sites; therefore the system has high power quality and reliability. So therefore more opportunities for DG integration, but there are shortage of electricity in some developing countries for meeting the load demand, so any form of electricity generation is encouraged [2]-[32].

1.6 Hybrid Power System

Hybrid power system is a combination of two or more form of electricity generation on renewable energy sources (RES) or mixed with storage batteries and diesel generator as a backup or stand-by for increasing load demand and the lack of electricity in rural, remote and difficult to reach areas [13]. Hybrid systems are usually in the power range from 1 kilowatt (kW) to hundreds kilowatt with best features of renewable energies and high power quality [9]. In hybrid systems generally using renewable energy sources are small wind turbine, solar photovoltaic (PV), fuel cells, biomass, micro-hydro and sterling engines [12]. Storage system (battery or fuel cells) are used to provide high level of efficiency and fossil fueled generator (diesel generator) are used to ensure the high level of security and reliability of the power system. A hybrid power system may or may not be connected to the main grid, because it depends on the consumer site.

Figure 1.4: Hybrid Power System [11]

The above hybrid power system figure considering on-site generation without connected to the main grid, using both renewable energy sources that are wind turbine and solar photovoltaic for electrifying remote locations or rural areas. Using both renewable energy sources, the hybrid system minimizes the weakness of each approach that are lacking of wind or sunlight.

Most hybrid power systems use wind turbine or solar photovoltaic with diesel generator set, because diesel generator provides more predictable electric power on demand and takes care of long term fluctuations. In some hybrid systems batteries are also used for more reliability and efficiency for meeting the daily load fluctuations [10]-[11]-[12].

Hybrid power system combines the benefits of both renewable (non-conventional) and conventional power conversion systems. Renewable energy sources in comparison with conventional energy sources offer an independence from fossil fuel and with that an independence from world fuels pricing and conterminously an increasing sustainability of the power supply. On the other hand conventional energy sources are self-reliant from environmental conditions for example wind velocity, solar irradiation, etc. They can support the renewable energy sources at the time of insufficient environmental conditions. Because of that, the reliability and efficiency of the hybrid power system can be increased [13].

The hybrid power system has received a lot attention over the past decade, because it is an effective solution of electricity generation as compared to the systems which totally rely on hydrocarbon fuel. Hybrid power system has also longer life cycle apart from mobility of the system. Especially, the integration approach of renewable energies makes a hybrid power system to be the most appreciate for remote locations or rural areas. For employing a system generating totally clean power, high capital cost is the main issue. However we can generate green power by using different renewable energy sources to diesel generator and batteries, which is also a hybrid power system. So this type of hybrid power system (renewable energies/diesel generator/batteries) compromises on investment cost, diesel fuel usage cost as well as on operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

There are usually two types of hybrid power system configurations, which are below:

Hybrid power systems based mainly on diesel generators with renewable energy sources are used for reducing fuel consumption.
Hybrid power systems depending on renewable energy sources with a diesel generator used as a stand-by or back-up supply, especially when the load demand is high and renewable energy sources are less.

So, designing of a hybrid power system rely on site specification, load demand and available energy resources [12].

1.7 Why Microgrid Systems?

A microgrid is a small scale electricity supply network that is designed to electrify remote locations, rural areas, domestic homes, small scale businesses or a small community. A small community may range from a typical housing estate, isolated rural communities, to mixed suburban environments, academic communities such as schools or universities, to commercial or industrial sites, municipal regions, or trading estates. The key figures that differentiates this approach from conventional power system is that the generators are small mostly assigned to as micro-generators, of a similar size as the load within the microgrid, they are distributed and usually located near to the consumers. The small scale generators and load are controlled to attain a local electricity and power balance. So, the main task of microgrid operation is to supply high quality electric power with reliability regardless of any faults operating conditions [18]-[19].

The motivation behind the microgrid concept is to reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, for the following reasons:

System overall efficiency increases due to both electricity and heat loads are close to the generation.
Having environmental advantages made possible by the use of zero or low emission generators including PV arrays and fuel cells.
Low impact on the electricity network, by virtue of good match between power generation and load demand [5].

Microgrids are usually designed and granted for operation by a single customer and group of customers with the key role of microgrids to reduce or minimize the environmental impacts. However, the main task is to reduce energy bill of electricity and heat users within the microgrid network. Microgrids can provide electricity at lower cost due to using of waste heat, no transmission and distribution losses, no customer services and other related costs unlike traditional power system. As compared to traditional energy system, microgrid has various advantages to minimize the cost of energy and also emerging distributed energy resources are quite promising in generating low cost clean power.

In microgrid economics with respect to UK scenario, the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is one of the major contributions towards environmental impacts. Combined heat and power (CHP) based micro generation is specially focused after the formation of Distributed Generation Co-ordination Group (DGCG) in the UK in early 2000. The potential of microgrid technologies, its contribution to the UK power system and major economic issues are also identified.

The potential advantages of microgrid economics are specified below:

Microgrid has high energy efficiency.
Reduction of transmission and distribution costs.
Lower energy losses.
Reduction in capital exposure and risk by small scale individual investment.
Low cost entry in open competitive market.
Matching capacity to the increasing demand growth.
Within the microgrid the micro-generators can share their energies without exporting energy to the public network at lower prices.
Additional security and ancillary services [2].

1.8 Issues to Consider

There are technical and regulatory issues that need to be considered before this concept can be applied on a wider scale. The principal issue to consider is how closely the energy supply within the microgrid can satisfy the local loads. The answer to this question will help decide how the microgrid interacts with the main utility and the nature of the connection to be determined. Indeed, it may even be desirable in some circumstances for the microgrid to be disconnected from the utility and operate as stand-alone.

The issues that must be resolved to permit this type of operation include:

Precise energy and power balance within the microgrid, on a time scale ranging from milliseconds to years. Over the short time scale, the power balance is linked to the question of control; over longer time scales, one needs to consider the relationship between energy supply, demand and storage. Similar arguments are used to design stand-alone power supplies, for example, photovoltaic or hybrid systems which power remote equipment or serve isolated rural communities across the world.
The nature of connection with the main utility. An arrangement which would permit the microgrid operator the choice to operate in the grid-connected or stand alone mode is an uncharted territory for conventional power utility engineers and issues remain both at the technical and regulatory level.
Energy storage. The conventional utility supply operates on the principle that power is generated when it is required. Energy storage introduces a novel component in a utility supply and broadens the design criteria. On a quantitative level, the size of the energy store is intimately linked to the energy balance and to the required security of supply provided by the microgrid.
Demand management. The temporal mismatch between generation and load can be alleviated by managing the demand. The shifting of load facilitates achieving the energy balance and helps reduce the size of energy storage. Whilst experience exists of demand-side management at industrial level and lessons can be learned from concepts such as storage heating, demand management at the domestic level is attracting much interest in the research community but further experience is needed before routine applications become commonplace [16].
Seasonal match between generation and load. Energy storage and demand management can be effective to achieve energy balance at the diurnal time scale. A sufficient energy must be available from the generators to ensure energy balance over longer time scales if a microgrid powered by renewable or other intermittent energy sources such as micro-CHP is to be capable of stand-alone operation. This can usually be achieved only by a diversity of generation methods appropriate to the load [5].

1.9 Layout of the Report

The layout of the report is as follows.

Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction and background followed by objective and motivation.
Chapter 2 explains the potential of renewable energies.
Chapter 3 explains about microgrid systems.
Chapter 4 provides information on designing the microgrid system.
Chapter 5 explains about design case studies.
Chapter 6 gives discussions, problems occurred, conclusions and future outwork.

Chapter 2
POTENTIAL OF RENWABLE ENERGY

2.1 Renewable Energy

2.1.1 Introduction

Renewable energy is the term used to describe energy that occur naturally and repeatedly in the environment and can be harnessed for human benefit. This includes energy from the sun, wind, biomass, hydro, waves or tides. Most of this comes from either the sun (which controls the earth’s weather patterns) or the gravitational effects of the sun and moon. This means that these energy sources are essentially endless. We also get renewable energy from trees and plants, rivers and even garbage [80]-[82].

Renewable energy encompasses many different types of technology at different stages of development and commercialization, from the burning of wood for heat in the residential sector (traditional and low-technology) to wind-generated electricity (widespread and technically proven) to processes such as biomass gasification for electricity generation (still under development although some plants are operating) [78].

The key issue is how to extract this energy effectively, and convert it into more useful forms of energy. For example, we can use energy from the sun to heat water or use mechanical devices such as wind turbines to convert the kinetic energy in wind into electricity [80]. Renewable energy sources emit lower levels of carbon dioxide emissions which is one of the main greenhouse gases (GHG) contribution to climate change than fossil fuel based generation plants [82].

2.1.2 Why Use Renewable Energy?
2.1.2.1 Climate Change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. It can be a change in the average weather or a change in the distribution of weather events around an average. Climate change may be limited to a specific region or may occur across the whole Earth.

In recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate. It may be qualified as anthropogenic climate change, more generally known as “global warming” or ‘anthropogenic global warming’ (AGW). Since 1900, the average temperature on the planet has increased by 0.74 degrees Celsius [77]-[81]. To help minimize the effects of climate change, we need to reduce the level of greenhouse gases (GHG) we are emitting. This means generating energy from sources that emit low or even zero levels of greenhouse gases, such as renewable energies [80].

2.1.2.2 General Pollution

As well as reducing climate change, using renewable energy can also help to reduce other forms of environmental and social damage that occur as a result of using fossil fuels, such as acid rain or air pollution [80].

2.1.2.3 Security of Supply

Another reason to use renewable energy is that fossil fuels are limited; they are going to run out. We need to ensure to have a reliable ongoing energy supply. In the UK, energy industry still relies largely on diminishing sources of coal, oil and gas. Renewable sources will reduce our dependence on these imported fossil fuels and help give us a diverse, secure mix of energy [80].

2.1.3 Potential of Renewable Energy in the UK

The UK has enormous wind, wave and tidal power; more than enough to meet all of our energy needs many times over. We could and should be global leaders in the field of renewable energies. We could be obtaining huge benefits from harnessing our native energy sources which use no fuel and will never run out. We could be obtaining industrial and economic advantages by being at the forefront of the fastest growing new technologies.

The total value globally of new wind power installed in 2006 was ?12 billion and the industry grows by an amazing 30 per cent or more a year. But the UK is only seizing a small percentage of that market and we are being left behind. Germany, Denmark, the US, Italy, Spain, China and India all have more wind capacity than us. Canada, France and Portugal are at about the same level or slightly less but last year they all grew faster than us.

To date, UK government has largely substandard the development of renewable technologies. They have been held back and undermined by weak policy, indecision, obstacles and the threat of nuclear power. When heat and transport energy is included, the UK ranks near the bottom of the EU league table for renewable energies development. With proper support, renewable energies can and must form the heart of our energy system [79].

2.1.4 UK Targets
The UK signed the Kyoto Protocol in December 1997 and it became legally binding in February 2005. As part of this, we pledged to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions by 12.5 percent between 2008 and 2012 and to seek to reduce emissions to 20 percent below 1990 levels by 2010.
The 2003 Energy white paper, pledged to cut current carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the UK by 60 percent by 2050. This target has now been increased to 80 percent.
In spring 2007, the UK agreed with other Member States to an EU-wide target of 20 percent renewable energy by 2020, including a binding 10 percent target for the transport sector. Member States have now signed up to the Renewable Energy Directive which includes a UK share of 15 percent of energy from renewable by 2020. This is equivalent to an eight-fold increase in renewable energy consumption from current levels. While such an increase is determined and will be challenging, we are fully committed to meeting our share of the target [8]-[80].

2.2 Wind Energy

2.2.1 Introduction

Wind is the airflow that consists of many gases in the atmosphere of the earth. Rotation of the earth, uneven heating of the atmosphere and the irregularities of the ground surface are the main factors that create winds. Motion energy of the wind flow is used by humans for many purposes such as water pumping, grain milling and generating electricity. Windmills that are uses for electricity generation are called wind turbines in order to distinguish them from the traditional mechanical wind power applications. Wind is a sustainable energy source since it is renewable, widely distributed and plentiful. In addition, it contributes to reducing the greenhouse gas emissions since it can be used as an alternative to fossil fuel based power generation [44]-[49].

2.2.2 Winds

The wind is the phenomenon of air moving from the equatorial regions toward the poles, as light warm air rises toward the atmosphere while heavier cool air descends towards the earth surface. Therefore cooler air moves from the North Pole toward the Equator and warms up on its way, while already warm air rises toward the North Pole and gets cooler and heavier, until it starts sinking back down toward the poles. Another phenomenon that is affecting global winds is caused by the “Coriolis force” which makes all winds on the northern hemisphere divert to the right and all winds from the southern hemisphere divert to the left [45].

Both of the above mentioned phenomena affect global winds that exist on the earth’s surface. Hence, as the wind rises from the Equator, there will be a low-pressure area close to ground level attracting winds from the North and South. At the poles, there will be high pressure due to the cooling of the air. In order to find the most suitable sites for wind turbines, it is crucial to study the geological data of the area since the wind’s speed and direction are highly influenced by the local topology. Surface roughness and obstacles not only will affect the speed of the wind but also affect its direction and overall power [49].

2.2.3 History of Wind Energy Harvesting

Wind turbines, as machines were used by ancient civilizations (Persians, Romans, etc.) mostly as vertical axle windmills with several blades. The primary use was to grind corn and wheat and for water irrigation systems [46]. Later on, windmills were developed mostly in the Netherlands, Denmark and Scotland for grinding mills. The first windmill that produced electricity was constructed by Professor James Blyth in Glasgow, Scotland in 1887 at Anderson’s College [47]. A great research contribution was made in Russia in 1931. A modern horizontal axis wind generator with 100 kW of power was mounted on a 30 m (100 ft) tower connected to the local 6.3 kV distribution system.

Ten years later in Castleton, Vermont, USA, the world’s first megawatt size wind turbine supplied the local electrical distribution system. The first wind machines were DC-type electrical machines. Later in the 1950s in Denmark, research and development led to the development of two-bladed wind turbines which utilized AC electrical machines instead of DC machines. At the same time a Danish group of researchers brought the concept of three-bladed wind turbine. After the first oil crisis in 1973, interest in wind energy increased in several countries such as Germany, Sweden, the UK and the USA [48].

Later developments in wind turbines were geared toward improving the 2 MW machine, creating wind power farms as group of wind turbines, establishing offshore sites for improved wind power and establishing new control techniques to increase the overall efficiency of the wind generators [49].

2.2.4 Wind Energy System

A wind turbine transforms the kinetic energy in the wind to mechanical energy in a shaft and finally into electrical energy in a generator. In simple words, a wind turbine converts wind energy into electrical energy.

The principal component of wind energy conversion systems is a wind turbine. This is coupled to the generator through a multiple ratio gearbox. There are generally two types of generator are used in the wind turbine conversion systems that are induction generators and synchronous generators, but most commonly induction generators are used in wind energy conversion systems. The main parts of the wind turbine are the tower, rotor and nacelle. The nacelle accommodates the transmission mechanisms and the generator. Rotor may have two or more blades. Wind turbine captures the kinetic energy of wind flow through rotor blades and transfers the energy to the generator side through the gearbox. The generator shaft is driven by the wind turbine to generate electric power. The function of the gearbox is to transform the slower rotational speeds of the wind turbine to higher rotational speeds on the induction generator side. Output voltage and frequency is maintained within specified range by using supervisory metering, control and protection techniques. Wind turbines may have horizontal axis configuration or vertical axis configuration, but most of the wind turbines we see now days are horizontal axis due to having high efficiency [2]-[29]-[30]-[31].

2.2.5 Basic Parts of Wind Turbines

The basic parts of wind turbine are shown in the figure 2.1 below:

Figure 2.1: Components of a typical wind turbine

The details of the main parts of wind turbine are follows.

2.2.5.1 The Tower

The main purpose of the tower is to support the nacelle and resist vibration due to the wind speed variations. The cables that connect the generator (on top of the tower, inside the nacelle) and transmission line (down, in the basement of the tower) are inside the tower. The tower is the main component that carries most of the other components such as the turbine, nacelle, blades and generator and so on.

The height of the tower is different for offshore and onshore turbines. The high towers are more appropriate for wind energy harvesting, since winds contain less turbulence in higher altitudes. However, stability issues limit the height of the tower. Onshore wind systems have higher towers than offshore turbines because the land has higher roughness than the water surface. On the water surface, there are almost no obstacles; hence the low tower length is sufficient to capture the wind. In onshore applications, there may be some objects around the tower that may block the wind speed. In areas with high roughness, high turbine towers are required to avoid the effect of wind blocking objects such as buildings, mountains, hills, trees and so on [2]-[49].

2.2.5.2 Yaw Mechanism

The yaw mechanism is composed of the yaw motor and the yaw drive. The yaw mechanism turns the whole nacelle toward the wind direction in order to face the wind directly. Regardless of the direction of the wind, the yaw mechanism can help the turbine face the wind by changing the direction of the nacelle and the blades. During the rotation of the nacelle, there is a possibility of twisting the cables inside of the tower. The cables will become more and more twisted if the turbine keeps turning in the same direction, which can happen if the wind keeps changing in the same direction. The wind turbine is therefore equipped with a cable twist counter which notifies the controller that it is time to straighten the cables [2]-[49].

2.2.5.3 The Nacelle

The gearbox, generator and the control electronics are all located inside of the nacelle. The nacelle is connected to the tower through the yaw mechanism. Inside the nacelle, two shafts connect the rotor of the turbine to the rotor of the electrical generator through the gearbox. The gearbox is the mechanical energy converter that connects the low-speed shaft of the turbine to the high-speed shaft of the electrical machine.

The control electronics inside the nacelle record the wind speed, direction data, rotor speed and generator load and then determine the control parameters of the wind operation system. If the wind changes direction, the controller will send a command to the yaw system to turn the whole nacelle and turbine to face the wind. The electrical generator is the main part of the nacelle. It is the heaviest part and produces electrical energy which is transferred through the cables. There are different types of generators that are used for wind turbines and depending on the type of generator; wind turbines can operate with either fixed or variable speed. Fixed speed (FS) turbines use synchronous machines and operate at fixed speed. These machines are not best solution for the wind turbines because the wind always changes its speed. Variable speed turbines use DC machines, brushless DC machines and induction machines. DC machines are not commonly used due to the maintenance problems with the brushes. Induction and DC brushless machines are more suitable for wind applications [2]-[49].

2.2.5.4 The Turbine

The turbine, also called ‘low speed rotor’, usually has two to six blades. The most common number of blades is three since they can be positioned symmetrically, maintain the system’s lightness and ensure the stability of the wind power system. Two-blade turbines have high stresses in cut-in speed; therefore the speed and power of the wind are insufficient for starting the rotation of the turbine and higher minimum wind speed values are required at the beginning. The radius of the blades is directly proportional to the amount of captured energy from the wind; hence and increased blade radius would result in a higher amount of captured energy.

The blades are aerodynamic and they are made of a composite material such as carbon or Plexiglas and are designed to be as light as possible. Blades use lift and drag forces caused by wind; therefore by capturing these forces, the whole turbine will rotate. The blades can rotate around their longitudinal axis to control the amount of captured wind energy. This called ‘pitch control.’ If the wind speed increases the pitch control can be used to change the effective blade surface, hence keeping the turbine power constant. The pitch angle control is usually used for wind speeds above the nominal speed [2]-[49].

2.2.6 Wind Turbines Based on Axis Position

Based on axis position, wind turbines are classified as the horizontal axis and vertical axis turbines.

Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) are more common than vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). The horizontal axis turbines have horizontally positioned shaft which helps ease the conversion of the wind’s linear energy into a rotational one.

VAWTs have a few advantages over the horizontal axis wind turbines. VAWTs electrical machines and gearbox can be installed at the bottom of the tower on the ground, whereas in HAWTs these components have to be installed at the top of the tower which requires additional stabilizing structure for the system. Another advantage of the VAWTs is that they do not need the yaw mechanism since the generator does not depend on the wind direction. The most famous design of VAWT is Darrieus type of turbine.

There are a few disadvantages that limit the utilization of the VAWTs. Due to the design of blades, the sweep area of VAWT is much smaller. Wind speed is low near the surface and usually turbulent; hence these wind turbines harvest less energy than horizontal axis ones. Additionally, VAWTs are not self-starting machines and must be started in motoring mode and then switched to generating mode [2]-[49].

2.3 Solar Energy

2.3.1 Introduction

Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources that have been gaining increased attention in recent years. Solar energy is plentiful; it has the greatest availability compared to other energy sources. The amount of energy supplied to the earth in one day by the sun is sufficient to power the total energy needs of the earth for one year [50]. Solar energy is clean and free of emissions, since it does not produce pollutants or by-products harmful to nature. The conversion of solar energy into electrical energy has many application fields. Residential, vehicular, space & aircraft and naval applications are the main fields of solar energy [49].

2.3.2 History of Solar Energy Harvesting

Sunlight has been used as an energy source by ancient civilizations to ignite fire and burn energy warships using “burning mirrors.” Till eighteenth century, solar power was used for heating and lighting purposes. During the 1800s, Europeans started to build solar-heated greenhouses and conservatories. In the late 1800s, French scientists powered a steam engine using the heat from a solar collector. This solar-powered steam engine was used for a printing press in Paris in 1882 [51]. A highly efficient solar-powered hot air engine was developed by John Ericsson, a Swedish-American inventor. These solar-driven engines were used for ships [50]. The first solar boiler was invented by Dr. Charles Greely, who is considered the father of modern solar energy [52]. The first working solar cells were invented in 1883 by Charles Fritts [53]. Selenium was used to build these prototypes, achieving efficiencies of about 1%. Silicon solar cells were developed in 1954 by researchers Calvin Fuller, Daryl Chapin and Gerald Pearson. This accomplishment was achieved by following the fundamental work of Russel Ohl in the 1940s [54]. This breakthrough marked a fundamental change in the generation of power. The efficiency of solar cells increased from 6% up to 10% after the subsequent development of solar cells during the 1950s [55]; however, due to the high costs of solar cells commercial applications were limited to novelty items [49]-[54].

2.3.3 Solar Energy System

Solar photovoltaic (PV) is a simple and well designed method of harnessing the sun’s energy. PV devices as solar cells are unique in that they directly convert the incident solar radiation into electricity with no noise, pollution or moving parts, making them robust, reliable and long lasting. In another words, PVs are arrays of cells containing a material that converts solar radiation into direct current (DC) electricity.

Materials used today include amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon, micro-crystalline silicon, cadmium telluride and copper indium selenide/sulfide. A material is doped to increase the number of positive (P type) or negative (N type) charge carriers. The resulting P and N type semiconductors are then joined to form a PN junction that allows the generation of electricity when illuminated. Photovoltaic’s can be mounted on roofs or combined into farms [22]-[23]-[24]-[25].

2.3.3.1 Solar Systems Application

Solar technologies are largely characterised as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors while passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the sun, selecting materials with favourable thermal mass or light dispersing properties and spaces that naturally circulate air. The more commonly used solar system applications are as follows [43]:

I. Photovoltaic (PV) system: PV system convert sunlight directly to electricity by means of PV cell made of semiconductor materials.

II. Concentrating Solar Power System (CSP): CSP focus the sun’s energy using reflective devices such as troughs or mirror panels to produce heat then is used to generate electricity.

III. Solar Water Heating (SWH) System: SWH contain a solar collector that faces the sun and either heats water/ working fluid directly.

IV. Transpired Solar Collectors or Solar Walls: In this system solar energy is used to preheat ventilation air for a building [27]-[49].

2.3.3.2 Solar System Operation

The basic operation of a solar cell is light shining on the solar cell produces both current and voltage to generate electric power. This process requires firstly a material in which the absorption of light raises an electron to a higher energy state and secondly the movement of this higher energy electron from the solar cell into an external circuit. The electron then dissipates its energy in the external circuit and returns to the solar cell. A variety of materials and processes can potentially satisfy the requirements for photovoltaic energy conversion but in practice nearly all photovoltaic energy conversion uses semiconductor materials in the form of PN junction, as shown in figure 3.1 below [2]-[22].

Figure 3.1: Cross section of a solar cell

2.3.5 PV System Advantages

Today solar photovoltaics are rapidly growing and increasingly important renewable alternative to conventional fossil fuel electricity generation. Their application and advantage to the remote power supply area was quickly recognized and encouraged the development of global photovoltaic’s industry. Small scale transportable applications such as calculators and watches were utilized and remote power applications began to benefit from photovoltaics.

The major advantages of PV systems include:

Sustainable nature of solar energy as fuel.
Minimum environmental impact.
Drastic reduction in customer’s electricity bills due to free availability of sunlight.
Long functional lifetime of over 30 years with minimum maintenance.
Silent operation.

Due to these benefits PV systems are recognized by governments, environmental organizations and commercial organizations as a technology with the potential to supply a significant part of the world’s energy needs in a sustainable and renewable manner. Moreover, due to the extensive improvement in inverter technologies, PV generation is now being preferred and deployed worldwide as DERs in a microgrid for expansion of local generation at distribution voltage level. It has been studied that small PV installations are more cost effective than larger ones which indicates the effectiveness of feeding PV generation directly into customer circuits at low voltage distribution networks. Hence, they can be potential contributors to a microgrid [2]-[22]-[24].

The UK government has recently committed ?10 million towards encouraging the installation of PV systems in the buildings as energy use. In the UK, PV systems are also being used for a long time to provide high reliability power for industrial use in remote and inaccessible locations or where the small amount of power required is more economically met from a stand-alone PV system than from mains electricity [2]-[8]-[20]-[21].

Chapter 3
MICROGRID SYSTEMS

3.1 Concept of Microgrid

The microgrid is a concept based small scale power generation system consisting of renewable energy sources together with fossil fuelled generators and local load. This small scale power system formed by integration of micro sources usually renewable energy resources/non-conventional DERs that are designed to provide electricity for domestic home, small business, individual consumer site, remote location or small community. Microgrid is more modern way for utilizing the available potential of DG, not only in remote area electricity development but also in overcoming the short-fall of electricity commercially. Most commonly available renewable energy resources used for the development of microgrids are Wind, Solar, Biomass, Micro-hydro, Fuel Cell etc. The micro sources must be equipped with power electronic interfaces (PEIs) and controls to provide required flexibility to ensure the operation. The control flexibility of microgrid allows itself to present a main utility power system which meets local energy requirements for reliability and security. So, the main task of microgrid is to obtain reliable and high quality electric power without any faults and abnormal operating conditions [2]-[3]-[4]-[18]-[19].

In technical terms microgrid is “a grouping of generating sources and loads operating semi-independently of the legacy power system”. Microgrids usually employ CHP (combined heat and power) equipment, due to more efficient energy strategy attempting to reduce energy demand through efficiency and smart controls while meeting these severity loads [14].

The differences between microgrid system and a conventional power system are:

In microgrid system, sources of generation are a lot smaller than the large scale generators in conventional power system.
Power generated by microgrid system at distribution voltage can be directly fed to load.
Micro sources are usually installed near to the consumer’s site so that the system could get benefits from negligible line losses, satisfactory voltage and frequency profile for the load.

Microgrid’s technical features make it suitable and reliable for electrifying domestic homes or remote locations where national grid supply is not available, any disturbances or repeatedly disrupted due to severe meteorological conditions [2].

There are few assumptions help conceptualize microgrid systems:

Electricity and heat are functionally integrated in a microgrid.
Power generation, conversion, heat recovery, renewable energy harvesting and excessive energy storage all operate at the same time within a microgrid.
A microgrid is an intelligent power system network that has the capability to sensibly prioritize loads so that most significant loads can be served during supply deficiency.
Microgrids calculatedly recycle energy and divert any extra either into storage systems or towards onto the grid.
Microgrid can operate as stand-alone (off the grid) or connected with main grid.
Excessive energy can be used for providing backup to other generators, providing power to less critical loads and charging energy storage batteries [14].

The concept of microgrid has made possible due to recent approaches in small scale reliable generators with power electronics and inverts the trend to large scale generation and bulk supply. In the review of microgrid’s key feature, there should be local electricity generation that matches the power requirements within the microgrid. Several types of micro generators can be considered for example photovoltaics and wind generators etc. So, if the environment is primarily residential the photovoltaic generators would be attractive for the main source of generation and for most remote locations wind generators are attractive.

The specific advantage of microgrid is that it facilitates with more inventive schemes for meeting the local requirements in elastic manner with small scale generators and consumers closely integrated. In some microgrid networks, the consumers can also be the suppliers, so a more inventive approach to load control may be possible in the mutual interests of cost and efficiency. In detailed, the microgrid system needs to inspire consumers to be involved in small scale cogeneration, photovoltaics and other renewable energy schemes. Metering and charging arrangements would be agreed locally within the microgrid and would have to reflect the market for power within the microgrid [5].

3.2 The Relationship between Microgrid and Local Electricity Utility

The intention is that the microgrid is self-sufficient, but for security of supply and flexibility it would almost certainly be connected to the local electrical utility network, or even to adjacent microgrids. These links may be bi-directional enabling the import or export of electricity, or, depending on commercial considerations, it might just be a unidirectional flow of power. From the point of view of the microgrid, the utility connection might be viewed just as another generator or load.

This raises the question as to whether or not the microgrid should be linked to other networks over a synchronous alternating current (AC) connection. The advantage of a synchronous link would be its simplicity, requiring only an electrical interconnection, circuit breakers and probably a transformer. Lasseter [17] has considered this possibility and shown that in principle it should be possible to run a microgrid with minimal central control of local generation which is able to operate connected to the utility, or, in the event of loss of the connection, move smoothly into stand-alone or island operation with no loss of power to the microgrid. What is perhaps less clear is how the synchronous connection would be re-synchronised once the utility was ready to re-establish the connection.

The alternative approach would be an asynchronous connection using a direct current (DC) coupled electronic power converter. This might be bi-directional, enabling import and export of power or simply a device to import power when local resources were inadequate. An advantage of this approach is that it isolates the microgrid from the utility as regards reactive power, load balance, etc. Only power is exchanged with the utility, the microgrid is entirely responsible for maintaining the power quality (frequency, voltage and supplying reactive power and harmonics) within its area.

With an asynchronous link the microgrid might be unusual that all its power will be supplied through electronic inverters. Some generators, such as photovoltaic cells are intrinsically sources of DC and hence need inversion to connect them to an AC network. Others, for example, micro-turbines or Stirling engines may generate AC but are not well suited to operate a synchronous generator because the frequency is unsuitable or variable. Voltage source inverters with suitable control schemes will be required to permit stable operation of the network with many small generators attached. Fortunately, advances in power electronics and digital controllers mean that sophisticated control strategies are possible and the cost need not be excessive. Which of these approaches is more appropriate may well depend on the size of the microgrid. It may also depend on the regulatory environment governing the interchange of power between the microgrid and the utility [5].

3.3 Internal Control of Microgrid System

Microgrids require wide range control to ensure security of whole power system, optimal operation, emission reduction and transferring form one operating mode to the other without violating system constraints and regulatory requirements. However, the technical problems of a microgrid must be managed for the concept to become a reality. The control of a microgrid is thoroughly tied with the energy and power balance in the microgrid, and the question of energy storage. There are three main parameters frequency, voltage and power quality that must be considered and controlled to acceptable standards whilst the power and energy balance is maintained [4]-[5].

3.3.1. Power Balance

A power system usually contains no significant energy storage; the generated and dissipated power must, therefore, be constantly kept in balance. This power balance must be maintained on a cycle-by-cycle basis if the system is to maintain its frequency. Too much generation and the system accelerate, too little and it slows; neither situation is acceptable. The permissible frequency deviation is defined by Statute and in the UK it is the responsibility for the NGC to ensure that this deviation is not exceeded. Since the whole of the UK is run as one synchronous system, any new generator means the disconnection of another or a rise in load, if the system frequency is to remain constant. Power balance in a microgrid is therefore essential for frequency control.

In a microgrid, frequency stability becomes critical; therefore, control is a major concern. There are a number of techniques used to restore the power balance and hence correct the frequency: the use of load shedding, increase in primary generation and recovery of stored energy. All of these are available within a microgrid, but because the system is small the problem is much more difficult to manage to the same standard as is normal in a utility system.

Short term storage of energy is needed to cope with the fluctuations in power demand or accommodate the sudden loss of some generation. A microgrid with many small generators will not be an intrinsically stiff system, unlike a national interconnected utility. The small generators will neither store significant energy in their mechanical inertia, nor will they necessarily respond quickly to sudden changes of load. Short term storage, probably distributed with the generators, will permit the inverters to follow the rapidly changing demand while giving time for the generators to respond, or extra generation to be brought on line or for generators to be closed down. This same storage could be used to help accommodate the diurnal variation of demand.

There are two related issues, firstly quite small power imbalances will produce large frequency excursions and secondly they will happen much more quickly. The first issue may also be an advantage for a microgrid since small energy stores will have significant effects. The second issue means that stored energy recovery must be fast and precise. Since the most probable store, in the near future is likely to be a battery with an inverter, this does not pose an insurmountable problem; such a system is quite fast enough to ensure adequate frequency control [5].

3.3.2 Frequency Control

Electric power system in the UK operates at frequency of 50Hz and definitely there are advantages adopting this frequency, whether there is to be a synchronous connection or not. The frequency limits are set it and operates by law, relatively tight and standards are not the same like other power systems. So, there are not any reasons or relaxation possible for not adopting these standards. There is a relaxation limit of +/- 0.5Hz acceptable, so frequency must be controlled within these limits.

In the UK electric power system the generally used frequency control method is by the control of rotational speed of synchronous machines supplying power. In large interconnected system with several synchronous generators, no single machine can control the frequency, so there would be flow of synchronising power into any machine which is slowed in order to keep it in synchronism. For altering the frequency and speed, large power imbalance required of the order of 5000 MW per Hz for the UK.

It would be less technical issue if there are few machines then the less stiff, system and frequency control. In such a system the machines must be able to respond quickly to load variations in respect to preserve the power balance at all times. It means fast detection of frequency change and accurate control of load generation or both.

In wind turbines, induction generators are often used and solar photovoltaics arrays are connected with inverters. So, for meeting the system’s operating demand these two require different frequency and load control. For controlling the frequency, inverters can be utilized and inverter frequency can be controlled independently, but inverters require various viewpoints due to not rotational devices (synchronous generators) [4]-5].

3.3.3 Voltage Control

The system voltage within a large multi generator system is controlled by initially the voltage of the machines but also by the reactive flow. In general, the reactive balance becomes more critical in a smaller system. For example, all reactive demand must be supplied from one generator in a single machine system. This is not strictly true, but adds significantly to cost and control problems if reactive demand has to be compensated by extra static plant.

A conventional distribution system is usually a feeder network, and there is little interconnection. Voltage drop along feeders becomes an issue, as it will vary with load and distance along the feeder. This dictates that any simple microgrid will have to be either small to be satisfactory or be specially designed as an interconnected network.

The voltage and its limits at consumer’s terminals are specified by law, but they are reasonably wide. With proper design, production of the correct voltage should not be an insurmountable problem [5].

3.3.4 Power Quality

Control of power quality will be the biggest issue for a microgrid. Voltage dips, flickers, interruptions, harmonics, dc levels, etc. will all be more critical in a small system with few generators. There will need to be a critical appraisal of both the effects and consequences of relaxing and/or enforcing standards in this area.

As has been discussed by Venkataramanan and Illindala [15], the distributed generation within the microgrid could enable better control of power quality. With electrical storage together with the distributed generation power quality could be maintained in much the same way as is achieved by Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems. The electronic inverters can not only supply power at the fundamental frequency, but also generate reactive power to supply the needs of reactive loads, cope with unbalanced loads and generate the harmonic currents needed to supply non-linear loads [5].

3.4 Energy Storage

There is no economic general purpose method for the storage of electricity per se in the quantities required for public utility use. There are off course methods involving capacitors and super conducting magnets; both of which are technically complex and with present knowledge, rather expensive but nevertheless used in specific situations. Because the direct storage of electricity is not very practical, the storage of energy by other methods for later use in electricity generation is employed. These are many and varied, depending upon the situation and the purpose for which the electricity is to be used.

It is likely that a microgrid will rely on chemical energy storage in the form of electric batteries. In the simplest of systems this will mean lead acid cells which are well developed, available, predictable and robust. For more sophisticated applications, redox batteries are becoming available and development will continue. In critical situations where cost is not an issue, the application of super conducting energy storage has been used. Again, continued development is expected to both reduce costs and to increase reliability.

The calculation of battery size (energy) and inverter rating (power) will depend on the size of the loads and generators within the microgrid as well as its topography. As an alternative to storing energy, the shedding of load is more likely to be used in a microgrid, rather than a large scale public utility because it is easier to identify those loads which are least critical. Where co-generation is used, some of this energy storage may well be in the form of heat. This storage could be in the form of domestic hot water or stored for use in space heating. Innovative control strategies can be developed to make use of this storage and if necessary the plant may be run to meet the electrical load when there is no demand for thermal energy [5].

Chapter 4
DESIGN OF MICROGRID SYSTEM

4.1 Software

A software package HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) is used for designing the microgrid system. The software details are specified below.

4.1.1What is HOMER?

The HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) software developed by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assist in the design of micro-power systems and to facilitate the comparison of power generation technologies across a wide range of applications. HOMER models a power system’s physical behaviour and its life-cycle cost which is the total cost of installing and operating the system over its life span. HOMER allows the modeler to compare many different design options based on their technical and economic merits. It also assists in understanding and quantifying the effects of uncertainty or changes in the inputs.

HOMER simplifies the task of evaluating designs of both off-grid and grid-connected power systems for variety of applications. When a user designs power system, the user must make many decisions about the configuration of the system. HOMER performs the analyses to explore a wide range of design questions that are below:

What components does it make sense to include in the system design
How many and what size of each component should it use
Which technologies are most cost-effective
What happens to the project’s economics if costs or loads change
Is the renewable resource sufficient [1]-[26]
4.1.2How Does HOMER Work?

HOMER performs three main tasks, which are below:

I. Simulation

II. Optimization

III. Sensitivity analysis

Figure 4.1: Conceptual relationship between simulation, optimization and sensitivity analysis

The above figure 4.1 illustrates the relationship between simulation, optimization and sensitivity analysis. The optimization oval encloses the simulation oval to represent the fact that a single optimization consists of multiple simulations. Similarly, the sensitivity analysis oval encompasses the optimization oval because a single sensitivity analysis consists of multiple optimizations.

4.1.2.1 Simulation

HOMER simulates the operation of a system by making energy balance calculations for each of the 8,760 hours in a year. For each hour, HOMER compares the electric and thermal load in the hour to the energy that the system can supply in that hour. For systems that include batteries or fuel-powered generators, HOMER also decides for each hour how to operate the generators and whether to charge or discharge the batteries. HOMER performs energy balance calculations for each system configuration that we want to consider. It then determines whether a configuration is feasible i.e. whether it can meet the electric demand under the conditions that the user specifies and estimates the cost of installing and operating the system over the lifetime of the project. The system cost calculations account for costs such as capital, replacement, operation and maintenance (O&M), fuel and interest. A user can then view hourly energy flows for each component as well as annual cost and performance summaries.

4.1.2.2 Optimization

After simulating all of the possible system configurations, HOMER displays a list of feasible systems, sorted by lifecycle cost. We can easily find the least cost system at the top of the list or we can scan the list for other feasible systems.

4.1.2.3 Sensitivity Analysis

Sometimes we may find it useful to see how the results vary with changes in inputs, either because they are uncertain or because they represent a range of applications. We can perform a sensitivity analysis on almost any input by assigning more than one value to each input of interest. HOMER repeats the optimization process for each value of the input so that the user can examine the effect of changes in the value on the results. We can specify as many sensitivity variables as we want and analyze the results [1]-[26].

4.2 Description of Major Components

In a microgrid power system, a component is any part of a whole power system that generates, delivers, converts or stores energy. The microgrid comprises in four major components that are wind turbine or solar photovoltaics, generator, converter and storage batteries.

There are two intermittent renewable sources for electricity generation that are wind turbines and solar photovoltaics. Wind turbines convert wind energy into ac or dc electricity and PV modules convert solar radiation into dc electricity. Generator is a dispatch-able energy source, meaning that the system can control it as needed and it consumes fuel to produce AC or DC electricity. Converter is used to convert electrical energy into another form and it converts electricity from ac (alternating current) to dc (direct current) or from dc to ac. Finally, storage batteries are used for storing the DC electricity

4.2.1 Wind Turbine

There are some calculations and definitions regarding wind power as follows.

Cut-in Wind Speed

This is the minimum wind speed needed to start the wind turbine (which depends on turbine design) and to generate output power. Usually it is 3 m/s for smaller wind turbines and 5-6 m/s for bigger ones.

Cut-out Wind Speed

The cut-out wind speed represents the speed point where the turbine should stop rotating due to the potential damage that can be done if the wind speed increases more than that [49].

Rated Wind Speed

This is the wind speed at which the wind generator reaches its rated output. Note that not all wind generators are created equal even if they have comparable rated outputs.

Rated Output

This measurement is taken at an uninformed wind speed that the manufacturer designs for. It tends to be at or just below the governing wind speed of the wind generator. Any wind generator may peak at a higher output than the rated output. The faster you spin a wind generator the more it will produce until it overproduces to the point that it burns out. Manufacturers rate their generators at a safe level well below the point of self-destruction.

Peak Output

This figure may be the same as rated output, or it may be higher. Wind generators reach their peak output while governing, which occurs over a range of wind speeds above their rated wind speed [33].

Mean Wind Speed

The mean wind speed for a usual day of a month can be calculated by averaging all the recorded wind speeds for the month.

The mean wind speed is calculated using the equation below [36].

(1)

Where,

Vjobserved wind speed (m/s)

Njnumber of wind speed observation

Vimean wind speed (m/s)

Upgrading the Mean Wind Speed

The mean wind speeds are then upgraded to the hub height. Wind speeds increase with height [37]. The calculated mean wind speeds are speeds recorded near the ground surface. Since the hubs of wind turbine are usually more than ten meters high, the mean wind speeds at a particular height will be greater than Vi. Therefore, to obtain mean wind speeds, Vi has to be projected to the hub height. The projected Vi is calculated using the power-law equation shown [38]-[39].

(2)

Where,

VZ : mean wind speed at projected height Z

Vj : mean wind speed at reference height Zj (usually 10m)

Z: projected height, or hub height

Zj : reference height, usually 10m

X : power-law exponent

The power-law exponent, x depends upon the roughness of the surface. For open land, x is usually taken as 1/7.

Weibull Distribution

A random variable v can be expressed with a Weibull distribution by utilizing the probability density function (pdf) as given by Stevens and Smulders [34] and shown below:

(3)

Where c is a scale parameter with the same units as the random variable and k is a shape parameter.

Power Output

The electric power output of a wind turbine is primarily a function of wind speed [35] and as shown below:

(4)

Where,

Vi : the cut-in wind speed

Vr : the rated wind speed

Vo : the cut-out wind speed

Pr : the rated electrical power

As illustrated in Figure below:

Figure 4.2: Wind Turbine generator power curve

The average wind power output from a wind turbine is the power produced at each wind speed multiplied by the fraction of the time that wind speed is experienced and integrated over all possible wind speeds. The average power output of a turbine is a very important parameter for any wind power system since it determines the total energy production and hence the total income. It is a much better indicator of economics than the rated power, which can easily be chosen at too large a value.

The equation in integral form is as follows:

(5)

The formula of average wind power output can be obtained by substituting (3) and (4) into (5), which gives equation (6) below [9]:

(6)

The software HOMER models a wind turbine as a device that converts the kinetic energy of the wind into AC or DC electricity according to a particular power curve, which is a graph of power output versus wind speed at hub height. An example of power curve is shown in figure 4.3 below:

Figure 4.3: Wind turbine power curve

HOMER assumes that the power curve applies at a standard air density of 1.225 kg/m3 which corresponds to standard temperature and pressure conditions. Each hour, HOMER calculates the power output of the wind turbine in a four-step process. First, it determines the average wind speed for the hour at the anemometer height by referring to the wind resource data. Second, it calculates the corresponding wind speed at the turbine’s hub height using either the logarithmic law or the power law. Third, it refers to the turbine’s power curve to calculate its power output at that wind speed assuming standard air density. Fourth, it multiplies that power output value by the air density ratio, which is the ratio of the actual air density to the standard air density. Note that, HOMER calculates the air density ratio at the site elevation using the U.S. Standard Atmosphere [40] and assumes that the air density ratio is constant throughout the year.

In addition to the turbine’s power curve and hub height, the design engineer specifies the expected lifetime of the turbine in years, its initial capital cost in U.S. dollars ($), its replacement cost in dollars and its annual O&M (operation & maintenance) cost in dollars per year [26].

4.2.2PV Array

Power output of the PV array can be calculated using the equation below:

Where,

= PV derating factor

= Rated capacity of PV array (kW)

= Global solar radiation incident on the surface of PV array (kW/m2)

= 1 kW/m2 (The standard amount of radiation used to rate the capacity of PV array)

The rated capacity sometimes called the peak capacity of a PV array is the amount of power it would produce under standard test conditions of 1 kW/m2 irradiance and a panel temperature of 25oC.

The engineering software package HOMER is used for modelling the hybrid power system, in the software the size of PV array is always specified in terms of rated capacity. The rated capacity accounts for both the area and the efficiency of PV module, so neither of those parameters appears clearly in the software. The software itself calculate each hour of the year global solar radiation incident on the PV array using the Hay, Davis, Klucher, Reindl (HDKR) model of Duffie and Beckmann [28]. The derating factor is a scaling factor meant to account for effects of dust on the panel, wire losses, elevated temperature or anything else that would cause the output of the PV array to deviate from that expected under ideal conditions. The HOMER software does not account for the fact that the power output of a PV array decreases with increasing panel temperature but we can reduce the derating factor to (crudely) correct for this effect when modelling systems for hot climates.

In reality the output of a PV array does depend strongly and nonlinearly on the voltage to which it is exposed. The maximum power point (the voltage at which the power output is maximized) depends on the solar radiation and the temperature. If the PV array is connected directly to a dc load or a battery bank then it will often be exposed to a voltage different from the maximum power point and performance will suffer. A maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is a solid state device placed between the PV array and the rest of the dc components of the system that decouples the array voltage from that of the rest of the system and ensures that the array voltage is always equal to the maximum power point. By ignoring the effect of voltage to which the PV array is exposed, HOMER effectively assumes that a maximum power point tracker is present in the system.

To explain the cost of PV array the user specifies its initial capital cost in U.S. dollars ($), replacement cost in dollars and O&M (operating and maintenance) cost in dollars per year. The replacement cost is the cost of replacing the PV array at the end of its useful lifetime which the user specifies in years. By default the replacement cost is equal to the capital cost but the two can differ for several reasons [1]-[26]-[27]

4.2.3Generator

A generator consumes fuel to produce AC or DC electricity. The generator can be AC or DC and can consume a different fuel. The principal physical properties of the generator are its maximum and minimum electrical power output, its expected lifetime in operating hours, the type of fuel it consumes and its fuel curve which relates the quantity of fuel consumed to the electrical power produced. A generator can consume any of the fuels listed in the fuel library in the software package HOMER. A diesel generator is used for the microgrid system. The software assumes the fuel curve is a straight line with a y-intercept and uses the following equation for the generator’s fuel consumption:

F = F0Ygen + F1Pgen

Where F0 is the fuel curve intercept coefficient, F1 is the fuel curve slope, Ygen the rated capacity of the generator (kW) and Pgen the electrical output of the generator (kW). The units of F depend on the measurement units of the fuel. If the fuel is denominated in litres then the units of F are L/h. If the fuel is denominated in m3 or kg then the units of F are m3/h or kg/h respectively. In the same way the units of F0 and F1 depend on the measurement units of the fuel. For fuels denominated in litres the units of F0 and F1 are L/h.kW.

For a generator that provides heat as well as electricity, the design engineer also specifies the heat recovery ratio. HOMER assumes that the generator converts all the fuel energy into either electricity or waste heat. The heat recovery ratio is the fraction of that waste heat that can be captured to serve the thermal load. In addition to these properties, the modeller can specify the generator emissions coefficients, which specify the generator’s emissions of six different pollutants in grams of pollutant emitted per quantity of fuel consumed.

The design engineer can schedule the operation of the generator to force it ON or OFF at certain times. During times that the generator is neither forced ON or OFF, HOMER decides whether it should operate based on the needs of the system and the relative costs of the other power sources. During times that the generator is forced ON, HOMER decides at what power output level it operates which may be anywhere between its minimum and maximum power output.

The design engineer specifies the generator’s initial capital cost in U.S. dollars ($), replacement cost in dollars and annual O&M (operation & maintenance) cost in dollars per operating hour also. The generator O&M cost should account for oil changes and other maintenance costs, but not fuel cost because HOMER calculates fuel cost separately. As it does for all dispatch-able power sources, HOMER calculates the generator’s fixed and marginal cost of energy and uses that information when simulating the operation of the system. The fixed cost of energy is the cost per hour of simply running the generator without producing any electricity. The marginal cost of energy is the additional cost per kilowatt-hour of producing electricity from that generator.

HOMER uses the following equation to calculate the generator’s fixed cost of energy:

Cgen,fixed = Com,gen + Crep,gen/Rgen + F0YgenCfuel,eff

Where Com,gen is the O&M cost in dollars per hour, Crep,gen the replacement cost in dollars, Rgen the generator lifetime in hours, F0 the fuel curve intercept coefficient in quantity of fuel per hour per kilowatt, Ygen the capacity of the generator (kW) and Cfuel,eff the effective price of fuel in dollars per quantity of fuel. The effective price of fuel includes the cost penalties if any associated with the emissions of pollutants from the generator.

HOMER calculates the marginal cost of energy of the generator using the following equation:

Cgen,mar = F1Cfuel,eff

Where F1 is the fuel curve slope in quantity of fuel per hour per kilowatt-hour and Cfuel,eff is the effective price of fuel (including the cost of any penalties on emissions) in dollars per quantity of fuel [26].

4.2.4Battery Bank

Although renewable resources are attractive, they are not always dependable in the absence of energy storage devices. As a result, renewable resources are often used together with energy storage devices. However, in many cases, such systems are the least understood and the most vulnerable component of the system [56]. Among different types of energy storage devices, lead-acid batteries are still the most commonly used devices to store and deliver electricity in the range from 5V to 24V DC [57]-[58].

The battery bank is a collection of one or more individual batteries. The software package HOMER models a single battery as a device capable of storing a certain amount of dc electricity at a fixed round-trip energy efficiency with limits as; how quickly it can be charged or discharged, how deeply it can be discharged without causing damage and how much energy can cycle through it before it needs replacement. HOMER assumes that the properties of the batteries remain constant throughout its lifetime and are not affected by external factors such as temperature.

In HOMER, the key physical properties of the battery are its nominal voltage, capacity curve, lifetime curve, minimum state of charge and round-trip efficiency. The capacity curve shows the discharge capacity of the battery in ampere-hours versus the discharge current in amperes. Manufacturers determine each point on this curve by measuring the ampere-hours that can be discharged at a constant current out of a fully charged battery. Capacity typically decreases with increasing discharge current. The lifetime curve shows the number of discharge-charge cycles the battery can withstand versus the cycle depth. The number of cycles to failure typically decreases with increasing cycle depth. The minimum state of charge is the state of charge below which the battery must not be discharged to avoid permanent damage. In the system simulation, HOMER does not allow the battery to be discharged any deeper than this limit. The round-trip efficiency indicates the percentage of the energy going into the battery that can be drawn back out.

Figure 4.4: Kinetic battery model concept

To calculate the battery’s maximum allowable rate of charge or discharge, HOMER uses the kinetic battery model [41] which treats the battery as a two tank system as illustrated in the figure above. According to the kinetic battery model part of the battery’s energy storage capacity is immediately available for charging or discharging but the rest is chemically bound. The rate of conversion between available energy and bound energy depends on the difference in ‘height’ between the two tanks. Three parameters describe the battery. The maximum capacity of the battery is the combined size of the available and bound tanks. The capacity ratio is the ratio of the size of the available tank to the combined size of the two tanks. The rate constant is analogous to the size of the pipe between the tanks. . The kinetic battery model explains the shape of the typical battery capacity curve as shown in figure 4.5 below:

Figure 4.5: Capacity curve for deep-cycle battery model US-250 [42]

Modelling the battery as a two-tank system rather than a single-tank system has two effects. First, it means the battery cannot be fully charged or discharged all at once, a complete charge requires an infinite amount of time at a charge current that asymptotically approaches zero. Second, it means that the battery’s ability to charge and discharge depends not only on its current state of charge but also on its recent charge and discharge history. A battery rapidly charged to 80% state of charge will be capable of a higher discharge rate than the same battery rapidly discharged to 80%, since it will have a higher level in its available tank. HOMER tracks the levels in the two tanks each hour and models both these effects.

Figure 4.6: Lifetime curve for deep-cycle battery model US-250

The above figure shows a lifetime curve of a deep-cycle lead-acid battery. The number of cycles to failure (shown in the graph as the lighter-coloured points) drops sharply with increasing depth of discharge. For each point on this curve, one can calculate the lifetime throughput (the amount of energy that cycled through the battery before failure) by finding the product of the number of cycles, the depth of discharge, the nominal voltage of the battery and the aforementioned maximum capacity of the battery. The lifetime throughput curve as shown in the above figure as black dots typically shows a much weaker dependence on the cycle depth. HOMER makes the simplifying assumption that the lifetime throughput is independent of the depth of discharge. The value that HOMER suggests for this lifetime throughput is the average of the points from the lifetime curve above the minimum state of charge but the user can modify this value to be more or less conservative.

The assumption that lifetime throughput is independent of cycle depth means that HOMER can estimate the life of the battery bank simply by monitoring the amount of energy cycling through it, without having to consider the depth of the various charge-discharge cycles. HOMER calculates the life of the battery bank in years as:

Rbatt = min (NbattQlifetime / Qthrpt ,Rbatt,f )

Where,

Nbattnumber of batteries in the battery bank

Qlifetimelifetime throughput of a single battery

Qthrpt annual throughput (the total amount of energy that cycles through the battery bank in one year).

Rbatt,ffloat life of the battery (the maximum life regardless of throughput).

The user specifies the battery bank’s capital and replacement costs in U.S. dollars ($) and the O&M (operating & maintenance) cost in dollars per year. Since the battery bank is a dispatch-able power source, HOMER calculates its fixed and marginal cost of energy for comparison with other dispatch-able sources. Unlike the generator, there is no cost associated with operating the battery bank so that it is ready to produce energy; hence its fixed cost of energy is zero. For its marginal cost of energy, HOMER uses the sum of the battery wear cost (the cost per kilowatt-hour of cycling energy through the battery bank) and the battery energy cost (the average cost of the energy stored in the battery bank). HOMER calculates the battery wear cost as below:

Cbw = (Crep,batt / NbattQlifetime rt)

Where,

Crep,batt replacement cost of the battery bank

Nbatt number of batteries in the battery bank

Qlifetime lifetime throughput of a single battery (kWh)

rt round-trip efficiency

HOMER calculates the battery energy cost each hour of the simulation by dividing the total year-to-date cost of charging the battery bank by the total year-to-date amount of energy put into the battery bank. Under the load-following dispatch strategy, the battery bank is only ever charged by surplus electricity, so the cost associated with charging the battery bank is always zero. Under the cycle-charging strategy however, a generator will produce extra electricity (and hence consume additional fuel) for the express purpose of charging the battery bank, so the cost associated with charging the battery bank is not zero [26].

4.2.5 Converter

A converter is a device that converts electric power from DC to AC in a process called inversion and/or from AC to DC in a process called rectification. The software HOMER can model the two common types of converters that are solid-state and rotary. The converter size which is a decision variable refers to the inverter capacity, meaning the maximum amount of AC power that the device can produce by inverting DC power. The model design engineer specifies the rectifier capacity which is the maximum amount of DC power that the device can produce by rectifying AC power as a percentage of the inverter capacity. The rectifier capacity is therefore not a separate decision variable. HOMER assumes that the inverter and rectifier capacities are not surge capacities that the device can withstand for only short periods of time but rather continuous capacities that the device can withstand for as long as necessary.

The HOMER user indicates whether the inverter can operate in parallel with another AC power source such as a generator or the grid. Doing so requires the inverter to synchronize to the AC frequency, an ability that some inverters do not have. The final physical properties of the converter are its inversion and rectification efficiencies which HOMER assumes to be constant. The economic properties of the converter are its capital and replacement cost in U.S. dollars ($), its annual O&M (operation & maintenance) cost in dollars per year and its expected lifetime in years [26].

4.2.6 Domestic Load
4.2.6.1Load Profile

In electrical engineering, a load profile is a graph of the variation in the electrical load versus time. A load profile will vary according to customer type (typical examples include residential, commercial and industrial), temperature and holiday seasons. In the electricity generation sector, a load curve is a chart showing the amount of electricity customer’s use over a period of time. Generation companies use this information to plan how much power they will need to generate at any given time [61].

Load Profile is a broad term that can refer to a number of different forms of data. It can refer to demand and consumption data or it can be a reference to derived data types, such as Regression and Profile Coefficients. However, all these data types have one thing in common that they represent the pattern of electricity usage of a segment of supply market customers [60].

4.2.6.1.1 Load Factor

Load factor is the average power divided by the peak power, over a period of time. The peak may be a theoretical maximum, rather than a measured maximum [62]-[64].

A Peak Load Factor is defined as follows:

The ratio expressed as a percentage of the number of kWh supplied during a given period to the number of kWh that would have been supplied had the maximum demand been maintained throughout that period [60].

So for an Annual Peak Load Factor:

LF = [(Annual Consumption (kWh)) / (Maximum Demand (kW) * Number of Hours in the Year)] * 100

Note: 8760 hours or 8784 hours in a leap year

4.2.6.2 Domestic Load Profile Scenarios

There are two different types of domestic load profiles case studies scenarios for the simulations of microgrid system, which are as follows:

I. Domestic Load Profile in UK

II. Domestic Load Profile in Pakistan

4.2.6.2.1 Domestic Load Profile in UK

The load profile mostly depends on occupancy pattern so analyzing the load profile, it is necessary to identify the cluster of household. I worked on five most common cases or scenarios of UK domestic occupancy pattern due to having less information regarding household occupancy pattern, which are under below:

Scenario 1:

In this case unoccupied period is from 09:00 to 13:00. One of the occupants may have part time job in the morning in this type of household occupancy pattern.

Scenario 2:

Unoccupied period is from 09:00 to 16:00. The occupants in the house all have full time job.

Scenario 3:

Here unoccupied period is from 09:00 to 16:00. This type of household occupants may have a child to look after when school closed.

Scenario 4:

In this case the house is occupied all the time because this type of household occupants may have retired couples, children to look after and single

Scenario 5:

Unoccupied period is from 13.00 to 18.00. One of the occupants in this type of household may have a part time job in the afternoon session [59].

UK Domestic Typical Profile (Averge of All):

This is the average of above all five different scenarios of domestic load profile pattern in the UK at the present.

4.2.6.2.2 Domestic Load Profile in Pakistan

In Pakistan, the load profile depends on user electricity consumption and occupancy; so analyzing the load profile, it is necessary to identify the group of household. I worked on three most common scenarios of Pakistan household occupancy pattern depending on low consumption, medium consumption and high consumption electricity users. All three types of scenarios are calculated on assumption based with the average of all four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter), that are below:

Scenario 1:

There are two people living in one bed room house in this type of occupancy and are low electricity consumption users. The average of all four season’s graph is shown below.

Scenario 2:

This type of occupancy is under four persons living in three bed room house and they are medium electricity users.

Scenario 3:

In this scenario, there are five persons living in five bed room house. One of the occupants may have full time job, one school child and they are high electricity users.

Pakistan Domestic Typical Profile (Average of All):

This is the typical load profile which is the average of above three different scenarios of domestic load profile in the Pakistan.

Chapter 5
DESIGN CASE STUDIE

5.1 Introduction

There are two different case studies carried out in the two different places for the design of microgrid power system. The first one is wind/diesel/battery hybrid power system within the microgrid in the UK, and the other is photovoltaic/diesel/battery hybrid power system in the Pakistan. The both case studies are specified below:

I. Design Case Study 1

II. Design Case Study 2

5.2 Design Case Study 1

5.2.1 Introduction

The first case study for designing the microgrid system is carried out in the Isle of Arran, Scotland, UK. Arran is the seventh largest island in the Scotland and it is in the North Ayrshire unitary council area. Arran is located within the latitude and longitude of 55o 34’N, 05o 12’W. It has an area of 167 square miles (432 square kilometres), 874 meters height and 50 miles from Glasgow City. Temperatures are generally cool, averaging about 6 °C (43 °F) in January and 14 °C (57 °F) in July at sea level. The southern half of the island, being less mountainous has a more favourable climate than the northern half and the east coast is more sheltered from the prevailing winds than the west and south.

Figure 5.1: Isle of Arran [Source: Google Map®]

Wind energy is one the best renewable energy resource (RES) in Scotland and Isle of Arran is the best location due to fast winds blowing. Also RES’s are the most cost effective, reliable and environment friendly sources of electricity generation for the island areas [65]-[66]-[68].

It was decided to use available renewable energy sources based on hourly or daily energy consumption by implementing a small scale microgrid power system. This hybrid power system (wind/diesel/battery) combines into wind turbine, diesel generator, storage batteries, converter and some power electronic equipments. The HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) software is used for the modeling and simulations of the microgrid system.

5.2.2System Design

To verify the reduction in carbon emissions or green house gases (GHG) and economic viability, a microgrid hybrid power system is proposed to feed a typical house located in remote area of the Isle of Arran, Scotland. The model consists of wind turbine, diesel generator, battery bank, converter, domestic load and AC & DC busbars. The HOMER software is used for modeling the system design, simulation, economic analysis and calculation of green house gases (GHG). Monthly average wind resources data and average domestic loads are used as input parameters. The schematic diagram of the microgrid power system is modeled in the HOMER, which is shown in figure 5.2 below:

Figure 5.2: Schematic diagram of microgrid system

The average load profile of the UK domestic household or remote household is below in figure 5.3 and load parameters can be seen in the table 5.1 below:

Figure 5.3: Load profile

Table 5.1: Load Parameters

Baseline

Scaled

Average (kWh/day)

10.6

10.6

Average (kW)

0.443

0.443

Peak (kW)

1.10

1.10

Load Factor

0.402

0.402

Monthly average wind speed data of specific location ‘Isle of Arran’ is collected from weather underground [70]; figure 5.4 shows the average wind speed data as below:

Figure 5.4: Average wind speed

The table 5.2 shows the calculated Weibull distribution parameters (shape parameter and scale parameter) and figure 5.5 shows the Weibull distribution of wind speed as follows:

Table 5.2: Weibull distribution parameters

Shape parameter, k

Scale parameter, c

2.00

3.67

Figure 5.5: Weibull distribution of wind speed

The Skystream 3.7 1.8 kW turbine is used for wind power generation and it is suitable for powering rural domestic properties and many more applications. This wind turbine is intended for a range of conditions especially rural locations. The design life of the machine is 20 years and has been extensively tested by the US Government’s NREL organization [71]. Figure 5.6 shows the proposed 1.8 kW wind turbine with tower and figure 5.7 shows the particular wind turbine power curve.

Figure 5.6: Skystream 3.7 1.8 kW wind turbine [71]

Figure 5.7: Wind turbine power curve

Wind turbine specifications are as follows:

Rated power:1.8 kW

Rotor diameter: 3.7 m

Hub height: 25 m

Cut-in speed: 3.5 m/s

Cut-out speed: 27-33 m/s

Tip speed:9.7-63 m/s

Survival wind speed: 63 m/s

No. of blades:3

Rotor orientation:Downwind

Blade material: Fiberglass reinforced composite

Table 5.3 below shows the cost of microgrid components. In the generator, diesel is used as a fuel and its annual average price 0.753 $/litre [75] is assumed. Generator has 15,000 operating hours (lifetime), wind turbine has 20 years lifetime, converter has 15 years lifetime with 90% efficiency, 1 battery bank comprises in 8 batteries, each of nominal 6V & nominal capacity of 360 Ah.

Table 5.3: Cost of microgrid components

System Components

Capital Cost

in $

Replacement Cost

in $

O&M Cost

in $

Wind Turbine

1.8 kW

14000

7000

300 $/yr

Generator

1 kW

500

400

0.05 $/hr

Converter

1 kW

500

500

100 $/yr

Battery

(8 nos.)

300/Battery

300/Battery

20 $/yr

5.2.3Simulation Results

The figure 5.8 below shows the wind/diesel/battery hybrid power system’s simulation result summary. This is the main graph of system’s result which shows the monthly average electricity production and renewable fraction. It shows the contributions of wind turbine generation and generation by diesel generator for the microgrid system. The wind turbine contribution (renewable fraction) towards electricity generation is 27% (1177 kWh/year) and rest of the generation is 73% (3156 kWh/year) which is produced by generator, as can be seen in figure 5.9 and figure 5.10 below:

Figure 5.08: Monthly average electricity production

Figure 5.09: Simulation results

Figure 5.10: Electricity production summary

The figure 5.11 shows the results of reduction of green house gases (GHG) emissions by using wind/diesel/battery hybrid system.

Figure 5.11: Results of GHG emissions

The figure 5.12 and 5.13 below shows the cash flow summary of the each microgrid component and total cost of the complete system in U.S. Dollars ($). It shows 41,897$, the total cost of the system.

Figure 5.12: Cash flow summary

Figure 5.13: Cash summary of the complete system

Note:

In a politically supported drive towards a low-carbon economy, the UK government now provides grants of up to ?2500 per property towards the cost of installing low carbon micro generation technologies such as micro-wind turbines, solar electricity, solar water heating systems, small-scale hydro power systems, ground source heat pumps and biomass boilers etc [8]-[73].

So, as a result the total cost of the microgrid system will reduce. So, new total cost of the system would be:

New Total Cost ($) = 41,897 – 3,788

5.3 Design Case Study 2

5.3.1 Introduction

The second case study for microgrid system design is carried out in the Multan, Punjab, Pakistan. Multan is among the big cities in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, capital of Multan District and at almost the exact centre of Pakistan. The closest major city is Sahiwal. Multan is located within the latitude and longitude of 30o 15’N, 71o 36’E. It has a total area of 1436.7 square miles (3721 kilometers). The area around the city is a flat plain and is ideal for agriculture. Multan features an arid climate with very hot summers and mild winters. The city witnesses some of the most extreme weather in the country. During the summers, temperatures reach approximately 54 °C (129 °F) and in the winter -1 °C (30.2 °F) has been recorded [67]-[68].

Figure 5.14: Multan [Source: Google Map®]

Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources in Pakistan and Multan is in the best locations for harnessing the solar power in the Pakistan. So that is why this location is selected for photovoltaic (PV) generation. Solar energy is more predictable than wind energy and less vulnerable to changes in seasonal weather patterns than hydropower. Solar energy can produce power at the point of demand in both rural and urban areas [69].

The hybrid power system (photovoltaic/diesel/battery) combines into PV modules, diesel generator, storage batteries, converter and some power electronic equipments. The HOMER software is used for design and simulations of the microgrid system.

5.3.2System Design

Reducing the green house gases (GHG) emissions and economic viability, a microgrid hybrid power system is planned to provide electricity for a typical house located in remote area in Multan, Pakistan. The model consists of photovoltaic arrays, diesel generator, battery bank, converter, domestic load and AC & DC busbars. The HOMER software is used for modeling the system design, simulation, economic analysis and calculation of green house gases (GHG). Monthly average solar radiations and average domestic loads are used as input parameters. The figure 5.15 below shows the schematic diagram of the microgrid system.

Figure 5.15: Schematic diagram of microgrid system

The average load profile of the Pakistan domestic household is below in the figure 5.16 and load parameters can be seen in the table 5.4 below:

Figure 5.16: Load profile

Table 5.4: Load Parameters

Baseline

Scaled

Average (kWh/day)

24.3

24.3

Average (kW)

1.01

1.01

Peak (kW)

1.70

1.70

Load Factor

0.597

0.597

The average monthly solar radiations data of particular location ‘Multan’ is collected from the Science Direct research paper “Prospects for secure and sustainable electricity supply for Pakistan” [69]. The figure 5.17 below shows the average solar radiations data.

Figure 5.17: Average solar radiation

The figure 5.18 below shows the solar panels mounted on the house roof.

Figure 5.18: Solar panels mounted on the roof

The table 5.5 shows the cost and approximate area required for mounting the solar panels on the house roof.

Table 5.5: PV module and approximate area

PV-Module (Watts)

Approximate Roof Area

Required (m2)

Approximate Cost

in $/Watt

2000

18.58

4 to 5

Table 5.6 below shows the cost of microgrid components. In the generator, diesel is used as a fuel and its annual average price 0.753 $/litre [75] is assumed. Generator has 15,000 operating hours (lifetime), PV array capital cost is 8000$ which I got it from “free sun power” [76] and it has 20 years lifetime, converter has 15 years lifetime with 90% efficiency, 1 battery bank comprises in 8 batteries, each of nominal 6V & nominal capacity of 360 Ah.

Table 5.6: Cost of microgrid components

System Components

Capital Cost

in $

Replacement Cost

in $

O&M Cost

in $

PV Module

2 kW

8000

6000

20 $/yr

Generator

1 kW

500

400

0.05 $/hr

Converter

1 kW

500

500

100 $/yr

Battery

(8 nos.)

300/Battery

300/Battery

20 $/yr

5.3.3Simulation Results

The figure 5.19 below shows the photovoltaic/diesel/battery system simulation result summary. It shows the contributions of photovoltaic generation and generation by diesel generator for the microgrid system. The photovoltaic’s contribution (renewable fraction) towards electricity generation is 42% (4371 kWh/year) which is quite good and rest of the generation is 58% (5991 kWh/year) which is produced by generator, as can also be seen in figure 5.20 and figure 5.21 below:

Figure 5.19: Monthly average electricity production

Figure 5.20: Simulation results

Figure 5.21: Electricity production summary

The figure 5.22 shows the results of reduction of green house gases (GHG) emissions by using photovoltaic/diesel/battery hybrid system.

Figure 5.22: Results of GHG emissions

The figure 5.23 and 5.24 below shows the cash flow summary of the each microgrid component and total cost of the complete system in U.S. Dollars ($). It shows 44,069$, the total cost of the system.

Figure 5.23: Cash flow summary

Figure 5.24: Cash summary of the complete system

So, as a result the total cost of the photovoltaic/diesel/battery microgrid system for Multan, Pakistan is 44,069$ or ?29,080 [72].

Chapter 6
RESULTS

6.1 Discussions

From the study of this project it can be summarizing that the simulation results of energy production by small scale generators (conventional and non-conventional) in close proximity to the energy users, integrated into microgrid, can manage to feed the load efficiently with quality clean or green power. The system generates power with the reduction of harmful green-house gases (GHG) emissions as compared to pure conventional power system, which makes global warming. The system is efficient enough to meet the domestic load requirements, and the system can be more efficient and eco-friendly if the wind turbine and solar photovoltaics generate more electricity to make the system more greener or environmental friendly.

6.2 Problems Occurred

First of all, at the beginning of the project I had difficulties to find proper software for modeling and simulating the microgrid system. I found various types software’s for designing hybrid system, but they were not actually suitable for my proposed system design. After searching a lot I found HOMER software for designing, modeling and simulating the microgrid system with the help of Prof. Chengke Zhou.

Finding wind resource data was another issue to concern because the main weather forecast department ‘Met-office’ charges for giving annual wind resource or solar radiations data. But at last I found the required annual wind resources data from weather underground website.

Designing the microgrid system on HOMER was the main issue because I never used this software before or neither designed any hybrid system. So, it was a challenge for me to deal with. Because making reliable, economical and efficient microgrid system; the right specification of the each component had to be considered. But working on HOMER software for designing microgrid system has been very useful with great experience.

Designing two different microgrid systems for two different remote locations was a big challenging task because a lot research and design work was involved and it was lengthy as well due to two different case studies.

6.3 Possible Achievements

I have achieved and learned a lot of conceptual and broad knowledge related to this project like software skills, system design calculations, impotency of renewable energies and designing small scale electric power system for electrifying remote locations or individual consumers.

6.4 Conclusions

The study highlighted the increasing requirement for the combination of renewable energy systems at the distributed generation level. Small scale wind turbines and PV modules have found applications in numerous sectors including domestic.

From overall project, designed microgrid power systems for both case studies contribute their part to reduce greenhouse gasses emissions (GHG) which makes the world warming; also designed systems meet the requirements of remote load efficiently. Case study 1 (wind/diesel/batter hybrid system) in the Isle of Arran, Scotland, UK has 27% renewable fraction which is quite good, the case study 2 (photovoltaic/diesel/battery hybrid system) in Multan, Punjab, Pakistan has 42% renewable fraction which is very good result and the overall system is also economical because Pakistan has a lot potential in solar energy.

As a result, the total cost of case study 2 is higher than the case study 1 because it has more domestic load rather than case study 1 and had to design system with 2 kW PV module, also there is not governmental support included in the system because government of Pakistan does not contribute towards installing small scale renewable energy system, but overall case study 2 contributes more towards reduction of carbon emissions.

Overall, the principal conclusion is that microgrid systems do have real potential to make a major contribution to reducing GHG emissions from individual or domestic locations. This will only happen if there are major changes to the electricity market and regulatory structure.

6.5 Future Outwork

After done this project there are some recommendations for further work in order to improve or efficient the power system:

If the designed wind turbine cut in speed is less or minimum rather than 3.5 m/s (the used Skystream wind turbine) then the wind turbine would produce more power, or if we install the system in a particular area where the wind speeds are really high then the system would generate more power.
If the PV module quality can be improved then we can get more power by photovoltaic system, so have to work on PV module material.

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Free Essays

The feasibility of wind energy from strategic management perspective in Russia

1. INTRODUCTION

This research proposal has been complied to outline how an investigation into one part of the feasibility studies for wind energy developments are undertaken. From a strategic management perspective the socio-economics aspects of this shall be examined. These shall be considered by examining a number of case studies in Russia (as an example see; POWER, 2013; BAREC, 1998).

2. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

This study shall be undertaken by critically evaluating how these assessments are currently implemented in practice. The effectiveness of these shall then be assessed by comparing them to practices adopted by other countries (see as an example: Bell, Gray & Haggett, 2005; Bergmann, Hanley & Wright, 2006; Van der Horst & Toke, 2010). This could help to identify some opportunities, which may be utilised in Russia, to improve the undertaking of feasibility studies.

4. PROBLEM STATEMENT

In Russia, feasibility studies are conducted to establish if wind turbine projects are viable (as an example see; POWER, 2013; BAREC, 1998). However, a variety of practices have been adopted to undertake these to date (Devine?Wright, 2005). This research seeks to ascertain if these practices could be improved, by establishing how these assessments have been undertaken in other countries.

5. RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

In conjunction with the problem statement above, the following aims have been formulated:

To use available and relevant data, to investigate how socio-economic assessments are managed by using various management strategies (during the feasibility investigation phase of wind farm developments).
To use available and relevant data, to investigate how socio-economic assessments are implemented by using various management strategies (during the feasibility investigation phase of wind farm developments).
To use the findings from the above two aims make recommendations for how practices may be improved in Russia.

Additionally, the following objectives have been developed:

To evaluate how socio-economic assessments are strategically managed and implemented (during the feasibility phases of wind farm projects in Russia and other countries).
To evaluate if these assessments may be improved in Russia.
6. PROPOSAL STRUCTURE

The proposed outline of the dissertation is described in the next section.

7.LITERATURE REVIEW

To date, studies have been undertaken into the development of wind farms (see as an example: Bell, Gray & Haggett, 2005; Bergmann, Hanley & Wright, 2006; Van der Horst & Toke, 2010). The majority of these have been focused on developments in Europe or the United States of America. There are a few case studies, which are pertinent to these types projects in Russia (as an example see; POWER, 2013; BAREC, 1998). Mainly, these case studies show that a variety of techniques are used to seek to ascertain if these developments are feasible. To ensure that this is the case a number of assessments are undertaken (see as an example: Bell, Gray & Haggett, 2005; Bergmann, Hanley & Wright, 2006). This helps to ensure that each aspect of the development and its impacts are fully considered. One assessment, which is important, seeks to evaluate the socio -economic impacts of wind farm developments (Wolsink, 2007). It is the management and implementation of these in Russia, which this study seeks to explore.

This shall be achieved by examining the literature from Europe or the United States of America (see as an example: Bell, Gray & Haggett, 2005; Bergmann, Hanley & Wright, 2006; Van der Horst & Toke, 2010) and comparing this to the Russian case studies (as an example see; POWER, 2013; BAREC, 1998). This will enable the researcher to understand how these are undertaken in a number of countries and how practices may be improved in Russia.

7.3 LITERATURE REVIEW SUMMARY

The findings from this review shall be detailed in a summary and the research questions shall be outlined.

7.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Provisionally, the following research questions have been developed.

How have socio-economic assessments been strategically managed (during the feasibility studies of wind farms in different countries)
How have the socio-economic assessments been implemented (during the feasibility phases of wind farm developments in Russia and other countries)
To date, what lessons have been learnt from one and two, and how may these be applied in Russia
7.5 METHODOLOGY

Due to the nature of this study, the research shall be based on an extensive review of the literature and case studies. Once all of these have been examined and collated a number of recommendations shall be made.

7.6 RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY

The research philosophy, which has been adopted for this study is positivism. This will allow the investigation to be a critical and objective base method (Sundars, 2003).

7.7 RESEARCH APPROACH

The research approach, which has chosen for this study is qualitative in nature, as it will be based on a literature review (Sundars, 2003). This will allow the research to explore the problem, which was outlined above, to see if any improvements may be made.

7.8 RESEARCH STRATEGY

The research strategy, which has been chosen for this study is a literature review (Sundars, 2003).

7.9 DATA COLLECTION

The literature review shall be conducted by searching websites electronic journals, case studies and relevant books. Once a number of relevant sources have been identified these shall be used to collect information to investigate the research problem.

7.10 DATA ANALYSIS

All analyses shall be based on the literature, which is identified during the data collection phase of this study (Sundars, 2003).

7.11 ACCESS

Access to this literature shall be established through searching library resources, electronic journals and websites.

7.12 RELIABILITY, VALIDITY, AND GENERALISABILITY

The reliability and validity of this research shall be ensured by only using sources of information, which are deemed to be suitable for this study. The generalizability of the findings from this study shall be limited as it will be based on secondary sources and the study findings will only be valid whilst these sources of information remain current (Sundars, 2003).

7.11 ETHICAL ISSUES

There are no ethical issues which need to be considered whilst this research is being conducted.

7.12 RESEARCH LIMITATIONS

As this research is based on secondary sources, the data, which is available, may limit the findings from this and as already stated as the study is based on the current situation in Russia, its findings may only be valid for a limited time.

8 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, this study shall be undertaken by seeking to identify and critically evaluate a number of secondary sources. This will enable the strategic management and implementation of socio –economic analyses to be critically evaluated. The effectiveness of these in Russia shall then be assessed by comparing them to practices adopted by other countries. Then a number of recommendations may be made where this is appropriate.

9 TIME CHART
TasksTask LeadStartEndDuration (Days)

DissertationResearcher7/06/137/15/1310
Write Up Results 7/06/137/20/1315
Write up analysis 7/21/138/01/1312
Write Recommendations 1/08/1313/08/201310
Draw Conclusions 13/08/201318/08/20135

REFERENCES

BAREC (1998) Conditions for the development of Wind Power in the Baltic Sea Region. Available from http://www.basrec.net/files/basrecdocs/Projects/BASREC-wind%201_enabling%20studies_120424.pdf (Accessed 03/07/2013)

Bell, D., Gray, T., & Haggett, C. (2005). The ‘social gap’ in wind farm siting decisions: explanations and policy responses. Environmental politics, 14(4), 460-477.

Bergmann, A., Hanley, N., & Wright, R. (2006). Valuing the attributes of renewable energy investments. Energy Policy, 34(9), 1004-1014.

Devine?Wright, P. (2005). Beyond NIMBYism: towards an integrated framework for understanding public perceptions of wind energy. Wind energy, 8(2), 125-139.

POWER (2013) Perspectives of Offshore Wind Development. Available from http://www.corpi.ku.lt/power/ (Accessed 03/07/2013).

Saunders, M. (2003) Research Methods for Business Students. South Africa: Pearson Education.

Van der Horst, D. (2007). NIMBY or not Exploring the relevance of location and the politics of voiced opinions in renewable energy siting controversies. Energy policy, 35(5), 2705-2714.

Van der Horst, D., & Toke, D. (2010). Exploring the landscape of wind farm developments: local area characteristics and planning process outcomes in rural England. Land Use Policy, 27(2), 214-221.

Wolsink, M. (2007). Planning of renewables schemes: Deliberative and fair decision-making on landscape issues instead of reproachful accusations of non-cooperation. Energy policy, 35(5), 2692-2704.

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Does emerging energy technology have the potential to provide power for the entire Tanzanian population affordably?

our site – CUSTOM ESSAY WRITING – DISSERTATION EXAMPLES
Abstract

This study proposes to examine the role of emerging energy technology and policy innovation and how this impacts developing economies. Employing Brazil as an example, this research identifies and assesses opportunities for the expansion of sustainable energy and policy for the nation of Tanzania. The value of this study rests in studying the link between energy innovation, organisational culture and increased capacity.

1 Introduction

1.1 Background

The identification and application of emerging energy technology is at the forefront of national economic growth (Timilsina, 2012). Many studies illustrate the contention that innovation and organisational culture awareness can enhance economic prosperity, thereby increasing the adoption of valuable technology, leading to a better standard of living for many populations in emerging nations (Barry et al, 2011). This research rests on the hypothesis that emerging nations that adopt emerging technology and policy opportunities have the potential to increase national use and underlying standards of living. Assessing both the cultural expectations and the energy industry opportunities provided in Brazil, this research determines if performance in Tanzania should be boosted by an industry and leadership that aligns cultural policy with the objectives of the energy market to accomplish national goals.

1.2 Aims & Objectives

The objective of this study:

Determine the viability of emerging technology and energy policy to provide power and a better standard of living for the Tanzanian population.

In order to accomplish this objective a case study based on the more developed nation of Brazil will provide real world demonstration of the strengths and detriments of the innovative energy policy approach.

1.3 Research Questions

The research questions are as follows:

What is the relation of emerging energy technology to Organisational Culture
How are innovative energy processes facilitated by Organisational Culture
How does a culturally innovative energy strategy impact a nation
How does Organisational learning and energy innovation enable an industry to respond to Tanzania’s requirements
Is innovation necessary to sustain access to emerging market opportunities
2 Literature Review

2.1 Energy Innovation

Energy innovation is defined as the introduction of new methods or products into a market or policy setting (Ahlborg et al, 2014). This suggests that new technology can have an impact on an existing energy market such as Tanzania.

2.2 Organisational Culture

Practices, policies and priorities that are held by a society are directly responsible for the acquisition and application of innovative policy and technology (Hall et al, 2011).With this evidence, there is a clear suggestion of a link between cultural perception and technological adoption.

2.3 Implementation and Assessment of Innovative Impact

One of the primary drivers of organisational structure is positive production and progress during implementation (Christensen, 2005).Assessing the efforts over time using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions as a cultural tool and the STEEPLE instrument to assess industry options provides a well-rounded illustration of impact.

3 Methodology

3.1 Approach

Both deductive and inductive avenues were reviewed; with the decision that the best method for this research will be the Interpretivism or the Qualitative approach (Cresswell, 2011). Secondary research based on a case study of Brazil evaluated using Hofstede’s Cultural dimensions to evaluate societal influences alongside the STEEPLE industry analysis thereby providing the working infrastructure evidence. This strategy will be adopted for this study so that existing data can be effectively accumulated and analysed.

3.2 Research Strategy

Qualitative, Interpretative research methods will be used so that the literature can provide a wider analysis of the subject matter. This form of research will provide a solid foundation for well-balanced study.

3.3 Data Collection Instruments and Methods

The resources that will be used include text books, journal articles, online databases, government reports and applicable websites.

5 References

Ahlborg, H. and Hammar, L. (2014). Drivers and barriers to rural electrification in Tanzania and Mozambique–Grid-extension, off-grid, and renewable energy technologies. Renewable Energy, 61, pp.117–124.

Barry, M., Steyn, H. and Brent, A. (2011). Selection of renewable energy technologies for Africa: Eight case studies in Rwanda, Tanzania and Malawi. Renewable energy, 36(11), pp.2845–2852.

Christensen, C. (2005). The innovator’s dilemma. 1st ed. New York: HarperCollins.

Friebe, C., von Flotow, P. and T”aube, F. (2014). Exploring technology diffusion in emerging markets–the role of public policy for wind energy. Energy Policy, 70, pp.217–226.

Hall, J., Matos, S., Silvestre, B. and Martin, M. (2011). Managing technological and social uncertainties of innovation: the evolution of Brazilian energy and agriculture.Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 78(7), pp.1147–1157.

Strauss, S., Rupp, S. and Love, T. (2013). Cultures of energy. 1st ed. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Timilsina, G., Kurdgelashvili, L. and Narbel, P. (2012). Solar energy: Markets, economics and policies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(1), pp.449–465.

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Free Essays

Critically analyse how the Global Energy Assessment pathways represent future socio-technological change in the energy system, focussing on the building sector.

Abstract

There has been growing concern surrounding climate change over recent years and much emphasis has been placed upon the ways in which the environment can be protected. Accordingly, because of how important it is for organisations and individuals to adopt environmentally friendly practices, effective environmental controls are vital. There is much debate as to the extent to which the Global Energy Assessment pathways represent future socio-technological change in the energy system, yet this study intends to find this out by focussing on the building sector.

Introduction

The government has placed a great deal of emphasis upon climate change in recent years by exploring the different ways it can be tackled (Department for International Development, 2011: 13). The Department of Energy and Climate Change aims to make sure that the UK has “secure, clean and affordable energy supplies” (DEEC, 2014: 1) and seeks to promote international action in order to eliminate climate change. In 2012 the Global Energy Assessment (GEA) was therefore launched and a new global energy policy agenda was established (GEA Writing Team, 2012: 4). The GEA intended to change the way society uses and delivers energy in order to mitigate climate change. In doing so, it brings together hundreds of international researchers to provide an analysis of the current issues that exist and to identify the possible options that can be taken in tackling climate change. Technology options and policies are also included in the GEA and are considered vital in protecting the environment and maintaining sustainable development (GEA, 2014: 1). As noted by Greening, the Secretary of State for International Development: “The long-term effects of climate change threaten to undermine progress in reducing global poverty” (Department for International Development, 2011: 3). This is the main reason why the UK is committed to helping developing countries adapt to climate change in a positive way by ensuring that they take up low carbon growth and effectively tackle deforestation. This study will therefore examine some of the Global Energy Assessment pathways, by focusing on the building sector, in order to consider the effects these will have upon the energy system in the future.

Socio-Technological Change in the Energy System

In order for climate change to be tackled effectively, socio-technological changes are needed within the energy system. This can be ascertained by reviewing the different sectors which impact the environment and then considering what socio-technological changes are required. The building sector has a significant impact upon the environment because of the fact that it accounts for one-third of the planet’s total energy use (Global Alliance, 2012: 1). Technological improvements to buildings are therefore a cost-effective way of mitigating climate change. By using existing proven technologies we have the ability right to “reduce energy consumption in new and existing buildings by 30-50 percent at extremely low or no cost, and usually at negative cost (Global Alliance, 2012: 1). Increased building efficiency is therefore the future for the building sector because not only do greener buildings help to promote sustainability but they are also better for the consumer in that they are more comfortable and cheaper to maintain (NAR, 2014: 1). The pathways for transition that have been explored in the GEA therefore need to be followed if the building sector is to become more energy efficient. This is important given that GHG emissions are expected to nearly double by the year 2030 under a high-growth development scenario (Metz et al; 2007: 6). The GEA supports sustainability in the building sector by helping decisions makers address the challenges associated with building development (CCCSEP, 2012: 1).

Energy Efficiency Barriers in the Building Sector

The building sector can contribute to tackling climate change through socio-technological change in the energy system, yet there are many barriers towards improved efficiency in this sector. One of the main barriers that exists is a lack of technical, economic and general knowledge about the energy sector. Not only does this knowledge gap apply to consumers but it also applies to building designers, architects and politicians (Urge-Vorsatz, 2012: 702). Because of this lack of knowledge, it is very difficult for many of the technologies and practices that exist in this area to be implemented. Furthermore, although energy efficient practices are considered cost effective, they are not being widely adopted due to the high initial start-up costs. The high upfront costs are thus discouraging, especially when there is a lack of knowledge that exists in this area and unless greater awareness is provided, it is unlikely that the GEA pathways will have much of an influence in the future. Market failures also provide barriers to energy efficiency because of the failures in the way the market operates (Urge-Vorsatz, 2012: 702). Such flaws prevent the trade-off between energy efficiency investments and energy saving benefits. Behavioural barriers are also a problem for energy efficiency in the building sector as the behaviours of individuals and companies may be difficult to change. For example, individuals may fail to turn the lights off in their homes, whilst organisations may fail to identify energy saving opportunities, especially if they do not benefit directly from them.

An example of this can be seen in relation to green leases since these are one of the main pathways to energy efficiency. Green leases thus impose obligations on landlords and tenants to achieve targets for energy consumption. This ensures that the energy use of commercial buildings is minimised through “better measurement, greater awareness and systematic management” (All Party Urban Development Group, 2008: 2). There are a number of different green lease shades which represent different commitments to the green agenda: light green leases represent a modest commitment to the agenda, whilst dark green leases reflect a much more serious commitment (Bright, 2008: 158). Regardless of the benefits green leases have on the environment, however, they are not being used as much as they should. This is largely the result of the “conventional relationship between the landlord (as building owner) and tenant (as occupier)” which generally neglects “environmental considerations” (Hinnells et al; 2008, 1). The extent to which green leases represent future socio-technological change in the energy system is therefore unclear and it seems that further changes are required if a more robust system is to be implemented. Green leases should be used more frequently than they are at present, yet it is questionable whether this is likely to happen given that “change may be rapid, disruptive and challenging (Hinnells et al; 2008: 1).

Bright believes that capital investment will allow for more efficient equipment to be introduced that will allow for better energy savings to be made (Bright, 2008: 158). This will encourage landlords and tenants to enter into a green lease if they can identify the real benefits that are associated with them. Consequently, it is evident when looking at green leases that one of the main barriers towards improved energy efficiency is the lack of awareness that exists. In order to remove this barrier to energy efficiency, campaigns and sector learning networks could be introduced in order to increase the current awareness of GEA’s (Carbon Trust, 2005: 16). Furthermore, actions could also be taken that raise the attention of building owners such as; tax incentives and low interest loans (Rezendes, 1994: 41). This will allow greater access to energy efficient equipment and will encourage individuals to take advantage of the opportunities that are available. Another barrier towards energy efficiency in the building sector is transaction costs and the limited availability of capital. Because building owners do not generally have spare capital available to make their buildings more energy efficient, they are less likely to take the GEA pathways into consideration (Ecofys, 2012: 3). Furthermore, as has been pointed out; “financial barriers to the penetration of energy efficiency and building integrated distributed generated technologies include factors that increase the investments costs and/or decrease savings resulting from the improvement” (Urge-Vorsatz, 2012: 698).

Arguably, building owners are unlikely to make energy efficient changes if they are not also cost-effective despite the fact that the equipment is more efficient. This could also be rectified through tax incentives and low interest loans, yet economic instruments could also be introduced that reduce the overall costs of the equipment. Energy prices could also be increased so that going green would be more of an incentive than it is at present. This is because, unless there are significant cost benefits of becoming more energy efficient, it is unlikely that individuals will be actively encouraged to do so. Market misalignment is another barrier that prevents “the consistent trade-off between specific energy-efficient investment and the societal energy-saving benefits” (The Carbon Trust, 2005: 16). An example of this can be seen in relation to tenant-landlord relationships where companies have no direct control over the premises and so are reluctant to invest in energy efficiency. This barrier could be overcome through the provision of split-incentives. This would encourage landlords to become more energy efficient if they were being incentivised to do so. If the GEA pathways are implemented, the environment will benefit significantly from this and the passivhaus standard will be applied in the building sector. This standard is the robust approach to building design which seeks to minimise the heating demand of buildings by building houses that have exceptional thermal performance (Passivhaus, 2011: 1). Unless it is less costly for builders to employ the passivhaus standard, there will be no incentive for them to do so as they will not benefit from the reduced energy savings.

GEA Pathways for the Energy Efficiency Transition

Because of how important it is to protect the environment, it is necessary that the multiple objectives outlined in the GEA are being met through environmental control. The main objective of the GEA pathways is to understand the combination of measures, time scales and costs that are needed to transform the energy system. In understanding this, however, it is necessary to first identify the energy efficiency barriers that exist so that appropriate measures can be implemented to alleviate them. Reducing thermal energy use is achievable through a number of different pathways such as; best practice in building design, construction and operation; the elimination of energy poverty; the increase of living space and economic development ((Urge-Vorsatz, 2012: 703). Before these pathways can be incorporated, it will be necessary to for significant investments to be made as well as the introduction of new appliances and technology and discounted energy saving costs. Because this will require high start-up costs, increased knowledge of the GEA pathway benefits will be needed so that individuals and organisations will be incentivised to adopt such pathways. Hence, many approaches have already been implemented to manage pollution-generating processes (Stuart, 2006: 1), yet it cannot be said that the obligations placed upon individuals under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and the EU’s Council Directive 96/61/EC to control the environment are being realised (McEldowney and McEldowney, 2010: 48). This is likely to be the result of market failures and behavioural barriers since individuals and organisations may not be able to identify when an energy saving opportunity arises. Nevertheless, since the Climate Change Act 2008 was first enacted various mitigation and adaption strategies have been introduced, such as the Government’s ‘Green Deal’. The objective of this deal was to limit greenhouse gas emissions so that the increase of global temperature could be decreased. The Green Deal has been considered a welcoming development because of the fact that it has enabled the energy efficiency of many households and businesses to be improve “without consuming so much energy and wasting so much money” (DEEC, 2010: 1). This is beneficial for consumers and is likely to reduce the initial startup costs. The Green Deal is also effective in increasing the awareness of energy saving benefits, which is likely to remove any subsisting behavioral barriers.

Conversely, it has been argued that the implementation of the GEA pathways may actually lead to further energy use, through the so-called rebound effect (Gillingham et al, 2013: 474). Although the GEA have identified the possible re-bound effect the implementation of their pathways may have, it seems as though little consideration has been given to this (GEA, 2012: 1573). Accordingly, it cannot be said that the barriers to energy efficiency have been given much thought and unless the behaviour of individuals and organisations change, it is unlikely that the GEA pathways will have much of an impact in the future. There are both direct and indirect rebound effects that are likely to occur. The direct rebound effect happens when people consume more energy as a result of the low costs, and the indirect rebound effect happens when people use savings from lower energy costs to spend on other energy intensive activities (Sorrell, 2010: 636). In view of this, is thereby essential that rebound effects are taken into consideration when evaluating how beneficial energy efficiency really is. As noted by Giillingham et al; however: “Empirical evidence indicates that the direct rebound effect will dominate in the near term” at around 10-30 per cent (2013: 476). Regardless of this, it was also pointed out that rebound effects are not necessarily bad since the overall well-being of society will be improved as a result. Therefore, even if the re-bound effect does not lead to a significant reduction in energy use, societal well-being will be improved. It is unclear whether the target of 80 per cent emission reductions by 2050 will be achieved since there are a number of different changes that need to be implemented in order for the barriers to energy efficiency to be overcome (Bell and McGillivray, 2008: 531). In effect, whilst many implementations have been made towards establishing a sustainable future in the energy sector, the extent to which these have proven successful remains largely unclear. If the barriers to energy efficiency are removed and the GEA pathways are followed, there is a possibility that the emission reductions will be reduced by 2050, yet it remains to be seen whether this will be by 80 per cent. This is because as put by Riahi et al; “although the GEA pathways have shown that such a transformation is possible, the task remains and ambitious and will require rapid introduction of policies and fundamental policy changes that lead to coordinated efforts to integrate global concerns” (2012: 1300). Consequently, the barriers to energy efficiency will need to be overcome before the GEA pathways can be implemented, yet this is likely to prove extremely complex. Increased awareness would be the first step as this will lead to behavioural changes that will ensure the GEA pathways are being adopted.

Conclusion

Overall, whilst there are a number of different GEA pathways that are intended to make effective socio-technological changes in the energy system, the extent to which these will prove successful remains unclear. This is because, whilst many of the pathways are considered effective ways of creating an environmentally friendly energy system, it cannot be said that the current mechanisms are being employed by all. This is evidenced by the introduction of green leases, which are aimed at establishing energy efficient ways of occupying commercial property. Whilst these leases do seem rather beneficial to both landlords and tenants, their place in the market has not yet been established. The lack of incentives may be one reason for this, which signifies how further benefits ought to be made available. In addition, the future of the mitigation and adaption strategies that have been implemented into the building sector is also unclear because of the fact organisations do not always co-operate in the implementation of such strategies. The re-bound effect is also not being given enough consideration and thus needs to be taken into account when analysing the GEA pathways. Consequently, in order to maintain sustainable development and minimise climate change, it is vital that the GEA pathways are being promoted a lot more so that the impact the building sector has on the environment can be minimised, yet in doing so the re-bound effect should be taken into account in order to ensure that a more realistic approach is undertaken

References

All Party Urban Development Group., (2008). Greening UK Cities Buildings; Improving the Energy Efficiency of Our Offices, Shops and Factories. A Report Delivered by the Officers, (2008), 20 March 2014.

Bell, S. and McGillivray, D. (2008). Environmental Law, 7th edn Oxford University Press.

Bright, S., (2008). Going Green. 158 New Law Journal 1135, Issue 7333.

CCCSEP. (2012) ‘Global Energy Assessment: Energy-Efficient Building Modelling Scenarios’ Centre for Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Policy, Centre European University, 29 March 2014.

DEEC. (2010). ‘What is the Green Deal?’ (2010) The Department for Energy & Climate Energy, Accessed 20 March 2014.

Department for International Development. (2011) ‘Tackling Climate Change, Reducing Poverty’, UK International Climate Fund, Accessed 19 March, 2014.

Dowden, M., (2008). Property/Landlord & Tenant: Contentious Carbon158 New Law Journal 1707, Issue 7348.

Ecofys. (2012) ‘The Benefits of Energy Efficiency – Why Wait?’ Sustainable Energy for Everyone, Accessed 30 March 2014.

Gillingham, K. Kotchen, M. J. Rapson, D. S. and Wagner, G. (2013) ‘The Rebound Effect and Energy Efficiency Policy’ Yale University School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, [Online] Available: http://www.yale.edu/gillingham/ReboundEffectLongForm.pdf [03 April, 2014].

Global Alliance. (2012) Why Buildings, Global L-eadership in our Built Environment, Accessed 20 March 2014.

Global Energy Assessment (GEA) Writing Team. (2012) Global Energy Assessment, Towards a Sustainable Future, New York: Cambridge University press.

Global Energy Assessment (GEA). (2014) ‘Global Energy Assessment’ International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Accessed 19 March 2014.

Hinnells, M., Bright, S., Langley, A., Woodford, L., Schiellerup, P., and Bosteels, T., (2008).

McEldowney, J. and McEldowney, S. (2010) Environmental Law, 1st edition Longman.

NAR. (2014) ‘What is Green Building’ National Association of Realtors, Accessed 14 March 2014.

Passivhaus. (2011) ‘The Passivhaus Standard’ [Online] Available: http://www.passivhaus.org.uk/standard.jsp?id=122 [03 April 2014].

Rezendes, V, S. (1994) Geothermal Energy, DIANE Publishing.

Riahi, K., et al; (2012) Global Energy Assessment, Chapter 17, [Online] Available: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/research/Flagship-Projects/Global-Energy-Assessment/GEA_Chapter17_pathways_lowres.pdf [03 April 2014].

Sorrell, S. J. (2010) ‘Dimitropoulus, The Rebound Effect: Microeconomic Definitions, Limitations and Extensions’ Ecological Economics, 65(3): 636-649.

Stuart, R. (2006) ‘Command and Control Regulation’, The Encyclopaedia of Earth, Accessed 20 March 2014.

The Carbon Trust. (2005) ‘The UK Climate Change Programme: Potential Evolution for Business and the Public Sector’ Making Business Sense of Climate Change, < http://www.carbontrust.com/media/84912/ctc518-uk-climate-change-programme-potential-evolution.pdf> Accessed 29 March 2014.

The Department of Energy and Climate Change (DEEC). (2014) What we do, Gov.uk, Accessed 20 March 2014.

The Greening of Commercial Leases. Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, < http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1747108> 20 March 2014.

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King, V., (2009). Is My Lease Green32 Company’s Secretary Review 24, Issue 24.

LRCI., (2009). Guidance: Green Commercial Leases. Low Carbon Research Institute Convergence Programme, 20 March 2014.

Urge-Vorsatz, D. (2012) ‘Energy End Use: Buildings’ < http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/research/Flagship-Projects/Global-Energy-Assessment/GEA_CHapter10_buildings_lowres.pdf> Accessed 29 March 2014.

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Nutrition and food science: energy balance

Nutrition in general is a concern for adolescents, who are entering a stressful, confusing, and sometimes frightening time of social, emotional, and physical development. Healthy diet and regular physical activity help children and adults feel better, learn and work more effectively, and avoid developing a variety of risk factors for disease. The key to weight control or weight management is keeping energy intake (food) and energy output (physical activity) in balance; that is energy balance.

Read also: Domestic Activities and Chemicals

When you consume only as many calories as your body needs, your weight will usually remain constant. If you take in more calories than your body needs, you will put on excess fat. If you expend more energy than you take in you will burn excess fat. The relationship of energy balance to body weight can be summarized by the following equations:
Energy Intake = Energy Output = Weight Maintenance

Energy Intake > Energy Output = Weight Gain

Energy Intake < Energy Output = Weight Loss

Weight management means keeping your body weight at a healthy level. Regular exercise and a healthy diet are a must when it comes to controlling your weight. A weight management plan depends on whether you are overweight or underweight. Many people mistakenly believe that they only “burn calories” when they exercise. In fact, your body is burning calories all of the time (yes, even when sleeping!). Calories are used to keep

basic body functions going, to metabolize the foods you eat, and to do any form of physical activity. Exactly how many calories people need varies, depending on such factors as gender, current body size, activity level and body weight goals a wise choice to achieve a healthy weight. A safe, tried-and-true method for long-term weight loss is to reduce calories by decreasing portion sizes when people tend to eat. When trying to lose weight or hold steady at a desired one, there’s no need to turn to the latest “diet” or outcast your favorite foods. Small changes to your diet and exercise routine can make a big difference.

A healthful eating plan can include all your favorite foods if they are in reasonable amounts and balanced out with daily physical activity. Aerobic physical activity, if no health prohibitions, will assist in increasing muscle tissue and also in burning calories. However, care should be taken not to exercise more frequently and more intensely that is required for good health or to compete well.

Physical activity should be balanced with diet to maintain a desired weight. Experts have come to believe that this approach of weight management is reasonable and promising. No proven side effects, however, success of weight efforts should be evaluated according to improvements in chronic disease risk factors or symptoms and by the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits, not just by the number of pounds lost/gain.

But if you are over 40, have been inactive for some time, suffer from shortness of breath or weakness that interferes with daily activities, or suffer from a chronic condition, you should consult a physician before you begin any effort to reduce your weight or increase your activity level. Education may be necessary for an understanding of energy balance and basic nutrition principles.

REFERENCE

Atkins, R. (1981). Dr.Atkins: Nutrition breakthrough. New York, U.S.A: Bantom Books.

 

 

 

 

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Solar Energy Facts

ASTOUNDING SOLAR ENERGY FACTS What is solar energy? People often think of solar energy as solar panels mounted on roofs in sunny neighborhoods. This is only part of solar energy (“Solar energy facts,”2012). Solar energy is the oldest energy source. Plants, animal and the microbial life have been using it as a principle energy source since the times of creation. It is in the form of heat and light. In the past years, people have tapped solar energy enabling it to be used at all times; including the nights, in all weather conditions, can be stored as well as be transferred.

Solar energy can be defined as the technology used to exploit the sun’s power and make it usable. Solar energy facts * Solar energy makes life a reality. Through photosynthesis, plants absorb sunlight and provide food and oxygen which animals consume to live. Human bodies absorb solar energy this helps to regulate body temperature. Sunlight also provides vitamin D, which is necessary to human health. * Solar energy is an extremely clean energy source. It is environmentally healthier than traditionally fossil related forms of energy since it does not emit any known pollutants to the environment. The earth absorbs approximately 3. 85 million exajoules of energy from the sun. This is big compared to the earth’s use of about 56. 7 exajoules. The sun is the sole source of solar energy, believed to last for more than 5 billion years. This means solar energy is the most renewable and viable source of energy. * The practical use of solar energy is inexhaustible. Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) proposed the concentrating solar principle, which a concave mirror directs rays to solar water heaters. Also upon launch, satellites and spacecrafts use solar energy as their main source. Solar energy is responsible for the weather and ocean currents. Majority of the thermal energy which is due to solar energy stored in the ocean. This means the transfer of energy on the earth’s surface relates to the ocean-atmosphere. Utilization of solar energy * Solar thermal plants concentrate the sun’s energy as a heat source to boil water used to run steam powered turbines to generate electricity. * Solar panels using photovoltaic cells convert solar energy into electricity to light homes, though storage batteries may be needed. Solar energy can be used in war, as from Archimedes who by directing heat rays using mirrors burned down ships that had siege Syracuse. * Solar water heater utilizes solar energy to warm water for homes. Also by the use of heat absorbent surfaces, solar energy can be used to heat pools. * In food processing, solar energy presents a significant functionality in drying. In summary, solar energy is a renewable source of green energy and has a tremendous and endless industrial utilization.

It is also vital to life and nature. This solar energy facts reveal that solar is the main green energy source at hand. References Solar Energy Information and Facts(2010). Retrieved from http://www. valopia. com/index. php/Solar/solar-energy-information-and-facts. html Solar Energy Facts. (2012). Retrieved from http://www. solarenergy-facts. org/ Solar power facts. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. solarpowerfacts. biz/ Wind Solar Projects. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. windsolarprojects. com/

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Energy Ch 11 Presentation

11 Using Energy © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 1 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 2 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4 Reading Quiz 1. A machine uses 1000 J of electric energy to raise a heavy mass, increasing its potential energy by 300 J. What is the efficiency of this process? A. B. C. D. E. 100% 85% 70% 35% 30% © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 5 Reading Quiz 2. When the temperature of an ideal gas is increased, which of the following also increases? 1) The thermal energy of the gas; (2) the average kinetic energy of the gas; (3) the average potential energy of the gas; (4) the mass of the gas atoms; (5) the number of gas atoms. A. B. C. D. E. 1, 2, and 3 1 and 2 4 and 5 2 and 3 All of 1–5 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6 Reading Quiz 3. A refrigerator is an example of a A. B. C. D. E. reversible process. heat pump. cold reservoir. heat engine. hot reservoir. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 7 Example Problem Light bulbs are rated by the power that they consume, not the light that they emit.

A 100 W incandescent bulb emits approximately 4 W of visible light. What is the efficiency of the bulb? © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 8 Efficiency © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 9 Example Problems A person lifts a 20 kg box from the ground to a height of 1. 0 m. A metabolic measurement shows that in doing this work her body uses 780 J of energy. What is her efficiency? A 75 kg person climbs the 248 steps to the top of the Cape Hatteras lighthouse, a total climb of 59 m. How many Calories does he burn? © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10 Checking Understanding

When you walk at a constant speed on level ground, what energy transformation is taking place? A. B. C. D. E. Echem ? Ug Ug ? Eth Echem ? K Echem ? Eth K ? Eth © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 11 Example Problem How far could a 68 kg person cycle at 15 km/hr on the energy in one slice of pizza? How far could she walk, at 5 km/hr? How far could she run, at 15 km/hr? Do you notice any trends in the distance values that you’ve calculated? Chemical energy from food is used for each of these activities. What happens to this energy—that is, in what form does it end up? 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 12 The Ideal Gas Model 2 Kavg T? 3 kB © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 13 Checking Understanding:Temperature Scales Rank the following temperatures, from highest to lowest. A. 300 °C > 300 K > 300 °F B. 300 K > 300 °C > 300 °F C. 300 °F > 300 °C > 300 K D. 300 °C > 300 °F > 300 K © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 14 Checking Understanding Two containers of the same gas (ideal) have these masses and temperatures: • Which gas has atoms with the largest average thermal energy? • Which container of gas has the largest thermal energy?

A. P, Q B. P, P C. Q, P D. Q, Q © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 15 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 16 Example Problem Using a fan to move air in a room will make you feel cooler, but it will actually warm up the room air. A small desk fan uses 50 W of electricity; all of this energy ends up as thermal energy in the air of the room in which it operates. The air in a typical bedroom consists of about 8. 0 x 1026 atoms. Suppose a small fan is running, using 50 W. And suppose that there is no other transfer of energy, as work or heat, into or out of, the air in the oom. By how much does the temperature of the room increase during 10 minutes of running the fan? © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 17 Example Problem: Work and Heat in an Ideal Gas A container holds 4. 0 x 1022 molecules of an ideal gas at 0 °C. A piston compresses the gas, doing 30 J of work. At the end of the compression, the gas temperature has increased to 10 °C. During this process, how much heat is transferred to or from the environment? © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 18 Operation of a Heat Engine © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 19

The Theoretical Maximum Efficiency of a Heat Engine © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 20 Example Problem: Geothermal Efficiency At The Geysers geothermal power plant in northern California, electricity is generated by using the temperature difference between the 15 °C surface and 240 °C rock deep underground. What is the maximum possible efficiency? What happens to the energy that is extracted from the steam that is not converted to electricity? © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 21 Operation of a Heat Pump © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 22 Coefficient of Performance of a Heat Pump 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 23 Checking Understanding: Increasing Efficiency of a Heat Pump Which of the following changes would allow your refrigerator to use less energy to run? (1) Increasing the temperature inside the refrigerator; (2) increasing the temperature of the kitchen; (3) decreasing the temperature inside the refrigerator; (4) decreasing the temperature of the kitchen. A. All of the above B. 1 and 4 C. 2 and 3 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 24 Entropy Higher entropy states are more likely. Systems naturally evolve to states of higher entropy. 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 25 Second Law of Thermodynamics © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 26 Example Problem: Coming to a Stop A typical gasoline-powered car stops by braking. Friction in the brakes brings the car to rest by transforming kinetic energy to thermal energy. Electric vehicles often stop by using regenerative braking, with the engine used as a generator, transforming the kinetic energy of the vehicle into electric energy that recharges the battery. The energy is thus ultimately transformed to chemical energy in the battery.

Which type of stopping involves a larger change in entropy? Which vehicle is apt to be more efficient? Explain, using energy and entropy concepts. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 27 Example Problem: A Second-Law Workaround? When you run a heat engine, some (or most) of the energy is “wasted” as heat transferred to the cold reservoir. Suppose someone suggests making a 100% efficient heat engine by using some of the output of the heat engine to run a heat pump to transfer this heat back to the hot reservoir. Let’s do a calculation to see if this is a workable solution. A.

If you have a heat engine that runs between a hot reservoir at 100°C and a cold reservoir at a temperature of 0°C, what is the maximum efficiency? B. If the engine draws 100 J from the hot reservoir, what is the maximum possible energy output? How much heat is deposited in the cold reservoir? C. How much energy would it take to run a heat pump between the cold and the hot reservoirs to pump this heat back to the hot reservoir? D. Compare the energy output of the heat engine and the energy input to the heat pump. Comment on the feasibility of the proposed scheme. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 28 Summary 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 29 Summary © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 30 Additional Questions Consider your body as a system. Your body is “burning” energy in food, but staying at a constant temperature. This means that, for your body, A. Q > 0. B. Q = 0. C. Q < 0. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 31 Additional Questions The following pairs of temperatures represent the temperatures of hot and cold reservoirs for heat engines. Which heat engine has the highest possible efficiency? A. B. 300°C 250°C 30°C 30°C C. 200°C D. 100°C 20°C 10°C E. 90°C 0°C © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 32

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Physics, Energy

Romar M. Cabinta EXERCISES 15 WORK, ENERGY, AND POWER A. CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS 1. Is work done when you move a book from the top of the desk to the floor? Why? Yes. It is because the displacement of the book from the top of the desk to the floor and the force that is applied to the book is parallel with one another. 2. State the law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy in two ways? The law of conservation of energy states that energy may neither be created nor destroyed. Therefore the sum of all the energies in the system is a constant. TMEinitial=TMEfinal 3. Explain the basic ideas that govern the design and operation of a roller coaster.

A roller coaster is operated and designed through the application of Physics. The law of Conservation of Energy governs the changes in a coaster’s speed and height. Simply put, the higher an object is off the ground, the more potential energy it has – that is, potential to gain speed as it falls. As it falls toward the ground, that potential energy changes to kinetic energy, or energy of motion. The sum of the two types of energy is constant, but a roller coaster must maintain an adequate balance of potential and kinetic energies to deliver a thrilling ride. . An inefficient machine is said to “waste energy”. Does this mean that energy is actually lost? Explain. Energy is never lost. An inefficient machine wastes energy by converting it to an unproductive state. A machine, such as a motor car engine has the primary task of converting the energy in the fuel to motion of the car. It is unproductive because a large proportion of the fuel’s chemical energy is dissipated in the form of noise, heat, vibration etc. so that only a small proportion is actually used for its prime purpose. 5.

Is it possible for a simple machine to multiply both force and speed at the same time? Why? It is impossible for a simple machine to multiply both force and gain speed at the same time. It is because the gain in speed of a machine is the result of an exertion of a lot more force and therefore do not take place at the same time. One best example is a bicycle crossing a steep hill requires a greater force to be exerted to be able to gain speed. B. PROBLEMS 1. Starting from rest, 5-kg slides 2. 5 m down a rough 30° incline. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline is 0. . Determine the work done by (a) the force of gravity; (b) the friction between the block and incline; (c) the normal force; and (d) the net force on the block. W=5kg9. 8kgs2 W=49 N a. ) W=Fd W=Wsin30°(2. 5m) W=49sin30°(2. 5m) W=61. 25 J b. ) W=-Fd W=-? kNd W=-(0. 4)(42. 44N)(2. 5m) W=-42,44 J c. ) W=0 Normal force does not exert work because it is perpendiuclar with the displacement. d. ) WT=49Nsin30°2. 5m-0. 442. 44N2. 5m+0 WT=18. 81 J 2. Car A has twice the mass of car B, but only half as much kinetic energy.

When both cars increase their speed by 5m/s, then they have the same kinetic energy. What were the original speeds of the two cars? CAR A CAR B mass=2mB mass=mB KEA=12KEB KEB =KEB VA=5ms VB =5ms VA=2KEAmA KEA=KEB VA=2(12KEB)2mB 12mAv=12mBv 2122mB5=12mB5 VA=KEB2mB 10mB4=5mB2 VB=KEBmB 5mB2=5mB2 3. A 400-g bead slides on a curved frictionless wire, starting from rest at point A. Find the speed of the bead at point B and point C. 400g? 1kg1000g=0. 4 kg PEA=mgh PEA=(0. 4 kg)(9. 8)(5m) PEA=19. 6 J PEB=(0. 4)(9. 8)(0) PEB=0 J KEA=12mv2=120. 4kg02=0 J TME=PEA+KEA=19. 6 J+0 J=19. 6 J KEB=TME-PEB=19. 6-0=19. 6 J KEB=12mvB2 19. 6 J=120. 4 kgVB2 VB=39. 2 J0. 4 lg=9. 90 m/s PEC=mgh=(0. 4)(9. 8ms22m=7. 84 J KEC=TME-PEC=19. 6 J-7. 84 J=11. 76 J KEC=12mv2C 11. 76=120. 4kg) (v2C Vc=23. 2 J0. 4 kg=76. 67 m/s 4. A tandem (two-person) bicycle team must overcome a force of 34 lbs. to maintain a speed of 30 ft. /s. Find the power required per rider, assuming they contribute equally. Express your answer in horsepower. F=34 lb F1=17 lb=F2 P1=F1v=17 lb30fts=510 ftlbs? 1hp550 ftlbs=0. 93 hp P2=F1v=17 lb30fts=510 ftlbs? 1hp550 ftlbs=0. 93 hp 5. A pump is required to lift 200 L of water per minute from a well 10 m deep and eject it with a speed of 20m/s. (a) How much work is done per minute in lifting the water? (b) How much in giving its kinetic energy? What horsepower engine is needed if it is 80% efficient? a. ) W=mgh+12mv2=200kg? 0m? 9. 81kgm2+12? 200kg? 20ms2=59620Js=993. 67J/min b. ) W=12mv2=12200kg20ms2=40000 J c. ) HP=59620js? 0. 8? 746js=99. 899 hp EXERCISES 16 LINEAR MOMENTUM A. CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS 1. Which has greater momentum, a ten wheeler truck at rest or a moving motorcycle? Why? A moving motorcycle has a greater momentum than the truck. A truck at rest has zero momentum because an object has to be moving in order to have a momentum. 2. How does impulse differ from force? Impulse is the product of force and the time interval of the application of force; while force is just a factor that affects an object’s impulse when it is at motion. 3.

Why is it incorrect to say that impulse equals momentum? It is not right to say that impulse is equal to momentum because impulse is the measure of the change in momentum and therefore an object with constant and non-changing momentum has zero impulse. 4. What is the function of seatbelts and airbags in automobile? The function of seatbelts and airbags in an automobile is to increase the time of a force to reach its destination, which results to a lesser impact of objects that can collide to a passenger and therefore will have a higher chance for his/her life to be saved. 5. Distinguish between an elastic collision and inelastic collision.

In elastic collision, the momentum and the kinetic energy are conserved; and its coefficient of restitution is equal to one. However in inelastic collision, the kinetic energy is not conserved and the coefficient of restitution is zero. B. PROBLEMS 1. A 10,000-kg truck has a speed of 100 km/h? (a) what is its momentum? What speed must a 5,000-kg truck attain in order to have (b) the same momentum? (c) the same kinetic energy? a. ) P=mv=10000 kg27. 78ms=2. 78? 105kg? m/s b. ) P=mv 2. 78? 105kg? ms5000kg=5000 kgv5000 kg v=55. 6 m/s c. ) KE=12mv2 KE=121000027. 782 KE=3. 86? 106J KE=12mv2 3. 86? 106J=125000kgv2 v=7. 72? 106J500kg v=39. 29 m/s . A car is stopped for a traffic signal. When the light turns green, the car accelerates, increasing its speed from 0 to 60 km/h in 0. 8 s. What are the magnitudes of the linear impulse and the average total force experienced by a 70-kg passenger in the car during the time the car accelerates? J=m? v J=(70 kg)(16. 67ms) J=1166. 9 kg? m/s J=Ft=Jt F=1166. 9 kg? ms0. 8s=1458. 63 N 3. A 5-g object moving to the right at 20cm/s makes elastic head on collision with a 10-g object that is initially at rest. Find (a) the velocity of each object after the collision and (b) the fraction of the initial kinetic energy transferred to the 10-g object.

PT=PT’ mAvA+mBvB=mAvA’+mBvB’ 5g20cms+10g0=5g-vA’+(10g)(vB’) 100=-5vA+10vB’ 20=-vA+2vB’ 20=-vB+20 +2vB’ vB’=0 cm/s e=(vB’-vA’)/(vA-vB) 1=(vB’-vA’)/(20 cm/s-0cm/s) 20=vB’-vA’ vA’=vB’-20 vA’=0-20 vA’=-20 cm/s 4. After a completely inelastic collision between two objects of equal mass m, each having initial speed v, the two move off together with speed v/3. What was the angle between their initial directions? P1x + P2x = Pfx = Pf, P1y+P2x = 0. 2mv cos? = 2mv/3, cos? = 1/3, ? = 70. 5o. The angle between their initial directions is 2? =141 ° 5. A stone whose mass is 100 g rest on a frictionless horizontal surface.

A bullet of mass 2. 5 g, travelling horizontally at 400 m/s, strikes the stone and rebounds horizontally at night angles to its original direction with a speed of 300 m/s. (a) Compute the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the stone after it is struck. (b) Is the collision perfectly elastic? a. ) Assume that the bullet is traveling in the positive x-direction and that the stone has components of velocity vx and vy after the collision. Equating momentum before and after in these directions. 0. 0025 kg x 400ms=0. 1 kg vx vx = 10 m/s 0. 1 vy= 0. 0025 x 300 vy = 7. 5 m/s Magnitude of velocity = v(102+7. ) = 10. 37 m/s Angle =tan-1(vy/vx) = 36. 87 deg to the x-axis b. ) No. EXERCISES 16 LINEAR MOMENTUM A. CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS 1. What is Hooke’s Law? Hooke’s law of elasticity is an approximation that states that the extension of a spring is in direct proportion with the load applied to it. Many materials obey this law as long as the load does not exceed the material’s elastic limit. Materials for which Hooke’s law is a useful approximation are known as linear-elastic or “Hookean” materials. Hookean materials are a necessarily broad term that may include the work of muscular layers of the heart.

Hooke’s law in simple terms says that stress is directly proportional to strain. Mathematically, Hooke’s law states that 2. When is a material said to be elastic? A material is called elastic if the deformation produced in the body is completely recovered after the removal the load. For ideally elastic materials, a single valued (linear) and time independent relation exists between the forces and the deformations. Although it is hard to find an ideally elastic material, i. e. , A Hookean solid, most of the materials can be considered elastic at least for a specific range. 3.

Which is more elastic, a rubber band or spiral steel spring? Why? Spiral steel spring is more elastic than rubber band because it has greater elastic limit and ultimate strength than a rubber band because it has greater elastic limit and ultimate strength than a rubber. 4. What is the difference between the elastic limit of a material and its ultimate strength? Why are these concepts of special importance to construction engineers? Elastic limit is the maximum stress that can be applied to a material without being permanently deformed while ultimate strength is the stress required to cause actual fracture to a material.

These concepts are important to construction engineers because it gives them the idea of what materials are perfect for the construction and those that are fragile. 5. Which is more compressible, alcohol or water? Why? Alcohol. It is because alcohol has higher compressibility and accepts a greater pressure than on water. B. PROBLEMS 1. A nylon rope used by mountaineers elongates . 5 m under the weight of an 80-kg climber. (a) If the rope is 50 m in length and 9 mm in diameter, what is the Young’s Modulus for this material? (b) If Polson’s ratio for nylon is 0. , find the change in diameter under this stress. a) y=F? LoA? L y=(784N)(50m)Pi4. 5×10-32(1. 5 m) y=4. 11×108 Pa b) ? tto=-?? LL0 ?t=-?? LtoLo=-0. 21. 59×10-3m50m=-5. 4? 10^-5 2. The elastic limit of steel elevator cable is 2. 75×108 N/m2 Find the maximum upward acceleration that can be given a 900-kg elevator when supported by a cable whose cross-section is 3 cm2, if the stress is not to exceed ? of the elastic limit. Maximum stress allowed:14(2. 75? 108=6. 875? 104 Pa Force force this stress=stress ? area=6. 875? 104 x0. 0003=20. 625 N=Fup Fup=mg+ma 20. 625=900(9. 81)+900(a) a=13. 11 m s-2 . The deepest pint in the ocean is the Mariana trench, about11 km deep. The pressure at this depth is huge, about 1. 13? 108 Pa. (a) Calculate the change in volume of 1000 L of seawater carried from the surface to this deepest point in the Pacific Ocean. (b) The density of seawater at the surface is 1. 025g/cm3. Find its density at the bottom. 4. If the shear stress in steel exceeds 4×108 N/m2, the steel ruptures. Determine the shearing force necessary to (a) shear a steal bolt 1. 0 cm in diameter and (b) punch a 1. 0-cm diameter hole in steel plate 5mm thick. a. ) FA= 4x108Nm2= F/R2 = F/*0. 1m2 F = 125663. 706143592N b. ) FA= 4x108Nm2= F/2RT= F/2*0. 005 m*0. 005m F = 63,000 N 5. In the figure below, 103 kg uniform log hangs by two steel wires, A and B, both of diameters 2. 4 mm. initially, wire A was 2. 5 m long and 2. 0 mm shorter than wire B. The log is now horizontal. a) What are the tensions in wires A and b? Since the log is not moving: FA + FB –mg = 0 Since the log is horizontal: LA + DLA = LB + DLB = LA + l + DLB, DLA = DLB + l, where l = 2 mm is the original difference in lengths between A and B. Which gives: b) What is the ratio of distance a and b?

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Energy Conservation

Abstract Energy management and conservation is an important tool to help enterprises to meet their critical objectives of short term and long term goals. The main objective of the energy conservation is to maximize the profit, minimize the cost of energy and to ensure sustainability in the long term. India is one of the largest tea producers in the world, with an annual production of more than 856,000 tons. Estimates indicate that 1. 3 million tons of firewood and 435 million units of electricity are used annually for tea processing in India.

The proposed Project would focus on how the production cost in tea industry can be reduced by using Energy efficient motors. Chapter1 details the problems faced by the tea industry in terms of electricity cost, textile industry, present efficiency levels in available motors, split of production cost , the methodology adopted to solve the problem, project objectives and scope of the project. Chapter2 briefs about Siemens Ltd, Vision ,Mission and Values of Siemens, major achievements over past 50 year, initiatives towards green and simple organisational chart of Siemens.

Chapter3 discusses the problem at hand, the efficiency levels of motor in tea industry, Energy savings by Eff1 motors and trends in Energy Efficiency by various organisations. Chapter4 highlights the literatures reviewed and Energy management agreements from various countries. Energy conservation issues and Minimum Energy Performance Standard are also discussed. Chapter5 elaborates about tea plantation and production process in various regions of country. v arious terminologies , manufacturing process and types of tea available in tea market also elaborated in this section.

Chapter6 shows the data needed to carry out this project. The data collected, details of the data collected and the analysis of the data carried out are also shown in this chapter. Chapter7 illustrates the analysis of energy saving in tea industry by energy efficient motors, selection of motors , life cycle cost of motor, energy efficiency comparison,losses in motors and energy saving by Eff1 motor Chapter8 gives the recommendations after taking all the factors in to account.

The various recommendations are substantiated properly. Chapter9 gives the conclusion, graphical representation of energy saving in a tea industry, gains of the study, limitations of the study and the future work. The various literatures referred for the study and the additional information taken as reference for carrying out this project is given in the list of references . Motor Nomenclature, Standards , comparison of efficiency in various motors and energy saving obtained in two tea industries are given in the appendix.

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Renewable Energy

Renewable energy With the development of the economic of the world,the use of renewable energy becomes an extremely significant topic. The single form of energy,take the case of oil ,cannot fulfil the ecological balance and the sustainable development of energy. As a result,the alternative form of energy emerged as the times require. The aim of this article is that why human have to utilise renewable energy. Firstly,renewable energy comes from natural resources such as sunlight,wind and rain,which can recycle.

Apparently,this energy is more environmentally-friendly than oil which always contaminates air. However,some of them does not discharge greenhouse gases,such as carbon dioxide,which does not increase the risk of global warming,and there seems to be plenty of research findings to confirm this. Accordingly,using renewable energy is the guarantee of the healthy development of ecosystem. Besides,fossil energy is limited,in contrast,renewable energy is not exhaustible.

This kind of energy is controlled by some countries which own this plentiful resources and the demand for fossil energy such as oil is high. Consequently,the price of fossil energy could increasingly high,which caused energy crisis in history. This point is best illustrated with the example of the energy crisis in 1973 due to the fact that the main oil-producing countries adopted the policy stopping exporting the oil. Therefore,renewable does not cause this problem.

The third reason is that renewable energy promotes energy security of supply and reduces dependence on imported fossil energy. It is widely recognised that explosion would be caused by fossil energy. Obviously,the safety of renewable energy is higher than fossil energy. On the other hand,it could put a strain on fossil energy if renewable energy was not depended,which means the dependence of renewable is inevitable. In conclusion,this article summarize the reason of developing renewable energy from three pats of protecting environment,recyclability,and security. ALICE

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Urgent Need for Renewable Energy

Introduction

In today’s world the most important thing human’s need is electricity. Without electricity most of the modern equipment would not work. Similarly fuel is needed to power transportation devices. Natural recourses such as coal, oil and natural gas are the basis for producing energy for all kinds of devices. Due to the extensive use of these resources they now face extinction. These resources are classified as non-renewable resources.

In this report we will discuss different types of resources which can be used as a replacement for producing sustainable energy and also the effects on the environment by burning the carbon based resources.

Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is energy which is derived from natural resources such as the sun, wind, tides, streams, rivers, biomass etc. Renewable energy is naturally replenished; it is sustainable energy and does not harm the environment. About 19% of the world’s electricity requirements are met by renewably energy.

The different types of renewable energy are: Solar Energy

Solar energy is obtained from the sun. Sun is a source of light and heat for all living things. It provides energy for photosynthesis, the process of plants creating oxygen. Solar energy can be harnessed and converted to electricity by using solar panels. Sun is also directly or indirectly responsible for most forms of renewable energy requirements, for example – heat causes wind which intern causes tidal energy. Sunlight causes tree growth some of which contribute for biomass energy.

Hydropower

Hydropower is obtained from the force of water flowing downstream. Water is continuously recycled by the environmental cycle of precipitation and evaporation. This cycle cause water to evaporate and fall back down to earth in the form of rain which makes the rivers flow. This water is also stored in dams which are used all around the world to generate electricity by turbines and generators. Also energy can be obtained from tides and ocean waves which can be harnessed to produce electricity.

Biomass Energy

The most common source of biomass energy is wood. But other sources such as food crops, plants, agriculture and industrial waste, organic municipal components are also used around the world for producing energy. Biomass can also be converted to biofuel which can be used as an alternative to petrol and diesel to run vehicles and heavy machinery. Hydrogen Hydrogen is one of the most common on our planet. However, it is mostly found in combinations with other element in nature. For example – water is two part hydrogen and one part oxygen.

Hydrogen is a very good source of renewable energy however the technology needed to extract this element is still in its early stages. Currently the most common way of extracting hydrogen is steam hydrocarbons and reforming. Other methods include thermolysis and electrolysis.

Geothermal Energy

The heat from the earth’s core produces steam and hot water which can be used generate electricity, or for other purposes like home heating and generating power in factories. Geothermal energy can be obtained by digging deep underground reservoirs.

Wind Energy

Wind energy is the conversion of the power of wind to electricity. Wind energy has been used for over thousands of years to operate mechanical process such as pumping water, grinding, milling etc. to harness wind energy wind farms are created onshore or offshore, wherever there is abundant of wind energy available by using wind turbines. A wind turbine is a machine which converts the wind’s kinetic energy into rotatory motion to by using generators to produce electricity. Wind energy is harnessed in many countries including India, Germany, Denmark and the United States.

Reasons for Using Renewable Energy Sources: Using renewable energy saves the environment from the harmful effects of greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere due to burning of fossil fuels. There is abundant of resources available that are required for renewables such as the sun, water and wind e available all around the world and thus the cost of setting up the base is significantly reduced which provides a good opportunity for developing nations. Renewable energy resources do not cause military conflicts among nations unlike fossil fuels.

Renewable energy sources are Inexhaustible i. e. unlike fossil fuels they get replenished quickly. Using renewable resources we can save fossil fuels for future generations for more valuable means. Harnessing renewables also creates job opportunities in new fields of science and technology. The Fossil Fuel Dilemma Burning of fossil fuels for meeting our energy requirements causes side effects which are becoming a major concern for environmentalists. These side effects include the creation of carbon dioxide, the top greenhouse gas and contributor to global warming.

Also ozone layer depletion and Acid rain are a major concern relating to the environment. Due to the burning of fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect the average temperature has risen by one degree Fahrenheit (1°F). Acid rain The principal cause of acid rain is the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide in the atmosphere which then react with water molecules to produce acidic compounds. Major contributor to this is human activities such as power and electricity generation. Coal power plants are a major cause to producing these gasses.

The natural phenomenon causing acid rain is the emission of acidic gases from volcanos. Ozone layer depletion The ozone layer is a layer in the earth’s atmosphere located about 20 to 30 kilometers above sea level. The ozone layer contains a high concentrate of the gas ozone (O3). The ozone layer’s importance is that it absorbs 97 – 99% of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation, which can damage all forms of life on earth. These ultraviolet rays are the main cause of sunburns and excess exposure to this can cause skin cancer. The ozone layer is steadily declining by about 4% per decade from the earth’s stratosphere.

The most significant tear in the earth’s ozone layer is over the Polar Regions namely Antarctica. This phenomenon is called the ‘Ozone Hole’. The main compound responsible for the ozone layer depletion is Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) commonly found in refrigerants used in air conditioners and refrigerators. Due to the Ozone Hole over Antarctica polar ice caps are melting which is causing the rise in sea levels, leading to natural disasters such as floods in many parts of the world. Global Warming Global warming has become in today’s world perhaps the most complicated issue faced by the world leader.

Scientific bodies present warnings for the increasing danger from global warming and ongoing buildup of greenhouse gasses produced mainly by burning of fossil fuels and forests. What is Global warming? Global warming is the heating of the earth surface and increase in its average temperature that causes corresponding climate change and it may result from greenhouse effect. This idea was first proposed by Nobel Price-Winning chemist Svante Arrhenius in 1896. He speculated that continued burning of fossil fuels would result in the increase in the earth temperature making it warmer (Global Warming & Climate Change, 2012).

What Causes of Global Warming? Scientists have examined all the factors that can affect the Earth’s temperature. Three essential factors can be responsible for recent rapid global warming. These are namely The Sun, Earth’s reflectivity and Greenhouse gases. Out of these three major factors greenhouse effect causes contributes the most to the process. 1. The Sun: As we all know sun is a huge ball of fire. All the climate changes are powered by the sun. It could have played an important role in heating up the temperature of the earth.

Studies show that since 1985, the sun has changed in ways that if anything, it should have cooled the planet. Therefore sun alone does not cause global warming. 2. Earth’s reflectivity: Earth’s atmosphere traps 70% of the sun’s energy and reflects the remaining back into space. Changes in how much sunlight is absorbed and reflected may change global temperatures. Scientists have calculated how earth’s reflectivity has changed over time. These suggest that a particular type of pollution especially sulfur-containing particles have had a cooling effect masking the effects of greenhouse gases.

Since the industrialization of countries, they began to clean up this pollutant and increase their greenhouse emissions. 3. Greenhouse gases: All scientific evidence point towards one factor only that is greenhouse gases. It is responsible for the rise in global temperature. Greenhouse gases are many chemical compounds found in the earth’s atmosphere. They allow sunlight into the earth’s atmosphere freely. This sunlight when reflected back towards the space by earth in the form of infrared radiation (heat).

The greenhouse gases absorb the infrared radiation and trap the heat in earth’s atmosphere. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas as well as wood contribute mainly to the increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (How we know human activity is causing warming, 2012). Climate change Assessments generally suggest that the Earth’s climate has warmed over the past century and that human activity affecting the atmosphere is likely an important driving factor.

A National Research Council study dated May 2001 stated, “Greenhouse gases are accumulating in Earth’s atmosphere as a result of human activities, causing surface air temperatures and sub-surface ocean temperatures to rise. Temperatures are, in fact, rising. The changes observed over the last several decades are likely mostly due to human activities, but we cannot rule out that some significant part of these changes is also a reflection of natural variability. ” (Greenhouse Gases, Climate Change, and Energy, 2004) International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)

The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) was founded in 2009 with the support of World Wind Energy Association and Hermann Scheer the president of EUROSOLAR and chair of the World Council for Renewable Energy. It is a worldwide governmental organization and It’s primary focus is to promote widespread use of renewable energy in all forms with a view of sustainable development. At the Preparatory Commission meeting Abu Dhabi was elected as interim headquarters of the Agency. Its main aim is to promote the use of renewable energy and reduce the emission greenhouse gases in the environment.

IRENA provides advice and support to governments of both industrialized and developing countries on renewable energy policy, capacity building, and technology transfer (irena. org, 2012). Policies for renewable energies in India: Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources: India’s search for renewable resources that would lead to sustainable development started in early 70’s. Realising the need for concentrated efforts in this segment, the Indian Government established a Commission for Additional Sources of Energy (CASE) in the Department of Science and Technology in 1981.

The directive of CASE is to promote research and development activities in the field of renewable energy. CASE was formally incorporated in 1982, in the recently created Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources (DNES). In 1992 DNES became the Ministry for Non-conventional Energy Sources, commonly known as MNES. The Prime Minister of India has declared a target of 10% share for Renewable Energy or 10,000 MW in the power generation capacity to be added during the period up to 2012. The broad objectives predicted in the policy are: Achieving the minimum energy requirements via Renewable energy. •Providing decentralised energy supply in agriculture, industry, commercial and household sectors in rural and urban areas. •Providing grid quality power. Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission: The main goal of this mission is to establish India as the global leader in solar energy. This mission was officially launched Manmohan Singh, the prime minister of India. It is a three phase mission where the 1st phase starts from 2012-2013, 2nd phase from 2013-2017 and 3rd phase from 2017-2022. http://www. nri. org/projects/biomass/conference_papers/policy_material_section_3. pdf) Policies for Renewable resources in US: Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS): It aims and requires electricity providers to provide a stated amount of customer electricity through renewable resources. Public Benefits Funds for Renewable Energy: These are a pool of resources used by the country to provide and invest renewable energy supply projects. These funds are generated by charging a small amount on consumer’s electricity charges which is called system benefits charge.

Output based environmental regulations: It establishes emission restrictions per unit of any productive energy output, with a aim of controlling air pollution and encouraging renewable energy. Net Metering: It allows the customers whether residential or commercial who produce their own renewable energy/electricity such as solar energy to get compensation for the energy/electricity they produce. This requires electricity providers to ensure that customer’s electricity meter exactly track how much power or electricity is consumed on location/site or reverted to electricity grid.

When the electricity produced on location isn’t used then it is reverted to the grid; when on location production isn’t enough to meet the customer’s need, then the customer uses electricity from the grid. So, surplus electricity is reverted back to the customer at a later stage/time when they else would have paid for it. Financial Incentives: Such incentives are provided in some states to encourage the development of renewable resources/energy such as tax credits, grants and loans. (http://www. epa. gov/statelocalclimate/state/topics/renewable. html) Polices for Renewable resources in Australia:

Renewable Energy Target: RET is divided in two portions, The large scale renewable energy target and small scale renewable energy target. These targets make a financial incentive for investment in renewable energy sources through the formation and trade of certificates. Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA): ARENA is a Commonwealth authority which supports innovation that advances the renewable resources/energy technologies which would lead to the increasing supply renewable energy in Australia. (http://australia. gov. au/topics/environment-and-natural-resources/energy)

Policies for Renewable resources in UAE: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has announced that Abu Dhabi has the target of achieving 7% renewable energy power generation capacity by the year 2020. Abu Dhabi has committed over $15 billion in renewable energy programs. Masdar City Initiative: Established in 2006, Masdar is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Abu Dhabi Government owned Mubadala Development Company. Masdar is a renewable energy company that functions within the growing sector of renewable energy and sustainable technologies, as well across the technology development and commercialization spectrum.

It focuses in 100% renewable energy, developing a carbon neutral city, zero waste, and being the centre of excellence in sustainable technology. REFERENCES Ecology 2011, Fossil Fuels vs. Renewable Energy Resources, Retrieved on July 19, 2012 from http://www. ecology. com/2011/09/06/fossil-fuels-vs-renewable-energy-resources/ Global Warming & Climate Change 2012, Retrieved on July 26, 2012 from http://topics. nytimes. com/top/news/science/topics/globalwarming/index. html Greenhouse Gases, Climate Change, and Energy 2004, Retrieved on July 25, 2012 from http://www. eia. gov/oiaf/1605/ggccebro/chapter1. html

Green energy choice 2012, Renewable Energy: What are My Options? , Retrieved on July 18, 2012 from http://www. greenenergychoice. com/green-guide/renewable-energy-types. html How we know human activity is causing warming 2012, retrieved on July 20, 2012 from http://www. edf. org/climate/human-activity-causes-warming jcmiras. net 2010, Why renewable energy? , Retrieved on July 18, 2012 from http://www. jcmiras. net/jcm/item/31/ Statute 2012, Retrieved on July 26, 2012 from http://www. irena. org/home/index. aspx Wikipedia 2012, Ozone depletion, Retrieved on July 20, 2012 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ozone_depletion

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Charge Pump

A charge pump is a kind of DC to DC converter that uses capacitors as energy storage elements to create either a higher or lower voltage power source. Charge pump circuits are capable of high efficiencies, sometimes as high as 90-95% while being electrically simple circuits. Charge pumps use some form of switching device(s) to control the connection of voltages to the capacitor. For instance, to generate a higher voltage, the first stage involves the capacitor being connected across a voltage and charged up.

In the second stage, the capacitor is disconnected from the original charging voltage and reconnected with its negative terminal to the original positive charging voltage. Because the capacitor retains the voltage across it (ignoring leakage effects) the positive terminal voltage is added to the original, effectively doubling the voltage. The pulsing nature of the higher voltage output is typically smoothed by the use of an output capacitor. This is the charge pumping action, which typically operates at tens of kilohertz up to several megahertz to minimize the amount of capacitance required.

The capacitor used as the charge pump is typically known as the “flying capacitor”. Another way to explain the operation of a charge pump is to consider it as the combination of a DC to AC converter (the switches) followed by a voltage multiplier. The voltage is load-dependent; higher loads result in lower average voltages. Charge pumps can double voltages, triple voltages, halve voltages, invert voltages, fractionally multiply or scale voltages such as x3/2, x4/3, x2/3, etc. and generate arbitrary voltages, depending on the controller and circuit topology.

The term ‘charge pump’ is also used in phase-locked loop (PLL) circuits. This is a completely different application. In a PLL the phase difference between the reference signal (often from a crystal oscillator) and the output signal is translated into two signals – UP and DN. The two signals control switches to steer current into or out of a capacitor, causing the voltage across the capacitor to increase or decrease. In each cycle, the time during which the switch is turned on is proportional to the phase difference, hence the charge delivered is dependent on the phase difference also.

The voltage on the capacitor is used to tune a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), generating the desired output signal frequency. The use of a charge pump naturally adds a pole at the origin in the loop transfer function of the PLL, since the charge-pump current is driven into a capacitor to generate a voltage (V=I/(sC)). The additional pole at the origin is desirable because when considering the closed-loop transfer function of the PLL, this pole at the origin integrates the error signal and causes the system to track the input with one more order.

The charge pump in a PLL design is constructed in integrated-circuit (IC) technology, consisting of pull-up, pull-down transistors and on-chip capacitors. A resistor is also added to stabilize the closed-loop PLL. An internal power source or a charge pump is essential in every system. An embedded system has to perform tasks continuously from power-up to power-off and may even be kept ‘on’ continuously. Certain systems do not have a power source of their own: they connect to an external power supply or are powered by the use of charge pumps.

Network Interface Card (NIC) and Graphic Accelerator are examples of embedded systems that do not have their own power supply and connect to PC power-supply lines. (2) A charge pump consists of a diode in the series followed by a charging capacitor. The diode gets forward bias input from an external signal; for example, from an RTS signal in the case of the mouse used with a computer. Charge pumps bring the power from a non-supply line.

Ninepins COM port has a signal called Request To Send (RTS). It is an active low signal. Most of the time it is in inactive state logic ‘1’ (~5V). The charge pump inside the mouse uses it to store the charge when the mouse is in an idle state; the pump dissipates the power when the mouse is used. A regulator circuit getting input from this capacitor gives the required voltage supply. A charge pump in a contact-less smart card uses the radiations from a host machine when inserted into that.

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Harnessing Solar Energy

Harnessing of Solar Energy: Photosynthesis versus Semiconductor Based Solar Cell Photosynthesis and semiconductor-based solar cells are both used to harness solar energy from the sun – photosynthesis for plants and semiconductor based solar cells for human beings. Photosynthesis consists of light reactions and dark reactions. It is a process in which carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O) and light energy are utilized to synthesize an energy-rich carbohydrate like glucose (C6H12O6) and to produce oxygen (O2) as a by-product.

Simply put, photosynthesis is a process that transfers energy from the sun (solar energy) into chemical energy for plants and animals. Photosynthesis is a vital process among plants, algae and some bacteria that are able to create their own food directly from inorganic compounds using light energy so that they do not have to eat or rely on nutrients derived from other living organisms. A semiconductor-based solar cell is devised to convert light to electric current.

The solar cell directly converts the energy in light into electrical energy through the process of photovoltaics (a field of semiconductor technology involving the direct conversion of electromagnetic radiation as sunlight, into electricity). Solar cells do not use chemical reactions to produce electric power, and they have no moving parts. Most solar cells are designed for converting sunlight into electricity. In large arrays, which may contain many thousands of individual cells, they can function as central electric power stations analogous to nuclear, coal-, or oil-fired power plants.

The conversion of sunlight into electrical energy in a solar cell involves three major processes: absorption of the sunlight in the semiconductor material; generation and separation of free positive and negative charges to different regions of the solar cell, creating a voltage in the solar cell; and transfer of these separated charges through electrical terminals to the outside application in the form of electric current. Comparisons Photosynthesis and semiconductor-based solar cells both get their energy from the sun and convert it into a form that is needed either by plants or humans (Vieru, 2007). The first two steps of photosynthesis involve capturing photons released from the sun and using that energy to create a flow of electrons. From there, photosynthesis involves using that electrical energy to create chemical energy” (Stier, 2009). The products of photosynthesis are sugars to feed plants. Semiconductor-based solar cells also capture photons that use energy to create a flow of electrons which create electrical energy. A final similarity between photosynthesis and solar cell technology is that “a semi conductor has solar cells that trap energy from the sun and convert it into electricity.

Plants have cells that trap energy from the sun and convert it into useful products” (Haile & O’Connell, 2005). Contrasts The first contrast is in the conversion of energy trapped by the sun – photosynthesis converts solar energy to chemical energy used by plants and semiconductor-based cells convert solar energy into electricity used by humans. The solar panels for semiconductors are manmade and photosynthesis comes from a natural process. Finally, photosynthesis has been around for billions of years making it the oldest technology on earth (Stier, 2009).

Charles Fritts created the first solar panel in 1883 which means the semiconductor has been around for about 229 years – a mere zygote to photosynthesis. Thermodynamics Semiconductor-based solar cells and photosynthesis both use the laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is the study of the conversion of energy between heat and other forms, mechanical in particular and it has three laws. The first law of thermodynamics says that energy is conserved, it is neither created nor destroyed but can change form. This is called energy conservation.

The second law of thermodynamics says that systems always tend to be in states of greater disorder. As disorder in the universe increases, the energy is transformed into less usable forms. The third law of thermodynamics is usually stated as a definition: the entropy of a perfect crystal of an element at the absolute zero of temperature is zero. Thermodynamics apply to photosynthesis by plants transforming sunlight energy into food – this is an example of the first law. During the process of photosynthesis plants also lose energy because they to not convert all of he energy trapped from the sun into food. Some of the energy is lost in the process – this demonstrates the second law of thermodynamics. Plants needing to trap energy from the sun constantly demonstrates the final law of thermodynamics because the cycle is repeated. In semiconductor-based solar cells energy from the sun is converted to electricity – this is the first law. Because energy is lost in the conversion, the second law of thermodynamics is applied here. Finally, the cells have to continually obtain energy from the sun which obeys the third law of thermodynamics (Heckert, 2007).

Solar energy has been around for billions of years whereas semiconductor-based solar cells have only been around a little over 200 years. In writing this, I have discovered that solar energy is harnessed by both photosynthesis and semiconductor-based solar cells to convert energy into food and electricity to be used by plants and human beings. Both photosynthesis and semiconductor-based solar cells utilize all three laws of thermodynamics by converting energy, losing energy, and trapping energy constantly. This shows the many similarities and differences between photosynthesis and semiconductor-based solar cells.

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Solar Power

Peter Maloney writes in his article, ” Environmentalists Against Solar Power” that solar power projects are facing major scrutiny, not from the coal or oil industry, but from environmentalists. Maloney says that Southern California is pushing for solar power in the desert cause the amount of sunlight with virtually no clouds, “but its also the home to the Mojave ground squirrel, the desert tortoise and the burrowing owl, and to human residents”. Maloney also states that the US Bureau of Land Management says that it had applications submitted for solar power that would cover 78,490 acres in the desert. For the entire US, the number of applications grew from zero two years ago to more than 125 with enouch potential electrical power of 70,000 megawatts or the equivalent to 70 large coal plants.

The rush to try and get this land is caused by a California Law that calls for 20 percent of the state’s electricity must come from renewable resources by 2010. Jim Harvey, who is the founder of the Alliance for Responsible Energy Policy, is quoted by Maloney saying, ” Our position is that none of this is needed. We support renewable energy, and we support California’s renewable energy targets, but we think it can be done through rooftop solar”.

Harvey also pointed out the success that Germany was having by using rooftop solar panels. The way it works is that the government offers payments for electricity generated from solar panels. The payment is roughly 50 cents per kilowatt hour. The average payment in the US in 11 cents per kilowatt hour, but the payments would not be as high as the German payments here.

Maloney goes on to say not only would the solar panels destroy habitats, it would run the deserts small water supply, as it is, even more scarce. The mirror and solar panels would have to be washed, and some panels use turbines which would require more water.

Terry Frewin, chairman of the Sierra Club’s California/Nevada desert commitee, says that ” solar panels destroy all natice resources on site, and have indirect and irreversible impacts on surrounding wilderness”. At the current rate of adding 200 megawatts of rooftop solar panels a year, it would take “100 years to meet the 20 percent renewable [target set] by California”.

The first major debate over a large solar power project was over the 250 acres of land, which was on the outskirts of Victorville, California, on the western side of the Mojave that was gonna be used for the solar panels. Inland hired people to look for the endangered ground squirrel and desert tortoise. No squirrels were found but some tortoises were, so the Inland, cmpany building the panels, said for every acre of lost habitat they would buy one acre of land to offset it. Although it would cost some “6.5 million to 10 million dollars” to buy the offsetting acreage.

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Mitigation Strategies and Solutions

The mere mentioning of an Energy Conservation Plan may seem like a project that is too big for many. What needs recognition, immediately, is the fact that there is a dire need for energy conservation, it will save lives, and eventually may even save the entire human race. The one thing that I think all will be in agreement with is how much money it will save households and businesses. “Today’s human way of life works around consuming energy in many aspects of daily life because we use an enormous amount of transportation, heat, and electricity. ” (Mitigation Strategies and Solutions – Energy Conservation, Robert Gill III, August 20, 2009).

If Governmental and Human efforts are put forth, in large amounts, it will bring down energy costs as well as allow humans to become healthier in various ways. Over the last eight weeks I have come to the conclusion that almost all living creatures, be them big or small, have some sort of energy usage associated with them. Energy comes in all different forms and is converted from one form to another. Non-renewable energy sources are becoming more complicated to find, because of this, resources are getting more and more expensive. Some types of non renewable energy resources are oil, coal, natural gas and nuclear.

These forms of energy come from the ground. There are several forms living and non-living factors that contribute to the excessive use of energy. The easiest way to describe them would be to break them down into descriptive groups or categories. These types are not all different; the use of energy can be done in many of these categories at once. The first category is the use of Kinetic Energy; this type of energy is used when something is moving. For example, a car in drive and rolling produces a large amount of Kinetic Energy, another form of Kinetic Energy use is an animal jumping, a cat leaping or pouncing from one area to another.

Often in combination with Kinetic Energy, one can find Gravitational Potential Energy, when things are high in the air, or sky for that matter, Gravitational Potential Energy is in effect. The drop of a ball from your hand, is a great example of Gravitational Potential Energy, however, Kinetic Energy comes into play when the ball is on the way down. Another example of when Gravitational Potential Energy is in use is when a bird is in the act of flight, once again Kinetic Energy is increased too.

Chemical Potential Energy is another form of energy, this type of energy is effective when chemical reactions happen. Gasoline has a lot of Chemical Potential Energy stored in it and this is what helps make automobiles go. Chemical Potential Energy is the make up of electrical and magnetic and Kinetic Energy of the electrons, molecules and atoms. Another form of energy is Thermal Energy, this type energy is present when something is heated up and it has more energy then when it is cold. All living things have thermal energy; a lot of them make Thermal Energy because they cause chemical reactions to take place.

One of the most important or greatly used forms of energy is Electrical Energy, it can be found in all power lines, above or below ground. When currents flow through an object Electrical Energy is active, voltage deposits or takes it away. For example, the use of an iron, energy is deposited, when something needs a battery for operation energy is taken away. Then there is Magnetic Energy, if two magnets are forced together, they repel each other, energy has to be present in order for this to happen, the energy is stored in what is called a magnet field.

Energy is produced by the magnetic field when the two magnets are brought together. Lastly, Nuclear Energy, the energy that is known for being extremely unkind to man; energy is released when the sun works by fusing light atoms together to make heavier ones. Atoms that have become heavy will decay or split which causes energy to release; this process is called fission (UIUC Department of Physics, Living and Non-Living Things with Energy July 25, 2006). There are many non-living things that contribute to excessive energy use; however, they are used by living factors, humans.

For example, a major portion of energy consumption is used right in our very own households. The following is a list of items, but is not limited to, “space conditioning at 44%, water heating at 13%, Lighting at 12%, Refrigeration at 8%, Home electronics at 6%, Laundry Appliances at 5%, Kitchen Appliances at 4% and other uses at 8%” (Earth getting overcrowded-November 2nd, 2008-Sheree Bega). These percentages are all based on one household’s usage; imagine the numbers when all of our world’s usage is calculated.

Energy is greatly taken for granted by many, most don’t even think or imagine that there is a possibility that we can run out of energy. Humans are responsible for the damage being done to our planet, and for the non-renewable energy depletion. We are in an energy crisis, which is a very big problem. People need to become more aware of this problem and try to do their part to help preserve the non renewable resources that we still have left and to also help the environment by recycling and watching the energy use at home and in the car.

One person can only do so much, and we may never see a difference from one person making that change. But if several people started making changes to their life styles, then there is a big possibility that we could start to see a big difference. This is an issue that everyone needs to know about and take seriously. If we do nothing, what will happen to mankind as we know it? What will we allow are children’s futures to be like if we do not take action now?

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Cause and Effect Solar Energy

Cause/Effect: Solar Energy Solar radiation is an energy resource many times larger than mankind’s energy needs. Mankind has been able to capture/harness this energy resource, but only on a limited scale. Mankind has found that the use of the sun was quite useful. They used it to grow and dry crops, dry clothing, produce heat, and for light. The sun is a sphere, on the inside of the sun there is a continuous process of fusion in which hydrogen nuclei combine to from helium nuclei. There is less helium than that of hydrogen, which allows the sun to create energy.

The energy is then radiated out of the surface of the sun, in which only a small portion is intercepted by plant earth. Just outside of the earth’s atmosphere, approximately 93 million miles from the sun, has the intensity of radiation of about 1. 36 kilowatts per square foot. This process is also called the Solar Constant. This energy is absorbed, dispersed, and reflected by the atmosphere; beaming its radiation to earth’s ground. Almost half of this energy is visible light, approximately half is infrared radiation, and a very small portion of it is ultraviolet radiation.

There are many ways to convert this energy. Some use it to heat their water and homes; some convert it to Electrical Energy. Most of the world’s energy needs have been met by converting solar energy into its electrical or mechanical forms. Electrical energy conversion of solar energy can be quite expensive. Much more than it would be to convert into thermal energy, but worth it in the long run. Solar panels or solar cells have been created to convert solar energy into mechanical energy, which can then be converted into electrical energy or used directly.

This green energy alternative would cause a reduction in our environmental impact because it has less physical impact on the environment. They also help reduce the level of greenhouse gases produced and would decrease the demands of fossil fuels. Without a reliable, yet sustainable source of energy for the future, mankind will face a continued environmental destruction and continue to contribute to the growing problem of global warming. In order to stop the damage that is being done to the environment, we need to switch to an environmentally friendly energy production system.

If we do not switch, the current facilities who rely mainly on fossil fuels, will continue to destroy the earth because they are leaving behind toxic residues and wasteful by products that will have to be dealt with for many years. The future lies with systems that eliminate these toxic and wasteful by products. Only by switching to fully renewable energy systems will humanity be free of these toxins. With our current technology and the expanding knowledge of tomorrow, wind turbines have a 30 year life span.

The effort used to run these turbines is lower than the use of traditional power plants. Using wind energy to power turbines instead of plants using fossil fuels for energy will reduce the overall impact of the U. S. Energy production. The before mentioned solar panel has a life expectancy of approximately 25 years. The total cost per kilowatt is way lower for solar panels than that of fossil fueled based power plants. These panels, once installed, need little to no maintenance. There is no monthly bill or added fees.

Just like wind energy, solar energy is completely sustainable and they do not produce any physical by products. I believe that wind and solar energy is the perfect solution to the future of preserving the earth’s environment. Our environment is turning against us and there is a shortage of fossil fuels. It seems as though mankind as a whole is killing itself off. Mankind as a whole needs to rid itself of its dependency of fossil fuels. While wind and solar energy are not the only options available for sustainable energy solutions, in my opinion, they are the best alternative solutions.

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Drilling vs Solar Power

I choose solar power over drilling oil. I chose this “side” because drilling oil is hazardous to the environment. Solar energy is from energy directly from the sun’s radiation and Drilling is coming from below the ocean floor. The oil spill in the gulf 2010 was devastating to the environment and is still being looked at as one of the worst environmental disasters of all time. Solar power is better for the environment and we can use it for years to come.

The key habits for hindering my thinking when looking at the opposing view, was stereotyping that oil drilling is not safe and causes a lot of problems for the environment because of what I heard in the news. I was also was resistance to change, I don’t like change but when it comes to the environment I believe we have to stand up for what we believe in. I also used the “mine is better habit” where I thought my opinion was the right one until I researched the topic. After researching I found out that oil spills can be devastating to wildlife.

Drilling oil creates jobs which is influential for the economy. In return solar power is better for the environment because it uses natural process for energy. In order for solar energy to work you must have temperature, it is an important factor that may affect the performance of solar power. I still believe that solar power is more beneficent because we are protecting our wild life and environment. What I can do to overcome my habits hindering my thinking is to not be resistant to change.

Try and not believe that my opinion is the right one, I have to do my research so I can back up what I am saying. Try not to stereotype that all drilling is bad. I need to examine my first impression of the problems and issues. I need to research all views of the situation and then determine what is best. I did research benefits of solar power and drilling and then researched the disadvantages of both I stand by my choice that if I had to choose between the two I would still choose solar power. I found both topics to be intriguing and informative.

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Nuclear Energy Social Benefits and Costs

Its impacts on the environment are almost Non-existent if well managed: It occupies only small surfaces of land and consumes small amounts of fuel; its waste is small, confined, and isolated from the environment. there is no industry in the world that can present the same excellent record of safety performance as the nuclear industry. Introduction to Nuclear Energy for Civilian Purposes * Most early atomic research focused on developing an effective weapon for use in World War II.

After the war, the United States government encouraged the development of nuclear energy for peaceful civilian purposes while continuing to develop, test, and deploy new nuclear weapons. * The Experimental Breeder Reactor I at a site in Idaho generated the first electricity from nuclear energy on December 20, 1951. * As of 2008, 13% of the world’s electricity comes from nuclear energy. Fewer than 400 nuclear power reactors were operating as of May 2012 (Japan’s 54 reactors were gradually taken offline after the March 2011 meltdowns at Fukushima Daiichi).

There were also 60 nuclear reactors under construction. * In the United States alone, there are 103 nuclear power reactors, which provide about 19% of the nation’s electricity. * A new nuclear power plant has not been ordered in the U. S. since 1973. How It Works – The Scientific Process Behind Nuclear Energy * Nuclear energy relies on the fact that some elements can be split (in a process called fission) and will release part of their energy as heat. Because it fissions easily, Uranium-235 (U-235) is one of the elements most commonly used to produce nuclear energy. It is generally used in a mixture with Uranium-238, and produces Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) as waste in the process. * A nuclear power plant generates electricity like any other steam-electric power plant. Water is heated, and steam from the boiling water turns turbines and generates electricity. * The main difference in the various types of steam-electric plants is the heat source.

Coal, oil, or gas is burned in other power plants to heat the water. Heat from a chain reaction of fissioning Uranium-235 boils the water in a nuclear power plant. Some have compared this process to using a canon to kill a fly. * On March 11, 2011, a strong earthquake hit off the coast of Japan. The resulting tsunami caused meltdowns at multiple reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. For more information on the accident at Fukushima, click here. * On April 26, 1986, the No. 4 reactor at the Chernobyl power plant (in the former U.

S. S. R. , present-day Ukraine) exploded, causing the worst nuclear accident ever. SOCIAL COSTS External Costs * The waste material generated by nuclear energy from nuclear fleets to nuclear plants is radio-active, and for this waste to naturally decompose it takes from hundred thousand to millions of years, if it is not fully decomposed it still poses a threat. * The waste material created by nuclear energy if it isn’t disposed well, and terrorists can have access to it the result would be disastrous, as it can be used for nuclear weapons. If there is any nuclear accident the reaction would spread to a large area and apart from destroying people’s lives it would also cause other people and different organisms to be radio-actively exposed creating long-term health problems. * Nuclear accidents tend to destroy the natural ecosystem, by polluting water-bodies and animals. * Nuclear accidents can cause climate change: extreme heat waves or droughts. Private Costs * Allocating the resources (land) for building the nuclear energy power plant is very difficult, as finding a fairly sparsely populated region close to a water-body isn’t available readily. The investment needed for to build a nuclear energy power plant, and the capital for its safety measures all costs a lot of money(in billions). * If a nuclear power station wants to shut down, the process of nuclear decommissioning (process of entrusting the land for other uses) is also very expensive. * The process of getting rid of the nuclear waste is very costly, as the investors need to hire highly skilled people to enclose this waste into tin boxes for it to degrade, and the capital (equipment) and transportation facility for this process is very expensive. Nuclear accidents can three times more than the operating revenue of that nuclear power plant. SOCIAL BENEFITS External Benefits * Nuclear energy has very high chances for development, as some can produce less nuclear waste, others have chances of efficiently reproduce the waste, and nuclear power plants can run on other types of radio-active materials, or with little waste products producing huge amount of electricity. * Nuclear energy running on different types of radio-active material is predicted to fulfil the increasing demand for electricity for more than 3000 years. Nuclear energy is the one of the energy type which does not release any greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, but only releases water-vapour as a by-product, but yet still has the capacity to produce a lot of energy. * The waste product generated from fossil fuel is far greater than nuclear energy, the burning of coal not only produces greenhouse gases but also fairly radio-active materials which are leashed into the environment, but in nuclear energy the radio-active waste is shielded from the environment and is far less compared to that of burning fossil fuels. Nuclear energy plants have the ability to produce large amounts of electricity which would not only be cheap but would have a high voltage; this would help a country’s industrial (secondary) sector. Private Benefits * The amount spent on buying fuel (uranium rods, etc. ) is very less. * For investors according to their scale of preference to develop a power station, a nuclear energy plant would be high on the scale.

Because the chances of there being a nuclear accident is very low, as there is no power industry in the world that can present the same excellent records of safety measurements than the nuclear energy industry. Despite the Chernobyl disaster which was because of the USSR developing very fast and lack of the type of technology available today, and the Fukushima nuclear disaster being an act of God, which the world wasn’t prepared for but now is.

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Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy is defined as the energy that is released when atomic nuclei either split or fuse. After a careful consideration of the amount of conventional fuels available and their consumption, it becomes very clear that nuclear energy will be used predominantly in the future. Moreover, it offers an attractive alternative to the conventional fuels that generally contribute to global warming. In comparison to fossil fuels and hydroelectric power, nuclear energy provides a safer and cleaner option. Moreover, the quantity of uranium, which is used as nuclear fuel, is much more abundant than fossil fuels (Miller, 2004).

Another advantage in using nuclear energy is that it is comparatively cheaper and environmentally safe, because the waste matter from such fuel is safely stored. In the United States of America, each and every nuclear power plant is controlled by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Moreover, these nuclear facilities have to strictly adhere to the safety standards set by this regulatory body (Cabreza).

A very important benefit of nuclear energy lies in the fact that it drastically reduces dependence on oil imports. Furthermore, this source of energy requires a lot of personnel, which helps to decrease unemployment. Nuclear energy is not only very efficient but also cost-effective, due to the minimal variance in the price of uranium, the optimal performance and frequent modernization of nuclear power plants. At present, a fifth of the total electricity needs of the U.S are catered to by nuclear (Cabreza).

In comparison to nuclear energy, coal the conventional source of energy is much more dangerous. Coal releases a number of pollutants and carcinogens when burned. Further, the annual casualties amongst coal miners, due to accidents, are around a hundred. Nuclear power is far safer in comparison to coal or hydropower (Miller, 2004). The nuclear fuel used in nuclear reactors is Uranium-235 and the mechanism by which nuclear fission energy is released is given by the equation: 10n + 235 92U —> 9236Kr + 14156 Ba +200 MeV+ 3 1 0n (3-3: Nuclear Fission).

Uranium-235 releases 3.7 million times the amount of energy that coal can release. Due to the use of nuclear energy, two and a half billion tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions are not released into the atmosphere every year (Why use Nuclear Power?, 2006).

In view of the above facts, it is imperative for the world to adopt nuclear energy for all their energy requirements. Nuclear power is clean, cost-effective, reliable and safe power. No major nuclear accidents have taken place in the U.S.  In its entire history, only a single accident took place in 1979. In that incident there was a partial reactor core meltdown at Three Mile Island (Accident of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant).

However, this accident served to illustrate the effectiveness of the various safety measures that had been adopted in nuclear power plants. Radiation from the core of the reactor could not come out of the reactor due to the highly effective walls and no member of the public or personnel of the facility sustained even an injury. Moreover, with the amount of subsequent research that was conducted after this accident, the possibility of the recurrence of such an incident is very remote. Considerable attention has been paid to recycling spent fuel and thereby reducing the amount of nuclear waste. In view of these facts the day is not far off when nuclear fuel will completely replace fossil fuels.

References

Why use Nuclear Power? (2006, October 22). Retrieved May 3, 2007, from The Virtual Nuclear Tourist: http://www.nucleartourist.com/basics/reasons1.htm

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Energy from Peanut and Pea

Energy from Peanut and Pea Shawn lam 28/10/2011 Hypothesis I think that the peanut will release more Energy, as it is has more oil which will generate more energy. While the pea does not have as much oil as the peanut, so the pea will make less energy. Variables Independent variable: Pea, Peanut Dependent variable: Temperature Controlled variable: Beaker volume, Bunsen burner Equipment Beaker, water, Bunsen burner, pea, peanut, thermometer, toothpick (holding food), heat tile, grabber Procedure 1. First get equipment 2. Setup equipment 3.

Put water in beaker, then grab with a grabber 4. Burn peanut/ pea with toothpick 5. Put the food under beaker 6. Record Temperature Result Table 1: Looking at the first table, the amount of water added to the beaker was 20ml. There were 4 trials for each food, except for the pea. Type of Food| Heat (°C)| | Trial| Average| | 1| 2| 3| 4| | Peanut| 20| 35| 50| 59| 41| Pea| 8. 5| 5| 31|  | 14. 83333| Discussion This Experiment wasn’t really successful, as there weren’t 4 trials for the pea. Also some Peanuts/Pea were much bigger than other, next time I will try to choose the sizes more carefully next time.

The peanut had a large range of temperature, this tells us either the thermometer is broken or the test was not conducted well. Maybe, the Pea could be changed with another food, as it frequently run out of energy in the middle of a test. Which caused the problem of recording its temprature. Next time maybe there should be better lighter, so that there wouldn’t be a problem with burning the food. There could be less people disturbing experiment, so that more results could be recorded. For example, when people talk, the sound wave blows out the fire. All of this results that the informaion, wasn’t really accurate. Conclusion

As you could see the peanuts average Temperature was higher then the pea, as the pea has less oil then the peanut. The amount of oil on the Peanut is far greater, as resulting more energy released from the peanut. While on the other hand, the Pea has less oil which was shown as there was less energy. This shows that the Peanut have at least 3 times more energy then the Pea. Further study Does more oil cause more energy released? “YES” it does. More oil will help to relese more energy, this is shown as today, many cars rely on oil to run. Bibliography http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Peanut#Peanut_oil http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pea

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Alliant Energy Case Study

1. Who are the main players (name and position)? William D Harvey, Chairman and CEO of Alliant Energy Jamie Toledo, head of supplier diversity program- Alliant Energy 2. In what business or businesses and industry or industries is the company operating? Energy/Utility- Alliance provides electricity and natural gas service 3. What are the issues and problems facing the company?

That diversity within the workforce and supplier base does not meet corporate core values and goals (to create and retain/maintain a diverse workforce/supplier base, and place women in positions not traditionally held by women, still need more ethnic diversity) in order to maximize their abilities Employees are confused about Alliant’s definition of diversity Employees’ perception of diversity (affirmative action, work attitudes, job satisfaction) 4. What is the primary problem for the company/organization in this case?

That diversity within the workforce and supplier base does not meet corporate core values and goals 5. Why have the problem (s) you cite emerged? Identify the causal chain (the events or Circumstances that caused the problem-Some will be Internal Weaknesses, others EXTERNAL Threats). Employees’ perception of diversity (affirmative action, work attitudes, job satisfaction— external threat, people come to the workplace with preconceived notions regarding diversity.

Employees confused about definition of diversity- Internal cause by lack of training and lack of understanding regarding management’s expectations 6. What are the characteristics of the industry that the company is in and how is the Industry changing over time? Not typically an industry that includes many women, and is not located in an area of the United States that is particularly diverse. Industry is continuously growing as the need for energy increases, thus more people will need to be hired and more suppliers will be needed. The marketplace is full of many different ages, races, and religions.

An organization with employees that reflect these different groups will be more successful in serving consumers because their workforce reflects the diversity of the marketplace 7. What is the firm’s strategy for differentiation, enabling them to compete within the context of their industry? According to Jamie Toledo, having diverse suppliers leads to new perspectives and creativity, it supports local communities, and ensures diverse businesses have fair opportunities. In addition, having a diverse workforce enables the company to understand the marketplace and increases the company’s chances of succeeding . What are possible solutions to the problems you have identified? Continue to communicate senor managements’ commitment to diversity, explain the benefits of diversity, active participation of employees in the training, create an internal diversity council 9. What are the advantages and possible disadvantages of your solution(s)? Advantage: more training and more continued reinforcement typically leads to more involvement and awareness, employees now know the definition and of and benefits of diversity at it applies to their jobs and company.

Possible disadvantage: the scripted training may reinforce stereotypes. All day, mandated training may lead to some employees not grasping all the elements of the training 10. Are there any possible problems with your suggested recommendations? What contingencies need to be accommodated? Training may be too scripted, not enough employee involvement…. Solution= include more informal forums or guest speakers. Could also spread the scripted training over the course of multiple days.

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Free Essays

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy is defined as the energy that is released when atomic nuclei either split or fuse. After a careful consideration of the amount of conventional fuels available and their consumption, it becomes very clear that nuclear energy will be used predominantly in the future. Moreover, it offers an attractive alternative to the conventional fuels that generally contribute to global warming.

In comparison to fossil fuels and hydroelectric power, nuclear energy provides a safer and cleaner option. Moreover, the quantity of uranium, which is used as nuclear fuel, is much more abundant than fossil fuels (Miller, 2004).

Another advantage in using nuclear energy is that it is comparatively cheaper and environmentally safe, because the waste matter from such fuel is safely stored. In the United States of America, each and every nuclear power plant is controlled by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Moreover, these nuclear facilities have to strictly adhere to the safety standards set by this regulatory body (Cabreza).

A very important benefit of nuclear energy lies in the fact that it drastically reduces dependence on oil imports. Furthermore, this source of energy requires a lot of personnel, which helps to decrease unemployment. Nuclear energy is not only very efficient but also cost-effective, due to the minimal variance in the price of uranium, the optimal performance and frequent modernization of nuclear power plants. At present, a fifth of the total electricity needs of the U.S are catered to by nuclear (Cabreza).

In comparison to nuclear energy, coal the conventional source of energy is much more dangerous. Coal releases a number of pollutants and carcinogens when burned. Further, the annual casualties amongst coal miners, due to accidents, are around a hundred. Nuclear power is far safer in comparison to coal or hydropower (Miller, 2004).

The nuclear fuel used in nuclear reactors is Uranium-235 and the mechanism by which nuclear fission energy is released is given by the equation:

 10n + 235 92U —> 9236Kr + 14156 Ba +200 MeV+ 3 1 0n (3-3: Nuclear Fission).

Uranium-235 releases 3.7 million times the amount of energy that coal can release. Due to the use of nuclear energy, two and a half billion tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions are not released into the atmosphere every year (Why use Nuclear Power?, 2006).

In view of the above facts, it is imperative for the world to adopt nuclear energy for all their energy requirements. Nuclear power is clean, cost-effective, reliable and safe power. No major nuclear accidents have taken place in the U.S.  In its entire history, only a single accident took place in 1979. In that incident there was a partial reactor core meltdown at Three Mile Island (Accident of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant).

However, this accident served to illustrate the effectiveness of the various safety measures that had been adopted in nuclear power plants. Radiation from the core of the reactor could not come out of the reactor due to the highly effective walls and no member of the public or personnel of the facility sustained even an injury.

Moreover, with the amount of subsequent research that was conducted after this accident, the possibility of the recurrence of such an incident is very remote. Considerable attention has been paid to recycling spent fuel and thereby reducing the amount of nuclear waste. In view of these facts the day is not far off when nuclear fuel will completely replace fossil fuels.

References

3-3: Nuclear Fission. (n.d.). Retrieved May 3, 2007, from http://www2.kutl.kyushu-u.ac.jp/seminar/MicroWorld3_E/3Part3_E/3P33_E/nuclear_fission_E.htm

Accident of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. (n.d.). Retrieved May 3, 2007, from http://www.npp.hu/tortenelem/balesetek2-e.htm

Cabreza, N. M. (n.d.). Nuclear Power VS. Other Sources of Power. Retrieved May 3, 2007, from http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/thyd/ne161/ncabreza/sources.html

Miller, J. D. (2004, April 14). Advantages of Nuclear Power. Retrieved May 3, 2007, from LewRockwell.com: http://www.lewrockwell.com/miller/miller13.html

Why use Nuclear Power? (2006, October 22). Retrieved May 3, 2007, from The Virtual Nuclear Tourist: http://www.nucleartourist.com/basics/reasons1.htm