Free Essays

Free Engineering Dissertation Topics

1. Introduction to Engineering Dissertations – FREE ESSAY EXAMPLES – our site

The field of engineering elapses across a wide range of academic disciplines that are starkly distinguished from each other. Researches within this field mostly involves finding new ways to improve human life and developing new methods, materials, designs for existing solutions.

One of the most prominent contemporary research areas in civil engineering relates to the development of Green Infrastructure. Construction of sustainable houses, roads, highways, bridges, and buildings is a top priority within this field of engineering. Likewise, effective utilization of natural and man-made resources is one of the top agenda. In mechanical engineering, emphasis is upon developing and improving materials, designs and processes to achieve greater efficiency in terms of energy consumption, enhancing safety and improving industrial processes. Electronic and Computer Engineering aims to achieve these objectives through electronic circuit based and computer aided solutions respectively. Highlights within Chemical and Biochemical Engineering involves developing materials for nanotechnology, utilizing organic materials as fuels, and chemical processes related to food and water. Here are some of the topics that may be good for developing your own dissertation in various fields of engineering.

2. Categories and List of Dissertation Titles

2.1Civil Engineering

2.1.1 Creating an Integrated Water Management Model to Evaluate Potential Water Savings for a Specific Project

2.1.2 Developing a Rating System for Sustainable Waste Water Management System

2.1.3 Improving the Predictability of Transit Boardings Estimation and Simulation Tool (TBEST) Using Property Appraisal Data; Enhancing Stop Level Predictive Capability

2.1.4 Analyzing the Travelling Patters and Preferences of Elderly Through Various Socio-Demographic Factors.

2.1.5 Quantifying a Pavement Sustainability Framework for Pavement Engineering Practice in UK

2.1.6 Identifying the Material/Component Requirements and Practices for Repairing and Maintaining the Stone-Built Heritage of post 1920s UK Building Stock

2.1.7 Replacing Conventional Wood Materials With Bamboo Panels and Agricultural Waste; An Approach Towards Mitigating Negative Impacts of Deforestation

2.1.8 Assessing Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) Effects of Ten Common Sustainable Building Materials Through the Evaluation of Their Chemical and Micro-Biological Characteristics; Evaluating Ozone Reactivity and VOC Emissions

2.2Electrical Engineering

2.2.1 Identifying Patterns to Solve Recurring Design Problems in Specific Contexts in Ontology Based Applications

2.2.2 Identifying Novel Approaches for the Unconstrained Human Face Recognition

2.2.3 An in Depth Review of the Technologies Involved in the Proposed Google Driverless Cars; A Descriptive Account

2.2.4 Evaluating the Feasibility of Deploying Electric Solar Panels for Individual Household Units in Pakistan

2.2.5 Prospect of Wireless Resonant Power Transformation to Remote Sensors in Electronics through Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

2.2.6 Scalability, Elasticity and Efficiency Challenges Posed by Cloud Computing For Database Management Systems

2.2.7 Utilizing RFID for Electronic Identification in Livestock Tagging

2.2.8 Evaluating Alternate Methods for Standardizing Energy Efficiency of Distribution Transformers.

2.3Mechanical Engineering

2.3.1 Identifying the Usability Issues Involved in Driving a Vehicle with Drive-by-Wire Technology

2.3.2 An Evaluation of the Emerging Developments in Geared Turbofan Engines

2.3.3 Conduction Roughness Parameters Analysis to Characterize Cylinders Liner Surfaces

2.3.4 Evaluating the Use of Electroless Nickel Coating on Aluminum for Surface Treatment of Cylinder Components

2.3.5 Using Stimulation Techniques to Optimize the ‘Pistol Ring – Cylinder Liner’ Surface Texture for Combustion Engines

2.3.6 Formulating a Framework to Evaluate Existing Wireless Power Transfer Technologies

2.3.7 Energy Harvesting Techniques for Critical Electric Systems at Remote Railroad Crossing in UK; Directly Harnessing the Vertical and Downward Deflection of Rail Caused by Railway Traffic

2.3.8 The Effects of Tonal Noise from Mechanical Systems and Temperature Upon Human Comfort, Performance and Perception

2.4Software Engineering

2.4.1 An Evaluation of Research in Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Evaluation the current status of empirical research

2.4.2 Enhancing Steganographic Techniques for Maximizing Hiding Capacity in Digital Imagery

2.4.3 Automating Facial Micro-expression Spotting through the Use of Strain Magnitude of Individual Facial Regions

2.4.4 Determining Critical Design Principles for Developing Successful Mobile Applications

2.4.5 An Evaluation of the Characteristics of Some of the Most Prolific Cyber Attacks in Recent Times; Like of Stuxnet and Flame and Those Launched Against US Banks.

2.4.6 Determining Critical Design Principles for Developing Successful Web Applications

2.4.7 Preventing Cyber Warfare and Attacks through Adapting Polycentric Governance Approach towards Cyber Security

2.4.8 Analyzing Security Risks in Cloud Computing; A Survey of Privacy and Threats

2.5Chemical/Biochemical Engineering

2.5.1 Chemically Synthesizing Gold Nanoparticles for Bio-application. Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles

2.5.2 Patterning, Synthesizing, Surface Modification and Characterization of Carbon Electrodes for BioMems (biomedical microelectromechanical systems)

2.5.3 Evaluating the Suitability of Carbon Natotube for developing Nanocomposites to be used as a Packaging Material for The Food Industry in UK.

2.5.4 Combining Calcium Aluminates and Glass Ionomer Cements to Obtain a New Dental Material

2.5.5 Prospects of Biogas as an Alternate Energy Source for the Rural Community of an Underdeveloped Country. A Case Study of an Indian State

2.5.6 Evaluating the Socio-Economic and Environmental Advantages of Biogas for the Rural Community of Pakistan

2.5.7 Measuring the Impact of Using Biogas Digester Upon the Health Benefits and Quality of Life Improvement in Rural Areas of Pakistan/India/African Country (Anyplace where the primary source of fuel is wood)

2.5.8 Post Treatment Analysis for Water Quality Followed by Advanced Oxidation Processes

3. How to Write a Good Engineering Dissertation

The structural guidelines for writing an engineering dissertation are the same as writing any other dissertation. First and foremost, a high level outline should be made, followed by determining chapters and sub-sections of chapters.

Students usually make a critical mistake of sorting down number of words to be written for each chapter and sub-sections. However, an important tip in this regard for writing science and engineering dissertation is to add figures or placeholders for figures first throughout the dissertation. It would make the writing part much easier as the bulk of the content of an engineering dissertation is comprised of the description of these tables/diagrams/figures.

Is should be noted that presenting results of an engineering dissertation if often a very difficult task; therefore, the introduction, background, methodology chapters should not delay writing the main part of the dissertation.

When conducting experiments, it is always very tempting to keep on working to make some sort of improvements in every new attempt or try new things. However, one should stop doing experiments at least a month before the hand in date of the dissertation and start writing the report keeping in mind that even during the written work, there would always remain a need to do some quick work to prepare tables and figures.

Free Essays

The Emerging field of nanoscale science, engineering and technology

1.0 Introduction

The Emerging field of nanoscale science, engineering and technology – that is the ability to work at the atomic, molecular and supramolecular levels, to create large structures with fundamentally new properties and functions have lead to an unrivalled understanding and control over basic building blocks of all natural and man-made things [roco]. This rapid advancement has lead to an increased demand for technological development on a nanoscale, which has brought about the birth and improvement of infrastructural changes aimed at representing and observing these features. The world wide focus over this time has been the evolution of methods including SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), FIB (Focus Ion Beam) etcetera for the detailing of features at the nanoscale.

1.1 History of the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) Technology

Focus Ion Beam (FIB) systems have been commercially produced, mostly for manufacturers of large semiconductors for about 20 years []. In 1982, Anazawa et al. produced a 35Kv Ga- source and about three years later Orloff and Sudruad proposed FIB system for implantation and lithography [sudruad], even though as of 1959, Feyman had suggested the use of ion beams []. In 1985, Kato et al. have pointed out the advantages of the FIB technology in the fabrication of sub-micro structures.

1.2 Operational Overview

The operation of the FIB are same as that of SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), except that the focus ion beam system employs the use of focussed beam of ions instead of beam of electrons utilised in the SEM systems[].

Commercialised nanoscience is limited by availability of tools. Using focussed ion beam system allows specified fabrication and imaging abilities which reduces greatly the characterization cycles and development required in the nano-technological field by scientist. The capabilities within focus ion beam ( FIB) are valued highly for rapid prototyping application. The deposition combination / direct etching of FIB in combination with digitally addressed patterning system allows nano prototyping engine with capabilities that will help researches in nano technology , because the operation of FIB is on both micro and nano scale, it can be used in creating the required structures.

FIB has precised control over deposition and milling parameter and as such, it is the proper tool for creating small structures for nano technology in the top –down approach. It is a highly flexible, mask-less technique which is fast for serial techniques, thus allowing the FIB instrument very efficient for design modifications. Most conventional methods of sample preparation used today in life sciences are compatible with investigations by using FIB.

1.3 Using Focus Ion Beam Systems

The direct applicability obtained in using FIB instrument is highly relevant in industrial applications. FIB instrument and its application have contributed immensely to industrial researches carried out in several analysis laboratories – For instance in the polymer industry, metallurgy industry, nuclear research etcetera. The ability to image, mill and deposit material by using FIB instrument depends largely on the nature of the ion beam- solid interactions. Milling occurs as a result of physical sputtering of the target. In understanding the mechanism of sputtering we need to consider the interaction between an ion beam and the target. Sputtering usually takes place when there is elastic collision in series when momentum is transferred from the incident ions to the target atoms in the region of collision cascade. Ionization of a portion of the ejected atoms can be collected for mass analysis or image formation. Production of plasmons (in metals), phonons and emission of secondary electrons can occur as a result of inelastic scattering. Imaging in the focus ion beam is carried out by detecting the secondary ions/electrons typically, sputtering in focus ion beam processes occurs within energy ranges that are dominated by nuclear energy losses.

Focus Ion beam devices are used to scan the surfaces of samples using simple focussed ion beams. The detection of secondary ions allows the processed surface of samples and microscopic images to be observed. The ion beam is generated by using liquid metal ion source (LMIS) when a beam of ion is irradiated on the surface of a specimen by finding the secondary ions with a detector – a two dimensional distribution which shows the microscopic images of the surface of the specimen can be observed.

1.4 The Focus Ion Beam Instrument

The Operation of the FIB technology uses a similar principle as the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) / TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) but differs in the use of ions and this introduces consequences of enormous magnitude for interaction which occur at the surface of the specimen. Using Focus Ion Beam (FIB) instrument involves two major parameters – penetration of ion into material and the rate of sputtering of ion of the material.

When the emitted liquid metal ion source (LMIS) primary ion beam hits the surface of the specimen, it splutters a small amount of material this will leave the specimen surface as either neutral atoms or secondary ions – Secondary beams are also produced using the primary beam. Signals from the sputtered ion or secondary electron are collected to produce an image as the primary beam raster on the specimen surface.

Liquid metal ion source (LMIS) development is crucial for the development of Focus Ion Beam (FIB) [] , application of electric field that are very high into a steering quadrupole, octupole deflector, two electrostatic lenses in the column to focus ions in a beam and scan the beam on the specimen. Liquid metal ions source (LMIS) generates ions; these ions are focussed on electrostatic lenses. When specimen surfaces are bombarded using ions that have been extracted from the liquid metal ion source (LMIS) this generates ions, secondary electron and sputtered material and the various generated items serve different purpose in the focus ion beam.

At high primary currents a large amount of material can be removed by sputtering thus allowing precision milling of the specimen down to the submicron scale, while less material is removed at low primary beam currents. The use of ions in focus ion beam instruments means that they cannot penetrate with ease individual atoms of the specimen because ions are large. So interaction usually occurs within outer shell interaction which causes chemical band breakage of the substrate atom and atomic ionization. Inner shell electrons of the specimen cannot be reached by an incoming ion. The probability of an interaction with atoms that are within the specimen is much higher because of the large ion size and this result in rapid loss of energy of the ion. This means that the depth of penetration is much lower.

It should be noted that the main advantage of the Focus Ion beam is its ability to produce image of the sample after which it mills the sample precisely away from the areas that are selected[ ].

1.41 Ions in Operation

Ions are slower when paired to electrons for the same energy, because they are much heavier as a result Lorenz force is lower, so the use of magnetic lenses is less effective, and as such the focussed ion beam instrument is equipped with electro static lenses. Ions are positive, slow, large and heavy; so the resulting ion beam will remove atoms from the substrate and because the size, beam position and dwell time are well controlled, it can be used in the removal of materials locally in a manner that is highly controlled down to the nanoscale. As a result of the actions due to the ions used in the Focus ion beam instrument, fabrication and imaging functions are derived. The fabrication function occurs due to the sputtering while the imaging function arises due to the ions and secondary electrons.

1.42 Gallium (Ga+) Ions

The gallium ions are used in the focus ion beam (FIB) instruments for the following reasons [fei];

Due to its surface potential it exhibits very high brightness, the tip sharpness, the flow properties of the gun and the gun construction which results in field emission and ionization. This is an important result for the focussed ion beam. It should be noted that whatever chosen material should be ionized before the formation of the beam and then accelerated.
The element Gallium is metallic and because of its low melting temperature is a very convenient material for compact gun construction with limited heating.
Gallium is the centre of the periodic table and exhibits an optimal momentum transfer capability for a wide range of materials, lithium which is a higher element will not be sufficient in milling of heavier elements.
Gallium element has low analytical interference
2.0 Focus Ion Beam System

In the figure below, the FEJ 200 series type F113 of the FIB system is represented. In the figure are the various components of the system which includes the column, the specimen chamber and the detector;

2.1The Column

This is situated above the specimen chambers. It is made up of two electrostatic lenses, a set of beam blanking plates, liquid metal ion source (LMIS), a beam acceptance aperture, steering quadrupole, beam defining aperture and an octupole deflector.

2.2 Lens System

Coming from the source, the beam goes through a beam acceptance aperture after which it goes into the first lens. Above the beam- defining aperture (BDA), the quadrapole adjust the position of the beam in a manner as to allow the beam move through the center of the beam-defining aperture (BDA). The beam is aligned to the optical axis of the second lens’ quadrapole. Beam astigmatism correction, shift and scanning is provided by the octupole which is positioned below the second lens. Between the second lens assembly and the second lenses steering quadrapole we have the beam blanking assembly. This is made up of aperture and electrical path and blanking plates. Beam blanking provides specimens with protections against constant milling.

2.3 Generation of Image

The primary beam is scanned as a raster across the specimen and it is made up of lines in vertical axis (shifted slightly from one another) and lies in the horizontal (in series). With scanning of the beam over the specimen the secondary ions and the secondary electrons that are generated by the specimen are detected. Details of this information are stored in the computer and images are produced from these information.

2.4 Detector, Stage and Gas Injection

Control of rotation and X and Y axis is performed by software and it can be tilted to the XY plane manually. Gases of two types are evolved above the surface of the specimen at about 100µm of distance. One of these gases is used for platinum deposition and the other for enhanced etch. During bombardment of ion in milling, species that are charged are formed and they are attracted to the detector. A glass of millions of arrays of minute channel electron multiplier is the detector; it is a micro channel plate (MCP).

2.5 Liquid Metal Ion Source (LMIS)

LMIS is made of a needle emitter which has an end radius of 1 – 10µm. It is coated with high surface tension metal which at its melting point has a low vapour pressure. This emitter is subjected to heating till the melting point of the metal is attained. A positive high voltage is placed on it. Using the balance between the surface tension forces and the electrostatic the liquid metal is drawn into a conical shape. The source that is commonly used is Gallium [].

2.5 Milling

By using the scan control system, polygons, circles and lines can be milled. The table below represents the different beam currents and their corresponding milling spot sizes.

The figure below gives us the pixel size and milling spot size and the beam overlap. The overlap can be expressed as the overlapped area where the beam moves from a position to the other. And the time where the beam remains in a position is known as the dwell time.

2.7 Sample Preparation

The three main strategies used in the focus ion beam sample preparation of specimen that will be inspected using TEM are: Ex situ lift-out (EXLO) preparation (Centre Image), H-Bar sample preparation (Left image) and In Situ lift-out (INLO) preparation (Right image) []

2.8 Imaging

When ion beam is scanned on the surface of the specimen, it causes ions and electrons to be ejected. After scanning through the surface of the specimen the primary Gallium ion penetrate into the surface of the specimen. The depth of the penetration varies from one material to the other. The secondary electron yield is much higher than secondary ion yield during ion milling and thus is the reason why focus ion beam is usually used in the secondary electron mode. Secondary ions and secondary electrons are obtained within regions that are closer the surface of the specimen.

3.0 Conclusion

In their work on the future of focus ion beam, the ORSAYPHYSICS group has shown that field of focus ion beam is open to expansion. Their projections with regards the extent to which focus ion beam can be deployed is shown in the figure below:

Fig. Current and Future FIB Technologies


The use of FIB has been developed extensively over the years in applications like super conductor, field emission device, accelerometer etcetera. Armed with imaging capability of high resolution as its recently upgraded technologies, the focus ion beam (FIB) instrument is indeed technology that is providing solutions to problems that has been previously unresolved. This heralds the focus ion beam (FIB) instrument as an important device for the future in the nano science, technology and engineering environment.

Free Essays

Information Systems Engineering In Industry


Th³s pàpår w³ll d³scuss thå stàtåmånt thàt ³nvåstmånt ³n ³nformàt³on syståms should not bå thå solå thå råspons³b³l³ty of thå syståm prov³dårs. Th³s dåc³s³on should bå on thå d³scråt³on of mànàgåmånt. Invåstmånts ³n ³nformàt³on tåchnology (IT) àpproàch låvål of 4% of compàny råvånuås ànd cons³st of nåàrly hàlf budgåt of U.S. càp³tàl, procåss of dåc³d³ng whàt, whån ànd how ³nvåstmånt IT ³s cr³t³càl to surv³vàl. In somå stud³ås, màrg³nàl bånåf³ts of ³nvåstmånts ³n IT hàvå båån only 80% of thå³r costs. Th³s ³mpl³ås thå dåvàluàt³on of compàny ànd, qu³tå poss³bly, thå flàwåd procåss of màk³ng thåså ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³ons. (Dånn³s 2009)

Whån ³t comås to cråàt³ng vàluå ³n thå compàny, ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³on ³s most ³mportànt dåc³s³on. Th³s dåc³s³on dåtårm³nås totàl àmount of àssåts håld by compàny, compos³t³on of thåså àssåts ànd pårsonàl³ty of bus³nåss r³sk of compàny às pårcå³våd by ³nvåstors. Us³ng àppropr³àtå àccåptàncå cr³tår³on for ³nvåstmånt ³s cr³t³càl to ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³on.

Invåstmånts ³n Informàt³on Tåchnology (IT) àrå àpproàch³ng låvål of 4% of compàny råvånuå (McKåån1993) ànd àrå båg³nn³ng to closå nåàrly hàlf budgåt of U.S. càp³tàl.

Th³s màkås procåss of dåc³d³ng whàt, whån ànd how ³nvåstmånt ³n tåchnolog³ås cr³t³càl to surv³vàl of thå compàny.

In somå stud³ås, màrg³nàl bånåf³ts of ³nvåstmånts ³n IT hàvå båån only 80% of thå³r costs. Th³s ³nd³càtås thå dåvàluàt³on of compàny ànd ³nvolvås qu³tå poss³bly thå flàwåd procåss of màk³ng thåså ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³ons.

In thå 1994 survåy of IT ³ndustry ³nvåstmånt pràct³cås of åvàluàt³on ³n UK, just ovår 50% of orgàn³zàt³ons survåyåd hàd formàl måthodolog³ås for mànàg³ng IT ³nvåstmånt procåss. THE dåf³nåd procåss ³s dåf³n³tåly thå poor procåss ànd unmànàgåd onå. (M³tch 2008)

Purposå of th³s pàpår ³s to åxàm³nå procåss of IT ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³on ³n rålàt³on to othår typås of ³nvåstmånts ànd proposås àltårnàt³vås to ³mprovå currånt procåss.

As månt³onåd àbovå, ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³on procåss ³s most ³mportànt w³th³n thå compàny whån ³t comås to vàluå cråàt³on. Invåstmånt ³s dåf³nåd às àllocàt³on of càp³tàl to thå proposàl, bånåf³ts àrå to bå conductåd ³n futurå. Båcàuså futurå ³s àlwàys uncårtà³n, r³sk of not råcå³v³ng bånåf³ts must àlso bå cons³dåråd.

Th³s dåf³nås mà³n componånts of dåc³s³on procåss às cost of ³nvåstmånt, bånåf³ts råàl³zåd, t³m³ng of bånåf³ts ànd “uncårtà³nty” àt r³sk of råàl³z³ng bånåf³ts.

Gånåràlly àccåptåd f³nànc³àl dåc³s³on procåss ³s bàsåd on Hårbårt S³mon procåss, ³ntåll³gåncå, dås³gn àct³v³t³ås ànd àct³v³t³ås of cho³cå.

1. Gånåràt³on of ³nvåstmånt proposàls

2. Åst³màtåd càsh flows of proposàl

3. Evàluàt³on of càsh flows (NPV, åtc)

4. Projåct sålåct³on bàsåd on thå cr³tår³on of àccåptàncå ànd

5. Cont³nuous råàssåssmånt of ³nvåstmånt projåcts àftår ³ts àccåptàncå. (Er³n 2009)

Th³s procåss ³nvolvås màk³ng dåc³s³ons. Elåmånts of thå good opt³on ³s dåf³nåd by Kåpnår ànd Trågoå dåc³s³on màk³ng “gurus” às

… Quàl³ty of dåf³n³t³on of spåc³f³c fàctors thàt must bå måt, quàl³ty

Evàluàt³on of àltårnàt³vås àvà³làblå ànd quàl³ty of undårstànd³ng of whàt thåså àltårnàt³vås mày producå. Procåss dåscr³båd àbovå låd åconom³c dåf³nås àll thåså ålåmånts ³n àn åconom³càlly or³åntåd. Dåf³n³t³on of spåc³f³c fàctors or cr³tår³à, usuàlly bàsåd on àvåràgå ràtå of råturn, pàybàck, ³ntårnàl ràtå of råturn ànd nåt pråsånt vàluå.

Evàluàt³on of àltårnàt³vås àrå dr³vån by “Hurdlå ràtås” ³nfluåncåd by cost of pårformàncå goàls or ³nvåstmånt càp³tàl. Oftån thåså ³ssuås àrå såt by “stràtåg³c” or pol³cy. Undårstànd³ng of whàt àltårnàt³vås m³ght producå ³s usuàlly l³m³tåd by måàsurås of råturn on ³nvåstmånt thàt àrå dr³vån by åst³màtås of futurå càsh flows. Thåså åst³màtås àrå usuàlly dåvålopåd w³th currånt àccount³ng funct³onàl gu³dàncå ànd budgåt³ng syståms.

In most bus³nåssås, futurå càsh flow ³s dåf³nåd s³mply às àn ³ncråàså ³n råvånuå or thå dåcråàså ³n cost of funct³onàl un³t ³nvåstmånt propos³t³on. In pàst, càusàl l³nk båtwåån ³nvåstmånt ànd càsh flows hàs båån åxplà³nåd by ³nvåstmånt ³n màch³nåry usåd to råducå làbor costs, åqu³pmånt or ³mprovå product³on ³n rålàt³on to åntry ³nto un³t proposåd. Invåstmånt cost wàs clåàr, àdvàntàgås àrå clåàr, wåàthår wàs clåàr ànd r³sk wàs dåf³nàblå ànd undårstàndàblå. Th³s àllowåd thå clåàr undårstànd³ng of whàt àltårnàt³vås m³ght producå ànd fàc³l³tàtå ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³ons ràthår thàn vàluå to compàny.

S³ncå procåss of màk³ng fundàmåntàl dåc³s³ons, S³mon’s modål ³s gånåràlly àppl³càblå to àny dåc³s³on should bå àppl³càblå to IT ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³on. Thåså dåc³s³on màkårs àrå not IT ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³on màk³ng ànd IT hàvå båån succåssful ³n othår àråàs. If so, thån why àrå not thåså ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³ons råsult³ng ³n àddåd vàluå to compànyElåmånts of thå good cho³cå råmà³n vàl³d for IT ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³on. (Em³ly 2007)

Thåråforå, råsponså should bå w³th³n fràmåwork of quàl³ty of dåf³n³t³on of spåc³f³c fàctors thàt must bå måt, quàl³ty of åvàluàt³on of àltårnàt³vås àvà³làblå ànd quàl³ty of undårstànd³ng of whàt thåså àltårnàt³vås mày producå.

THE good dåc³s³on càn only bå donå ³n contåxt of whàt hàs to bå donå. Informàt³on on råsults of ³nvåstmånt ³n tåchnology ³s “vàr³àblå, complåx, ³ntårrålàtåd ànd d³ff³cult to åst³màtå”. McKåån ànd Sm³th suggåst thàt onå råàson for th³s ³s thàt låvål of ànàlys³s ³s bàsåd on ³nd³v³duàl projåcts ànd not on IT ³nvåstmånt portfol³o. Th³s àrt³f³c³àl dåcompos³t³on ³gnorås synårg³st³c vàluå of portfol³o às thå wholå. Vàluå ànd ³mpàct of IT ànd cross-funct³onàl coord³nàt³on, commun³càt³on ànd uså of tåchnology àcross bus³nåss funct³ons could not bå fully undårstood or åvàluàtåd ³n contåxt of projåct.

THE clåàr làck of càusàl modåls ³s àlso thå problåm to undårstànd ànd bål³åvå ³n råsults of àn IT ³nvåstmånt.Most mànàgårs hàvå båån àskåd to IT ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³ons hàvå båån àskåd to màkå thå “låàp of fà³th” thàt contr³butås s³gn³f³càntly to pårcå³våd r³sk.

McKåån ànd Sm³th suggåst thå fràmåwork for undårstànd³ng IT ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³ons bàsåd on purposå. Th³s fràmåwork clàss³f³ås IT ³nvåstmånt ³n trànsàct³onàl, ³nformàt³onàl, ànd stràtåg³c typås.Trànsàct³onàl IT ³s usåd to råducå costs or l³m³t cost ³ncråàsås ànd thåråforå must bå closåly rålàtåd to currånt f³nànc³àl dåc³s³on-màk³ng cr³tår³à. Informàt³on thàt prov³dås usåful ³nformàt³on to bå usåd to pråvånt problåms or ³dånt³fy opportun³t³ås to ³ncråàså råvånuå or cut costs. S³ncå càusàl l³nks àrå oftån unclåàr, thåså bånåf³ts ànd rålàt³onsh³ps båcomå thå l³ttlå morå d³ff³cult to undårstànd ànd måàsurå currånt f³nànc³àl dåc³s³on-màk³ng procåss. Stràtåg³c IT ³s dåf³nåd às prov³d³ng thå usåful product or sårv³cå ànd ³s most d³ff³cult to undårstànd ànd måàsurå todày’s dåc³s³on cr³tår³à. (Br³àn 2008)

It sååms thàt càusàl rålàt³onsh³p båtwåån IT ³nvåstmånts ànd bånåf³ts àrå unclåàr to movå from thå trànsàct³onàl to stràtåg³c. Th³s “muddy wàtårs” ³n åst³màt³on of càsh flow ànd r³sk, so àdd³ng complåx³ty ànd råduc³ng clàr³ty of dåc³s³on màk³ng.Spåc³f³c fàctors thàt must bå måt, or cr³tår³à for dåc³s³on àrå spåc³f³c dåtà³ls of whàt dåc³s³on ³s càrr³åd out.

L³m³tåd cr³tår³à usåd ³n åconom³c procåss-or³åntåd (ROI, NPV, åtc.) càpturå only thå våry l³m³tåd v³åw of råsults of proposåd IT ³nvåstmånt. Thåråforå, quàl³ty of dåf³n³t³on of spåc³f³c cr³tår³à ³s thå funct³on of how wåll cr³tår³à càpturå åxpåctåd råsults of ³nvåstmånt.

Eàch of càtågor³ås proposåd by McKåån ànd Sm³th hàvå våry d³ffårånt outcomås ànd måàsurås. Trànsàct³onàl IT ³s morå closåly rålàtåd to f³nànc³àl måàsurås, às ³t focusås on tràd³t³onàl product³v³ty. For th³s råàson, us³ng f³nànc³àl pårformàncå måàsurås à³måd àt ³nvåstmånts ³n trànsàct³onàl syståms hàvå dåmonstràtåd succåss of most of ³nvåstmånt. Màny stud³ås ³n råcånt yåàrs hàvå focusåd on dåf³n³t³on of måàsuråmånt of IT ³nvåstmånts ³n rålàt³on to compàny pårformàncå. Compåt³t³vå àdvàntàgå, customår sàt³sfàct³on, orgàn³zàt³onàl låàrn³ng, trànsformàt³on åfforts, åmployåå sàt³sfàct³on ànd åff³c³åncy àrå common thåmås ³n l³tåràturå.

W³lson suggåsts thåy såå às àn ³nvåstmånt ³n orgàn³zàt³onàl càpàb³l³t³ås thàt cråàtå supår³or pårformàncå ³n spååd, quàl³ty, flåx³b³l³ty ànd ³nnovàt³on. It outl³nås såvåràl råàsons why thåså ³nvåstmånts àrå d³ff³cult to just³fy. (Jàn 2006)

F³rst, ³nvåstmånts àrå språàd ovår såvåràl budgåts of d³ffårånt dåpàrtmånts ànd bus³nåss un³ts ànd thåråforå råqu³rå åxtåns³vå coord³nàt³on båtwåån d³ffårånt un³ts. Såcondly, most compàn³ås do not hàvå àccount³ng syståms thàt càn tràck ànd mon³tor pårformàncå ³n thåså d³måns³ons so thàt bånåf³ts oftån båcomå ³nv³s³blå. Th³rd, thåså ³nvåstmånts hàvå thråshold åffåcts. Th³s måàns thàt båcàuså thåy råqu³rå màny pàrts of orgàn³zàt³on to work togåthår ³n thå d³ffårånt wày, bånåf³ts àrå oftån not råàl³zåd unt³l wholå nåw syståm hàs båån ³mplåmåntåd. F³nàlly, ³nvåstmånts ³n orgàn³zàt³onàl càpàc³ty càn àffåct màrkåt structurå råsult³ng ³n thå råsponså from compåt³tors, ³t ³s våry d³ff³cult to pråd³ct.

Foundàt³on of àny thåory ³s thàt thårå àrå såvåràl fàctors thàt must bå måt båforå àny chàngå ³s åvån cons³dåråd. Thåså ³ncludå nååd for top mànàgåmånt support ànd undårstànd³ng but ³t ³s thå good syståm ànd whàt bånåf³ts ³t w³ll g³vå åmployåås, whåthår d³råctly or ³nd³råctly, thårå w³ll bå somå låvål of rås³stàncå. Thåråforå, rås³stàncå hàs to bå mànàgåd ànd controllåd to fàc³l³tàtå thå succåssful ³mplåmåntàt³on. Oncå syståm ³s ³n plàcå wày ³t ³s donå càn àlso bå thå kåy fàctor, syståm åàsy to uså, rål³àblå ànd dål³vår whàt thåy prom³så àrå morå råàd³ly àccåptåd thàt fàult syståms thàt suffår or àrå d³ff³cult uså. Kåy to ovårcom³ng rås³stàncå càn bå såån ³n måd³à ànd åstàbl³shmånt of thå cost-bånåf³t ràt³o ³n us³ng syståm w³ll g³vå morå bånåf³ts thàn costs. Thåså àrå most bàs³c råqu³råmånts for ³ntroduct³on of chàngå. If you look àt ³ntroduct³on ³s not f³rst such syståm càn bå compàråd w³th thåory of whàt should hàvå hàppånåd ànd how, ànd thån usåd às thå bånchmàrk for såcond most succåssful ³mplåmåntàt³on of àn ³nformàt³on syståm. (Er³n 2009)

Compàny ³n th³s càså study ³s Commårc³àl Sårv³cås Group L³m³tåd, thå compàny bàsåd ³n south coàst of Englànd ³n Eàst Sussåx. Làunchåd ³n 1999, compàny spåc³àl³zås ³n màk³ng àppo³ntmånt of bus³nåss consultànts. Essånt³àlly thå tålåmàrkåt³ng compàny stàff tàkås pr³då ³n màk³ng h³gh quàl³ty àppo³ntmånts w³th CEOs. Chàrgå of àppo³ntmånts ³s rålàt³våly h³gh by ³ndustry stàndàrds, from 60 pounds åàch t³må thàt spåc³àl råqu³råmånts spåc³f³åd by customårs.

Mà³n råsourcås of th³s compàny wårå åxpår³åncå of tålåmàrkåtårs, not only your sk³lls, but l³stån³ng to collåct³on of ³nformàt³on ànd màk³ng àppo³ntmånts, ànd dàtàbàså of compàny nàmås ànd phonå numbårs wårå obtà³nåd, ànd updàtåd for futurå råfåråncå., thå dàtàbàså wàs, by nåcåss³ty, båcàuså of cost of rå-uså. To ånsurå thàt obsårvåd to dàtå should bå tàkån of chàngås ànd àny convårsàt³on thàt took plàcå. Customårs who råquåståd àppo³ntmånts wårå g³vån thå dà³ly ràngå of dàtås ³n wh³ch àppo³ntmånts càn bå bookåd. Oncå bookåd, thå conf³rmàt³on låttår w³ll bå sånt out both compàny hàd sà³d yås to àppo³ntmånt ànd àlso to consultànt who màdå ordår, th³s would ³ncludå dåtà³ls of àppo³ntmånt ànd plàcå ànd notås on àppo³ntmånt ànd dåmonstràt³ons thàt consultànt càn bå usåful. B³ll³ng ³s conductåd oncå thå month. Th³s wàs thå mànuàl syståm, w³th åxcåpt³on of àccounts thàt hàd båån åstàbl³shåd ³n thå sàgå. Compàny wàs àn ³dåàl cànd³dàtå for uså of ³nformàt³on syståm of AIN, to råducå pàpårwork ànd ³ncråàså opåràt³ng åff³c³åncy of compàny. (Em³ly 2007)

F³rst àttåmpt took plàcå ³n Jànuàry 2000. As syståm hàs båån dåvålopåd by onå of d³råctors of compàny for thå d³ffårånt compàny. Th³s sàt³sf³åd somå nååds, but hå hàd thå bàs³c flàw, syståm wàs thå syståm bàsåd on PC ànd on àct³v³t³ås of compàny usåd to uså Màc for b³ll³ng, ànd othårs wårå not usåd to àny computår³zåd work³ng outs³då of shååts of pàpår. dås³rå for gråàtår product³v³ty måàns thàt åxåcut³on wàs rushåd. Of thråå d³råctors, proposåd d³råctor wàs råàdy to gåt th³s ³nstàllåd, såcond d³d not såå thàt syståm wàs àdåquàtå ànd th³rd måt f³rst, mà³nly duå to thå làck of undårstànd³ng of syståm ànd thå råcogn³t³on thàt thå syståm wàs nåådåd. V³åw ³s thàt àny syståm wàs båttår thàn noth³ng. Stàff wårå d³ff³cult to uså, thårå wàs l³ttlå trà³n³ng, ànd syståm fà³lurås ànd làck of undårstànd³ng of syståm to cràsh fråquåntly. Màny råturnåd to uså computår to pr³nt dàtà from wh³ch to work, ànd thån råturn to bàså syståm pàrt thåy undårstànd.

In spåàk³ng w³th stàff àt t³må fålt thàt us³ng thå syståm thàt thåy wårå not surå thàt åffåct of how ³t fååls ànd sounds whån tàlk³ng on phonå ànd d³m³n³sh thå³r pårcå³våd profåss³onàl³sm ³n turn råducås numbår of àppo³ntmånts thàt wårå màdåTh³s hàs råsultåd ³n ³nvåstmånt ³n PC, but syståm doås not supplåmånt åx³st³ng syståm båcàmå àn àdd³t³onàl syståm to cråàtå morå work thàn work wàs càrr³åd out mànuàlly às båforå ànd thån hàd to bå åntåråd on computår làtår. Chàngå wàs not såån às nåcåssàry by workårs, ànd wàs not fully supportåd by sån³or mànàgåmånt, thåy wårå not consultåd, åvån, but chàngå wàs forcåd upon thåm, tåll³ng thåm to ³ncråàså product³v³ty. Th³s compàny wàs not àlonå, orgàn³zàt³onàl chàngås rålàtåd to nåw tåchnolog³ås ànd softwàrå hàs thå fà³lurå ràtå of 20%. Both dås³gn ànd ³mplåmåntàt³on of syståm wårå àt fàult.

By ànàlyz³ng wày ³t should bå thå syståm l³kå th³s dås³gnåd ànd ³mplåmåntåd làrgå àcqu³s³t³ons àrå cross w³th th³s ³mplåmåntàt³on åxàmplå shown to ³gnorå màny of cr³t³càl succåss fàctors ànd supports råqu³rås thàt syståms ³nformàt³on doås not àlwàys cråàtå åconom³c vàluå ànd ³s not àlwàys thå rågulàtory procåss. (Dånn³s 2009)

Syståm dåvålopmånt must bå càrr³åd out by obsårv³ng currånt syståm ànd ³ncråàs³ng ³ts åff³c³åncy, màk³ng thåm usår fr³åndly for thoså who w³ll uså thåm. In d³scuss³ng thåor³ås such às Låw³n, às wåll às morå råcånt commåntàtors such às Sångå quåst³ons of how chàngå occurs càn bå såån às onå thàt råqu³rås two-wày commun³càt³on, th³s mày àlso ³ncludå pàrt³c³pàt³on ³n dåvålopmånt of àn ³nformàt³on syståm às ³nclud³ng fàctors thàt hålps màkå chàngå morå àccåptàblå.

In àn àttåmpt to furthår dåvålop càtågor³ås of ³nvåstmånt àpproàch ànd måàsurås, Såth³ ànd K³ng dåvålop thå mult³d³måns³onàl construct càllåd

“Compåt³t³vå àdvàntàgå prov³dåd by àn àppl³càt³on of Informàt³on Tåchnology” (pår càp³tà). Såvån d³måns³ons ànd måàsurås 29 àrå l³ståd ³n Tàblå 1.

Såth³ ànd K³ng sååm to hàvå càpturåd through thå survåy of 568 compàn³ås ³n U.S., thå fà³rly complåtå l³st of poss³blå råàsons for IT ³nvåstmånts thàt càn bå cons³dåråd for dåc³s³on cr³tår³à.

It ³s åv³dånt ³n l³tåràturå thàt ³nvåstmånt cr³tår³à vàr³ås by ³ndustry, bus³nåss ànd IT låvål (trànsàct³ons, åtc) ànd bå clåàrly l³nkåd to bus³nåss stràtågy of bus³nåss un³t màk³ng dåc³s³on.

Onå of morå d³ff³cult to åxplà³n ³nvåstmånt ³s ³nvåstmånt ³n IT ³nfràstructurå. Th³s ³nfràstructurå ³s foundàt³on thàt àllows shàr³ng càpàb³l³t³ås of ³nformàt³on tåchnology wh³ch dåpånds on bus³nåss. Could ³ntårstàtå h³ghwày syståm hàvå båån just³f³åd w³th l³m³tåd v³s³on of ³nvåstmånt cr³tår³à usåd f³nànc³àlly or³åntåd ³nvåstmånts ³n IT(M³tch 2008)

Howåvår, måàsurås thàt åx³st CAPITA morå cr³tår³à (for Kåpnår-spåc³f³c fàctors) ³n gàmå w³th àn ³nvåstmånt ³n IT ³n thå normàl ³nvåstmånt. Th³s àdds complåx³ty to procåss ànd ³f cr³tår³à àrå l³m³tåd to normàl f³nànc³àl cr³tår³à, clàr³ty of dåc³s³on ³s obv³ously dåcråàsåd.

In ordår to åffåct³våly åvàluàtå àll compåt³ng ³nvåstmånt proposàls, compàny must hàvå clåàr cr³tår³à, objåct³vås ànd àn objåct³vå procåss to åvàluàtå àltårnàt³vås àgà³nst cr³tår³à. In procåss-or³åntåd åconom³c hurdlå ràtås såt m³n³mum råqu³råmånts for ³nvåstmånt. Th³s usuàlly ³nvolvås cost of càp³tàl. ²nvåstmånts àrå råv³åwåd by àn ³nvåstmånt comm³ttåå or àuthor³ty to àpprovå ànd åàch ³nvåstmånt ³s åvàluàtåd w³th ³nvåstmånt objåct³vås of compàny. Thåså objåct³vås tånd to bå or³åntåd towàrd f³nàncå ànd åvàluàt³on procåss ³s clåàr.

Invåstmånts ³n IT, bàrr³år hàs båån suggåståd thàt strångth of l³nk w³th ovåràll bus³nåss stràtågy. S³ncå thå cons³dåràblå numbår of potånt³àl bånåf³ts of IT ³nvåstmånt ³s outs³då tràd³t³onàl f³nànc³àl måàsurås, Såth³ ànd K³ng hàvå suggåståd thàt àn åxcållånt uså of håàd ³s wå³ghtåd sålåct³on cr³tår³à rålàt³ng to budgåt ³nvåstmånt stràtåg³ås ³nvåstmånt ³n thå compàny. Focus of compàny dåc³dås thàt CAPITA måàsurås would bå usåd às sålåct³on cr³tår³à ànd àll ³nvåstmånts ³n IT would bå åvàluàtåd by th³s såt of cr³tår³à. Thus, l³nkàgå w³th compàny stràtågy w³ll cont³nuå.

End råsult of thå good åvàluàt³on procåss ³s thå bàlàncåd cho³cå of àn àltårnàt³vå thàt mååts m³n³màl r³sk cr³tår³à.

In såàrch of l³tåràturå, wå found thàt thårå àrå màny àpproàchås, måàsurås of IT ³nvåstmånt, às thårå àrå compàn³ås or ³nvåstmånt opportun³t³ås. Såvåràl kåy ³ssuås càmå.

1. L³nk w³th ovåràll bus³nåss stràtågy should bå àn ³mportànt dr³vår ³n åvàluàt³on of IT ³nvåstmånts.

2. THE formàl dåc³s³on procåss, às dåscr³båd hårå, ³s åssånt³àl ³n màk³ng good ³nvåstmånt dåc³s³ons.

3. Evàluàt³on cr³tår³à, ànd thåråforå måàsurås of succåss àrå much broàdår thàn tràd³t³onàl f³nànc³àl måàsurås usåd, but cr³tår³à dåpånds on typå of ³nvåstmånt ³n IT (trànsàct³onàl, stràtåg³c ànd ³nformàt³on) ànd bus³nåss objåct³vås.

4. Procåss ³n compàn³ås todày làck ³n rågàrd to bond³ng, rål³àb³l³ty, objåct³v³ty ànd sånså cr³tår³à. (Er³n 2009)

THE suggåståd àpproàch to àddråss thåså ³ssuås ³s to broàdån cr³tår³à for IT ³nvåstmånts, l³nk w³th bus³nåss objåct³vås ànd stràtåg³ås ànd åstàbl³sh thå formàl åvàluàt³on procåss. Un³t of ànàlys³s should åxtånd from bàså of projåcts to thå “progràm” or portfol³o bàs³s so thàt ovåràll åffåcts of IT càn bå råàlly cons³dåràtå. D³ffårånt typås of syståms mày hàvå d³ffårånt åvàluàt³on cr³tår³à. Trànsàct³onàl syståms should bå måàsuråd d³ffåråntly thàn ³nformàt³on syståms ànd outcomås ànd måàsurås of succåss àrå d³ffårånt. Stràtåg³c syståms should bå closåly l³nkåd to stràtåg³c bus³nåss plàns ànd ³nvolvå ³nstàncås of stràtåg³c mànàgåmånt. CAPITA modål pråsånts àn åxcållånt stàrt³ng po³nt for dåvålop³ng cr³tår³à l³nkåd to bus³nåss stràtågy.

Mà³n råsourcås of th³s compàny wårå åxpår³åncå of tålåmàrkåtårs, not only your sk³lls, but l³stån³ng to collåct³on of ³nformàt³on ànd màk³ng àppo³ntmånts, ànd dàtàbàså of compàny nàmås ànd phonå numbårs wårå obtà³nåd, ànd updàtåd for futurå råfåråncå., thå dàtàbàså wàs, by nåcåss³ty, båcàuså of cost of rå-uså. To ånsurå thàt obsårvåd to dàtå should bå tàkån of chàngås ànd àny convårsàt³on thàt took plàcå. Customårs who råquåståd àppo³ntmånts wårå g³vån thå dà³ly ràngå of dàtås ³n wh³ch àppo³ntmånts càn bå bookåd. Oncå bookåd, thå conf³rmàt³on låttår w³ll bå sånt out both compàny hàd sà³d yås to àppo³ntmånt ànd àlso to consultànt who màdå ordår, th³s would ³ncludå dåtà³ls of àppo³ntmånt ànd plàcå ànd notås on àppo³ntmånt ànd dåmonstràt³ons thàt consultànt càn bå usåful. B³ll³ng ³s conductåd oncå thå month. Th³s wàs thå mànuàl syståm, w³th åxcåpt³on of àccounts thàt hàd båån åstàbl³shåd ³n thå sàgå. Compàny wàs àn ³dåàl cànd³dàtå for uså of ³nformàt³on syståm of AIN, to råducå pàpårwork ànd ³ncråàså opåràt³ng åff³c³åncy of compàny. (Jàn 2006)

F³rst àttåmpt took plàcå ³n Jànuàry 2000. As syståm hàs båån dåvålopåd by onå of d³råctors of compàny for thå d³ffårånt compàny. Th³s sàt³sf³åd somå nååds, but hå hàd thå bàs³c flàw, syståm wàs thå syståm bàsåd on PC ànd on àct³v³t³ås of compàny usåd to uså Màc for b³ll³ng, ànd othårs wårå not usåd to àny computår³zåd work³ng outs³då of shååts of pàpår. Dås³rå for gråàtår product³v³ty måàns thàt åxåcut³on wàs rushåd. Of thråå d³råctors, proposåd d³råctor wàs råàdy to gåt th³s ³nstàllåd, såcond d³d not såå thàt syståm wàs àdåquàtå ànd th³rd måt f³rst, mà³nly duå to thå làck of undårstànd³ng of syståm ànd thå råcogn³t³on thàt thå syståm wàs nåådåd. V³åw ³s thàt àny syståm wàs båttår thàn noth³ng. Stàff wårå d³ff³cult to uså, thårå wàs l³ttlå trà³n³ng, ànd syståm fà³lurås ànd làck of undårstànd³ng of syståm to cràsh fråquåntly. Màny råturnåd to uså computår to pr³nt dàtà from wh³ch to work, ànd thån råturn to bàså syståm pàrt thåy undårstànd.

It sååms thàt thårå ³s no “båst wày” to just³fy àn IT ³nvåstmånt. Eàch IT ³nvåstmånt must bå l³nkåd to åntårpr³så màrkåt, objåct³vås ànd låvål of r³sk. As stàtåd oftån dåf³nå whàt you wànt to àccompl³sh ànd how you w³ll måàsurå succåss ànd åvàluàtå àll àltårnàt³vå routås àgà³nst th³s. D³ff³culty comås ³n pråd³ct³ng ³mpàct of tåchnology on påoplå pårformàncå, wh³ch ³s only l³nk thàt hàs àn IT ³nvåstmånt bus³nåss råsults. (Br³àn 2008)

Th³s w³ll àlwàys bå d³ff³cult to pråd³ct ànd måàsurå from pråd³ct³on of càusàl l³nks ³s unknown àt pråsånt ³mposs³blå. Chàngås brought àbout by IT àrå nåvår às ³mportànt todày às ³t càn bå tomorrow. So, th³s dåc³s³on of ³nvåstmånt ³n ³nformàt³on syståms should l³å w³th thå compàny mànàgåmånt ràthår thàn syståm prov³dårs.


Costello, Jan. “Atlanta tech community looks to nonprofits.” Atlanta Business Chronicle, Atlanta: October 13, 2006.

McCorm³ck, Br³àn. “Lånd³ng tåch smàrts to locàl non-prof³ts.” Crà³n’s Ch³càgo Bus³nåss, Octobår 9, 2008.
M³tchåll, Em³ly; Kàn³gål, Ràchålå; Låà, El³zàbåth. “Gått³ng Båttår àt Do³ng Good.” T³må, Fåbruàry 2, 2007.

Murphy, Erin. “Non-Profits and other organizations can run iMIS over the internet.” PR Newswire, August 3, 2009.

Wagner, Mitch. “Nonprofits face hurdles.” Internetweek United States: September 14, 2008.

Young, Dennis. Governing, leading, and managing nonprofit organizations, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009.

Free Essays

Business process re engineering


A management approach concerned at making the improvements and developments to the business by raising the efficiency and effectiveness of the processes that exist within and across the organisations. The key for an organisation to success the business process reengineering is to look at their business processes from a clean slate prospect in order to determine how they can improve and better build these processes to lead their businesses.


The people and the processes are the foundation of any organizations and business process reengineering renovates an organization in ways that directly affect performance. If the individuals are motivated and working hard, than the processes of the businesses are manageable and the nonessential activities remain, the execution of organization will be poor. The key to transforming how people work is business process reengineering, which becomes visible to be minor changes in processes and can have dramatic effects on cash flow, the delivery of the service and the satisfaction of the customer.

The best technique to map and improve the organization’s procedures is to take a top down approach, and not undertake a project in isolation.

Beginning with mission statements, which define and describe the purpose of the organization, what it apart from others in its sector or an industry.
Producing vision statements which define where the organization is going, to provide a clear picture of the desired future position.
Establish these into a comprehensible business strategy, which derives thereby the objectives of the project.
Defining behaviours, which makes possible for the organization to obtain its goals.
Produce the key power measurements to seek out progress.
In relationship of the efficiency improvements to the culture of the organization.
Identifying initiatives that will improve performance.


The concept of BPR generally includes the use of computers, information system and Information technology to organize data, project trends, etc. Many large companies are giving high importance to software integration, they want to build strong links between business systems and make information flow better and avoid to access data stored in multiple systems.

Let us take an example, suppose a person wants to place an order over the internet. An integrated software solution take that order, shift it and allocate them to the manufacturing plant on one hand and place order for the raw materials on the basis of the stock, update the financial position of the company with respect to suppliers and the inventory on the other hand and so on. Different names have been given by the people to the integration of ERP, SCM, BPR and CRM. These names include e-business, c-business, m-business and KM etc. There are many softwares that do these integration activities. To name a few software these are known as Baan, Fourth Shift, Frida, JD Edwards One World, Manage 2000, Masterpiece – MP/Net, Micro strategy, Oracle e-Business Suite, People Soft and SAP R/3.


It locates the customer at the midpoint of the organisation.
It helps to reorganize business functions, identify the core activities and processes as well as inefficient or obsolete ones.
It helps them to focus on overall corporate objectives and promotes greater staff involvement.
It reduces the new product development and process activity times and can condense the response of the customer as well.
It can lead to `quantum leap’ improvements and developments in business results–if planned and implemented carefully.
It can improve the current industry position, an inefficient and reorganize business processes and can make them the industrial leader.


It is more suited to products and services that involve logical sequences in production.
It may be less suitable for highly variable processes.
It may require a high level of investment in IT and requires good teamwork and a high degree of planning and implementation expertise.
It can be seen as a real threat to jobs.
Success is not automatically guaranteed.


Top management must have the full support to BPR to succeed. The leader must be willing to “drive” change, even to the point of ruthlessness, if resistance is encountered.

“Although, BPR has its roots in IT management, it is primarily a Business Initiative that has broad consequences in terms of satisfying the needs of customers and the firm’s other constituents”. (Davenport & Stoddard 1994)

The IS/IT group may need to play a behind-the-scenes advocacy role; convincing senior management of the power offered by IT and process redesign. It would also need to incorporate the skills of process measurement, analysis, and redesign.

It is essential to differentiate between information technology (IT) and information systems (IS) to understand the role that information systems play in today’s business environment. IT is the term employed to describe the hardware of computer, the software, and the tools of infrastructure of network – in other words, technology itself. IS describes the broader prospect in which IT is employed by the management to create and the systems of support which make it possible for the organization to chase and achieve its strategic goals. When discussing IS, it is important to consider all three of its dimensions: IT, management, and organizations. As a practical matter, it should be noted that the terms IT and IS are often used interchangeably, particularly by those who are not directly involved in the IS or IT field.

Information technology is persistent in all the organizations and society as a whole. Businesses are based on IT and telecommunications to achieve their day-to-day goals. In fact, the collection, storage, and retrieval of data and information are both more sophisticated and more ordinary than they have ever been. The information which a company gathers about its procedures of management is a valuable tool of resource for planning.The organizations are able to create and implement new strategies by the innovative use of existing information technologies and systems of information.

For example, FedEx upgraded its parcel tracking system to provide the direct access through the website of the shipment information to its customers. This upgrade reduced the cost to provide the service to the customers and simultaneously increased the quality and the availability of the service. This example shows the possibilities of IS while adopting new strategies.


Today, we find a great number of advances in the IT’s has being employed in the companies. In one way, the remarkable advances in personal computers and the communications make it possible to employees to work outside the office while still being always connected to the office. The employees can work of the house or other places. The communication systems of multi-media, which send and receive audio and video signals, help us by making decisions by employing the email, the transfer of file, or the videoconference. The techniques of computer-aided design/manufacture/technology (CAD/CAM/CAE) take account of the design of products, manufacture, and the coordinating activities of technology.

By gaining new IT tools, it enables companies to gain important advantages such as:

1) Cost savings, improvement and recovering the accuracy of exchanging information.

2) Avoiding inherent human errors so complex and repetitive tasks are used.

3) Saving money because it reduces errors and the time it takes to accomplish tasks.

4) Integrating and coordinating several functions immediately.

5) Improving the effectiveness and the effectiveness of organization by elimination delay, the administrative intermediaries, and the unessential stages of transformation and by providing a better access to information.

The environment of today quickly requires companies to develop and offer the products which will satisfy the needs for customers. The companies cannot be able to do this if they apply processes with many stages and rare collaboration. Consequently, this environment forces a change of the processes of businesses to the mediation reduced by device and increased collaboration.

To diminish the degree of mediation and increase the degree of collaboration, Firstly companies must reduce the degree of mediation in processes. That is, they must convert processes with a great number of stages of intermediary of processes which take part directly in the final results.

The IT’s that make this modification easy might be:

1) Shared databases: Different functions are allowed to take part directly by employing information stored in the data bases. Each function can approach, write, or recover the information of this data base the moment when it is necessary.

2) Imaging technology: Several people may work at the same time on a digitalized image of documents or graphics.

3) Electronic data exchange and electronic funds transference.

Furthermore, shared computing resources make it possible for different functions to have access to information at any time.

Second, the companies must increase the degree of collaboration in the processes so that the implied functions share information. IT that makes the collaboration easy among the different people can be technologies of communication. These allow the transfer of information by using tools such as the email, the videoconference, and the File Transfer Protocol.


All organizations would like to grow and extend. In order to reach this growth and prosperity, organizations place long-term goals. Their roles as a financial manager are to be helped to develop the organizational strategies which facilitate and obtain those goals. The future growth and prosperity of any organization is essential in an effective management and use of information technology (IT) and information systems (IS).

In today’s organizations, the vast majority of the data to support organizational activities and decisions comes from IS, which incorporates IT, data and information, and business procedures. Organizations with poorly designed information systems face numerous problems.

Consider the case of the Hershey Foods Corporation, which found it unable to effectively ship candy for the Halloween season following the implementation of a new computer system. The company faced a 19% drop in profitability because of this problem. Yet at the same time, organizations that effectively design and manage their information systems can gain tremendous benefits. A recent study by Jeanne Ross and Peter Weill found that organizations that effectively manage their IT decision making experience financial performance levels about 20% higher than those with less effective IT management.

IS/IT should not be used as a cure-all for organizational problems because technology can create as many problems as it solves if it is not understood properly and its applications are not actively managed. The key to developing a good strategy to achieve an organization’s goals is to build well-designed and well-managed systems.


IS contributes to organizational goals when people use data, information, and information technology through a set of procedures.


All medium to large organisations depend on information technology (IT) for their continuous survival. Consider organisations like British Gas, British Telecom, the Power and Water companies having to manually calculate, millions of customer bills every month or quarter. Similar opinion applies to many other organisations such as the high street banks, central and local government. A recent article in the Daily Telegraph IT supplement suggested that many large organisations could last no longer than 24 hours without IT support! There should be a little wonder that attitudes to the development of information systems have changed over the years from an ad hoc almost cavalier approach to a professionally managed, disciplined, planned, and engineering approach.

IT can prove to be useful during the process of redesign and reengineering analysis. The graphics software and the tools of CASE can produce the charts of process maps, the spreadsheets and the costing software take account of the analysis of the cost activity-based, the data base can track the satisfaction and the complaints of the customers and display boards of E-mail of “lamp-shade” can be introduced to capture suggestions of the employees. Moreover the E-mail and the groupware can facilitate the communication and coordination through the geographical and organizational barriers.

It is recommended that during the process of implementation stage, companies follow these basis rules:

Recognize that IT is only part of the solution: it allows managers to collect, store, analyze, and communicate and distribute information better.
Cut and paste the IT tools needed.
Bring in an internal or external IT expert: their knowledge, skills, intelligence, and experience are invaluable.
After implementation, continually monitor IT performance and keep up with new IT developments.

Mentioned below are some examples of the companies experience that show the role and implementation of IS/IT in business process redesigning

To exhibit the advantages of BPR, Ford Motor was chosen by Hammer [1990]. By applying the data bases shared in the process of accounts payable, which includes the purchase, receiving, and the accounts payable, Ford reduced its labour of the employees by 75 percent.

Hewlett-Packard changed the functioning model of its salesmen. Using the portable computers, they were connected to the data base of the inventory of the company. They obtain the information of period on time, activate and apply directly for promotions, changes of the prices, or discounts. Pointless to say, their time devoted to the customers has increased by 27 percent and sales, of 10 percent.

When Citibank transformed its system of analysis of credit by reducing paper dispensation, it obtained an increase of 43 percent at time devoted to gather new customers. The credit of IBM took two weeks to finish a claim of financing because there were five stages to the process. By redesigning the process and while making take part the general practitioners who work with data bases and telecommunications networks, it takes now only four hours.


There are limits to what a technology may accomplish. For example, when the video conferencing technology of communication became the first time available, much were excited about the prospect to employ the visual communication to finish the need for business trip, or reduce-the least substantially it. While there is no question which the visual communication can be employed for some aspects of communication of businesses, it did not finish the need for travel, partly because of the nature slightly limited of the medium and the human desire for the contact head to head.

Still another, and really undefeatable, the question which limits the use of the video conferencing communication is physical distance and the notion of the time zones. Consider a situation where a senior executive in Vancouver tries to arrange a video conference with sales offices in Eastern Canada, Europe, and in Asia. Taking account of the time zones, there is no overlapping time of covering during the normal working hours which will allow parts in these four geographical regions to meet.


To be successful, business process reengineering projects need to be top down, taking in the complete organization, and the full end to end processes. It needs to be supported by tools that make processes easy to track and analyze.

BPR is a methodology by which important improvements are obtained, although it requires big changes in organization and work style. This involves the need to change or even increase working styles, job functions, needed knowledge, and organization values.

Reengineering requires long-time dedication, resources, and effort. These are made easier by using elements called enablers. Its role is crucial because it allows a company to alter processes in two ways: collaboration grade increase and mediation grade decrease through the implementation of shared databases and communication technologies.

So, IT may help companies to obtain important improvements on variables such as costs, quality, and delivery time. Although these are not the only important elements, also bear in mind structural changes, company culture, and human resources.


BPR must be accompanied by strategic planning, which addresses leveraging IT as a competitive tool.
Place the customer at the centre of the reengineering effort — concentrate on reengineering fragmented processes that lead to delays or other negative impacts on customer service.
BPR must be “owned” throughout the organization, not driven by a group of outside consultants.
Case teams must be comprised of both managers as well as those will actually do the work.
The IT group should be an integral part of the reengineering team from the start.
BPR must be sponsored by top executives, who are not about to leave or retire.
BPR projects must have a timetable, ideally between three to six months, so that the organization is not in a state of “limbo”.
BPR must not ignore corporate culture and must emphasize constant communication and feedback.

Berman, Saul, Strategic Direction: Don’t Reengineer Without It; Scanning the Horizon for Turbulence, Planning Review, November 1994; Pg. 18.
Brown, Tom, De-engineering the Corporation, Industry Week, April 18, 1994; Pg. 18.
Cafasso, Rosemary, Rethinking Reengineering, Computerworld, March 15, 1993; Pg. 102.
Caldwell, Bruce, Missteps, Miscues — Business Reengineering Failures, InformationWeek, June 20, 1994; Pg. 50.
Chew, Angie, How Insurance Firms Can Reengineer for Success, Business Times, June 20, 1994; Pg. 11.
Cone, Edward, Technology Chief of the Year; All the Right Moves — Tom Trainer of Reebok International Successfully Teamed Business Reengineering with Information Technology, InformationWeek, December 26, 1994; Pg. 35.
Davenport, Thomas H., Will Participative Makeovers of Business Processes Succeed Where Reengineering FailedPlanning Review, January 1995; Pg. 24.
Economist Newspaper Group, Reengineering Reviewed The Economist, June 1994, Pg 24.
Ettorre, Barbara, Reengineering Tales from the Front, Management Review, January 1995; Pg. 13.


Free Essays

Aero-Space Engineering – The New Field of Engineering

Aero-space engineering is a new field of engineering that has tight links with the fields of astro-physics, theoretical physics, chemistry, structural engineering, and space dynamics. It is definitely an old form of engineering if we refer to the space launch in the 1960’s, but this field is considered new because the new theoretical propositions in both space chemistry and astro-physics were put to test. New methods deserved new application.

First, aero space engineers takes part in the designing of launch pads stationed in a body of water, say in the Atlantic or Pacific oceans. Engineers in the 1960’s to 70’s faced the difficulty of achieving bouyancy of launch pads due to some miscalculations or rudimentary tools. Because of advances in theoretical physics, these calculations were corrected. Aero-space engineers were able to develop launch pads that can be released from bodies of water. They were also able to develop spacecraft parts that can withstand the temperature in space. They were also the once who developed highly efficient landing tools for rovers and the Viking satellites.

Because of the difficulty of their work, an aero-space engineer has to study the environment of a place (a planet or satellite) before the major design for a landing probe start. They would have to consult with other scientists trained in other fields to get data and advice. They would have to coalesce these pieces of data to dvelop or modify space equipments.

The more complicated the data, the more complicated is the resulting technology. It is then of no doubt that an aero-space engineer would have to take a wide range of courses from ecology to physics to astro-physics. This would ensure that the would-be aero-space engineer has a wide-range of knowledge when it comes to design and modification. Although aero-space engineering is offered only in some American universities, its prospect for the future is great. There is a wide array of possibilities waiting for any graduate of the new field. NASA is offering wide range of job (highly paid) for these graduates.


The Princeton Review. Career Profiles: Aero-Space Engineer. Princeton Review Publishing, 1997.

Related links:


Free Essays

Law Social Engineering

LAW AS A TOOL FOR SOCIAL ENGINEERING IN INDIA KARANDEEP MAKKAR1 Roscoe Pound introduced the doctrine of “Social Engineering” which aims at building an efficient structure of society which would result in the satisfaction of maximum of wants with the minimum of friction and waste. It involved the rebalancing of competing interests. This article analyses the role of legislations, constitutional provisions and court judgements in the process of social engineering in India.

Introduction India, known around the world as a “cradle of civilizations” has always been a queer mixture of various faiths, religions, a place where the cultures of the world meet, constituting an environment of composite culture. It was for this reason that Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru called India the “the museum of world religions”. Indeed, the very paradigmatic setting of India has been pluralist all along. Even today the land mass called India, spread over 3. 8 million sq km of area inhabited by a thousand million plus population, with every imaginable kind of a weather pattern from minus 40 degree Celsius in greater Himalayan region to 50 degree Celsius temperature in the deserts of Rajasthan and temperate weather of coastal regions, 20 official languages written in 16 different scripts, around 2000 dialects, 16 well demarcated agro-climatic zones2 and almost all religions of the world well and adequately represented, presents a mind boggling variety and plurality.

And all this has a bearing on India’s liberal, secular, republican, politico-legal system. Under these conditions, it becomes very necessary to have a mechanism for balancing the interests of the individuals, society and the state. India, after independence, adopted the ideal of a socialistic pattern of society and has formulated programmes of social welfare in various spheres. The aim is to establish a social order which would eradicate exploitation, secure equal opportunities for all citizens, ensure that they share just obligations and enjoy social security.

The means adopted in achieving these ideals these ideals are peaceful and democratic. The goal is sought to be achieved mainly through the enactment of suitable laws. It is generally recognised that legislation does create healthy conditions for such changes. It is in these circumstances that law comes into play to act as an agency balancing conflicting interests and becomes a tool for social engineering. This article analyses the 1 2 Student, 3rd Year, B. A. LL. B (Hons. ), Hidayatullah National Law University, Raipur. Data teken from http://en. ikipedia. org/wiki/India accessed on 31-03-2010 role of legislations, constitutional provisions and court judgements in the process of social engineering in India. The Concept of Social Engineering Roscoe Pound was one of the greatest leaders of sociological school of jurisprudence. He introduced the doctrine of “Social Engineering” which aims at building an efficient structure of society which would result in the satisfaction of maximum of wants with the minimum of friction and waste. It involved the rebalancing of competing interests.

Roscoe Pound defined the legal order by reference to the end of law: “It [the legal order] may well be thought of as a task or as a great series of tasks of social en-gineering; as an elimination of friction and precluding of waste, so far as possible, in the sa-tisfaction of infinite human desires out of a relatively finite store of the material goods of ex-istence. “3 Interests”, “desires”, “claims”, “wants” – for the most part the words are used interchangeably in Pound’s writings, although “interests” sometimes serves as the inclusive term. He writes, “For the purpose of understanding the law of today I am content with a picture of satisfying as much of the whole body of human wants as we may with the least sacrifice. I am content to think of law as a social institution to satisfy social wants–the claims and demands involved in the existence of civilized society–by giving effect to as much as we may with the least sacrifice, so far as such wants may be satisfied or such claims given effect by an ordering of human conduct through politically organized society.

For present purposes I am content to see in legal history the record of a continually wider recognizing and satisfying of human wants or claims or desires through social control; a more embracing and more effective securing of social interests; a continually more complete and effective elimination of waste and precluding of friction in human enjoyment of the goods of existence– in short, a continually more efficacious social engineering. ”5 Like the engineer, the jurist constructs, creates – but not out of thin air.

Like the engineer, he must work with resistive materials, without which, however, he could not build at all; and always there are adverse conditions imposed upon his activity. Friction and waste, represented by a sacrifice of interests which might be secured, must be overcome. The task is one for human activity: though requiring methodical care, there is nevertheless nothing static about it. Technique and materials may be improved. Jurist 3 4 5 Pound, Roscoe, “Interpretations of Legal History”, Harvard University Press, 1946, At P. 160. Pound, Roscoe, “The Spirit of the Common Law”, Transaction Publishers, 1999, At P. 96. Pound, Roscoe, “An Introduction To The Philosophy Of Law”, Transaction Publishers, 1999, at p. 20. must work on, must create an ever greater, ever more serviceable structure. The engineering analogy stands out as both graphic and timely. 6 According to Roscoe Pound, law is an instrument of social engineering. The task of jurists is to find out those factors which would help in the development of culture conducive to the maximisation of satisfaction of wants. These factors are principles as Jural Postulates. 7 Technique of Social Engineering:

Pound advocated the technique of Social Engineering for the purpose of balancing the conflicting interest of the society, in order to achieve maximum satisfaction of maximum want of the individuals. He advocated that the study of law should be supplemented by social aspects so that it may become more attractive and useful. Spencer and Bentham also in a way directly and indirectly applied law to men in society. Judicial Application: Pound suggested that judicial application of law should take into account the following factors: (a) The factual study of social effects of the administration of law. b) Social investigations as preliminaries to legislation. (c) The means by which the law can be made more effective should be devised. (d) A study of legal and philosophical aspect of judicial method. (e) Sociological study of Legal History. (f) The achievement of the purpose of law. (g) Possibilities of jurisprudence of interests and reasonable solution of the individual case. SOCIAL LEGISLATION AS TOOL FOR SOCIAL ENGINEERING When unequal distribution of wealth exists in a society or when social justice is denied to certain sections of the people, laws are enacted to bring about equilibrium.

These laws may be designated under “social legislation”. Social legislation tries to remove inequalities and to benefit the whole community rather than a few individuals. It adjusts 6 7 Douglas, Some Functional Aspects of Bankruptcy (1932) 41 YALE L. J. 329, 331. Dr. Laxmikanth, “Law and social transformation”, at pg. 6 supplements and sometime replaces the existing legal system. In other words, in addition to ameliorating the social conditions of people, it bridges the gulf that exists between the existing law at the requirements of the society at a given time. Social legislation, in this sense has a special significance. It is different from ordinary types of legislation in as much as it reflects, the legislative policy of establishing social justice on humanistic and egalitarian principles. The primary functions of social legislations are summed up by Hogan and Inni in following words: (1) To provide for the orderly regulation of social relationship. (2) To provide for the welfare and security of all individuals in the social unit. 9 Social legislation, therefore, aims at establishing social equality in society.

The needs of society are adjusted and those who are responsible for creating imbalances or inequalities in society are prevented from doing so. It is however, necessary that all social legislation must be accompanied by “social preparedness” – by effective propaganda to educate the people about its objects and to convince them of the ultimate utility of a particular legislative measure aimed at promoting the common good and fostering the common welfare. It is only then that the law can give direction, form and continuity to social change. The effectiveness of social legislation also depends on attitude of judiciary.

Under the traditional approach, the judges usually paid greater heed to the letter of the law and the mischief that was to be removed by the law. Social conditions and economic trend were not supposed to influence him in arriving at a certain decision. But this attitude appears to have changed in recent times. The judge appears to be conscious of the felt necessities of the time. He feels that his duty is not only to point out mistakes of legislature or remove unjustifiable hardships caused by law but also to assist in the social and economic progress of our times. 10 LEGISLATIONS ENACTED FOR THE PURPOSE OF SOCIAL ENGINEERING 9 10 Balbir Sahay Sinha, Law and social change in India, , 1983, Deep and Deep Publications, pg. 25 Hogan and Inni, “American Social Legislations”, Harper and Brothers, New York, at p. 4. Supra Note 7. The introduction of certain major changes in the Hindu family law is a very important instance of social reconstruction in India in recent times. This has been brought about by such Acts, as The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956, and the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956. The provisions of these Acts are calculated to generate effective means of social control.

For instance,Section 12 of the Act prohibits polygamy which was very prevalent in the society before the enactment of the Act. This can be viewed as a measure to balance the interests of the husband and wife as also a means for social control. The socio-economic revolution that has resulted from new land legislations is best seen in rural India. The land reform measures, adopted by the State Governments in the wake of Constitutional amendments, are meant to mitigate the hardships of tenants, strengthen and safeguard their tenancy rights and confer a new status on them.

This type of legislation can be rightly regarded as one neutralising the socio-economic disharmony in the rural population. The pitiable conditions and large-scale poverty of the rural population produced a sense of frustration in our peasantry endangering the entire society. The grievances of the agriculturists are being gradually removed by the land reform projects which would ultimately bring about a degree of social satisfaction and create a spirit of co-operation in the masses. 11 The new labour laws are aimed at battering the conditions of the workers in trade and industry.

These laws have had an impact on social structure to a large extent. The individual worker’s interest has been given great importance. The freedom of contract between the employer and the employee has been regulated in the interest of the worker and attempt has been made to assure to every worker condition of work ensuring a decent standard of life. A number of important enactments as, for example, The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, The Minimum Wages Act, 1948, The Plantation Labour Act, 1951, The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 have been designed to curb, if not eradicate, the urge to exploit workers.

Thus, they promote the welfare of workers and balance interests of employees and employers hence resulting in social engineering. CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS PROMOTING SOCIAL HARMONY The glaring inequality of different types more particularly based on sex and caste prevailed in Indian society until the pre-independence days, despite continuous efforts by the state, reformers and missionaries to control and eradicate them. The immediate 11 Supra note 7, at pg. 27 task for the Indian people and constitution makers was to establish an egalitarian society.

Therefore, in the preamble of the constitution it was declared that “we, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. 2 The constitutional provisions relating to secularism aim at bringing about integration and harmony in the society. Article 15 of the Constitution forbids a classification on the ground only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, subject to specified exceptions and Article 16 makes a like provision in connection with public employment with the addition of “descent” and “residence” as forbidden grounds of classification. The Constitution gives the right to all persons to profess freely, practise and propagate religion subject to public rder, morality and to other provisions of the Constitution on Fundamental Rights. Thus, in India no religion is given a preferential status or accorded any special privilege and the Constitutional provisions aim that no person should suffer any disability because of his religion. In order to achieve social progress and political advancement, the practice of untouchability has been outlawed by Article 17 of the Constitution and by the Untouchability Offences Act, 1955 enacted in pursuance of Article 17. These are clear indications to end social equality.

The provisions referred to are aimed at effectively balancing the various conflicting interests in the society and form the basis of what Roscoe Pound termed as “social engineering”. A STUDY OF CASE LAWS While Sociological jurists emphasize on the balancing of the conflicting interests of the individual, society and the public through the process which Roscoe Pound terms as the process of ‘social engineering’, the same has also been witnessed though the action of the Supreme Court when, in Vellore Citizen’s Welfare Forum v.

The Union of India13 which is known as the Tanneries’ case the Supreme Court observed as “The Constitutional and statutory provisions protect a person’s right to fresh air, clean water and pollution-free environment, but the source of the right is the inalienable common 12 Bal Gobind, Kashyap, Reformative law and social justice in Indian society, 1995, Regency Publications, New Delhi, at p. 8 13 AIR 1999 SC 2715 law right of clean environment”. The Court further observed, “Our legal system having been founded on the British Common Law, the right of a person to pollution-free environment is part of the basic jurisprudence of the land”.

Thus the Court gave priority of public interest over individual interest. In B. Venkatramma v. State of Madras14, the passing of a communal order by the Government allotting certain vacant posts in government services in fixed proportions to Muslims, Christians, Harijans, Backward Hindus, Hindus, Non-Brahmin Hindus, and Brahmins was taken to be a violation of Article 16(1) of the constitution by the Supreme Court. CONCLUSION Rapid change in Indian social life is the result of many factors.

The influence of public opinion, the lessons of history, and the examples of progress achieved in other countries, the impact of ideas from the West- all have played a part. The legislative activity in India after independence has been directed, by and large, towards the creation of a new social order. The gap between pressure of changed patterns and the slowly evolving new norms of social life was sought to be plugged by many important laws. To make social engineering through the use of law, the importance of other factors like economic development needs to be realised.

Law cannot, by itself play a vital role unless it is accompanied with economic development. Public opinion also plays an important role. There should be awareness amongst the various sections of the society before legislation is enacted for its successful enforcement. The purpose of social legislation like other types of legislations is not fulfilled if its enforcement is lax. If laws are evaded by people, this undermines the purpose of legislation, breeds corruption and puts the administrative machinery under heavy strain. This may ultimately lead to disintegration of the society.

Hence, rather than passing a number of legislations in this area without making adequate provisions for their enforcement, it is better to have fewer social laws containing clear-cut provisions for effective enforcement. The conflicts in modern Indian society are largely due to the fact that social life has not been properly adjusted to the forces of present age. In order to harmonize our relations in the society, it is absolutely essential that changes in law should be preconditioned by the existing public opinion in the society.

In other words, the changes in 14 AIR 1964 SC 572 law should be only in those directions and to that extent which the people in general aspire in the society. Mere super-imposition and direct adoption of foreign models in their entirely original form can create disruption and disorder in the society. We should retain our own social values and include foreign ideals in such a manner that the latter are fully assimilated and become a part of our social system.

Free Essays

Materials engineering

Mercury is a common element that is found naturally in a free state or mixed in ores. Because mercury is very dense, expands and contracts evenly with temperature changes, and has high electrical conductivity, it has been used in thousands of industrial, agricultural, medical, and household applications. Major uses of mercury include dental amalgams, tilt switches, thermometers, lamps, pigments, batteries, reagents, barometers, manometers, and hydrometers. It also may be present in rocks or released during volcanic activity. (Ross & Associates, 1994)

Mercury can enter the environment from a number of paths. For example, if a mercury-containing item is thrown into the garbage, the mercury may be released into the atmosphere from landfill vapors or, or the mercury may vaporize if the trash is incinerated. If mercury is flushed through a wastewater system, the mercury will likely adhere to the wastewater sludge, where it has the potential to volatilize and be deposited elsewhere. Mercury can enter the atmosphere through these various means because it evaporates easily. It can travel through the atmosphere in a vaporized state. (Ross & Associates, 1994)

Once mercury is deposited into lakes and streams, bacteria convert some of the mercury into an organic form called methylmercury. This is the form of mercury that humans and other animals ingest when they eat some types fish. Methylmercury is particularly dangerous because it bioaccumulates in the environment. Bioaccumulation occurs when the methylmercury in fish tissue concentrates as larger fish eat smaller fish. (U.S. EPA, 1994)

Methylmercury interferes with the nervous system of human body and can result in a decreased ability to walk, talk, see, and hear. In extreme examples, high levels of methylmercury consumption have resulted in coma or death. Many animals that eat fish also accumulate methylmercury. Mercury can interfere with an animal’s ability to reproduce, and lead to weight loss, or early death. (Ross & Associates, 1994)

Instruments containing mercury on campus

Description: Thermometers include fever thermometers for home and medical use, laboratory thermometers, and industrial thermometers.

How to Identify: The bulbs of thermometers containing mercury are usually silver in color. Types of mercury thermometers on campus include: Laboratory and weather thermometers.

Amount of Mercury: typical fever thermometers contain about 0.5 grams of mercury each, while laboratory thermometers contain up to 3 grams of mercury.

Pollution Prevention Options: Mercury-free alternatives are digital, aneroid, and alcohol thermometers, and for most applications they are as accurate as mercury thermometers. Digital thermometers tend to last longer, however, because they are less likely to break.

Safe Handling: Mercury thermometers are easily broken when not handled carefully. If the break occurs, use two pieces of paper or two razor blades to scoop it up from a smooth surface. An eyedropper or a mercury vacuum can also be used. Mercury spill kits are available from safety equipment supply companies for large mercury spills. (U.S. EPA, 1994)

Safe Disposal: Save old or broken thermometers in an air-tight container. Homeowners can use local household hazardous waste collection programs for disposal. Businesses should deliver their thermometers to a consolidation site or arrange for a transporter to take them. Contact your county or state environmental office or solid waste office for services available in your area. Also, save the invoices that track your waste that include the following information: date of shipment, amount of waste, location from where waste is shipped, and destination of shipment.


Description: Mercury-containing thermostats use mercury tilt switches.

How to Identify: Most thermostats, other than electric thermostats, contain mercury. To determine if a thermostat contains mercury, remove the front plate. Mercury-containing thermostats contain one or more small mercury switches. Thermostats are generally mounted on walls and easily found. (U.S. EPA, 1994)

Amount of Mercury: About 3 grams of mercury are in each mercury tilt switch. Most thermostats have one switch; some have two, and up to six switches are possible.

Pollution Prevention Options: Programmable electronic thermostats are mercury free, and they are more energy-efficient than the mercury model. Look for programmable electronic thermostats that have the Energy Star label.

Safe Removal: Remove the entire thermostat using a screwdriver and a pair of wire-cutters and store safely. Don’t remove the switches from the thermostat, or dismantle the thermostat.

Safe Disposal: Store the entire thermostat in a marked container until it can be sent for proper disposal. In many states, the Thermostat Recycling Corporation operates a recycling program utilizing heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) wholesalers; eventually this program will be in operation nation-wide. The wholesalers consolidate thermostats from contractors and send them to recyclers; only whole thermostats are accepted. (U.S. EPA, 1995)


Description: Mercury is contained in temperature-sensitive switches and mechanical tilt switches. Mercury tilt switches are small tubes with electrical contacts at one end of the tube. As the tube tilts, the mercury collects at the lower end, providing a conductive path to compete the circuit. When the switch is tilted back, the circuit is broken.

How to Identify: A mercury tilt switch is usually present when no switch is visible. They are used in thermostats, silent light switches, and clothes washer lids.

Amount of Mercury: About 3.5 grams of mercury are contained in a small electrical switch. Industrial switches may contain up to 8 pounds of mercury.

Pollution Prevention Option: Alternatives to mercury switches include hard-contact switches and solid-state switches.

Safe Removal: Remove switches from appliances very carefully so as not to release any mercury into the environment.

Safe Disposal:

Store mercury switches in a suitable leak proof, closeable containers. A five gallon plastic bucket with a lid may work.

Each container must be labeled “Mercury Switches for Recycling.”

Be careful to keep the switches from breaking and releasing mercury into the environment.

If breakage occurs, you must immediately take steps to contain and clean up the spill.

Take switches to a consolidation site or arrange with a transporter to take them.

Contact your county or state environmental office/ solid waste office for services in your area.

Keep records of the mercury switches you have recycled, including copies of invoices containing information on the date of shipment, number of switches, and location.  (U.S. EPA, 1994)

Manometers, Barometers, and Hydrometers

Description: Manometers and barometers are used for measuring air pressure. Hydrometers are used to measure density of liquid.

How to Identify: All these devices will have a gauge for reading air pressure.

Pollution Prevention Options: The Replacements of mercury containing Manometers   are battery operated digital units and vacuum gauges. Battery operated digital units are extremely sensitive.

Safe Removal: To safely remove the manometer or barometer, remove the entire device from the machine it is attached to.

Safe Disposal: Put the entire unit into an airtight, labeled container and ship it to a mercury recycling plant.


Description: Sphygmomanometers are used to measure blood pressure.

How to Identify: Usually, they are installed on walls and placed on tables in hospitals.

Pollution Prevention Options:  The replacement for mercury sphygmomanometers includes electric vacuum gauges, aneroid monitors, and automated devices.

Recycling/Disposal: Develop a protocol for the preparation of mercury sphygmomanometers for recycling or disposal that that is consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, state and local regulations, and pertinent standards. Contact your hazardous waste management coordinator for details about packaging, labeling and transporting that are specific to your facility. A suggested protocol might include the following instructions:

Place the sphygmomanometer in a clear plastic bag and seal the bag. Do not use a red bag biohazard bag.
Mark the bag: “Contains Mercury.”
Place the bag in a plastic basin to contain any spills during transport to the designated hazardous waste collection point.

Description: Mercury zinc, carbon zinc, silver oxide, and zinc air contain mercury. Mercury is used to protect cathode from oxidation.

Pollution Prevention Options: Most consumers dry-cell batteries contain no added mercury. The best way to reduce mercury is recycling. (U.S. EPA, 1994)


Ross & Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd. (1994), Mercury Sources and

Regulations: Background Information for the Virtual Elimination Pilot Project.

Ross & Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd. (1994), Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Sources and Regulations: Background Information for the Virtual Elimination

Pilot Project.

U.S. EPA. (1994), Virtual Elimination Pilot Project: Briefing Packet for Meeting


U.S. EPA. (1995), Mercury Study Report to Congress (External Review Draft)

(External Review Draft) U.S. EPA. (1995), Mercury Study Report to Congress



Free Essays

Oten Notes Engineering Studies Aeronautical Module

Gill Sans Bold Engineering Studies HSC Course Stage 6 Aeronautical engineering ES/S6 – HSC 41097 P0022161 Acknowledgments This publication is copyright Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network – Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, however it may contain material from other sources which is not owned by Learning Materials Production. Learning Materials Production would like to acknowledge the following people and organisations whose material has been used. Board of Studies, NSW Hawker de Havilland Page Aircraft Company Pty Ltd Bankstown Airport Padstow Aeroskills Centre

All reasonable efforts have been made to obtain copyright permissions. All claims will be settled in good faith. Materials devlopment: Paul Soares, Harry Taylor, Ian Webster Coordination: Jeff Appleby Content edit: John Cook, Josephine Wilms Illustrations: Tom Brown, Barbara Buining DTP: Nick Loutkovsky, Carolina Barbieri Copyright in this material is reserved to the Crown in the right of the State of New South Wales. Reproduction or transmittal in whole, or in part, other than in accordance with provisions of the Copyright Act, is prohibited without the written authority of Learning Materials Production. Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network – Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, 2000. 51 Wentworth Rd. Strathfield NSW 2135. Revised 2001 Module contents Subject overview …………………………………………………………………….. iii Module overview…………………………………………………………………….. vii Module components ……………………………………………………….. vii Module outcomes …………………………………………………………… x Indicative time ………………………………………………………………… x Resource requirements……………………………………………………. xi Icons …………………………………………………………………………………. xiii Glossary………………………………………………………………………………… xv Directive terms……………………………………………………………………… xix Part 1: Aeronautical engineering – scope of the profession and engineering report……. 1–65 Part 2: Aeronautical engineering – istory of flight………………………………………………………. 1–37 Part 3: Aeronautical engineering – mechanics and hydraulics ……………………………………. 1–73 Part 4: Aeronautical engineering – materials ………………………………………………………………. 1–49 Part 5: Aeronautical engineering – communication …………………………………………………….. 1–44 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………… 45 Module evaluation …………………………………………………………………. 9 i ii Subject overview Engineering Studies Preliminary Course Household appliances examines common appliances found in the home. Simple appliances are analysed to identify materials and their applications. Electrical principles, researching methods and techniques to communicate technical information are introduced. The first student engineering report is completed undertaking an investigation of materials used in a household appliance. Landscape products investigates engineering principles by focusing on common products, such as lawnmowers and clothes hoists. The historical development of these types of products demonstrates he effect materials development and technological advancements have on the design of products. Engineering techniques of force analysis are described. Orthogonal drawing methods are explained. An engineering report is completed that analyses lawnmower components. Braking systems uses braking components and systems to describe engineering principles. The historical changes in materials and design are investigated. The relationship between internal structure of iron and steel and the resulting engineering properties of those materials is detailed. Hydraulic principles are described and examples provided in braking systems. Orthogonal drawing echniques are further developed. An engineering report is completed that requires an analysis of a braking system component. iii Bio-engineering both engineering principles and also the scope of the bio-engineering profession. Careers and current issues in this field are explored. Engineers as managers and ethical issues confronted by the bio engineer are considered. An engineering report is completed that investigates a current bioengineered product and describes the related issues that the bio-engineer would need to consider before, during and after this product development. Irrigation systems is the elective topic for the reliminary modules. The historical development of irrigation systems is described and the impact of these systems on society discussed. Hydraulic analysis of irrigation systems is explained. The effect on irrigation product range that has occurred with the introduction of is detailed. An engineering report on an irrigation system is completed. iv HSC Engineering Studies modules Civil structures examines engineering principles as they relate to civil structures, such as bridges and buildings. The historical influences of engineering, the impact of engineering innovation, and environmental implications are discussed with eference to bridges. Mechanical analysis of bridges is used to introduce concepts of truss analysis and stress/strain. Material properties and application are explained with reference to a variety of civil structures. Technical communication skills described in this module include assembly drawing. The engineering report requires a comparison of two engineering solutions to solve the same engineering situation. Personal and public transport uses bicycles, motor vehicles and trains as examples to explain engineering concepts. The historical development of cars is used to demonstrate the developing material ist available for the engineer. The impact on society of these developments is discussed. The mechanical analysis of mechanisms involves the effect of friction. Energy and power relationships are explained. Methods of testing materials, and modifying material properties are examined. A series of industrial manufacturing processes is described. Electrical concepts, such as power distribution, are detailed are introduced. The use of freehand technical sketches. Lifting devices investigates the social impact that devices raging from complex cranes to simple car jacks, have had on our society. The mechanical oncepts are explained, including the hydraulic concepts often used in lifting apparatus. The industrial processes used to form metals and the methods used to control physical properties are explained. Electrical requirements for many devices are detailed. The technical rules for sectioned orthogonal drawings are demonstrated. The engineering report is based on a comparison of two lifting devices. v Aeronautical engineering explores the scope of the aeronautical engineering profession. Career opportunities are considered, as well as ethical issues related to the profession. Technologies unique to this engineering field are described.

Mechanical analysis includes aeronautical flight principles and fluid mechanics. Materials and material processes concentrate on their application to aeronautics. The corrosion process is explained and preventative techniques listed. Communicating technical information using both freehand and computer-aided drawing is required. The engineering report is based on the aeronautical profession, current projects and issues. Telecommunications engineering examines the history and impact on society of this field. Ethical issues and current technologies are described. The materials section concentrates on specialised esting, copper and its alloys, semiconductors and fibre optics. Electronic systems such as analogue and digital are explained and an overview of a variety of other technologies in this field is presented. Analysis, related to telecommunication products, is used to reinforce mechanical concepts. Communicating technical information using both freehand and computer-aided drawing is required. The engineering report is based on the telecommunication profession, current projects and issues. Figure 0. 1 Modules vi Module overview Aeronautical engineering is the first focus engineering module in the HSC course.

The scope of the aeronautical engineering profession is investigated. Career opportunities are considered, as well as ethical issues related to the profession. Technologies unique to this engineering field are described. The mechanical analysis topics include aeronautical flight principles and fluid mechanics. Materials, and material processes concentrate on those most associated with the aeronautical engineer. The corrosion process is explained and preventative techniques listed. Communicating technical information using both freehand and computer aided drawing are required. The engineering report is based on the aeronautical rofession, current projects and issues. Module components Each module contains three components, the preliminary pages, the teaching/learning section and additional resources. • The preliminary pages include: – module contents – subject overview – module overview – icons – glossary – directive terms. Figure 0. 2 Preliminary pages vii • The teaching/learning parts may include: – part contents – introduction – teaching/learning text and tasks – exercises – check list. Figure 0. 3 Teaching/learning section • The additional information may include: – module appendix – bibliography – Additional resource module evaluation. Figure 0. 4 Additional materials Support materials such as audiotapes, video cassettes and computer disks will sometimes accompany a module. viii Module outcomes At the end of this module, you should be working towards being able to: • describe the scope of engineering and critically analyse current innovations (H1. 1) • differentiate between properties of materials and justify the selection of materials, components and processes in engineering (H1. 2) • analyse and synthesise engineering applications in specific fields and report on the importance of these to society (H2. 2) • se appropriate written, oral and presentation skills in the preparation of detailed engineering reports (H3. 2) • investigate the extent of technological change in engineering (H4. 1) • appreciate social, environmental and cultural implications of technological change in engineering and apply them to the analysis of specific problems (H4. 3) • select and use appropriate management and planning skills related to engineering (H5. 2) • demonstrate skills in analysis, synthesis and experimentation related to engineering (H6. 2) Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, © Board of Studies, NSW, 1999.

Refer to for original and current documents. ix Indicative time The Preliminary course is 120 hours (indicative time) and the HSC course is 120 hours (indicative time). The following table shows the approximate amount of time you should spend on this module. Preliminary modules Percentage of time Approximate number of hours Household appliances 20% 24 hr Landscape products 20% 24 hr Braking systems 20% 24 hr Bio-engineering 20% 24 hr Elective: Irrigation systems 20% 24 hr HSC modules Percentage of time Approximate number of hours Civil structures 20% 24 hr Personal and public transport 20% 24 hr Lifting devices 0% 24 hr Aeronautical engineering 20% 24 hr Telecommunications engineering 20% 24 hr There are five parts in Aeronautical engineering. Each part will require about four to five hours of work. You should aim to complete the module within 20 to 25 hours. x Resource requirements During this module you will need to access a range of resources including: • technical drawing equipment – drawing board, tee square, set squares (30? , 60? , 45? ), protractor, pencils (0. 5 mm mechanical pencil with B lead), eraser, pair of compasses, pair of dividers • calculator • rule • thumb tack or pin • small sheet of thin cardboard pair of scissors • cotton reel. xi xii Icons As you work through this module you will see symbols known as icons. The purpose of these icons is to gain your attention and to indicate particular types of tasks you need to complete in this module. The list below shows the icons and outlines the types of tasks for Stage 6 Engineering studies. Computer This icon indicates tasks such as researching using an electronic database or calculating using a spreadsheet. Danger This icon indicates tasks which may present a danger and to proceed with care. Discuss This icon indicates tasks such as discussing a point or ebating an issue. Examine This icon indicates tasks such as reading an article or watching a video. Hands on This icon indicates tasks such as collecting data or conducting experiments. Respond This icon indicates the need to write a response or draw an object. Think This icon indicates tasks such as reflecting on your experience or picturing yourself in a situation. xiii Return This icon indicates exercises for you to return to your teacher when you have completed the part. (OTEN OLP students will need to refer to their Learner’s Guide for instructions on which exercises to return). xiv Glossary

As you work through the module you will encounter a range of terms that have specific meanings. The first time a term occurs in the text it will appear in bold. The list below explains the terms you will encounter in this module. aerofoil any surface such as a wing, aileron, or stabiliser, designed to help in lifting or controlling an aircraft aileron special purpose hinged flap on the rear edge of a wing designed to control sideways balance autogyro early form of helicopter with a propeller and freely rotating horizontal vanes biplane aeroplane with two sets of wings, one above the other cambered arched or curved upwards in the middle oncurrent passing through the same point, foe example, a number of forces are concurrent if an extension of the lines representing their directions all cross at the same point cowling removable cover on aircraft engine drag the force, due to the relative airflow, exerted on an aeroplane and tending to reduce its forward motion elevator a hinged, horizontal surface on an aeroplane, generally located at the tail end of the fuselage and used to control the forward/backward tilt empirical data information from experience or experiment, not from any scientific or theoretical deduction fatigue the condition of having experienced many cycles or epeated applications of stress that is lower than would normally be required to cause failure, but can cause failure under these conditions flap hinged or sliding section on the rear edge of a wing designed to control lift xv fuselage gyro gyroscopic device for keeping an object, such as a rocket, in stable controlled flight ICBM missile designed to deliver a warhead from one continent to another interplanetary between planets, from planet to planet Mach 5 A speed that is five times the speed of sound at the particular altitude (the speed of sound at sea level is approximately 380 meters per second or 1370 kmph) oment a force that tends to cause rotation because the object is fixed in position at one point or because the force is not applied at the centre of gravity monoplane aeroplane with one set of wings nacelle outer casing of an aeroplane’s engine orbit path of one body around another body under the influence of gravity payload weight being carried pitch angle that a propeller or rotor blade makes with the air passing over it pressurisation increasing the air pressure in an aircraft cabin as altitude increases and the air pressure outside is too low for breathing radar radio distance and ranging – an instrument to allow light when there is no visibility retrofit to incorporate new parts and changes into old models riveting a method for joining solid sheet materials to a firm support rotors the rotating blades on a helicopter that act as propeller and wing rudder broad flat wooden or metal piece hinged to the rear of an aeroplane for steering satellite a body revolving in some fixed path around another body shot xvi body of aeroplane Consists of small pellets; in shot-peening these are ‘fired’ onto a surface spar a stout pole such as those used for masts or booms etc on a boat. Also the main member of the wing frame in an aeroplane stall hen an aircraft loses lift, usually due to loss of relative air speed, and is in danger of falling streamlined made to a shape calculated to cause the least resistance to motion supercharger a device to force air into an aeroplane engine with pressure to overcome the reduction in atmospheric pressure at high altitudes and so maintain engine power as the aircraft climbs triplane an aeroplane with three sets of wings arranged one above the other wind tunnel a box or tube designed to drive a moving stream of air around an object or a scaled model of the object within it to determine the behaviour of the object in an airstream aw the motion of an aircraft about it’s vertical axis xvii xviii Directive terms The list below explains key words you will encounter in assessment tasks and examination questions. account account for: state reasons for, report on; give an account of: narrate a series of events or transactions analyse identify components and the relationship between them, draw out and relate implications apply use, utilise, employ in a particular situation appreciate make a judgement about the value of assess make a judgement of value, quality, outcomes, results or size calculate ascertain/determine from given facts, figures or information larify make clear or plain classify arrange or include in classes/categories compare show how things are similar or different construct make, build, put together items or arguments contrast show how things are different or opposite critically (analyse/evaluate) add a degree or level of accuracy, depth, knowledge and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and quality to (analysis/evaluation) deduce draw conclusions define state meaning and identify essential qualities demonstrate show by example xix describe provide characteristics and features discuss identify issues and provide points for and/or against distinguish ecognise or note/indicate as being distinct or different from; to note differences between evaluate make a judgement based on criteria; determine the value of examine inquire into explain relate cause and effect; make the relationships between things evident; provide why and/or how extract choose relevant and/or appropriate details extrapolate infer from what is known identify recognise and name interpret draw meaning from investigate plan, inquire into and draw conclusions about justify support an argument or conclusion outline sketch in general terms; indicate the main features of predict suggest what may happen based on available nformation propose put forward (for example a point of view, idea, argument, suggestion) for consideration or action recall present remembered ideas, facts or experiences recommend provide reasons in favour recount retell a series of events summarise express, concisely, the relevant details synthesise putting together various elements to make a whole Extract from The New Higher School Certificate Assessment Support Document, © Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to for original and current documents. xx Aeronautical engineering Part 1: Aeronautical engineering – scope of the profession & engineering report

Part 1 contents Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… 2 What will you learn?…………………………………………………………. 2 Scope of aeronautical engineering………………………………………….. 3 Unique technologies in aeronautical engineering ………………….. 10 Current projects or innovations…………………………………………. 26 Health and safety issues ………………………………………………… 31 Training for the profession……………………………………………….. 5 Careers in aeronautical engineering…………………………………… 37 Relations with the community …………………………………………… 40 Legal and ethical issues………………………………………………….. 45 Engineers as managers ………………………………………………….. 46 The engineering report ………………………………………………………….. 49 Structure of a focus engineering report ………………………………. 49 Sample engineering report ………………………………………………. 51

Exercise sheet ………………………………………………………………………. 61 Progress check ……………………………………………………………………… 63 Exercise cover sheet……………………………………………………………… 65 Part 1: Aeronautical engineering – scope and engineering report 1 Arial Arial bold Introduction The purpose of this part is to introduce you to the scope and nature of the aeronautical engineering profession. What will you learn? You will learn about: • the nature and scope of the aeronautical engineering profession • current projects and innovations health and safety issues • training for the profession • career prospects • unique technologies in the profession • legal and ethical implications • engineers as managers • relations with the community. You will learn to: • define the responsibilities of the aeronautical engineer • describe the nature of work done in this profession • examine projects and innovations from within the aeronautical profession • analyse the training and career prospects within aeronautical engineering. Extract from Stage 6 Engineering Studies Syllabus, © Board of Studies, NSW, 1999. Refer to for original and current documents. 2

Aeronautical engineering Scope of aeronautical engineering Today, you would pay little attention to the sound of an over-flying aircraft, that is, if you noticed it at all. Yet less than ninety years ago everyone around you would have looked skyward and wondered in awe at the sight. The aircraft of 90 years ago was not the sophisticated unit that you may see in the sky today. They were a combination of timber, wire, fabric and a crude engine or two, flown on a ‘wing and a prayer’. The designers of these aircraft were not aeronautical engineers as such. More often than not they were scientists or enthusiastic amateurs.

The little knowledge they did possess was the collected result of a variety of experiments with kites and models conducted during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Often the over enthusiastic and over confident experimenters piloted their less than airworthy designs to an early grave. Could this have been a form of natural selection? Many early workers used the empirical data collected from these many failures and a few successes to develop the first working aircraft. This was not always done with reference to pure theory and equations. Basically the cambered wing at a suitable angle of attack appeared to give good lift.

Consequently many aircraft experimenters chose to concentrate on the cambered wing and other ideas that ‘seemed to be a good idea at the time’. However, scientists such as Dr Lancaster had developed and confirmed mathematical theories for phenomena such as lift generation and induced drag well before the Wright Brothers first flew an aircraft. Today’s aeronautical engineers still use models. The test pilot still has to be the first person to pilot the aircraft. However, the Concord and the FA 18 Hornet, could not be designed without extensive reference to aeronautical theory and use of sophisticated calculation.

The test pilot will have already flown many hours in a flight simulator which emulates the predicted in-flight characteristics of the new aircraft. This then is the domain of the aeronautical engineer. Part 1: Aeronautical engineering – scope and engineering report 3 Arial Arial bold List the general areas of knowledge that you think a team of aeronautical engineers would need to possess to design and build a complete aircraft. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Did you answer? • aerodynamics • electrical and electronic systems • materials technology • hydraulics • fuel engines and propulsion systems • structural mechanics • drawing and drafting skills. Before venturing further into the day to day complexities of being an aeronautical engineer you should take a step back to consider the aircraft as an engineered system. Aerodynamics An aircraft is not just a wing with a powerful jet engine strapped to it. Moreover it is the product of a combined effort by hundreds of individual designers and engineers working toward a common goal.

As aircraft grow more sophisticated no one person can fully understand every detail that goes into an aircraft’s design. An aircraft before all other considerations is an aerodynamic entity. It is held aloft by the lift forces generated by the camber and angle of attack of the wing. It is restrained by drag forces created by form and shape of the aircraft and induced through the process of generating lift. The everpresent pull of gravity will eventually pull all aircraft back to earth. The movement of air around an aircraft is a complex thing to understand and at times it is difficult to predict.

Aerodynamic theory helps predict the movement of air and the amount of lift generated but it is only a starting point. 4 Aeronautical engineering Aerodynamics is a major concern of aeronautical engineers but there are other equally important aspects to the profession. Reel tricky You will need: • a thumb tack or pin from the sewing cabinet • a small sheet of thin cardboard • a drawing compass and a pair of scissors. • a cotton reel from the same place that you found the pin. Carry out the following steps: 1 draw an 80 mm diameter circle on the cardboard, then cut out the circle using the scissors 2 ush the thumb tack or pin through the center of the cardboard disc so that the pointy end goes through as far as it can go 3 pick up the cotton reel, place the pointy end of the tack or pin into the hole on the bottom side of the cotton reel and hold the disk in place with your finger 4 blow through the top of the cotton reel and let go of the disk while you are still blowing. Blow Cotton reel Pin Cardboard disk Figure 1. 1 The disk on the cotton reel trick Part 1: Aeronautical engineering – scope and engineering report 5 Arial Arial bold The disk should have remained in position until you stopped blowing.

When you stopped blowing the disk should have fallen down. Explain why the disk behaved the way it did. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Air moving over the disk had velocity and therefore a dynamic pressure component. Benoulli’s predictions on total pressure would indicate that the static pressure above the disk in the moving air would therefore be lower than the pressure below the disk in still air, therefore the disk experiences ‘lift’. (The disk is pushed upwards by the higher pressure beneath it. ) 6 Aeronautical engineering Propulsion systems An aircraft requires a propulsion system to provide thrust (or in the case of a glider, a launching system to get it into the air in the first place).

An engineer will have to decide the best combination of engine and thrust device to attach to an aircraft. Identify engine types and thrust devices that are used on new or old aircraft. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Some of the engine types and thrust devices you may have identified include; internal combustion engine, jet engine, turbine, radial, propeller, fan, rotor and rocket.

You will hear more of propulsion systems in the mechanics and hydraulics part of this module. Stress-n-Strain Aeronautical engineers who design superbly aerodynamic aircraft that crash and burn because the wings fall off will not lead a successful career. The aeronautical engineer has to calculate and consider the forces present in all components of the aircraft. They then have to predict whether the material that the components are manufactured from will sustain that load without failure. This prediction must be for the full service life of the aircraft.

If a component is predicted to fail within the service life of the aircraft, the engineer will mandate when that component must be periodically replaced. The piston engines in light aircraft usually have a minor service after 100 hours operating time and a major service every 1000 hours operating time. A major service will involve a full strip-down of the engine. Many components, for example pistons, must be replaced whether or not they appear to be in serviceable condition. Other components will be subjected to testing. Part 1: Aeronautical engineering – scope and engineering report 7 Arial Arial bold

Materials Linked to considerations of structural forces are the consideration and selection of appropriate materials. An aeronautical engineer will need to have a good knowledge of the manufacturing and service properties of the materials used on aircraft. An aircraft operates in a harsh environment. During any flight an aircraft is subjected to constant vibration, to stresses due to turbulence, to cyclic pressurisation and depressurisation of the cabin, to moisture and to wide fluctuations of temperature. The temperature on the ground may be 36? C while at 38 000 feet it may be –60°C.

Materials selected must first be readily formed in the shapes required and must secondly be suited to the service conditions. Predict or identify any materials based problems that might occur due to the harsh environment that the aircraft is subject to. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? • brittleness at low temperature • fatigue due to repeated cycles of stress crack propagation under high stresses, vibration, temperature changes • corrosion due to continuous exposure to the elements • failure under impact • loss of strength at high temperature. Avionics and electrical Modern aircraft depend on many electronic systems to safely complete their flights. The flight deck instruments, navigation systems, the actuation of aerodynamic surfaces, the landing and autopilot systems are now controlled by electronics and micro-processor systems. The design and implementation of avionics is the realm of another engineer, the electrical or electronic engineer.

The aeronautical engineer must however be aware of the impact of these systems when designing an aircraft. 8 Aeronautical engineering Control systems and hydraulics The control surfaces of aircraft; elevators, ailerons, rudders and flaps need to move in response to pilot inputs on the control column and rudder pedals. In light aircraft this is achieved using wires and rods. In large commercial jets this is done with hydraulic systems connected to electronic or hydraulic controllers. Cowl Cockpit/cabin Spinner Prop Wing tip Aileron Flaps Fuselage Tailplane Elevator Trim tab Fin and rudder Figure 1. Main parts on an aeroplane If you have access to the Internet visit this Sydney University web site is an excellent source for additional aeronautics information (accessed 30. 10. 01). Part 1: Aeronautical engineering – scope and engineering report 9 Arial Arial bold Unique technologies in aeronautical engineering Many of the technologies found in the aeronautical engineering profession are not unique in the sense that they are solely found and used in this discipline. The technologies used by the aeronautics industry are also found in industries that deal with similar problems and issues.

For instance, if you were to design a high technology, 18 foot racing skiff, you would need to consider and use many of the technologies available in the aeronautics industry, excluding perhaps the requirement for the vessel to fly. Can you identify any technologies that you believe overlap between aeronautics and boat-building industries? Consider the major areas of emphasis in this course; history, materials, mechanics and communication. List the technologies that you believe overlap between the aircraft industry and the construction of high tech boats. __________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? • materials – such as graphite and kevlar and aluminium alloys • computerised design and drawing systems • wind tunnel testing of airframes and sails • computerised calculation systems. Aircraft design Aircraft design is primarily concerned with flight and how to achieve this condition safely and efficiently. Basically an aircraft must be aerodynamically sound – have lots of lift and minimal drag.

The aircraft must also be as light as possible to maximize its payload and to allow it to get off the ground in the first place. The materials must be suited to the operating conditions and the environment and remain in good condition for the expected service life of the aircraft. 10 Aeronautical engineering The aircraft must also be structurally sound. The stresses in the components must not exceed the component’s safe working limits. Nothing ruins a pilot’s day more than having the wings fold up in a tight turn! Finally, aircraft components are often sourced from manufacturers from all over the world.

To ensure that it all goes together when all the parts arrive, very accurate and detailed drawings are required by each component manufacturer. These have to be drawn to internationally accepted standards. So, you ask, what has all this got to do with weekend sailors and flimsy boats? Skiff design A sailing skiff, aside from any other considerations, must use wind and air to drive it. A close inspection of a sail in operation will reveal that the sail is in fact a curved aerofoil not a flat sheet of sailcloth. You would notice this particularly on the sail of a windsurfer.

The sail develops lift just as does the wing of an aircraft. The hull of the skiff moves through a fluid that you refer to as water. A badly designed hull generates a large amount of drag that slows the skiff down. The skipper usually comments loudly about this situation as better-designed skiffs race past on their way to the finish line. Many designers of modern racing skiffs use sophisticated fluid dynamics software to assist in designing both hull and sails. Similarly, these same designers are concerned with the two competing virtues of low weight and structural strength.

In Auckland, in 1995, the America’s cup challenger ‘One Australia’ broke into two reasonably large but none-the-less rapidly sinking pieces. This was a perfect example of poor strength to weight analysis. Put simply, the structural forces imposed on the hull exceeded the strength of the hull material. The designer sacrificed strength to obtain a lighter hull and paid the price. The strength and modulus of light weight materials such as marine and aircraft grade aluminium, carbon fibre composites and Kevlar are compared to complex mechanical analyses of the hull, spar and sail design. Again software solutions exist and are utilized.

The skiff’s final drawings and component shapes may be drawn by hand. Often the drawings are produced using common, off the shelf CAD programs or perhaps specialist lofting software designed for the marine industry. Part 1: Aeronautical engineering – scope and engineering report 11 Arial Arial bold As you can see, the technologies in two seemingly unrelated industries are similar in nature and do overlap. However, the aeronautical engineering profession is distinct in some very significant ways: • The scale of operations and the shear complexity of the calculations involved in aeronautical engineering are infinitely greater. •

The aircraft industry uses and often develops leading edge technology. Leading edge technology is usually very expensive. Industries such as the manufacturers of small boats tend to acquire this technology when it is more established and the cost of the new technology is more affordable. More about aeronautical engineering technologies You will now learn more about some of the leading edge technologies associated with the aircraft industry. The technologies tend to fall into two broad areas; those technologies used to design the aircraft, and those technologies associated with the materials manufacturing aspects of aircraft.

Aircraft design technologies Throughout this course you have been involved in calculating forces, reactions, moments and stress in two dimensions and only on flat or uniform surfaces. At times you may have considered the calculations a little difficult. Consider then the degree of difficulty that would be involved if you now had to calculate forces and moments in three dimensions, on curved surfaces with loads that fluctuated and using calculus that Extension 2 (4 Unit) mathematics does not cover. Does this conjure up an image in your mind?

Now imagine applying similarly difficult calculations to more than a thousand points across a single wing. Are you now thinking that this is getting a little difficult? A modern jet aircraft may contain over a million individual components and someone has to draw each and every one of them. Again, just to make things difficult virtually every component is curved in some special and very critical way. Imagine the most difficult drawing that you have done so far in this course, then multiply the degree of difficulty by ten. Then repeat the drawing several thousand times. Starting to get the picture yet! 12

Aeronautical engineering List some systems and products that exist to reduce the difficulty and complexity of designing modern jet aircraft. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? One of the most significant is computerised design and calculation software. Others include ‘off the shelf’ systems for navigation, communication and cockpit management. The bad news

All aeronautical engineers have to learn and understand how to do these difficult calculations. They have to use their brain, some mathematics and a calculator. Aspiring aeronautical engineers soon encounter the complexities of computational analysis (difficult mathematics). They will see a lot more calculation before their aeronautical engineering course finally ends. The good news There are software tools available to assist the engineer in the design process. To use these software tools effectively and correctly the engineer must first understand the underlying mathematics and theory on which these programs are based.

That is, you must be able to understand and do the mathematics before using the program. You will now examine four common categories of aircraft design software: • structural analysis software • modeling software • aerodynamic calculation software • CAD software. Part 1: Aeronautical engineering – scope and engineering report 13 Arial Arial bold Structural analysis software The structural analysis of an aircraft is a complex problem. There are not many straight lines involved, virtually every component is curved, even the ones that look straight are usually curved. The loading is not uniform, it varies from point to point.

In other words, the loads and stresses will vary infinitely across the components being analysed. An infinite number of equations could take quite some time. The solution is really quite straight-forward. If an engineer intends to examine the forces, stresses and moments in an aircraft wing, the wing can be mathematically broken up into a large number of sections referred to as elements. The conditions in each element are then examined. The results from each element are combined together to produce a distribution of forces, stresses and moments across the wing. The number of elements considered in this procedure is finite.

There is an upper limit to the number of elements to be analysed. This mathematical process is called ‘finite element analysis’. The industry abbreviates this to FEA. Finite element analysis is a very powerful tool but is very slow when done by hand. A very popular finite element software (FEA) package in the aircraft industry is called NASTRAN. This package falls into the category of a computer aided engineering software (CAE) tool. NASTRAN is a high end software tool for critical engineering applications. It is capable of stress, vibration, heat transfer, acoustic and aeroelastic analysis. If you have access to the Internet visit .

Select the appropriate option from the software section of the directory to find out more about NASTRAN (accessed 06. 11. 01). Modeling software The production and testing of physical working models is a costly and time consuming activity. An activity that is closely related to finite element analysis is ‘finite element modeling’. In the aeronautical engineering industry ‘finite element modeling’ is abbreviated to FEM. Using finite element modeling software, an engineer can construct models using computer aided design (CAD) parts, submit the models for simulation and observe the behavior of the model under simulation.

The results can be used to modify and improve the product designs to yield better performance and to better resist loads. A high end finite element modeling program that is commonly used in the aeronautical engineering industry is PATRAN. This product is 14 Aeronautical engineering produced by MSC, the same company that produces the analysis package NASTRAN. Figure 1. 3 was produced by the Page Aircraft Company Pty Ltd using the finite element modeling package PATRAN. This company is associated with the University of NSW and is currently developing a light aircraft that it hopes to put into full commercial production.

You can find out more about PATRAN at . Figure 1. 3 A PATRAN generated image of an aircraft under development © Reproduced with the permission of the Page Aircraft Company Pty Ltd Aerodynamic calculation and modeling software Aerodynamics is concerned primarily with the flow of air and the interaction of that air with objects that it encounters. Aeronautical engineers are usually concerned with the interaction of an aircraft’s outer surfaces with the air through which the aircraft moves. ‘CFD’ calculations can help to predict the lift and drag levels for a particular airframe as well as stall and other performance characteristics.

Air is considered to be a fluid and the mathematical processes involved in predicting the behaviour of the air is called computational fluid Part 1: Aeronautical engineering – scope and engineering report 15 Arial Arial bold dynamics or CFD for short. The mathematics involved is complex but again there is software available which can carry out these calculations. Outline a practical way in which an aeronautical engineer could visualize the flow of air around an aircraft without using software. __________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? The flow of air around an aircraft can be observed using a wind tunnel where wind is pushed over a model with smoke streams passing over it. An industry standard software package commonly used by aeronautical engineers is VSAERO. This package allows an engineer to input the surface geometry of an aircraft. The surface geometry is simply the outside shape of the aircraft.

The engineer can also input reference conditions such as velocity of the air, angle of attack of the wing and yaw. The package will then calculate and display the predicted behaviour of the air around the aircraft. If you have access to the Internet visit . Under products there is a graphic showing an image of the C-130, the Hercules transport aircraft used by the Australian military at present. Take a close look at what is happening to the wingtips (accessed 30. 10. 01). If you have access to the Internet visit to view a photograph of a real C-130 activating anti missile flares (accessed 30. 10. 1). Computer aided design The last type of software package that you need to learn about are the computer aided design (CAD) drawing packages. You’re probably familiar with one of the CAD packages available for use on personal computers. These include Autocad Light, Autosketch and TurboCAD. These packages vary in power and are fine for standard drawing applications such as architecture and medium scale manufacturing. The aeronautics industry uses specialist CAD packages which fit the industry’s need to produce drawings of complex surface shapes and 16 Aeronautical engineering curved components.

They also use state of the art, multiple processor workstations with large screen monitors for speed and ease of viewing. The large monitors reduce eye-strain and allow more of each drawing to be displayed. CAD software packages currently used by many aeronautical engineering companies include CATIA and CADDS 5. The CATIA package is promoted as CAD/CAM/CAE package. CATIA can be used solely for drawing and designing. However, it can also be used for CAM (computer aided manufacturing) and CAE applications. If you have Internet access visit to find out more about CATIA (accessed 30. 10. 1). Figure 1. 4 Image produced by the Page Aircraft Company Pty Ltd using CATIA software. The aircraft shown is currently under development © Reproduced with the permission of the Page Aircraft Company Pty Ltd Wind tunnels To this point all the development tools have been based on computer software. In the aerodynamic calculation and modeling section you were asked to suggest a method of assessing the aerodynamic behaviour of an aircraft without using computers. Many successful aircraft have been developed without the aid of modern computers. In fact the computer models are not perfect.

The information provided by computer analysis is usually valid but does not exactly predict the behaviour of a real aircraft. Part 1: Aeronautical engineering – scope and engineering report 17 Arial Arial bold Why do you think this is so? __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Did you answer? Computer output is based on computational methods that have been programmed into the computer.

These computational methods are based on theoretical analyses of conditions. Variables are input to reflect real situations and conditions as much as possible but can never predict the precise conditions that exist. Input into a computer is based on precise or perfect data, the behaviour of materials, fluids and the like is not necessarily perfect. The output from a computer program is based purely on the input. Another method of assessing an aircraft design is to construct a very accurate scale model then subject the model to wind tunnel testing.

Wind tunnel testing does not exactly predict the behaviour of a real, fullsize aircraft flying in open air. However, when scale effect corrections are applied valid data can be obtained. Model boats on ponds do not behave like real ships, the forces and accelerations are all out of proportion. They bounce around like corks. Similarly model aircraft in wind tunnels do not behave like real aircraft. There are several reasons for this. It is difficult to make accurate models. The sides of the wind tunnel constrain the air-flow. Most seriously, the model is flown in full size air not ‘model size’ air.

This is known as the scale effect. Larger size models in larger size wind tunnels give the most meaningful data. The most sophisticated wind tunnels actually compress the air at up to 25 atmospheres to correct for scale effect. Most aircraft design is based on both CFD and wind tunnel analysis. This is because neither system gives perfect results. The following photograph shows a model under test in a wind tunnel at the University of NSW. 18 Aeronautical engineering Figure 1. 5 A model aircraft being tested in a wind tunnel © Reproduced with the permission of the Page Aircraft Company Pty Ltd

Manufacturing technologies and systems unique to the aeronautics industry Aeronautical engineers also deal with materials and manufacturing processes that are highly specialized in their nature and could be considered unique. The materials used for aircraft manufacture need to possess very special manufacturing and service properties. List five properties which you believe are important for materials used in aircraft manufacture and construction. Give your reasons for each choice. Property Reason why it is important Part 1: Aeronautical engineering – scope and engineering report 19 Arial Arial bold Did you answer?

Property Reason why it is important Low fatigue aircraft vibration can cause fatigue failures High strength to weight lower the overall weight Corrosion resistance resist harsh operating conditions Ductility (before forming) Provide for forming of complex shapes Elasticity allow the aircraft to flex Later, in the materials section of this module you will investigate the materials commonly used in the aircraft manufacturing industry. This section is more concerned with the technologies used when dealing with these materials. Advanced composite materials Two commonly used materials are aluminium and carbon fibre

Free Essays

Managemen: a case study of wb engineering limited

The flexible nature of management of small and medium scale firm has made the management style in this structure of organization to be difficult. The structure and the size of resources available to small and medium scale organizations these have jointly constituted a factor that makes the management styles in small firms to be at variance with what is obtainable in large-scale organizations.

In the view of Slatter (1992:159) cited Collins & Ram, 2003, “managing fast growth in entrepreneurial firms is one of the most difficult challenges that exists”. Owners often struggle to balance the flexibility required to keep pace with customers demands, with the stability needed to provide employees with a sense of continuity and security. Hence management essentially comprises a careful balancing act between strong leadership and decentralized task-oriented management; and processes involving organizational cohesion and those promoting individual responsibility (Collins & Ram, 2003).

As a small and medium scaled firm expands and begin to transform into a large sized organization there is the need for such transformation to be commensurate to changes in management style that hitherto had being practiced; this need be done so that a lacuna would not be created and a lost of touch and proper control of the expanding resources. There is also the need to be awoken to current trend in our everyday dynamic business environment. The non-adherence to these little but significant facts has rendered many well to do but poorly managed organizations to die a premature death.

This write up would be looking at those factors that had imposed the difficulty our case study (WB Engineering Limited) is passing through. WB Engineering Limited is a small firm having the aim to develop into a medium scale firm. The coordination of the firm’s human resource portends an impending difficulty to the moving forward of the firm to its next developmental level. Adrian and Grey are both managers of the small firm. Adrian’s relocation to Spain from US where the business located, kept Grey in a tight corner on how to effectively manage the firm’s resources.

The immediate cause of the firm’s problem and recommended solutions on how to curtail this problem would be proffered.


The term ‘small’ is a relative one it is not absolute. The line separating small from large is in a continuum and an issue that is inevitably arbitrary. According to Odaka & Sawai (1999), “small business is a generic concept. Being the antonym of big business, its social significance becomes clearer when placed in the historical context where the latter first appeared in the world economy”. Bolton 1971, cited in Bannock (2005), he identified three characteristics in its economic definitions of a small firm:

A small market share, that is not large enough to influence national price or qualities (even though a village shop may be the only one, its prices cannot get too far out of line from those of major national retailers in the nearest town, even though people will pay something for local convenience)

Managed in a personalized way: the owner actively participates in all aspects of the business unlike in a large firm where the shareholders and management are usually almost entirely separate.

Independence or the exercise of ultimate management responsibility. A small subsidiary of a large firm, which has a head office to report to, does not share these characteristics. The above characteristics are usually identified with vast majority of business, which are inherently small in size.

The study of small firms revolves around it five major features which include {1} Existence {2} Survival. {3} Success {4} Take-off {5} Resource maturity.  And these are regarded as the five stages in small business growth (Churchill & Lewis, 1983). These five stages go a long way to influence and determine the success that trails the small business historical growth.


Transition from a small or medium size of business organization to a large entity, it requires the need to restructure the organizational structure and also the organizational strategy should be enhanced to be in tune with the new status the organization is attaining. Managing a fast growing entrepreneurial firm as that of WB Engineering is a onerous task that requires adequate managerial dexterity in balancing the flexibility required to keep pace with customer demands, alongside with the stability needed to provide employees with a sense of continuity and security in the transitional organization.

One way of doing this is through a strong leadership in the organization that provides a key role in overcoming the confusion that usually accompanies growth and is necessary to build and maintain the cohesiveness of the organization. According to Collins & Ram (2003), “management essentially comprises a careful balancing act between strong leadership and decentralized task- oriented management; and processes involving organizational cohesion and those promoting individual responsibility”.

Looking at the case study, WB Engineering Limited had missed the mark in a cohesive management of its expanding business and the leadership style adopted had being one of a centralized and undemocratic. The WB Engineering organization started well as a small entrepreneurial firm that adequately managed its resources and put in that individual- centralized managerial skill required at this stage of the business. But as the organization expands and transforms into a conglomerate status; integrating on a vertical level and diversification of resources and operations level, it then requires that at this developmental and transitional level in the organization that a cohesive maintenance of the organization is adopted through a strong leadership that exhibit a decentralized and democratic leadership style.

The focus here is that WB Engineering Limited failed to give room for experts trained in specific managerial skills to assist in managing the growth of the organization. This became visible when Adrian moved to Spain, Gary felt totally abandoned and helpless. Assuming there is a decentralized structure in place, the absence of Adrain would not have constituted a big effect.

His absence would have being adequately covered. It thus invariably signifies that the management has being one that is centralized even in this assuming state of the expansion of the organization. This had helped in the collapse of the organization. The no cohesive management of the organization again is reflected in the disconnected and autonomous management of the specialised units within the company as a group of satellites.

The uncoordinated nature of the management of the organization shows the lapses in management style; which is another factor that has contributed to the fall in WB Engineering Limited. The lapses in managerial style adopted by Gary and Adrain is the lack of consultation with specialist before embarking on projects and also the lack of proper forecasting and research before venturing into a new business environment. Though, the WB Engineering Limited spent a whooping sum (2million pounds) in consulting professional and legal fees, this was done after the deal has being signed and as a way of restructuring the organization, after the acquisition of ESR, to be floated as a public organization.

Assuming a little part of the sum had being spent in managerial consultancy and proper forecasting and research work, prior to the time the deal of acquiring ESR, this would have enable WB Engineering Limited to foresee the possibility of the acquisition as a dead trap, and an alternative measure would have being taking to avert the impending consequences. It is seen that the management style of the WB Engineering Limited had failed to grow out of its old shell and imbibe current management techniques and adopting strategic planning for the transitional organization. As it is a noticeable fact, management style in small firms have been more on operational plan than strategic plan.

While strategic plan is conceived as “a written long-range plan, which includes both a corporate mission statement and a statement of organizational objectives operating planning on the other hand is defined as the setting of short-term objectives for specific functional areas such as finance, marketing, and personnel” (Shrader, et al 1989). A strategic planning needs adequate forecasting and researching. The embarking on projects without proper forecasting and re searching on consequences and building alternatives plan had being the waterloo of WB Engineering Limited when it acquired ESR. According to Orpen, “strategic planning benefits small firms by causing them to explore new alternatives for increasing sales and improving their competitive advantages (ibid).

The management of WB Engineering Limited failed to recognize the significance of business environment in influencing the outcome of business operation. The preference for racing car in the UK market is different from what is obtainable in the US market. First impression matters a lot. The first introduced model of racing car in ESR by WB Engineering Limited, with a lesser quality in comparison with its other produce had beclouded the mind of prospecting customer, even when a winning model was reengineered by the company best engineering hands; little was done to safeguard the already battered image of the immerging firm (WBE-ESR organization) in US.

Another factor that had contributed to the fall of WB Engineering Limited is the lack of concentrating all its resources directly at the operation it is having an upper hand. The organization had no specialized operation area; it is thus becoming Jack of all trade and master of none.

Since the organization had cut an ace for itself in technical expertise and project engineering skill to mainstream automotive market, it ought  to have concentrated its resources in consolidating its operation around this  area, rather than dabbling into other areas like  owning a car racing team, and other project that is unrelated to it core area of operation. Concentrating and being specialized in a function makes the organization the master in such operation, hence competitive advantage over its rivals, even in this modern dynamic business world.

From the given extract of WB Engineering Limited historical antecedents, it is observed that the organization ha a poor human relationship with its workers. They are not adequately informed and carried along in the organization scheme of operation. This is reflected where senior employees of the organization began to question the strategic direction of the organization. This shows that initially the senior employees were not partakers to the strategic planning. This also goes back to support the centralized and non consultative pattern which the management of the organization operates.

The non involvement of workers especially the senior workers in the organization strategy planning, this had given them no sense of belonging in the organization, hence the lack of zeal to pursue the organizations objectives and goals. According to Marlow & Patton (1993), “the effective management of employees is also emerging as a key variable in the survival of mall firms”. The management of workers and non-consultation attitude of the management had contributed to the poor relationship of human resource in the organization with the management.


The WB Engineering Limited need to adopt changes in ways it operates and the organizational structure for it to improve on its effectiveness. The under listed are ways the organization can achieve its effectiveness.

First, there is a need that the organization restructures its management structure, which hitherto had been a centralized and undemocratic one. A decentralized organizational structure permits room for participation and workers contributing their innovative ideas in ways that would spur the organization ahead and make it compete vigorously with its rivals and attaining greater customer satisfaction.

Thus, there is the need that the management of WB Engineering is decentralized, the strategic planning of the organization should not be left to only Adrain and Gary; workers involvement would go a long way to effect a positive change in the organization. Also, the need to adopt a formal structure in the organization would also aid in bringing an effective management structure where each worker knows who to report to and the responsibility expected of him. There is also the need for the organization to build a more beneficial relationship between the organization’s human resource and the management.

Since the WB Engineering Limited is becoming vast in its operations, it should imbibe those strategic operations adopted by large organization; thus there is the need to carry out a strategic human resource management. According to Bacon et al (1996), cited in Wagar (1998), “small business managers are increasingly aware of new management ideas, and a number of organizations have implemented initiatives traditionally identified with large firm”. Thus the strategic human resource management has to do with the organization using its human resource in jointly drawing out strategies on which the organization would operate on. In modern times” firms were most likely to report sharing business information with employees and rapid change, keeping employees informed is important” (Wagar, 1998).

The WB Engineering Limited should do more to incorporate more effective forecasting and consultative research prior to embarking on projects. This would not only  safe the organization from engaging in wrong business and project deals, but also enable it know how to manage its resources in the most rewarding  way.

There is also the need for a well coordinated chain of the organization’s satellites businesses. This should be synchronized toward achieving same goal. The different group of satellites and other operational areas of the WB Engineering conglomerate should be coordinated in a fashion to jointly work towards achieving the goal of the organization. As earlier stated, the organization should concentrate its resources in the area of technical expertise and project engineering which over the years had being its major profit maximizing venture.

It is also suggested that the acquired ESR in U.S. since this has being the waterloo and the immediate cause of the impediment to the growth of WE Engineering Limited; this should be made to enter into a strategic alliance with other thriving organization in the United States. Instead of a full merger, the organization resources and managerial know-how can form an alliance with other effective organization in strategizing a way of moving the organization through a symbiotic relationship. This will give the organization the ability to take advantage of the environment in which it operates.

Lastly, it is suggested that in this ever dynamic contemporary business world, the organization should follow the trend of the time and adapt to modern management techniques; such as strategic human resource management, Total Quality management (TQM), having competitive advantage through product differentiation. When these are adopted it would give the organization an edge over its rival and make the WB Engineering Limited regain its lost glory in the race car construction industry.


Bannock, Graham (2005), The Economic and Management of Small Business: An International Perspective. New York: Routledge Publisher.

Collins, L. & Ram, M. (2003), “Managing the Entrepreneurial Firm” Stream 9: Critical realist in Perspectives on Entrepreneurial Organization and Discourses. June (06/03/06)

Neil C Churchhill and Lewis, V. L. (1983), the Five Stages of Small business Growth. Harvard Business Review, 61, 2-11

Shrader, C.B. et al (1989), “Strategic and Operational Planning, Uncertainty and Performance in Small Firms” in Journal of Small Business Management Vol. 27, No. 4

Odaka, K. & Sawai, M. (1999), Small Firms, Large Concerns, The development of Small Business in Comparative Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. P1.

Wagar, Terry H. 91998), “Determinants of Human Resource management Practices in Small Firms: Some evidences from Atlantic Canada” in Journal of Small Business Management Vol.36, No.2.





Free Essays

The Soyuz 11 Space Disaster: a Case Study in Engineering Disasters

The Soyuz 11 Space Disaster: A Case Study in Engineering Disasters ENGG 123 November 20, 2011 ABSTRACT In 1971, Soyuz 11 was the first manned spaceship to contact the first space station. As the astronauts were preparing to re-enter the earth’s atmosphere the crew cab depressurized and the astronauts were killed within seconds. This paper will discuss the events that happened and how they were investigated. It will also discuss how the disaster affected future engineering decisions regarding the Soyuz missions as well as other future space adventures. i Table of Contents

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………. i Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………. ii List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………………… iii 1. 0 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………. 1 2. 1 What Happened……………………………………………………………………………… 3. 1 What Went Wrong………………………………………………………………………….. 4 3. 2 What Was Learned…………………………………………………………………….. 7 4. 0 Summary……………………………………………………………. ………………………… 8 Works Cited………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 List of Figures Figure 2. 1: a) a view of Soyuz 11 docked b) a view of Soyuz 11 taking off (Space Facts, n. . )………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Figure 2. 2: a) seating chart for the astronauts b) the three astronauts inside Soyuz 11 c) astronauts preparing for takeoff (Space Facts, . n. d)………………. 3 Figure 3. 1: a) map of the landing route for Soyuz 11 (Svens Space Page, n. d. )…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 Figure 3. 2: a) Soyuz 11 after landing b) workers covering up the astronauts.. 7 ii Figure 3. : a) Funeral held for the three Soyuz 11 astronauts……………………. 7 1. 0 Introduction The purpose of this paper is to provide background and information on the Soyuz 11 space disaster. This disaster occurred in 1971 and took the lives of three astronauts who took part in the first successful visit to the world’s first space station. This paper will provide insight on how the disaster actually happened, what the causes were of this disastrous event. It will provide insight on how the events that occurred were investigated and also what was learned from these events and what changed. 2. 1 What Happened

Unless otherwise stated the information in this section is provided from About. com(n. d. ) 1 Salyut 1, a space station made by the Soviets was the first space station to ever be made. It was launched on April 19, 1971. It was a large cylinder with three compartments, could be used with or without people inside of it and it could only dock one spacecraft at a time. The primary use of this space station was to study the effects of long term space travel on a human body, as well as studying effects on growing plants.

On April 19, 1971 Soyuz 10 was the first spacecraft to attempt a mission out to the space station however this mission was unsuccessful. As the space craft attempted to dock it failed so the astronauts had to return to earth. On the return the ships air supply turned toxic but only one man passed out, all three astronauts recovered fully. On 2 June 6, 1971 Soyuz 11 embarked on a journey to the space station. This ship was originally supposed to be manned by Valery Kubasov, Alexei Leonov, and Pyotr Kolodin. Just before the launch, Valery Kubasov was suspected to have tuberculosis so this crew was replaced by three other men.

They were: Georgi Dobrovolski, Vladislav Volkov, and Viktor Patsayev. Soyuz 11 successfully reached the space station and managed to hand dock the ship once they were within 100 metres. Once docked, problems began to take over the mission. Instruments and telescopes were not working, cramped space made it hard to work, and personalities were clashing. A small fire had even broke out at one point. This is when the crew decided to cut the mission six days short and go home. Right after Soyuz 11 undocked and made its way back to earth, all communication with the crew was lost.

This happened much earlier than was to be expected. The ship made its way to earth and was discovered on June 29, 1971. When it was opened, all three members of the crew were found dead. The following images are from Space Facts(n. d. ) Figure 2. 1: a) a view of Soyuz 11 docked b) a view of Soyuz 11 taking off (Space Facts, n. d. ) a b Figure 2. 2: a) seating chart for the astronauts b) the three astronauts inside Soyuz 11 c) astronauts preparing for takeoff (Space Facts, n. d) abc 3 3. 1 What Went Wrong Unless otherwise stated the facts provided in this section come from Engineering Failures(n. . ) All the people on earth at the time thought this was a normal re-entry of a space craft. However upon opening the capsule the discovered differently. It was obvious to the people there that the crew had suffocated. Located between the orbital module and the descent module was a ventilation valve. As the two modules had been separated this valve was forced open. The two modules were connected via explosive bolts, these bolts were intended to fire sequentially or one after the other, but they actually fired simultaneously or at the same time.

Because of this there was extra force put onto internal parts of the space craft. The ventilation valve had been jerked open by all this extra force. This valve was intended to automatically adjust cabin pressure but because it was actually opened in outer space the cabin pressure of the space craft very quickly reached zero, a fatal pressure for the cabin to be at. This valve was located underneath of the astronauts chairs making it impossible for them solve the problem. One of the astronauts was wearing a suit with biomedical sensors that showed he died within 40 seconds of the pressure loss.

It only took 935 seconds for the cabin to reach a pressure of zero. 4 The facts in the next paragraph are from abyss. uoregon. edu(n. d. ) What caused all this to go wrong was a poor design. It should have been placed in a more accessible place. When thoughts were going into its design it was thought that it would only need to be used in an emergency, however no one thought what would be happening that it would need to be closed. The valve was intended for emergency but proved no use in the emergency because it was inaccessible.

This problem could have been solved if the design team performed more tests, however it is impossible for a design team of a safety device to know every single situation that could happen. The following is a quote from Geoff Perry, Senior Science Master at Kettering Grammar School. 5 “I picked up my first signals for over 7 days on 28 June around 2110 UT  – Salyut on 20. 008 MHz and assumed that recovery would take place on 29 June around 2000 UT. Consequently I set the alarm clock for 3. a. m. BST hoping to see two objects indicating that Soyuz-11 had separated from Salyut  but that was not to be.

We had no signals during 29 June and when 2000 UT came and went I went off watch, but, fortunately, left the time switch to do the pass at 2230 and 0300 UT. I did not believe that the Russians would worry about a recovery in darkness at this time of the year, considering their usual precision landings. However, they did worry and Soyuz-11 went two extra revs to give a daylight recovery. The time switch recorded signals 45 s after it had operated with LOS at 2247:15 +/- 15 s (allowing for possible variations in mains frequency affecting the clockwork).

Peter Bentley had banked on a daylight recovery and was listening at Menai Bridge and gives LOS at 2247:27 +/- 1 s (or, as he says, +/- 5 s for 99% accuracy). I have therefore adopted 2247:25 +/- 5 s as LOS and the time of separation of the descent module and instrument module. The tragedy must have occurred minutes, or even only seconds, later. Telemetry at LOS was normal for a Soyuz recovery”. (Svens Space Page, n. d. ) The following is a map taken from Svens Space Page (n. d. ) showing what information the Kettering group had received from Soyuz 11. Figure 3. : a) map of the landing route for Soyuz 11 (Svens Space Page, n. d. ) a 6 The following are images from after Soyuz 11 landed. Figure 3. 2: a) Soyuz 11 after landing b) workers covering up the astronauts a b Figure 3. 3: a) Funeral held for the three Soyuz 11 astronauts a 3. 2 What Was Learned 7 After this terrible and fatal accident much thought and consideration went into the next missions. First off the USSR never again attempted to send astronauts to the Salyut 1 space station. Eventually Salyut 1 was deorbited and burnt up. It took more than two years for another man mission to be attempted About. om(n. d. ) The Soyuz spacecraft went through a lot of modifications. The first main difference was that it was redesigned to only carry two astronauts instead of three. This allowed more room inside which allowed for the astronauts to wear space suits during the launch and the landing. The Soyuz capsule remained this way until a new design in 1980 which allowed three astronauts. 4. 0 Summary The Soyuz 11 space disaster was an extremely unfortunate event. Three astronauts died from a malfunction that should have been fixable. This is a

Free Essays

Telecommunications – Mobile Phones – Engineering Report

Title: Engineering Assignment Historical Development of the Mobile Phone Author: J. Naumovski Date:25/11/2012 Class:Year 11 Engineering Abstract: This Report will examine the Historical development of the mobile phone in telecommunications, such as the History, safety, Use in everyday life and the innovations. Introduction: Cell phones, commonly known as mobile phones or wireless phones, are hand-held phones with small built-in antennas that connect to bigger antennas at a cell tower.

Unlike home phones, cell phones can be carried from place to place without the need to be plugged into a lan-line to make a call. This makes them a good choice for people who want to be in touch with other people even when they are away from the house. How Do Cell Phones Work people ask? Not many people know it, but cell phones are actually two-way radios similarly like the walkie-talkies from past decades, yet much more advanced. When you talk into your cell phone receiver, it registers your voice and converts the sound into radio waves. Without this you cannot hear the other person.

These waves travel through the air until they reach a receiver, which is usually found at a base station. This station will then send your call through a telephone network until it contacts the person you wish to speak with. When someone places a call to your cell phone, the signal travels through the telephone network until it reaches the station closest or near you. The station sends the radio waves out into the neighboring areas; this will be the closest tower in your area. These radio waves are then picked up by your cell phone and converted into the sound of a human voice.

Cell phones are a vast improvement over the telecommunications technology of the past, and are daily becoming a fixture of modern life. As always, communication is vital, and cell phones will help you to better communicate with the key people in your life. Using a cell phone is one of the first steps you must take to participate effectively in the emerging global economy. Analysis The History of Mobile Phones The history of mobile phones shows a deep understanding of Telecommunication and the development of devices which are connected wirelessly to a public switched telephone network.

The transmission of speech by radio has a long and excessive history going back to Reginald Fessenden’s invention and shore to ship demonstration of radio telephone, through the Second World War (WWII) with military use of radio telephone links. Hand held radio transceivers have been available since the 1940’s. Mobile telephones for automobiles became available from some telephone companies in the 1940’s also. Early devices were bulky and consumed high power and the network supported only a few simultaneous conversations.

Modern cellular networks allow automatic and pervasive use of mobile phones for voice and data communications. In the United States, engineers from Bell Labs began work on a system to allow mobile users to place and receive telephone calls from automobiles, leading to the inauguration of mobile service on June 17, 1946 in St. Louis, Missouri. Shortly after, AT offered Mobile Telephone Service. A wide range of mostly incompatible mobile telephone services offered limited coverage area and only a few available channels in urban areas.

The introduction of cellular technology, which allowed re-use of frequencies many times in small adjacent areas covered by relatively low powered transmitters, made widespread adoption of mobile telephones economically feasible. The advances in mobile telephone can be traced in successive generations from the early “0G” services like MTS and its successor Improved Mobile Telephone Service, to first generation (1G) analogue cellular network, second generation (2G) digital cellular networks, and third generation (3G) broadband data services to the current state of the art, fourth generation 4G) native IP networks. Safety and Risks Associated with Mobile Phones When the first cell phones were made in 1984, there were many health risks. Cell phones emit radiation that could be harmful. No testing had been done prior to releasing these phones to the public. The radiation could possibly lead to brain cancer with long-term use. Cellular phones give off an electromagnetic energy which is a type of non-ionizing radiation. This is similar to the radiation naturally found in thunderstorms. The RF electromagnetic energy that cellular phones create can penetrate through a body.

The main factors for the depth of penetration and how much is absorbed come from how close the phone is held and how strong its signal is. It is possible that cell phones can cause serious health issues such as cancer, epileptic seizures or sleeping disorders, changes in brain activity, reaction timing but none of this has been proven, this is all a assumption because of the Radio Activity the cell phones give off. Using cell phone whilst driving could cause serious driving accidents. They may also interfere with medical equipment. This includes pace makers, defibrillators and hearing aids.

Mobile phones also cause massive amounts of interference will aircrafts. This is why as a safety procedure they must be turned off during flight so devices can still remain operational. Innovations over History: The mobile phone is a wondrous device of technology which historians track 40 years of amazing innovation and a growing number of vintage mobile phone collectors fascinated by the choice and diversity. This piece of research sets out to serve both communities. Below is the 6th edition of research into the most historically important mobile phones. It’s a uniquely global view.

It is the history of cellular radio seen through the evolution of mobile handset innovation. The research is far from complete and contributions are welcome on additional information about the mobile already identified and those ground breaking mobile phones that should be included. Many of the mobiles identified are still relatively easy to acquire at auctions whilst others are starting to become harder to find. Timeline from 1973-2012 of Mobile Phone Innovations 1. First Prototype portable radio telephone that took the mobile out of the car and into the hand (1973) 2.

Motorola Dynatac 8000X – turning a vision into a practical mobile phone (1983) 3. Technophone EXCELL PC105T – taking the mobile from the hand into the pocket (1986) 4. Motorola MicroTAC – some firsts in size and design (1989) 5. Orbitel 901 – the first GSM mobile and the first to receive a commercial SMS text message (1992) 6. Motorola 3200 – the first GSM hand portable (1992) 7. Nokia 1011 – Nokia’s first GSM hand portable (1992) 8. Anon – The world’s first mobile with a lithium-ion battery (1992) 9. Motorola m300 (& Siemens m200) – World’s first mobiles at 1800 MHz (1993) 10.

Hagenuk MT-2000 – The world’s first mobile providing a game to play (1994) 11. Nokia 2100 – 1st phone with Nokia tune (1994) 12. Nokia 9000 Communicator – the first mobile to make a reality of the mobile office (1996) 13. Siemens S10 – the first mobile phone with a full colour screen (1998) 14. Nokia 7110 – the first effort (WAP) at taking the Internet onto a mobile (1999) 15. Kyocera VP210 – the first mobile offering video telephony (1999) 16. Nokia 8850 – Introducing style into the design of mobiles (1999) 17. Motorola L7089 Timeport -Bridging the Atlantic for travelers (1999) 18.

Samsung SPH-WP10 – The world’s first wrist watch mobile phone (1999) 19. Ericsson R380 – The mobile that blazed the trail for the SmartPhone (2000) 20. Ericsson T36 – the first mobile with blue-tooth (2000) 21. Samsung SCH-N300 with Verizon – the first commercial A-GPS (2001) 22. Siemens SL45 – the first mobile with MP3 player (2001) 23. Blackberry 957 Internet edition – the mobile that made a reality of push e-mail (2001) 24. Sharp J-SH04 – first to discover the consumer love affair with the camera phone (2001) 25.

Matsushita P2101V – World’s First 3G Mobile Phone and use of 2100 MHz spectrum (2001) 26. Sharp Mova SH251iS – The first 3-D screen on a mobile phone (2002) 27. Motorola Razr V3 (2004) – Setting a trend for thinness (2004) 28. Vertu Ascent – Turning the mobile phone into a luxury item for the super-rich (2004) 29. Samsung MM-A700 – Turning speech into text on the mobile phone (2004) 30. Neonode N1 – First mobile with a finger swipe to unlock (2004) 31. Motorola C113a – Making the mobile phone affordable to the world’s poorest (2005) 32. Nokia N92 – The dream of mobile TV (2005) 3. Samsung B600 – The world’s first 10 MP camera (2006) 34. BenQ S88 – First mobile with OLED display (2006) 35. Apple i-phone – igniting the smartphone and mobile data revolution (2007 36. Samsung SCH-B710 – First 3-D mobile phone Camera (2007) 37. The T-Mobile G1 Smartphone – Arrival of the Google Android Operating System (2008) 38. Samsung SCH-r900 – The world’s first LTE mobile (2010) 39. Samsung Beam (I8520) – The world’s first mobile with built-in projector (2010) 40. Nokia 808 Pureview – A 41MP camera to advance camera phone picture quality (2012) 41.

Sharp Pantone 5 107SH – World’s first mobile with built in radiation monitor (2012) The Smart Phone Era Android Android is an open source platform founded in October 2003 by Andy Rubin and backed by Google, along with major hardware and software developers such as Intel, HTC and Samsung. That forms the Open Handset Alliance. The first phone to use Android was the HTC Dream, branded for distribution by T-Mobile as the G1. The software included on the phone consists of integration with Google’s applications, such as Google Maps, Calendar, and Gmail, and a full HTML web browser service.

Android supports the execution of native applications and a pre-emptive multitasking capability. Free and paid apps are available via Google Play, which launched in October 2008 as Android Market. In January 2010, Google launched the Nexus One Smartphone using its Android OS. Although Android has multi-touch abilities, Google initially removed that feature from the Nexus One, but it was added through a firmware update on February 2, 2010. Phones such as the Samsung Galaxy S III was so highly anticipated, sales hit 8 million within first weekend in 2012. iPhone/ iOS In 2007, Apple Inc. ntroduced the original iPhone, one of the first mobile phones to use a multi-touch interface. The iPhone was known for its use of a large touch screen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction, this meaning a touch screen as its main form of use. Instead of a stylus or keypad as typical for smart phones at the time. It initially lacked the capability to install some applications, meaning some did not regard it as a Smartphone. Adobe flash was one of its bigger issues. However in June 2007 Apple announced that the iPhone would support third-party “web 2. applications” running in its web browser that share the look and feel of the iPhone interface. A process called jail breaking emerged quickly to provide unofficial third-party applications to replace the built-in functions, otherwise known as cracking the phone. In July 2008, Apple introduced its second generation iPhone, iPhone 3G, with a much lower list price and 3G support. Simultaneously, the App Store was introduced which allowed any iPhone to install third party applications; these were however both free and paid for, Over a Wi-Fi network, without requiring a Computer for installation.

Applications could be browsed through and downloaded directly from the iTunes software client. Featuring over 500 applications at launch date, the App Store was noted and became very popular, and achieved over one billion downloads in the first year, and 15 billion by 2011. In June 2010, Apple introduced iOS 4, which was brought to you on the new iPhone, iPhone 4S, which included APIs to allow third-party applications to multitask with an improved display and back-facing camera, a front-facing camera for videoconferencing, and other new innovations.

In early 2011 the iPhone 4 allowed the handset’s 3G connection to be used as a wireless Wi-Fi becon or hotspot. The iPhone 4S was announced on October 4, 2011, improving upon the iPhone 4 with a dual core A5 processor, an 8 megapixel camera capable of recording 1080p video at 30 frames per second, higher phone capability allowing it to work on both GSM & CDMA networks, and the Siri automated voice assistant. Mobile Phones in everyday life Mobile phones are also known as lifesavers as they can help people in emergencies.

If you get stuck in the middle of the road and find no one for help, you can just use a mobile phone and call for help or assistance. Mobile phones are a comfortable way of communicating over a long distances. Along with the obvious convenience and quick access to help in emergencies, mobile phones can be both economical and essential for travellers trying to stay connected to news from across seas. In Japan, mobile phone companies provide immediate notification of earthquakes and other natural disasters to their customers free of charge. In the event of an emergency, disaster response crews can locate trapped or njured people using the signals from their mobile phones or the small detonator of flare in the battery of every cell phone; an interactive menu accessible through the phone’s Internet browser notifies the company if the user is safe or in distress. We have also have been downloading Java games and video clips to our mobile phones. Several online mobile phone shops have come up to cater the increase in demand for the best mobile phone handsets and ear pieces and the most reliable and cost-effective. Result Summary Historically there has been many significant development Innovations to mobile phones over time.

Much of the recent Mobile phones have caused risk issues, which means the constant use of mobile phones can be very hazardous to the person. Yet with the sheer numbers of users with mobile phones is uncanny it shows us as a society cannot live without our mobile phones. By analysis we came to know that mobile phone have both positive and negative aspect. We cannot live without its help. We need them in each and every step so that we can perform our work much more easily. With the help of mobile phones we can also call whoever we wish and ask about last minute things.

We may take pictures at anytime in case we don’t have a digital camera. We have the ability to communicate instantly in an emergency. If we have a good plan, we don’t need a home phone. Cell phones are good to carry if you break down somewhere. New phones have calendars, and planners and alarms so you now you can throw out the ones at home. Having mobile phone it can cause many problems. Mobile phones save our time but we should try to use the mobile in good things only not in bad one. It is one technology which has enhanced our lifestyle not overcome us.

We should take benefits of several innovations of this technology in this globalized world. Mobile phone in a way is very demanding and is getting its place in the market regularly no matter it changes its features, price and others. Conclusion/Recommendations There is no telling how cell phones will evolve over time, and how they will affect the future, but it is safe to say that they certainly will be changing. Over the past few years cell phones have evolved from something you simply call someone on, to now being almost like mini computers, with a large variety of capabilities.

One idea that others have for the future of cell phones include having a super fast charge, with as little as a 10 second charge time. In conclusion mobile phones are easily acceptable new trend and it plays a vital role for every individuals. Bibliography http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Mobile_phone http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Mobile_phone_industry_in_the_United_States http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Apple_Inc. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/IOS http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Android_(operating_system) http://www. google. com. au/url? a=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&ved=0CGIQFjAI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen. androidwiki. com%2Fwiki%2FMain_Page&ei=F8WtUNKmJMm5iAfOvoHIBA&usg=AFQjCNFAzthz4UAIK1lZXLuPzpuvYNUFoA&sig2=gDSUI_V5gNHj8715SYf7Yw http://www. google. com. au/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CEcQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fknowledgetoday. wharton. upenn. edu%2F2012%2F03%2Fthe-latest-cell-phone-innovations-breakthroughs-or-busts%2F&ei=OcWtULPmIum7iAfOjoCoAw&usg=AFQjCNF-f1LcuiicqaOh1PtC8lf0W518TQ&sig2=FCS6njxcVriQVZJpfE6Osw http://www. mobilesafety. com. au/ http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Mobile_phones_and_driving_safety

Free Essays

Human Genetic Engineering

Kathryn Holladay English Composition I Mrs. Robyn Weaver 12/01/2010 Human Genetic Engineering The ability to genetically engineer and modify our children before birth is now a reality. Genetic Modification is a new science that has created significant controversy for the human race. If genetic modification becomes a common practice without any legal restrictions, our world as we know it would completely change. With this unfathomable practice, our world is now open to an array of opportunities.

Scientists can now prevent certain medical conditions passed down to children. The economic advantages that could be generated from this industry are huge. Even though there are advantages to genetic engineering, there are many disadvantages that will outweigh everything else. Richard Hayes, the executive director of the Center for Genetics and Society, talks about the major problems with genetic modification in his essay called “Supersize you Child? ”. Hayes makes a very good and agreeable argument about the severe consequences of this scientific discovery.

Genetic modification, if not restrained by strict regulations and limits, will be accompanied by detrimental consequences to the human race in social, biological, and economic ways. There is lots of evidence and many reasons to why this claims is true. Richard Hayes is a credible scientist that works for a nonprofit organization working for the responsible governance of genetic technology. In his essay, “Supersize your Child? ” he tries to inform the audience about genetic modification and prove why it will hurt our society.

He highly encourages the implementation of strict regulations and policies on scientists practicing genetic engineering. He begins his essay with background information and important facts about the emergence of genetic modification. With this new technology, scientists can insert genes into an embryo to create a certain trait or alter the biology of a human being. For example, Hayes talks about the 5-HTT gene that can reduce the risk of depression. Another gene, called DAF-2, can be used to double the life span of humans (185).

Hayes discusses his thorough research on the subject and quotes many different scientists involved in genetic modification. He quotes Dr. Richard Lynn, a supporter of human genetic modification by stating, “What is called for here is not genocide, the killing off of the population of incompetent cultures. But we do need to think realistically in terms of the “phasing out” of such peoples… Evolutionary progress means the extinction of the less competent” (186). This provides a good example of the type of attitude and excitement some scientists have with the development of this technology.

Richard Hayes presents an opposing argument to the type of attitude displayed by supporters of human genetic modification. These scientists are looking for the creation of a genetic elite. After establishing a platform for genetic modification and discussing the possible advantages described by scientists, Hayes goes on to explain why it has enormous consequences. He lists the many reasons why the use of this science will essentially harm the human race and the society we live in. For example, Hayes suggests there will be a rise in inequality and that it will alter the fundamental biology of the human species.

Hayes states, “The birth of the first genetically modified child would be a watershed moment in human history. It would set off a chain of events that would feed back upon themselves in ways impossible to control”(187). At the end of his essay, Hayes proposes a solution to the development of genetic modification and how we can prevent it from destroying our society. He suggests that every country needs to create a set of regulations and restrictions that limit the technology to medical purposes only.

To achieve this goal, Hayes lays out a list of steps that will help the world seize control over the matter. Hayes wants the reader to realize the seriousness of the issue and take action against genetic modification. The opinions and points Richard Hayes makes about the issue of genetic engineering are very realistic and completely true. Humans now have the ability to take control our own evolution and launch it into overdrive. It is a dangerous scientific technology that will be the gateway to societal destruction. The concept of phasing out the genetically inferior people is a ower that should not be left in the hands of any human. As a society, we should accept the diversity of the human race. We should embrace the less than perfect nature of all humans. The embracement of our flaws is a significant part of life. It is the factor that makes our lives so precious. If the practice of human genetic modification can alter the biology of our species, then something should be done to keep it from becoming out of control. As a common species, homo sapiens, we share a fundamental biology that dates back thousands of years ago.

Altering with our shared fundamental biology could be horrible for humans (187). There are many reasons to why genetic engineering is a dangerous and potentially destructive science. All of these reasons are discussed in Hayes’s essay. Hayes addresses one of the underlying questions: “Once we allow children to be designed through embryo modification where would we stop? ”(187). As long as it is possible to alter one gene, people will want to alter more and more until the original human genome barely exists.

Considering there are no limits, we would not know where to stop in the use of this technology. Human genetic modification is so dangerous, that even the strictest regulations will hardly help in limiting its use. The prohibition of genetic modification for cosmetic and enhancement purposes is a very flexible limitation. Drugs like Prozac, Viagra, and Botox were originally produced and used for medical purposes only. However, this has significantly changed over time as many people use them for enhancement and cosmetic reasons.

These consumer products have become very profitable (187). Genetic modification is no different from these products. Limitations on the new technology will be stretched until it becomes a tool for cosmetic improvement. We should not allow ourselves to abuse developments made for medical purposes. Furthermore, the possible societal implications of human genetic modification are another reason why it should be restricted. Hayes believes that the use of the technology will cause a rise in inequality.

It will be similar to the inequality present about three hundred years ago when masters and slaves existed. Humanity will be divided into those who are “superior” and those who are “inferior”(187). As he compares the era of slavery to a genetically enhanced society, Hayes states, “Human beings were bred, bought, and sold, like cattle or dogs… If left uncontrolled, the new human genetic technologies could set us on a trajectory leading to a Dark Age in which people are once again regarded as little better than cattle or dogs”(188).

Human genetic technologies will promote a sense of discrimination in our society. As the use of human genetic engineering further develops, it will leave a huge mark on our world historically. Something that could generate this huge change throughout the whole world will be a historical turning point. Unless the entire world places restrictions on the use genetic modification, the international implications could cause serious tension between countries (188). The treat of international competition will grow. Every country will be competing to create the best breed of human beings.

Even though the newly developed science of genetic alteration has its advantages, there are many disadvantages that will outweigh the positive outcomes. Now that we have this technology so easily available, we must take action on establishing limitations. If there are no regulations, then there will be no time before people start to abuse its powers. To achieve a solution, we must recognize the unique nature of the challenges presented by human genetic technologies. Individuals, organizations, political leaders, and scientists need to protect humanity form being divided.

The newfound science of human genetic modification has created a lot of controversy throughout our world. Many scientists believe that this technology will solve many medical problems and create new medical breakthroughs. We will be able to create our own evolution and genetically perfect our race. However, the consequences of this scientific discovery will take a huge toll on humanity. With human genetic modification our society will be affected by issues such as the deepening of inequality and countries across the world will complete to create the best race of humans.

A new Dark Age will emerge in history that will define the way humans are treated. In “Supersize your Child? ”, by Richard Hayes, Genetic Modification is proven to change the entire world unless we put limitations and restrictions against its use. Human Genetic Modification is a practice that should be stopped as soon as possible and as much possible. Works Cited Hayes, Richard. “Supersize your Child? ”. Elements of Argument. Ed. Annette T. Rottenberg and Donna Haisty Winchell. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin’s. 185-189. Print.

Free Essays

Engineering and Ce 211c Ce

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF SAN CARLOS-TALAMBAN CAMPUS CEBU CITY, PHILIPPINES (Effective June 2008) FIRST YEAR/FIRST SEMESTER Lec Lab Course Title Hrs Hrs Algebra 3 0 Trigonometry 3 0 Solid Mensuration 2 0 Engineering Graphics 1 0 3 Communication Arts 1 3 0 Sining ng Pakikipagtalastasan 3 0 Man in Search of God 3 0 Self Testing Activities 2 0 Civic Welfare Training Services 1 3 0 Total 22 3 FIRST YEAR/SECOND SEMESTER Lec Lab Hrs Hrs Course Title Analytic & Solid Geometry 3 0 Calculus 1 5 0 Advanced Algebra 2 0 Engineering Graphics 2 0 3 General and Inorganic Chemistry Lec 3 0 General and Inorganic Chemistry Lab 0 3 Communication Arts 2 3 0 Man the Christian Believer 3 0 Filipino sa Iba’t-ibang Larangan 3 0 Rhytmic Activities 2 0 Civic Welfare Training Services 2 3 0 Total 27 6 SECOND YEAR/FIRST SEMESTER Lec Lab Hrs Hrs Course Title Elementary Surveying Lecture 2 0 Elementary Surveying Laboratory 0 6 Computer Fundamentals & Programming 0 6 Engineering Physics 1 Lecture 3 0 Engineering Physics 1 Laboratory 0 3 Logic 3 0 Life & Works of Rizal 3 0 The Christian Worship 3 0 Fundamentals of Games and Sports 2 0 Governance & Const with Current Issues 3 0 Total 19 15 SECOND YEAR/SECOND SEMESTER Lec Lab Course Title Hrs Hrs Higher Surveys Lecture 2 0 Higher Surveys Laboratory 0 6 Calculus 2 5 0 Statics of Rigid Bodies 3 0 Engineering Physics 2 Lecture 3 0 Engineering Physics 2 Laboratory 0 3 Aural-Oral Communication 3 0 Man Witness in the World 3 0 Recreational Activities 2 0 Total 21 9 THIRD YEAR/FIRST SEMESTER Lec Lab Hrs Hrs Course Title Dynamics of Rigid Bodies 3 0 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies 5 0 Engineering Surveys Lecture 2 0 Engineering Surveys Laboratory 0 3 General Computer Application 0 3 Differential Equations 3 0 Building Design 1 Lecture 1 0 Building Design 1 Laboratory 0 3 Basic Mechanical Engineering 3 0 General Psychology 3 0 Total 20 9 THIRD YEAR/SECOND SEMESTER Lec Lab Course Title Hrs Hrs Theory of Structures 1 Lecture 3 0 Theory of Structures 1 Laboratory 0 3 Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics 1 3 0 Course Code EM 111 EM 112X EM 124 ES 12A ENGL 1 FILI 1 REED 10 PE 11 NSTP 1 Acad Units 3 3 2 1 3 3 3 2 3 23 Prerequisites (Co-requisites) Course Code EM 121 EM 122 EM 123 ES 14A CHEM 4 CHEM 4L ENGL 2 REED 20 FILI 2 PE 12 NSTP2 Acad Units 3 5 2 1 3 1 3 3 3 2 3 29 Prerequisites (Co-requisites) EM 111, EM 112X EM 111, EM 112X EM 111, EM 112X ES 12A ENGL 1 REED 10 FILI 1 PE 11 NSTP1 Course Code CE 211C CE 211CL ES 16ANL PHYS 31N PHYS 31NL PHILO 2 HIST 17 REED 30 PE 13 POSC 13E Acad Units 2 2 2 3 1 3 3 3 2 3 24

Prerequisites (Co-requisites) EM 111, EM112X EM 111, EM112X EM 111, EM112X EM 121, EM 122 EM 121, EM 122 None None REED 20 PE 12 None Course Code CE 221C CE 221CL EM 211 MECH 1 PHYS 32N PHYS 32NL ENGL 3 REED 40 PE 14 Acad Units 2 2 5 3 3 1 3 3 2 24 Prerequisites (Co-requisites) CE 211C, CE211CL CE 211C, CE211CL EM 122 PHYS 31, (EM 211) PHYS 31N PHYS 31N Engl 2 REED 30 PE 13 Course Code MECH 2 MECH 3 CE 311C CE 311CL CE 311G EM 22 BLDG 1 BLDG 1L ME310 PSYC 1 Acad Units 3 5 2 1 1 3 1 1 3 3 23 Prerequisites (Co-requisites) MECH 1 MECH 1 (MECH 2) CE 221C, CE221CL CE 221C, CE221CL EM111, EM123, ES16ANL EM 211 EM 124, ES 14A EM 124, ES 14A MECH 1 (MECH 2) None

Course Code CE 321A CE 321AL CE 321BX Acad Units 3 1 3 Prerequisites (Co-requisites) MECH 2, MECH 3 MECH 2, MECH 3 MECH 2, MECH 3 CE 321BLY CE 321C CE 321G BLDG 2 BLDG 2L EM 31 ECON 1N EE 320 Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics 1 Lab Engineering Geology Probability and Statistics Building Design 2 Lecture Building Design 2 Laboratory Advanced Engineering Mathematics Principles of Econ with Agrarian Reform Elementary Elect. Eng’g Total 0 3 3 1 0 3 3 3 22 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 9 1 3 3 1 1 3 3 3 25 MECH 2, MECH 3 PHYS 32, CHEM 4 EM 111 BLDG 1 BLDG 2 EM 22 None PHYS 32, EM 22 Course Code CE 411A CE 411AL CE 411BY CE 411BL CE 411C CE 411CL CE 412AX CE 412AL CE 412B SOSC 6 PHILO 25

FOURTH YEAR/FIRST SEMESTER Lec Lab Course Title Hrs Hrs Theory of Structures 2 Lecture 3 0 Theory of Structures 2 Laboratory 0 3 Fluid Mechanics &Hydraulics 2 3 0 Fluid Mechanics &Hydraulics2 Lab. 0 3 Geotechnics 1 Lecture 3 0 Geotechnics 1 laboratory 0 3 Construction Materials and Testing Lec 2 0 Construction Materials and Testing Lab 0 3 Hydrology 3 0 Philippine Society and Culture 3 0 Philosophy of the Human Person 3 0 Total 20 12 FOURTH YEAR/ SECOND SEMESTER Lec Lab Course Title Hrs Hrs Reinforced Concrete Design Lec 3 0 Reinforced Concrete Design Lab 0 3 Environmental Engineering 3 0 Geotechnics 2 Lecture 3 0 Geotechnics 2 Laboratory 0 3 Geographic Information System Lec 1 0 Geographic Information System Lab 0 3

Water Resources Engineering 3 0 Engineering Economics 3 0 Technical Writing 3 0 Survey of Arts 3 0 Total 22 9 Summer after 4th year/second semester Lec Lab Course Title Hrs Hrs On the Job Training 3 0 Total 3 0 FIFTH YEAR/ FIRST SEMESTER Lec Lab Hrs Hrs Course Title Highway Engineering 3 0 Steel Design Lecture 3 0 Steel Design Laboratory 0 3 Timber Design 2 0 Construction Planng, Prog & Safety 3 0 Project 1 Lecture 1 0 Project 1 Laboratory 0 3 Elective 1 3 0 Elective 2 3 0 Engineering Management 3 0 Total 21 6 FIFTH YEAR/ SECOND SEMESTER Lec Lab Hrs Hrs Course Title Transportation Engineering 3 0 Project Management Lecture 2 0 Project Management Laboratory 0 3 Foundation Design 2 Foundation Design Lab. 3 Project 2 0 3 CE Laws, Contracts, Specs, & Ethics 3 0 Elective 3 3 0 Elective 4 3 0 Total 16 9 Acad Units 3 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 3 3 3 24 Prerequisites (Co-requisites) CE321A, CE321AL CE321A, CE321AL CE321B, CE321BL CE321B, CE321BL MECH 2, MECH 3 MECH 2, MECH 3 MECH 2, MECH 3 MECH 2, MECH 3 EM 211, (CE411B) None None Course Code CE 421AN CE 421ANL CE 421B CE 421C CE 421CL CE 421G CE 421GL CE 423B ES 25 ENGL 23G HUMN 1 Acad Units 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 25 Prerequisites (Co-requisites) CE411A, CE412A CE411A, CE412A CHEM 4, CE 412B CE411C, CE411CL CE411C, CE411CL CE311C, CE311G CE311C, CE311G CE411B, CE411BL EM 22 4th Year Standing None Course Code OJT Acad Units 3 3 Prerequisites (Co-requisites) BLDG2, Completed 4th yr 2nd sem courses

Course Code CE 511C CE 512A CE 512AL CE 514A CE 513A CE 511G CE 511GL CE 511E CE 511F ES 27 Acad Units 3 3 1 2 3 1 1 3 3 3 23 Prerequisites (Co-requisites) CE311C, CE421C CE411A, CE411AL CE411A, CE411AL CE411A, CE411AL 5th Year Standing completed 4th yr 2nd sem courses completed 4th yr 2nd sem courses refer to pre-req refer to pre-req ES 25 Course Code CE 521C CE 522A CE 522AL CE 522B CE 522BL CE 521G CE 522G CE 522E CE 523E Acad Units 3 2 1 3 1 1 3 3 3 20 Prerequisites (Co-requisites) 5th Year Standing ES 27, CE 513A ES 27, CE 513A CE 511A CE 511A CE 511G 5th Year Standing refer to pre-req refer to pre-req Note: NSTP and PE courses should be completed within the first two years in college.

Elective Courses: Lec Lab Hrs Hrs Elective 1: Course Title Cluster A Prestressed Concrete 3 0 Cluster B Irrigation, Flood Control and Drainage Engg 3 0 Cluster C Urban Planning and Land Development 3 0 Elective 2: Cluster A Bridge Design 3 0 Cluster B Sanitary Engineering 3 0 Cluster C Geosynthetics in Geotechnical Engg 3 0 Elective 3: Cluster A Entrepreneurship for Engineers 3 0 Cluster B Hydrologic Analysis and Modeling 3 0 Cluster C Pavement Analysis and Design 3 0 Elective 4: Cluster A Special Topics in Structural Engg 3 0 Cluster B Special Topics in Water Resources 3 0 Cluster C Special Topics in Geotechnical Engg 3 0 Acad Units 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Prerequisites (Co-requisites) CE 421A CE 422B CE 311C, 5th Year Standing CE 421A CE 421B CE 421C ES 27 CE 412B, CE321G CE 511C CE 511A CE 423B CE 511C

Free Essays

Aerospace Engineering – Paper

Aerospace engineering Aerospace engineering is a challenging and exciting field that is engaged in the design of aircraft and space systems. The US aerospace industry is a world leader and one of the largest positive contributors to the US economy. In Aerospace Engineering, strong technical competency in the fundamental principles of mathematics and fundamentals of science is needed to succeed. Aerospace Engineering provides career opportunities in both aeronautics or astronautics related fields.

In Aerospace engineering a person designs, test, and supervise the manufacture of aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles. The best places to earn your degree for this field are NC State, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, and University of Central Florida. The term “rocket scientist” is sometimes used to describe a person of great intelligence since “rocket science” is seen as a practice requiring great mental ability, especially technical and mathematical ability. The roots of aeronautical engineering can be traced back to the earliest sketches of flight vehicles, by Leonardo da Vinci in the late 1400’s.

The first was an ornithopter, a flying machine using flapping wings to imitate the flight of birds. The second idea was an aerial screw, the predecessor of the helicopter. The breakthrough in aircraft progress came in 1799 when Sir George Cayley, an English baron, drew an airplane incorporating a fixed wing for lift, an empennage, and a separate propulsion system. Because engine development was virtually nonexistent, Cayley turned to gliders, building the first successful one in 1849. Gliding flights established a data base for aerodynamics and aircraft design. “aerospace engineering. “) Aerospace engineering may be studied at the advanced diploma, bachelors, masters, and Ph. D. levels in aerospace engineering departments at many universities, and in mechanical engineering departments at others. A few departments offer degrees in space-focused astronautical engineering. Aerospace Engineering is all about flight – airplanes, spacecraft, hovercraft, helicopters, you name it. It includes the study of aerodynamics, aerospace structures, propulsion, flight mechanics and systems, and vehicle design.

A major in Aerospace Engineering, there is four seriously intense years, but a graduate will graduate with a solid understanding of the physical fundamentals underlying atmospheric and space flight and the ability to research, analyze, and design the flying machines of the future. Aerospace engineering is the main branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and science of aircraft and spacecraft. It is divided into two major and overlying branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering.

The aeronautical deals with craft that stay within Earth’s atmosphere, and the astronautical with craft that operates outside it. Aerospace engineering is the primary branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and science of aircraft and spacecraft. Aerospace Engineering deals with the design, construction, and study of the science behind the forces and physical properties of aircraft, rockets, flying craft, and spacecraft. The field also covers their aerodynamic characteristics and behaviors, airfoil, control surfaces, lift, drag, and other properties.

Aerospace engineering is not to be confused with the various other fields of engineering that go into designing elements of these complex craft. For example, the design of aircraft avionics, while certainly part of the system as a whole, would rather be considered electrical engineering, or perhaps computer engineering. Or an aircraft’s landing gear system may be considered primarily the field of mechanical engineering. There is typically a combination of many disciplines that make up aerospace engineering.

Bachelor of Science in Aerospace Engineering prepares students to design and test aircrafts, such as helicopters, jets, planes and spacecraft. Students are qualified to construct, manufacture and analyze space systems and aircrafts. The curriculum includes basic sciences and mathematics essential to understanding the functions of aerospace engineering. Some programs culminate in a final project designing an aircraft or spacecraft. Master’s degree programs can be found as a Master of Science in Aerospace Engineering and a Master of Aerospace Engineering.

Graduate aerospace engineering programs teach students on the technological problems and scientific solutions pertaining to the aerospace field. Students work with up-to-date technology, including simulation, computer analysis and computer-aided design, to solve real-world industry problems. Advanced coursework in aerodynamics and fluid dynamics, aerospace design and space design builds upon previously acquired theoretical knowledge. By completing such a program, graduate aerospace engineers will have a deep understanding of what goes into designing aircrafts and space modules. A Ph.

D. in Aviation and Aerospace Engineering is available to aerospace engineering graduates. Within these programs, students complete courses and projects that teach them the foundations of aviation, as well as the inner workings of mechanical designs. Students delve into innovative theories and practices of these two fields. The aviation program will emphasize the important aspects of safety management, economics and regulatory procedures. (“education-portal. com. “) At North Carolina State University, a bachelors, masters, and doctorates degree is available for Aerospace Engineering.

Academic GPA, class rank, and standardized test scores are very important in applying to NC State. It is required to have four English courses, two foreign languages, one history, four math’s, three sciences, one social studies, and at least one elective but four is recommended. With more than 5,900 undergraduate and 2,200 graduate students, NC State Engineering is the largest college at North Carolina State University. It consists of more than 20 centers, institutes and laboratories and 12 highly ranked departments, 9 of which are administered by the College and 3 administered by other NC State colleges, and 17 accredited academic programs. “NCSU”) At Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University a bachelors and masters degrees are available for aerospace engineering. Academic GPA, Class Rank, Recommendations, and Standardized Test Scores are very important when applying to Embry-Riddle. It is required to have four credits in English, one in history, three in math, two in science, two science-labs, two social studies, and three academic electives. One foreign language is recommended. The AE Department consists of 22 full-time faculty, 1,300 undergraduate students, and 100 graduate students.

The Bachelor of Science in Aerospace Engineering has been offered since the 1950s, when Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Institute was located in Miami, Florida. Embry-Riddle moved to Daytona Beach, Florida, in 1965. Ten years later the BSAE was accredited by ABET, as it has been ever since. The initiation of the master’s degree in Aerospace Engineering took place in 1985. Enrollment in that program has grown steadily. It is expected that the first PhD students in Aerospace Engineering will be accepted for fall 2013. (“daytonabeach. rau. edu”) At University of Central Florida a bachelor’s degree and master’s degree is available for aerospace engineering. Lectures in class room settings delivered by our world class faculty provide the necessary inspiration for students to understand important topics, and they develop the skill to inquire and explore new ideas on their own. The students have the opportunities to engage in experiments, design work, project work, industrial training and team work to enhance the learning process so vital in engineering education.

The senior faculties are highly recognized in their fields and have earned numerous honors and awards from different engineering societies. The newer faculties are very promising and will soon become leaders in their fields. Many have won prestigious research awards from reputed funding agencies such as NSF, DoD, NASA, the Department of Energy, and the State of Florida. (“mmae”) The period through 2012 is likely to see a downfall in the demand for aerospace engineers. Competition from foreign firms and decrease in air travel are the main reasons for decrease in jobs related to designing and producing commercial aircraft.

Yet, promising opportunities for aerospace engineers are expected to occur due to the fact that the degrees granted for this branch have gone down significantly due to the perceived lack of employment in this field. This means that the number of engineers trained in this field may not be sufficient to replace the large numbers of aerospace engineers who will retire during the 2002-2012 period. In 2002, the median of annual earning of an aerospace engineer was $72,750. The middle 50 percent of aerospace engineers got salaries between $59,520 and $88,310.

The lowest 10 percept earned about $49,640 or less, while the highest ten percent earned around $105,060 or more. A 2003 salary survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers projects that aerospace engineer with a bachelor’s degree get salaries which average around $48,028 a year. While those with a master’s degree receive $61,162 and those with a Ph. D. receive $68,406. It takes many different systems to keep air- and spacecraft aloft and aerospace engineers typically specialize. In addition to specializing in a particular system, such as propulsion or guidance and control systems, they ight specialize in a type of craft, such as helicopters. If you wish to be an aerospace engineer, the most direct route is to earn a bachelor’s or master’s degree in Aeronautics or Mechanical Engineering. Although there are rare instances, especially during a labor shortage, when employers might hire those with training in math or other physical sciences to work as engineers, these majors are not the recommended preparation for a career in this field. Entry-level jobs in engineering often involve working under the supervision of an experienced engineer and focusing on aspects of problems that can be solved with standard, routine techniques.

Supervisors work closely with new engineers on the more unusual aspects of a job. As in most careers, with experience comes increasing independence and the opportunity to work on more-complex problems that can’t be solved by standard processes. Aerospace engineer jobs include openings in mechanical, structural, avionics, systems and other engineering fields. Applicants for aerospace engineer jobs are required to possess prior training and work experience, as well as the ability to interpret technical blueprints, schematics and manuals. Aerospace engineering encompasses the fields of aeronautical and astronautical engineering.

Aerospace engineers work in teams to design, build, and test machines that fly within the earth’s atmosphere and beyond. Although aerospace science is a very specialized discipline, it is also considered one of the most diverse. This field of engineering draws from such subjects as physics, mathematics, earth science, aerodynamics, and biology. Some aerospace engineers specialize in designing one complete machine, perhaps a commercial aircraft, whereas others focus on separate components such as for missile guidance systems. There are approximately 78,000 aerospace engineers working in the United States. (“bls. org”)

Free Essays

Genetic Engineering Is Beneficial to Mankind

GENETIC ENGINEERING IS BENEFICIAL TO MANKIND We, Homo sapiens (and every other organism on the planet), become what we are on the basis of the genes we inherit from our parents at the time of our birth. Whether you are tall, short, dark, dusky or fair, have great hair, good health – everything depends on these genes. Earlier these genes were believed to be ‘tamper proof’ and they could not be manipulated. But the human brain and contemporary science does not deem anything as impossible. Thus, we came up with a concept called genetic engineering.

Genetic engineering refers to the process of directly tackling an organism’s genes. Molecular cloning and transformation is used in genetic engineering for changing the structure and nature of genes. This technology has brought about a sea change in farming and in human genetics. GE in Human itself The first and one of the most prominent genetic engineering pros is that genetic disorders can be prevented by identifying those genes which cause these diseases in people. The use of genetic engineering to prevent diseases is called gene therapy.

This can be extremely advantageous especially when women screen their unborn babies for genetic defects. If there is a chance that the baby can have genetic defects, it can prepare the mother and the doctors before and after the baby delivered. In advanced cases, those problem genes can be corrected. In addition to that, infectious diseases can be controlled and effectively dealt with by implanting genes which code for the antiviral proteins particular to each antigen. Humans can be developed or formed to reflect desirable characteristics.

It is being said, theoretically though that this process can drastically change human genomes. This would facilitate in helping people regrow their limbs and other organs. In addition to this, people can be made stronger, faster and smarter, by using genetic engineering in the future. In other cases, if a gene exists in nature which can be good for human beings, it can be ingested in human cells. Soon a possibility of human cloning with the help of human genetics cannot be ruled out. GE in animals

Plants and animals can be genetically engineered to make products useful for us. The great example of this is diary animals. Sheep, goats and cows produce a lot of milk. Biologists found that the expression of genes for the major milk proteins is under the control of a promoter. This promoter is a sequence of DNA that causes the adjacent genes to be expressed in the mammary gland. It is called the lactoglobulin promoter. This sets up a really nice opportunity for using genetic engineering.

You could take the gene you want expressed in milk and put it into a DNA vector. Then you put this vector into a sheep egg cell. If you do this, the egg can then be developed in the laboratory for a couple of days until it becomes an embryo. You can insert the embryo into a mother and the offspring that are born are sheep that would make milk which contains this extra protein. This was actually behind the reason for cloning Dolly the sheep. GE in Plants Plants can be genetically engineered to make useful products.

Genetically engineering a plant is a lot easier than animals. We don’t need to inject into the fertilized egg of a plant. We can take any plant cell grown in a laboratory, put the vector in, and then grow the plant up from that cell. In agriculture, too start off with different crops, genetic engineering can culminate in alteration of the DNA structure of the original crop. This will increase the growth rate of the plant along with its immunity, and resistance towards diseases caused by pathogens and parasites.

These factors in turn will be amongst the most important benefits of genetic engineering when it comes to crops. These genetically modified foods could increase the food resources to satisfy everyone’s hunger. This would be done by genetically modified crops for better productivity. These crops could be genetically modified to resist pests, fight bacterial and fungal infections or have great nutritional value. These are just a few benefits of genetic engineering. I’m sure more are coming in the future, as we discover more and more about genes and proteins.

Free Essays

The Evolution of Engineering

It’s no secret that technology has not only changed life as we know it, but has also changed the face of most every career field known to man.  Nowhere is this evolution more evident than in the field of engineering.  In order to better review the impact that advancements in technology have had on the field of engineering, exploration of past versus present comparison is necessary.  Upon reviewing the variations between engineering of the past and engineering of present, the dramatic involvement of technology in the field becomes inherently evident.

Over the course of the last two decades, the field of engineering has come into its own.  One major component of the ‘new and improved’ field of engineering is the utilization of modern technology.  In fact, engineering itself is considered a frontier of development in modern technology itself.  “Scientific discovery and advancement affect our lives in two different ways—through new policies and regulations that provide broad national direction and through new products and processes that enhance our lives and communities. Technology and engineering translate scientific knowledge into action.” (USDA 2007)

Engineering, in the 1980s, was a field wherein the predominant research and development process surrounded countless instances of trial and error.  Due in part to the fact that all experimentation and designed was based solely on human ability and human ideas, engineering was primarily considered a ‘thinking man’s’ career choice.  For example, in the early 1980s, when mechanical engineers designed motor vehicles, much of their design was dependant on tangible models and hand drawn blueprints.  Today, on the other hand, computer technology allows for the use of computerized 3D models and AutoCAD architecture.  This same fact holds true for not only the vehicle industry, but the building industry, property development, and many more.

Upon close examination of the implications of technology on engineering, it is revealed that this phenomenon began far earlier than many believe.  In fact, students at Virginia Tech have been required to own a personal computer since the year 1984.  However, improvements in computer technology have dramatically improved engineering accuracy and performance, have increased efficiency, and have made it possible for a wider variant of individuals to enter the engineering field.  “In terms of the difficulty level of problems, the computer has helped tremendously. In the pre-computer era, we’d spend a couple of weeks on a serious problem. Now it can be done overnight. In terms of the actual mode of teaching, we present less hand-calculation procedures than in previous times. It’s just not needed.” (EE/CPE VanLandingham 97)

A variety of modern technologies have added to the dynamics of the engineering field.  However, it is arguable that computer advancements have affected the field more than any other.  Because much of engineering is design, the use of computers as a design tool is prevalent.  Thanks to the precision and speed offered by the use of certain computer programs during the engineering design process, problems that once seemed impossible are now considered trivial.  “Students can do design and some calculations that were real tough to do before.  “We use computers a lot in the lab to take data and analyze data off the equipment. Most research projects take data using computers, and our folks have to know how to write programs and microprocessor code.” (EE/CPE Claus 97)

Experts also agree that the integration of computers into the field of engineering have made the job more ‘fun’.  Computers allow engineers to heighten levels of creativity in their work while allowing for less stress in problem solving.  In short, engineers can now focus more heartily on the creative aspects of their project because they spend less time in problem solving.

Interestingly though, the speculation surrounding technological and computer advancements in the field of engineering is not all positive.  There are many people who believe that the overt use of computers in the field of engineering provides engineers with a crutch that allows for less thorough problem examination.  It is also argued that engineers become ‘lax’ in analysis because they trust computers to be accurate.  The problem with this fact is that computers are not infallible.  If one data set is entered incorrectly, the entire analysis will be incorrect.  Basically, computers should moreover be used to verify analysis as opposed to actually perform the analysis itself.

Many engineering professors and argue that the overuse of computers will promote carelessness in the field.  “I see students relying too much on computers, computation programs and symbolic manipulators – which is leading them away from self-discipline.  “They are using tools and have no way to check them. They come up with an answer on the computer and don’t know enough to challenge their answer. They are using tools and have no way to check them. They come up with an answer on the computer and don’t know enough to challenge their answer. They figure if the computer came up with the answer, it’s got to be right.” (EE/CPE Brown 97)

There is also evidence the integration of computer technology in engineering will ‘kill’ programming in the field.  Because of the incredible technology and dynamic computer programs available to engineers as a whole, there is a decreased need for new programming.  Certain computer programs offer engineers ‘ready to use’ packages for problem solving, which eliminates the need for writing code in problem solving.  The question as to whether or not this is a ‘good thing’ is perhaps most prominent in engineering education.  ‘”Technology as the magic bullet for education is being vastly oversold,” cautioned Professor Jim Armstrong. “We can use the computers for computation and communication, but we must maintain the interpersonal aspect of teaching,”’ (EE/CPE 97)

The integration of modern technology and the integration of computers in particular, into the field of engineering has changed the face of all engineering disciplines as we know it. It is largely agreed that these advancements have improved the field of engineering in ways never before thought possible.  However, it is pertinent to note that not every implementation or change is considered beneficial. While, for the most part, computers and technology have only improved engineer problem solving and efficiency, it is also argued that these integrations have given birth to the ‘lazy’ engineer.  In fact, there are those who believe that today’s engineer is already considered lax because they now have the computer to do the work for them.  “Engineers are lazy. Engineers don’t like to work hard and like to come up with ways to make their lives easier” (iPaw 2009) This view creates a paradox for many, because the very definition of innovation is the search for ways to make life more simple.

In summation, modern technology and computer advancement has made the field of engineering more exciting for those engaged.  It has also allowed for more a more variant professional base within the field.  However, perhaps the most notable change in the field that comes as a direct reflection of computer advancement is the increase in the speed and efficiency with which engineers solve an assortment of problems.  This increased efficiency allows for a more rapid development of a product or and outcome and also allows for a heightened opportunity to concentrate on creativity and design.  Basically, computers and modern technology make the field of engineering more fun.

While it must be acknowledged that not all views surrounding computer advancement and engineering are possible, it is widely accepted that computers have drastically improved every discipline of engineering while also acting as a catalyst behind creative engineering and innovation.

From a personal perspective, we have entered the dawn of a new engineering age.  The field of engineering is rapidly becoming as much an art as it is an analytical career field.  This advancement and innovation is solely credited to the integration of modern technology into the engineering disciplines.  In the last five years, computer technology has taken not only engineering, but every career to new and exciting levels.  From the farmer to the fighter pilot, computer technology has changed the dynamic of ‘work’ as we know it, and nowhere is this truth more evident than in the field of engineering.

Works Cited

“Catspaw’s Guide to the Inevitably Insane.” Catspaw’s Guide to the Inevitably Insane. 29 Apr. 2009 <>.

“Computers and Engineering: Instructional Boon or Crutch?.” Virginia Tech | Electrical and Computer Engineering. 29 Apr. 2009 <>.

Govil, Rekha. Recent Advancements in Computer Science and Technology. new york: Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1999.

“Technology & Engineering.” Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). 29 Apr. 2009 <>.

Fundamental Concepts in Computer Science (Advances in Computer Science and Engineering: Texts). London: Imperial College Press, 2009.

Free Essays

Tips for a Career: Financial Analyst and Financial Engineering

If you are one of those persons who thought that you have to be an engineer by profession and academic background to be a financial engineer, you are under the wrong impression. If you are very good in mathematics and would like to take a de route to your attaining success in life without losing your flare for math, this is where you should be, and this is a tip for a career. How much can you earn? It depends on you. A wizard can earn to his heart’s content it looks like because financial engineering deals with predictive modeling in investment and financial analysis.

Now you can guess why the investors and financial institution’s chief executives wish that they had paid more attention to their math classes. If you are a young aspiring person yet to bloom here are some tips for building a lucrative career for yourself. If you would like to make it all the way to the Wall Street lucrative jobs and be there offering advice on one what to buy or when to buy, or, what to sell and when to sell, or, go to top in investment banking a financial analyst career can help you get there.

Just imagine if you can do the modeling and are also very efficient analyst you could be walking on the golden path laughing all the way to your bank Don’t wonder why I have combined these two. I see analysts with weakness in model building and custom software generation today. Similarly I also see that quite fewfinancial engineers are not comfortable with the analysis part. Therefore, there can be bright future including entrepreneur possibilities for a person who develops expertise in both areas.

If you are an ambitious person interested in this line read on these tips for a career in this field. Current total employment potential for financial advisor’s career is well above 200,000 with a predicted growth of 41 percent. What is financial engineering? Financial engineering is involves application of financial theory, the methods of financing, and tools of mathematics, computation and the practice of programming to achieve the desired end results. Financial engineering can help create new and enhanced products out of existing financial instruments.

Financial engineers can help create the most effective bundles out of products and investment portfolios out of existing investment alternatives and their predicted outcomes and associated risks. Thus if an investment company or wealth management bank wants to advise its clients, it needs financial engineering due to the multi various investment alternatives available. Similarly if an insurance company wants to know what is the best way to put two or three types of insurance covers and sell as a brand both to increase sales and profits financial engineer can help.

Sounds exciting? Yes, it is, a financial engineer can earn millions if he or she gets commissions. What is financial Analyst Financial analysts keep themselves up to date with macroeconomic environment and also analyze the balance sheet and other relevant information related companies to write reports and give advice on buying and selling of stocks, or future financial strategies companies should adopt, or make investments that they can make. They usually specialize in some area depending on the organization they work for.

They may be working for bank, buy side or sell side investment companies and insurance companies and investment banks Tips for a career- the qualification required for a career as financial engineer or Financial Analyst The diversity is quite high. After an undergraduate degree with a good grade point one can work for MBA with financial engineering as one specialization, or a Master of Financial Engineering (MFE) or MA in Mathematical Finance or M. SC in Financial Engineering. It would help a lot if you have taken enough mathematics and computer courses.

In some schools the term computational finance is also used to denote financial engineering. You have to be cautious in making the right choice and you need to be pretty clear on whether you would like to work for an industry or get into academics. To be in academics you will need a PH. D too. This is not to imply that PH. D is not useful for industry jobs. For example a Hedge fund financial engineer in a trading firm job needs would be like knowing C++, SQL, Linux and Unix high frequency high frequency automated trading.

He will be responsible for trading strategies and algorithm enhancement. He should define and implement data collection and acquisition matter. He should perform statistical analysis and optimize innovations and enhancement to trading models. He should be able to write functional requirements for software developersand collaborate with software developers. Tips for a career as financial analyst Normally MBA in finance from a reputed university would be a good to start.

However Chartered Financial analyst certificate (CFA) could be great asset if not essential. For anyone not comfortable with all the technical aspects the CFA program uses it would better to start with series & and series 63 exams. These programs need sponsorship from a company that is NASD member or self regulatory organizationhttp://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/General_Securities_Representative_Exam In addition to MBA finance or MFE it would be advisable to get a CFA, Chartered Financial analyst certificate.

Another program of use may be the certified International Analyst program offered by the Council for Portfolio Management and research offered by the Association Certified International Analysts, Zurich, Switzerland (links below) There are also programs offered by JP Morgan’s chase’s finance division for under grad degree holders and Deutsche bank analyst type of programs. Generally these are targeted at undergrad degree holders with finance and accounting majors.

Best Graduate Programs offering Master’s degrees and Doctoral degrees in Financial Engineering As mentioned above the diversity is quite high in the degree though there is a good overlap in the curriculum. The choice would depend on the reputation of the school and your planned career that is teaching, industry or banking career. The duration of the program is also different and range from 1 year to 2 years. The tuition can vary from about $74,000 for 1. 5 to 2 year program to $37,000 to $ 44,000 for one year programs. The schools given below also have excellent MBA programs with Finance specialization.

The top ten lists for General Management and other specializations may be different USA programs Carnegie Mellon University Columbia University Princeton University Stanford University University of Chicago New York University University of California Berkeley Boston University Georgia Institute of technology North Carolina University University of Illinois Urbana University of Michigan Claremont Graduate School Rutgers University University of Southern California Kent State University Purdue University Best Programs outside USA Imperial College, London, UK Warwick, UK

King’s college, UK Birkbeck, UK City,UK ICMP reading Leeds University, UK Leicester University Liverpool Manchester Oxford University Hongkong University Hongkong Nan yang technical University, Singapore National University of Singapore Dublin University EDHEC France Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne, Switzerland Frankfurt school of finance Germany Tilburg University Netherlands Indian Schools Indian Institute of Management (IIMs) Indian Institute of technology (IITs) IFMR Chennai Indian Institute of Capital Markets Mumbai, former UT I Institute of capital markets PG Diploma

Indian Institute Of Capital Markets. (Formerly UTI Institute of Capital markets), P B No:99, UTI house, plot no:82 Sector-17,vashi,Navi mumbai-400705. Phone:022-27892815/16 Salary ranges for Financial engineers In USA Financial engineer salary at level is about $63000 to $101,000 Financial Engineer salary is about $86,000 to 116,000 Manager Financial engineering salary is in the range $144,000 to 156,000 In UK is about pounds 38,000 Salary ranges for Financial Analysts holding CFA certification USA Portfolio Manger $80,000-$149,000 Financial Analyst 48000-$73,000

Senior Financial analyst $66249-$96000 Financial securities investment analyst $ 67000-97000 Chief Financial Officer $100,000 – $ 198000 UK Pounds 36000 With pounds 40000 Australia Financial Analyst, A$ 60,000-80,000 Financial/ securities/investment analyst A$ 50,000 – $ 90,000 India Financial analyst Rs 269,000 – Rs 700,000 Senior Financial analyst Rs 500,000- Rs100,000 Financial/securities /investment analyst Rs 500,000 – Rs 100,000 Common Employers Trading houses, Corporate Finance Divisions, Banks, Insurance Companies Tips on Career planning In financial engineering

You need to be clear in goals. The Master of Finance program and financial engineering are not same. There is heavy math, C++ use and Monte Carlo in financial engineering. This is not done in finance programs. Some of the applied math programs are now financial engineering programs. Putting it simply, Mathematical finance is theoretical, quantitative finance is program oriented and financial engineering seems to fit in between, Thus you could be fine for teaching with mathematical finance but not for trading firms and industry.

In teaching too you may experience limitations. The program designers don’t readily see the difference. Best is to compare the courses. In India it is best to do it in best Business schools preferably IIMs. In my view IIM Kolkata has perhaps the best program. Indian School of Business offers some executive programs for those unable to get into the best financial engineering programs because of lack of adequate experience, or commerce background it may better to join IT company or consulting company and enter banking and capital markets domain.

Alternately one can try brokerage and trading firms and may be you will make it to Wall Street to earn the big bucks. The path is hard and needs lot of dedication and hard work. Good luck. I would recommend financial engineering programs for engineers and anyone with strong math background. If you are a typical commerce graduate you might find it hard and it may be advisable to stay on the financial analysis side with proper certifications and a well designed specialization based on where you want to work, like the sell side or buy side and trading or investment banking.

For anyone planning to continue as financial analysts and depend on ready software packages MBA finance and certified financial analyst should be adequate. Certified public accountant or Chartered accountancy with CFA may work but it’s not the best. For someone who likes to have full flexibility in developing IT for financial analysis and be well rounded with plans for a IT start up, a combination of MFE with CFA can do well. These are essential tips for a career as a financial analyst or financial engineer Useful links ttp://gmatclub. com/forum/2009-best-financial-engineering-math-finance-ranking-86796. html http://www. global-derivatives. com/index. php/further-education-othermenu-36/55-quantitative-masters-programs-complete-list#Australasia links for CFA program in USA and India http://ace3levels. com/_mgxroot/page_10737. html http://www. cfainstitute. org/about/locations/asiapac/Pages/cfa_institute_in_india. aspx CIIA Switzerland: http://www. cpmrindia. org/welcome_message. asp India: http://www. cpmrindia. org/ciia. asp

Free Essays

Financial Engineering

Financial Engineering Introduction Many innovations are taking place in the place of arena of finance. Such innovations are collectively called financial innovation. Financial innovation is a process to adapt existing financial instruments and processes and to develop new one so as to enable financial market participants to cope more effectively with the changing world. In recent years fast developments are taking place in corporate and banking sectors. This has given birth to a new discipline which has come to called financial engineering.

The term financial engineering was introduced by London banks. Financial engineering is the life blood of financial innovation. Financial Engineering Financial engineering is a multidisciplinary field involving financial theory, the methods of engineering, the tools of mathematics and the practice of programming. [1] It has also been defined as the application of technical methods, especially from mathematical finance and computational finance, in the practice of finance. In the United States, financial engineering programs are accredited by the International Association of Financial Engineers.

Financial engineering draws on tools from applied mathematics, computer science, statistics and economic theory. In broadest definition, anyone who uses technical tools in finance could be called a financial engineer, for example any computer programmer in a bank or any statistician in a government economic bureau. However, most practitioners restrict the term to someone educated in the full range of tools of modern finance and whose work is informed by financial theory. It is sometimes restricted even further, to cover only those originating new financial products and strategies.

Financial Engineering refers to the bundling and unbundling of securities. This is done in order to maximize profits using different combinations of equity, futures, options, fixed income, and swaps. They apply theoretical finance and computer modeling skills to make pricing, hedging, trading and portfolio management decisions. Financial Engineers are prepared for careers in: * Investment Banking * Corporate Strategic Planning * Risk Management * Primary and Derivatives Securities Valuation * Financial Information Systems Management Portfolio Management * Security Trading Tools of financial engineering * Conceptual Tools It includes ideas and concepts on which finance as a subject is based. These includes valuation theory, portfolio theory, hedging theory, tax treatment etc. * Physical tools It includes the instruments and processes which can be combined together to accomplish some specific purposes. Factors contributing to the growth of Financial Engineering * Environmental Factors (External Factors) A) Change in price level B) Globalization of markets

C) Technological advancement D) Differential tax rates * Internal Factors A) Liquidity needs B) Risk aversion C) Agency Costs D) Accounting benefits Financial Reengineering Financial reengineering is the concept of 21st century. Really speaking, it is an evolving concept. It is an extension of financial engineering. Newer and newer developments are taking place now in finance and related fields. Hence the existing instruments and processes must reengineer to suit the changing environment. This gives birth to financial reengineering.

Free Essays

Engineering Research Paper

Package Contents 1 Hardware Connection Wireless Router Cable/DSL Modem Quick Installation Guide 54Mbps Wireless Router TL-WR ss Router 54M Wirele 340G WLAN PWR SYS WAN 1 2 3 4 TL-WR340G/TL-WR340GD Power Adapter RJ45 Internet 3 2 54Mbps Wireless Router POWER 4 3 2 1 WAN RESET LAN LINE 1 Cable Line Cable MODEL NO. TL-WR340G/TL-WR340GD Ethernet Cable Resource CD QIG Step 1. System Requirement · Windows 7 MODEL NO. Connect the WAN port on your Router to the Modem’s LAN port with an Ethernet cable. Connect your computer to any Port labeled 1~4 on the Router with an Ethernet cable.

Plug the provided Power Adapter into the Power jack on the back of the Router and the other end to a standard electrical Wall socket, and power on the Modem. Step 2. Step 3. · Windows XP · Windows 2000 · Windows Vista TL-WR340G/TL-WR340GD 2 Connecting by Easy Setup Assistant The Easy Setup Assistant is not supported in Linux or Mac OS. If you are runing Linux /Mac or without CD-ROM, please refer to Appendix 1. 1 Insert the TP-LINK Resource CD into the CD-ROM drive. 3 After con rming the hardware connection and the status of LEDs, click Next to continue. 5 Select the connection type your ISP provides and click Next.

Here we take connection type PPPoE for example. 7 Create a unique or easy-to-remember name for your wireless network. You can also keep the default setting. Click Next to continue. 2 Here we take TL-WR340G for example. Select TL-WR340G and click Easy Setup Assistant. 4 After the connectivity has been checked successfully, please click Next to continue. 6 Enter the User Name and Password provided by your ISP and then click Next. 8 You are recommended to select Most Security (WPA2-PSK) to secure your wireless network. Enter a key of 8~63 characters and click Next. (Turn over) 106503567 2 Connecting by Easy Setup Assistant 9 NEXT to continue. (continued) Appendix 1: Connecting by WEB Management Interface Router. 1) Set the IP address of your wired network adapter as Automatically. For Windows 7 Go to ‘Start > Control Panel’. Click ‘View network status and tasks > Local Area Connection > Properties’ and double-click ‘Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)’. Select ‘Obtain an IP address automatically’, choose ‘Obtain DNS server address automatically’ and click ‘OK’. For Windows Vista Go to ‘Start > Settings > Control Panel’.

Click ‘View network status and tasks > View status > Properties’ and double-click ‘Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP /IPv4)’. Select ‘Obtain an IP address automatically’, choose ‘Obtain DNS server address automatically’ and click ‘OK’. For Windows XP/2000 Go to ‘Start > Control Panel’. Click ‘Network and Internet Connections > Network Connections’. Right-click ‘Local Area Connection’, select ‘Properties’ and then double-click ‘Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)’. Select ‘Obtain an IP address automatically’, choose ‘Obtain DNS server address automatically’ and click ‘OK’. ) Click Finish or Reboot to make your settings take e ect. 2) Open your browser and type tplinklogin. net in the address eld. Then use admin for user name and password to login. 3) Go to Quick Setup and click Next. Select your Internet connection type and click Next. 11 Click FINISH to close the wizard. You can save these settings in a text le on your desktop. If you forget the Network Security Key, you can check the Router Settings. txt. You can click WEB management interface for more advanced settings. 4) Here we take PPPoE for example. Enter the User Name and Password provided by your ISP and then click Next. 0 12 click Next. The basic settings for your Router are completed. You can go to http://www. tp-link. com to verify the Internet connection. 5) Con gure your network name (SSID) and password. and then click Next to continue. Appendix 2: Troubleshooting How do I restore my Router’s con guration to its factory default settings? With the Router powered on, press and hold the RESET button on the rear panel for 8 to 10 seconds using a pin before releasing it. Technical Support What can I do if I cannot access the Internet? 1) Check to see if all the connectors are connected well, including the elephone line (for your modem), Ethernet cables and power adapter. Check to see if you can access the Router’s web management page. If you can, please follow the following steps to solve the problem. If you can’t, please refer to Appendix 1. Make sure that you are connected to the TP-LINK Router with the computer that was originally connected to your modem, then log on to the web-based management page and browse to ‘Network > MAC Clone‘, click ‘Clone MAC address‘ and then click ‘Save‘. Reboot the Router and try to access the Internet from your computer, if the problem persists, please go to the next step.

What can I do if I forgot my password? 1) Restore the Router’s con guration to its factory default settings. If you don’t konw how to do that, please refer to How do I restore my Router’s con guration to its factory default settings? Use the default user name and password: admin, admin. Try to con gure your router once again by following the instructions in the previous steps of the QIG. For more troubleshooting help, go to www. tp-link. com/support/faq. asp To download the latest Firmware, Driver, Utility and User Guide, go to www. tp-link. com/support/download. sp For all other technical support, please contact us by using the following details: Global Tel: +86 755 26504400 E-mail : [email protected] com Service time: 24hrs, 7days a week Singapore Tel: +65 62840493 E-mail: support. [email protected] com Service time: 24hrs, 7days a week UK Tel: +44 (0) 845 147 0017 E-mail: support. [email protected] com Service time: 24hrs, 7days a week USA/Canada Toll Free: +1 866 225 8139 E-mail: support. [email protected] com Service time: 24hrs,7days a week Germany / Austria Australia & New Zealand Tel: AU 1300 87 5465 NZ 0800 87 5465 E-mail: [email protected] com. u Service time: 24hrs, 7 days a week Malaysia Tel: 1300 88 875465 (1300 88TPLINK) E-mail: support. [email protected] com Service time: 24 hrs a day, 7days a week Turkey Tel: 444 19 25 Turkish Service E-mail: support. [email protected] com Service time: 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM, 7days a week Italy Tel: +39 02 66987799 E-mail: support. [email protected] com Service time: 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM, from Monday to Friday Switzerland Tel: +41 (0)848 800998 (German service) E-mail: support. [email protected] com Fee: 4-8 Rp/min, depending on Service time: Monday to Friday 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM. GMT+1 or GMT+2 (Daylight

Saving Time) 2) 2) 3) 3) You can refer to our User Guide on the CD to set up more functions of the Router. Tel :+49 1805 875465 (German Service) / +49 1805 TPLINK E-mail: support. [email protected] com Fee: 0. 14 EUR/min from the German 0. 42 EUR/min from mobile phone. Service Time: Monday to Friday 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM. GMT+1 or GMT+2 (Daylight Saving Time in Germany) * Except bank holidays in Hesse POWER 4 POWER 3 4 2 3 1 2 1 WAN WAN RESET RESET 4) Please feel free to contact our Technical Support if the problem persists. TP-LINK TECHNOLOGIES CO. , LTD. www. tp-link. com

Free Essays

Sop for Msc in Electrical Engineering

e idea of the first cellular network was brainstormed in 1947. It was intended to be used for military purposes as a way of supplying troops with more advanced forms of communications. From 1947 till about 1979 several different forms of broadcasting technology emerged. The United States began to develop the AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) network, while European countries were developing their own forms of communication. 1. 2 History of GSM Technology Europeans quickly realized the disadvantages of each European country operating on their mobile network. It prevents cell phone use from country to country within Europe.

With the emerging European Union and high travel volume between countries in Europe this was seen as a problem. Rectifying the situation the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) assembled a research group with intentions of researching the mobile phone system in Europe. This group was called Group Special Mobile (GSM). For the next ten years the GSM group outlined standards, researched technology and designed a way to implement a pan-European mobile phone network. In 1989 work done by the GSM group was transferred to the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI).

The name GSM was transposed to name the type of service invented. The acronym GSM had been changed from Group Special Mobile to Global Systems Mobile Telecommunications. By April of 1991 commercial service of the GSM network had begun. Just a year and half later in 1993 there were already 36 GSM networks in over 22 countries. Several other countries were on the rise to adopt this new mobile phone network and participate in what was becoming a worldwide standard. At the same time, GSM also became widely used in the Middle East, South Africa and Australia.

While the European Union had developed a sophisticated digital cell phone system, the United States was still operating primarily on the old, analog AMPS network and TDMA. Department of E&C 2010 Lovely Institute of Technology, Phagwara 2 RF OPTIMIZATION AND PLANNING In the end o the end of October 2001, Cingular was the first to announce their switch to the 3G GSM network. This involved switching more then 22 million customers from TDMA to GSM. In 2005 Cingular stopped new phone activation on the TDMA network and began only selling GSM service. 1. History of GSM in brief •1982:CEPT (Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications) establishes a GSM group in order to develop the standards for pan-European cellular mobile system •1988:Validation of the GSM System. •1991:Commercial launch of the GSM service. •1992:Enlargement of the countries that signed the GSM-MoU> Coverage of larger cities/airports. •1993:Coverage of main roads GSM services start outside Europe. •1995:Phase 2 of the GSM specifications Coverage of rural areas. 1. 4 GSM Frequency Band There are five major GSM frequencies that have become standard worldwide. They are following ¦GSM-1800 ¦GSM850 GSM-1900 ¦GSM-400 1. 4. 1 GSM-900 and GSM-1800 GSM-900 and GSM-1800 are standards used mostly worldwide. It is the frequency European phones operate on as well as most of Asia and Australia. 1. 4. 2 GSM-850 and GSM-1900 GSM-850 and GSM-1900 are primarily United States frequencies. They are also the standard for Canada GSM service and countries in Latin and South America. Most of the Cingular network operates on GSM 850, while much of T-Mobile operates at GSM-1900. T-Mobile however, has roaming agreements with Cingular. Meaning in the case of no service at GSM-1900, the phone will switch to GSM-850 and operate on Cingular’s network. . 4. 3 GSM-400 GSM-400 is the least popular of the bunch and is rarely used. It is an older frequency that was used in Russia and Europe before GSM-900 and GSM-1800 became available. There are not many networks currently operating at this frequency. .5 GSM Services . The GSM services are grouped into three categories: 1. Teleservices (TS) 2. Bearer services (BS) 3. Supplementary services (SS) 1. 5. 1 Teleservices Regular telephony, emergency calls, and voice messaging are within Teleservices. Telephony, the old bidirectional speech calls, is certainly the most popular of all services.

An emergency call is a feature that allows the mobile subscriber to contact a nearby emergency service, such as police, by dialing a unique number. Voice messaging permits a message to be stored within the voice mailbox of the called party either because the called party is not reachable or because the calling party chooses to do so. 1. 5. 2 Bearer Services Data services, short message service (SMS), cell broadcast, and local features are within BS. Rates up to 9. 6 kbit/s are supported. With a suitable data terminal or computer connected directly to the mobile apparatus, data may be sent through circuit-switched or packet-switched networks.

Short messages containing as many as 160 alphanumeric characters can be transmitted to or from a mobile phone. In this case, a message center is necessary. The broadcast mode (to all subscribers) in a given geographic area may also be used for short messages of up to 93 alphanumeric characters. Some local features of the mobile terminal may be used. These may include, for example, abbreviated dialing, edition of short messages, repetition of failed calls, and others. .5. 3 Supplementary Services Some of the Supplementary Services are as follows: 1.

Advice of charge:- This SS details the cost of a call in progress. 2. Barring of all outgoing calls: – This SS blocks outgoing calls. 3. Barring of international calls:- This SS blocks incoming or outgoing international calls as a whole or only those associated with a specific basic service, as desired. 4. Barring of roaming calls: – This SS blocks all the incoming roaming calls or only those associated with a specific service. 5. Call forwarding:- This SS forwards all incoming calls, or only those associated with a specific basic service, to another directory number.

The forwarding may be unconditional or may be performed when the mobile subscriber is busy, when there is no reply, when the mobile subscriber is not reachable, or when there is radio congestion. 6. Call hold: – This SS allows interruption of a communication on an existing call. Subsequent reestablishment of the call is permitted. 7. Call waiting: – This SS permits the notification of an incoming call when the mobile subscriber is busy. 8. Call transfer: – This SS permits the transference of an established incoming or outgoing call to a third party. 9.

Completion of calls to busy subscribers: – This SS allows notification of when a busy called subscriber becomes free. At this time, if desired, the call is reinitiated. 10. Closed user group:- This SS allows a group of subscribers to communicate only among themselves. 11. Calling number identification presentation/restriction: – This SS permits the presentation or restricts the presentation of the calling party’s identification number (or additional address information). 12. Connected number identification presentation: – This SS indicatChapter 2 GSM Identitieses the phone number that has been reached Chapter 2 GSM Identities 2.

Classification of GSM IDENTITY NUMBER ¦Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN) ¦International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) ¦Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) ¦International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) ¦Location Area Identity (LAI) .2. 1 Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN) The MSISDN is a number which uniquely identifies a mobile telephone subscription in the public switched telephone network numbering plan. According to the CCITT recommendations, the mobile telephone number or catalogue number to be dialled is composed in the following way: MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN CC = Country Code NDC = National Destination Code

SN = Subscriber Number E. g. 919822012345 = 91 + 98 + 22 + 012345 A National Destination Code is allocated to each GSM PLMN. In some countries, more than one NDC may be required for each GSM PLMN. The international MSISDN number may be of variable length. The maximum length shall be 15 digits, prefixes not included. 2. 2 International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) The IMSI is the information which uniquely identifies a subscriber in a GSM/PLMN. For a correct identification over the radio path and through the GSM PLMN network, a specific identity is allocated to each subscriber.

This identity is called the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) and is used for all signalling in the PLMN. It will be stored in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), as well as in the Home Location Register (HLR) and in the serving Visitor Location Register (VLR). The IMSI consists of three different parts: IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN MCC = Mobile Country Code (3 digits) MNC = Mobile Network Code (2 digits) MSIN = Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (max 10 digits) e. g. 404 + 22 +0000123456 According to the GSM recommendations, the IMSI will have a length of maximum 15 digits.

All network–related subscriber information is connected to the IMSI 2. 3 Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) HLR knows in what MSC/VLR Service Area the subscriber is located. In order to provide a temporary number to be used for routing, the HLR requests the current MSC/VLR to allocate and return a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) for the called subscriber At reception of the MSRN, HLR sends it to the GMSC, which can now route the call to the MSC/VLR exchange where the called subscriber is currently registered.

The interrogation call routing function (request for an MSRN) is part of the Mobile Application Part (MAP). All data exchanged between the GMSC – HLR – MSC/VLR for the purpose of interrogation is sent over the No. 7 signalling network. The Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN), according to the GSM recommendations, consists of three parts: MSRN = CC + NDC + SN CC = Country Code NDC = National Destination Code SN = Subscriber Number e. g. : 91 + 98 + 22 + 005XXX where, 005XXX is sent by MSC. 00 is for Pune MSC, 20 is for Nagpur MSC, 10 is for Goa MSC.

Note: In this case, SN is the address to the serving MSC The IMEI is used for equipment identification. An IMEI uniquely identifies a mobile station as a piece or assembly of equipment. (See IMEI, chapter 5. ) IMEI = TAC + FAC + SNR + sp TAC = Type Approval Code (6 digits), determined by a central GSM body FAC = Final Assembly Code (2 digits), identifies the manufacturer SNR = Serial Number (6 digits), an individual serial number of six digits uniquely identifying all equipment within each TAC and FAC sp = spare for future use (1 digit) e. g. 52518 + 00 + 581976 + 3 Where, 35 is for Nokia Handsets According to the GSM specification, IMEI has the length of 15 digits. 2. 5 Location Area Identity (LAI) LAI is used for location updating of mobile subscribers. LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC MCC = Mobile Country Code (3 digits), identifies the country. It follows the same numbering plan as MCC in IMSI. MNC = Mobile Network Code (2 digits), identifies the GSM/PLMN in that country and follows the same numbering plan as the MNC in IMSI. LAC = Location Area Code, identifies a location area within a GSM PLMN network.

The maximum length of LAC is 16 bits, enabling 65 536 different location areas to be defined in one GSM PLMN. E. g. 404 +22 + 10000 where 10000 is the LAC for Pune. 2. 6 Cell Global Identity (CGI) CGI is used for cell identification within the GSM network. This is done by adding a Cell Identity (CI) to the location area identity. CGI = MCC + MNC + LAC + CI CI = Cell Identity, identifies a cell within a location area, maximum 16 bits e. g. 404 + 22 + 10000 + 726 Where, 404 + 22 + 10000 is the LAI for Pune and 726 are the CI of one of the cells of Pune. CI is different for all the three sectors of the cell. . 7 Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) BSIC allows a mobile station to distinguish between different neighbouring base stations. BSIC = NCC + BCC NCC = Network Colour Code (3 bits), identifies the GSM PLMN. Note that it does not uniquely identify the operator. NCC is primarily used to distinguish between operators on each side of border. BCC = Base Station Colour Code (3 bits), identifies the Base Station to help distinguish between BTS using the same BCCH frequencies e. g. 71 Where 7 is the NCC for IDEA Operator. and 1 is the BCC. BCC can range from 0 to 7 Chapter 3 GSM Network Elements

GSM stands for Global System for Mobile communication & is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz. It is estimated that many countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership. GSM provides recommendations, not requirements. The GSM specifications define the functions and interface requirements in detail but do not address the hardware.

The reason for this is to limit the designers as little as possible but still to make it possible for the operators to buy equipment from different suppliers. The GSM network is divided into three major systems: ? The switching system (SS) ? The base station system (BSS) ?The operation and support system (OSS) 3. 1 GSM BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM Department of E&C 2010 Lovely Institute of Technology, Phagwara 14 RF OPTIMIZATION AND PLANNING 3. 2 BASIC GSM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE 3. 2. 1 SWITCHING CENTRE Department of E&C 2010 Lovely Institute of Technology, Phagwara

Free Essays

Introduction to Computer Aided Engineering with Ansys

Introduction Traditionally, Engineers have used laboratory testing equipment to test the structural behavior of materials. While this method is appreciated and is highly acceptable especially for linear cases the reliance on time consuming and expensive laboratory has hindered progress in the complexity of designed considered. However, the continual rapid advances in computer aided engineering (CAE) over the years have affected this area significantly.

In many engineering disciplines, the application of advance finite element tools has not only allowed the introduction of innovative, effective and efficient designs, but also the development of better and more accurate design methods. (M. Mahendren, 2007). In this assignment, an advance Finite element tool (Ansys parametric design Language) is used to analyze the design, material properties, linear stress and modal analysis on components with linear isotropic structural materials.

The basis of finite element analysis (FEA) relies on the decomposition of the domain into a finite number of sub-domains (elements) for which the systematic approximate solution is constructed by applying the variation or weighted residual methods (Erdogan Madenci. Ibrahim Guven, 2006). In effect, FEA reduces the problem to that of a finite number of unknowns by dividing the domain into elements and by expressing the unknown field variable in terms of the assumed approximating functions within each element (M. Asghar Bhatti, 2005).

These functions (also called interpolation functions) are defined in terms of the values of the field variables at specific points, referred to as nodes. Nodes are usually located along the element boundaries, and they connect adjacent elements. This assignment is a demonstration on how engineers use numerical solutions to refine and validate design in the early stages of product design. For the task1 of this assignment, a bracket with structural isotropic material properties of young’s Modulus, E=200Gpa, v=0. 3 and .

Will be analyze, two things are important to the design engineer, what is the applied force on the material that will cause it to begin to fail given the properties and geometry shown in figure 1A below. At what point does it begin to fail (What point has the maximum stress). Having knowledge of these two factors, the engineer will decide to design the bracket to bear this load without failure or if the load to be applied will be reduce provided the design is not necessary a product or component that must bear such load.

At every point in the design, the design engineer is inclined to make decisions that will affect the overall functionality of the Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page1 various components involve in the design. Computer aided engineering , has made sure that the engineer will not pass through the cumbersome experience of conducting laboratory test to determine failure, rather few hours spend on the workstation ( computer system ) with a hightech finite element software, will not only save time, but the resources involve for every laboratory experiment.

And with the integration of CAD modeling software to FEA software, the engineer can actually model the real components and conduct test that are closely related to how the system will perform in its application. Task2 of this assignment is to explore the effect of bending moment and torque and the corresponding, shear stress and normal stress respectively. There are some designs that the engineer has to consider the effect at a particular point, element or component. For this task, we will consider the stress at point A due to the effect of the bending moment and torque produce by the applied force.

Task 3 is a modal analysis on a simply supported solid brick; two natural frequencies are to be presented. In design, it is essential that the natural frequency of the system is known so as to find out if the system can perform effectively without failure due to resonance (vibration). For this the first natural frequency is important. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page2 Task 1 Figure1A: Bracket Model Analysis steps 1. : Preprocessing Preprocessing involves, preparing the model for analysis, defining the type of analysis, discretization of the model into finite elements. For any analysis in the finite element method, this step is very essential as the result is dependent on this stage. 1. 1: Define element type: For this model, element type 8-node-plane82 is defined. And on the option, plane stress w/thk is selected. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page3 Figure1: showing Element selection with option. . 2: Setting real Constant: The thickness of the model is 10mm. Figure2: Showing Real Constants with thickness 10mm. 1. 3: Material Models: A linear elastic isotropic material is applied with a Young’s Modulus of elasticity of 200GPa and Poisson ratio of 0. 3 Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page4 Figure 3: Showing materials model with Young’s Modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. ( 1. 4: Geometric Model: The steps involve in the modeling bracket to be analyze is shown.

To model the geometry correctly, key points are created, lines are created to join the key points, the lines are use to create area, the two circles are drawn and subtracted from the area and so is the slot. 1. 4. 1: Create key points using table 1 below Table 1: key points for bracket KP. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 X 0 30 50 74 74 130 Y 0 0 36 50 25 50 Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page5 7 8 130 0 85 85 0 0 Figure4: key points mapped for bracket 1. 4. 2: Create Line (Preprocessor>>Modeling>>Line>>Straight line: join the keypoints

Figure 5: showing lines created from the key points. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page6 Figure 6: Arc created using Larc,3,4,5,25 ( Line arc joining keypoints,3, 4 at center 5 and radius 25mm. ) 1. 4. 3: Create area-(preprocessor>>modeling>>create>>Areas>>Arbitrary>>By lines ) select all lines Figure 7: created area from lines. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page7 1. 4. 4 Create two circles Circle1: x =15, y=15, radius=7. 5 Circle2:x=40,y=62. , radius=7. 5 Cut out the circle from the main area using Preprocessor>>modeling>> Operate>> Boolean>> Subtract (Select the big area and click apply and then the two circles) Figure 8: showing subtracted circular areas. 1. 4. 5: Create the slot- first create the two circles, then the rectangle, use Boolean subtraction operation to cut out the slot. Circle1: x=87. 5, y=67. 5, radius=7. 5; Circle 2: x=112. 5, y=67. 5, r=7. 5 Rectangle: coordinates (87. 5, 60) & (112. 5, 75) Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi

Page8 Figure 9: showing model with slot 1. 4. 6: mesh: This is a key part of the finite element method. The model is discretized into finite element. This process is necessary as the solution is solved for each element and then a global solution is obtained by combining the result for each element. This involves finding the stiffness matrix for each element, the force matrix for each element, and then obtaining both global stiffness and force matrix. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page9 Figure 10: Meshed Model of the bracket

Figure11: Refined mesh model at the slot, circles and arc. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page10 2. 0 Processing (Solution): To obtain the solution for the model, the type of analysis, constraints (displacement constraints), and the load will be define. This is like defining the boundary conditions. 2. 1: Boundary Conditions (All DOF= 0 at the two circles) Figure 11: Boundary condition (0 displacements to all DOF at the two circles) Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page11 2. Boundary Condition (apply pressure at the slot) Figure 12: Pressure of 19. 26 MPa is applied on the slot 2. 3 Solve the built model to obtain the solution Figure 2. 3: The step use to solve the current Load step Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page12 3. 0 : Post processing In this stage, the result will be listed, plotted and analyzed. Deformed shape to illustrate result has been obtained in the Postprocessor Phase. TASK1B TASK 1B: Maximum Load applied without causing yielding Analytical solution of task1 Free Body Diagram of Bracket W WA L1 0

L2 10 47. 5 72. 5 90 Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page13 In this analysis, we are going to consider the effect of the uniformly distributed load to act at ? of the width of the bracket; h= 35/2=17. 5mm. First we analyze the system for the shear force, v and bending moment, M. The shear force and bending moment is plotted against x. W is the distributed load along the 25mm slot. is the distribution reaction load along the 10mm length from the center of the circle. ; Sum of vertical forces equals zero ; Where F is the force due to W and ; (i. . I). For the Boundary Condition is the force due to . ) 0 ? x ? 10 < Mx WA x V ; Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page14 ; …………………………. (2) 10 ? x ? 47. 5 < M wA 10 V FA x ; ……………………………………. (3) ; ……………………………………… (4) Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page15 47. 5 ? x ? 72. 5 V 25w 10 < M x ; ; …………………………… (5) 0; …………………… (6) Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page16 ; ; …………………………….. (7) ; …………………… (8)

Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page17 Shear Force & Bending Moment Diagram Graph of x against shear force v 0 0 -5 -10 10 X-Axis 47. 5 72. 5 90 V-Axis -15 v -20 -25 -30 Figure1B. Shear Force Diagram (Graph) Graph of x against bending Moment M 1600 1400 1200 Axis Title 1000 800 600 400 200 0 M 0 0 10 125 47. 5 1062. 5 72. 5 1375 90 1375 Figure 1C: Bending Moment diagram. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page18 From the shear force and bending moment diagram, it can be observe that at x=47. the shear force is maximum and the bending moment is maximum at the region , however the shear force at this region is zero. So using x=47. 5 as the point where the stress will begin to be maximum (initiate) value, the value of w and F can be obtained there as followed. mm; note that we are using 17. 5 on the assumption that the uniformly distributed load acts at the center of the bracket. Shear stress, ; Note that this is the shear stress due to the effect of the shear force when the bracket is fully restrained at the two circles. Normal stress, Note that the normal stress above is due to the bending moment, M.

Now, in other to find the value of w, Von mises failure criterion is applied. First , we calculate the first and second principal stress, since the bracket is subject and to be analyze under plane stress condition. Von Mises stress, , =2. 11075w Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page19 Now by Von Mises Stress Failure Criteria, ; where is the yield strength of the material use for analysis. Since this uniformly distributed load acts at the slot of 25mm, the force that is been applied due to this uniformly distributed load, .

For the purpose of analysis of the bracket as presented in the assignment using ansys APDL, this force could be applied as a pressure; Task1B ( II): Where will the stress initiate From the shear force diagram and bending moment diagram above, the stress will initiate ate x=47. 5. This is because at this point the shear force, v is maximum and the moment, M is maximum between 47. 5 to 72. 5. Note that for this calculation, the assumption use is that since the material is a linear isotropic material, the load is linearly proportional to the stress. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page20 Figure1B. II: showing that the stress will initiate at 47. 5, this also where the maximum stress exist. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page21 Task1C: Maximum Deflection Figure1. 1C: Nodal Displacement plot showing maximum Deflectionof 0. 136653mm The nodal plot above shows that the maximum deflection at the right end of the bracket is 0. 136653mm. I have included deformed shape plot of the bracket to better show how the bracket deformed.

Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page22 Figure1. 2C: Deformed shaped & un-deformed shaped of the bracket Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page23 Figure 1. 3C: Deformed shaped of bracket. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page24 Task 1D: Maximum stress The maximum von Mises stress obtained is259. 676MPa. The Von Mises stress failure criterion is use for this analysis. Figure1. 1D: Maximum Von-mises Stress

Von Mises Failure Criterion The von Mises Criterion (1913), also known as the maximum distortion energy criterion, octahedral shear stress theory, or Maxwell-Huber-Hencky-von Mises theory, is often used to estimate the yield of ductile materials. The von Mises criterion states that failure occurs when the energy of distortion reaches the same energy for yield/failure in uniaxial tension. Mathematically, this is expressed as, Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page25 In the cases of plane stress, s3 = 0. The von Mises criterion reduces to,

This equation represents a principal stress ellipse as illustrated in the following figure, Figure 1. 2D: Illustration of Von Mises Theory. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page26 Figure 1. 2D: Showing position of maximum Von-Mises Stress Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page27 Task1E: Discussion Of result 1E. 1: Discussion on nodal displacement Figure1. 1E: Nodal Displacement Plot From the nodal displacement plot above, it can be observed that the deflection on the left side of the bracket after the circle.

The minimum deflection is on the first circle from the right. This is to say that the displacement at this circle is fully restrained, meaning all DOF is zero. The Blue part of the plot shows that there is no deflection. Also a closer look shows that at the right end of the bracket, the displacement is maximum. The plot shows that maximum deflection occurs at the uppermost right node of the bracket. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page28 Figure 1. 3E: Displacement Vector plot showing the direction of the deflection and how the bracket deflect.

IE. 2: Discussion of Maximum Stress Distribution Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page29 Figure1. E1:Arrow diagram the stress at different locations Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page30 Figure 1. E2: stress distribution contour plot. Fig. 1. E1 and Fig. 1. E2 shows that the bracket will experience maximum stress around x= 47. 5 mm, this is to say at the stress is maximum. This is in accordance with the manual calculation obtained in Task1B above. Also comparing Figure 1. E1&1.

E2 and the bending moment & shear force diagram shown in figure1B and figure 1C above of task 1B, one could conclude that the assumption used for the manual calculation is correct since the min stress on the model is at the 2nd circle. Also the stress at the top circle is minimal and is increasing from zero to the maximum value of stress at x=47. 5. This result plotted above is when P=19. 26MPa, though this value is slightly higher than the12. 32MPa obtained from the manual calculation the result is similar. The pressure is less at Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi

Page31 12. 32 because; the assumption use for the calculation was the uniformly distributed load was acting at the center of the slot. In the application of this bracket, one will be careful not to use a pressure greater than 12. 32MPa on it as this may result to yielding. The design engineer ensured that the applied force on the bracket does not initiate a stress greater than the yield strength of the material. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page32 Task2 Analysis of a lever Arm For the assignment component no2, a lever arm is to be analyzed using ansys.

The analysis will be conducted to determine the Von-Misses stress at element A as shown in fig. 2. 1 below. A force acts on the components at the 38cm component shown. Figure2. 1: Showing a component of lever arm analyzed in this assignment Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page33 2A: Analysis using Ansys Parametric designs Language (Mechanical APDL). Steps in the analysis Preprocessor 2A-1: Define Element type Element Type>> Add>>Solid>>10 node solid 187>>ok Figure2A. : Element type 2A-2: Material Model Material Props>>Material Model>> Structural>>Linear>>Elastic>>Isotropic Young Modulus of 206 X103 N/mm2 is applied. And poison ratio v=0. 3. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page34 Figure 2B: material properties 2A-3 Geometric model Steps in Modeling the Geometry are as followed: 2A-3. 1 Create Key points using the table below Table 2-????????? Table Key Point No 1 2 3 4 X 0 0 50 50 Y 0 19 19 12. 5 Z 0 0 0 0 Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page35 5 6 7 8 355 355 455 455 12. 5 19 19 0 0 0 0 0 Figure 2A-3. 1 Plot of Key points Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page36 2A-3. 2: Create straight Line between the following key points: Kp1&Kp2; Kp2&Kp3; Kp3&Kp4; Kp4& Kp5; Kp5&Kp6; Kp6&Kp7; Kp7&Kp8; Kp8&Kp1. Figure 2A-3. 2: Line Plot 2A-3. 3: Create Line Fillet Preprocessor>Modeling> Create>lines>line Fillet First fillet is created between lines KP3 &KP4 and line KP4& KP5 fillet radius is 3. mm, click apply. Second Fillet is created between line KP4 & KP5 and KP5 & KP6, fillet radius 3. 2mm, click Ok. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page37 Figure 2A-3. 3 Plot of section to show Fillet 2A-3. 4 Create area: The area is created by selecting all the lines Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Area>Arbitrary>Byline Figure 2A-3. 4: Plot of created area Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page38 2A-3. : Create an extrusion This is to convert the 2D area created to a 3D solid Cylinder Preprocessor>Modeling>Operate>Extrude>Area>about Axis Please note that I selected the about axis because we want the extrusion to be alike revolving the area 360o around the axis to be selected. The selected line joining KP1 & KP2 is use as the axis of rotation as this is the center line drawn when the lever arm is dissected into two equal halve from the origin. Figure2A-3. 5: Extrude area about axis Kp1& Kp8 (360o revolution) Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H.

Wahyudi Page39 2A-3. 6: create the end point of the arm. Solid cylinder command is use to create this end part. After creating this Volume all the Volumes are added together to form one complete component. Table 3: Features for end part of lever arm Attributes WP X WP Y Radius Depth Part1 405mm 0mm 10mm 380mm Part2 405mm 0mm 10mm -80mm Figure 2A-3. 6: Complete Model Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page40 2A-4: Meshing Figure 2A-4: mesh plot of lever arm. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H.

Wahyudi Page41 2A-5: Apply Boundary Conditions The first boundary condition applied is to fully restrain the left end of the lever arm. Displacement on area is used, and the area at the left end of the lever arm is picked. All Degree of freedom (ALL DOF) is set to zero. Lastly, the second boundary condition is applied. A force of 1890N in the negative Y-direction is applied to the right end of the lever arm. (Note that 1890N is use because my passport No. is A3543390A; and the last two digits on my passport no is 90 respectively). 2A-6: Solve the analysis The current load step is solved and result obtained.

To view the obtain result, under postprocessor, click load result and then nodal solution, stress, Von Mises stress. The result is plotted. 2A-7: Refined Mesh: for better result, the mesh is refined at the lines to minimum size of 1 as shown in Figure 2A-7 below. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page42 Figure 2A-6: Refined Mesh Plot Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page43 2A-7: Von-Mises stress at Element A The Von Mises stress obtained at A is 866. 984N/mm2

Figure2A-8: Von Mises Plot displaying maximum stress obtained at A to be 866. 984 N/mm2. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page44 Task2B: Analytical Solution Y A Z 35. 5cm B F=1890N Figure2B-1 Free Body Diagram of the lever arm 38cm From Figure2B-1 above, the force on the 38cm cylinder, will cause a torque about element A. C The horizontal line from will be the axis upon which it will act. T V=1890N Ansys result 1 M 2nd result ( change position of F) Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi

Page45 Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page46 Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page47 No3: Modal Analysis of a simply supported rectangular beam Task3A: Finite Element Model Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page48 Figure 3A. 1 Geometric Model of beam. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page49 Figure3A-2: Mesh Plot of beam Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page50 Task3B: Boundary Condition The boundary condition is applied as followed, on the left side all DOF is set to zero whereas on the right side only the vertical is set to zero ( i. e. Fy=0). Figure 3B-1: Boundary Conditions on the beam. Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page51 Task 3C: Procedure 3. 1. 1: Element Type: Solid Brick 8-node 45 (Solid45) 3. 1. 2: Material properties Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page52

Geometric Modeling Create rectangle Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page53 Operate: Extrude for a length of 5cm which is equal to 0. 05m Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page54 Isometric view of model geometry Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page55 Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page56 First Frequency: Mode shape Deformed shaped Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page57 Def + Undeformed Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page58 2nd mode shape Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page59 3rd Result Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page60 4th mode shape Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page61 Nangi Ebughni Okoria- Cume42-09/10-00089. , February 2012- MED 305-assigt1: Assessor: H. Wahyudi Page62

Free Essays

Green Engineering

Date 11/17/11 | | Name: Manuel Tejada Activity: Sustainable Architectural Design Course: Materials and Processes (CD220) Instructor: Paul Debashis Green engineering is a much-needed approach to transform existing engineering disciplines and practices to those that promote sustainability. The concept of sustainability is to develop and implement technologically and economically viable products, processes, and systems that meet the needs of humanity, while protecting the environment.

Green engineering is governed by the following principles: Use the least amount of energy to achieve any given task. Generate as much energy as possible using renewable resources. Generate the least amount of pollutants and by-products during energy generation. Use renewable and biodegradable materials to a maximum extent for building structures and fabricating products. Reduce waste during construction and fabrication. Design structures and products to maximize their life spans and minimize maintenance.

Design for easy deconstruction and facilitate the reuse of components and materials from obsolete structures and products in new construction and fabrication. Make the least impact on the environment. The obvious question is: Why are these principles not followed? The answer is: Because of economics, convenience, ignorance, and affluence, with economics playing the major role. For example, thermal power plants are still a more economical source for electrical energy compared to solar energy.

However, the depletion of raw materials and the cost of controlling pollution and by-products are resulting in a steady increase in the cost of electricity produced by thermal power plants. This, in combination with the improved efficiency of solar cells, is making solar cells a viable alternative. In the area of energy production, the fraction of energy produced by renewable resources is still very small. The popular sources are coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear. Hydroelectric power plants are a long-standing renewable source.

The growing sources of energy production are solar and wind. Fossil fuels generate carbon dioxide and large amounts of residues, such as fly ash and bottom ash. Philosophically, most of the energy we are using came from the Sun. For example, coal, oil, oil shale, and tar sand were produced over millions of years from forest growth. If we could harness solar radiation, then most of the world’s energy needs could be met. To achieve this, the efficiency of solar cells has to be increased considerably.

It is estimated that the Sun provides about 120 quadrillion watts of energy daily, while worldwide consumption is about 13. 5 trillion watts per year. In the next paragraph I will present the proposed of solar panels for a small business in Dominican Republic (Karina supermarket), which spends about 2160 kwh every month (0, 35 usd/kwh) $ 756 us monthly. For this project we are going to use solar panel that contains 4 cells, and each of them can produce 0. 45 volts and 100 milliamps, or 45 milliwatts. Each cell measures 2 inches by 0. 5 inches.

In other words, with these solar cells you can generate 45 milliwatts in one square inch (6. 45 square cm). For the sake of discussion, let’s assume that a panel can generate 70 milliwatts per square inch. To calculate how many square inches of solar panel you need for a Supermarket, I need to know: * How much power the supermarket consumes on average. * Where the supermarket is located (so you can calculate mean solar days, average rainfall, etc. ). This question is possible to answer because I have the specific location in mind.

Considering that in the tropics the days are longer and the sun shines more. We’ll assume that on an average day the solar panels generate their maximum power for 6 hours. Now we are going to do some calculation of how much solar electricity I need to power this supermarket. This means that what I would be powering with solar electricity are things like the refrigerator, the lights, the computer, the TV, stereo equipment, motors in things like furnace fans and the washer, etc. Let’s say that all of those things average out to 3000 watts on average.

Over the course of 24 hours, you need 3000 watts * 24 hours = 72,000 watt-hours per day. From our calculations and assumptions above, we know that a solar panel can generate 70 milliwatts per square inch * 5 hours = 350 milliwatt hours per day. Therefore you need about 205,000 square inches of solar panel for the supermarket. That’s about 5 solar panel that measures about 285 square feet each one (about 26 square meters). The cost for each unit, including battery bank and installation $16,000-$20,000 us. Now we are going to compare the annual cost of both system solar panel Vs regular energy.

Solar Panel Total energy peer year: (2160kwh/m) (12m) = 25,920kwh/y Total installation cost: (5panel) (20,000us) = $100,000us Total cost kwh: Total cost/Total energy peer year = $3. 858 us/kwh Regular energy Total energy peer year: (2160kwh/m) (12m) = 25,920kwh/y Total Cost: (25,920 kwh/y) (0, 35 usd/kwh) = $9,072 us Assume no change in the cost of the electricity and base in the calculation, this system will likely pay off in about 11 years. The average lifetime of solar panels is 40 years, so your investment will reap about 3 times the initial cost.

Free Essays

Software Engineering

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PROJECT – I INTRODUCTION: The goal of this paper is to analyze about three major software projects namely • The London Ambulance System • The Virtual Case File • The Automatic Baggage System By analyzing these software projects and the software engineering principles followed, the key factors responsible for the software projects failure can be understood. Each of these projects has failed miserable as they didn’t follow proper software engineering principles. In this term paper the following projects have been studied and reason for their failures are identified.

Finally there is a comparison off all the three software projects studied. The methodology followed in writing this term paper is reading the following reference materials available in the internet and extracting the key points for the failures of the software projects. The papers referenced for writing the following term paper are 1. H. Goldstein. Who Killed the Virtual Case File? IEEE Spectrum, Sept. 2005, pp. 24–35. 2. Statement of Glenn A. Fine, Inspector General, US Dept. of Justice, 27 July 2005. 3. A.

Finkelstein and J. Dowell. A Comedy of Errors: the London Ambulance Service Case Study. 4. Report of the Inquiry into the London Ambulance Service (February 1993), by A. Finkelstein, 5. Richard de Neufville. “The Baggage System at Denver: Prospects and Lessons,” Journal of Air 6. Barry Shore. “Systematic Biases and Culture in Project Failures,” Project Management Journal CONCLUSION: The conclusion after studying these three papers, for any software projects the good principles of software engineering should be followed. The software development process should be properly planned with achievable and realistic deadlines. All the three projects had poor planning with unrealistic deadlines. • Great importance should be given to the requirements gathering phase and it should not be changed during the middle of the development • Developers should develop the projects with proper coding standards so that there is no issue during the integration of different modules. • Time critical projects should require critical and solid reasoning as well as good anticipation of problems and perform risk management. The schedule of the software projects should have good portion of time in testing the software product developed. • Finally, as far as possible keep the complexity of the system to manageable levels and tested effectively. LONDON AMBULANCE SYSTEM In October 1992 the Computer Aided Despatch (CAD) system developed by Systems Options was deployed for the London Ambulance System (LAS). The goal of the software system was to automate the process of the ambulance service for the London Ambulance System (LAS) in the city of London, United Kingdom.

The implemented project was a major failure due to variety of factors. The Each component of good state of the art has been ignored, each guideline of the Software engineering has ignored by the management and authorities’ neglected basic management principles. The working of the LAS can be summarized as: the system gets request by phone calls and sends ambulance based on nature, availability of resources. The automatic vehicle locating system (AVLS) and mobile data terminals (MDT) was used to perform automatic communication with ambulances.

Some of the major reasons for the failure of the London ambulance system can be stated as: • The deadline given for the completion of the project was six months. The project of such big magnitude cannot be completed within a small deadline. • The software was not fully developed and incomplete. The individual modules were tested, but the software was not tested fully as a integrated system. • The resilience of the hardware under a full load condition had not been tested before the deployment of the software. The flash cut over strategy was used to implement the system which was a high risk and moreover it didn’t have any backup systems to revert on failure. • Inappropriate and unjustified assumptions were made during the specification process of the project. Some of the few assumptions that were made are : ? Complete accuracy and reliability of the hardware system. ? Perfect location and status information. ? Cooperation of all operators and ambulance crew members. • Lack of consultation with the prospective users of the system and subject matter experts. The Software requirement specification was excessively prescriptive, incomplete and not formally signed off. • The London Ambulance system underestimated the difficulties involved in the project during the project blastoff phase. • Inadequate staff training. The crew members were not fully trained on the operation of the new software and their prior experience was not used in the newly developed software. The Report of the Inquiry into the London Ambulance Service by Anthony Finkelstein also gives us more information about the failure of the system. Some of the are listed below as follows: It states that “the CAD system implemented in 1992 was over ambitious and was developed and implemented against an impossible timetable”. • In addition, the LAS Committee got the wrong impression, that the software contractor had prior experience in emergency systems; this was misleading in awarding the contract to systems options. • Project management throughout the development and implementation process was inadequate and at times ambiguous. A major project like this requires a full time, professional, experience project management which was lacking. The computer system did not fail in a technical sense, the increase in calls on October 26 and 27 1992 was due to unidentified duplicate calls and call backs from the public in response to ambulance delays. • “On 4th November 1992 the system did fail. This was caused by a minor programming error that caused the system to crash”. VIRTUAL CASE FILE SYSTEM The primary goal of the Virtual case file (VCF) system was to automate the process of FBI paper based work environment, allow agents and intelligence analysts to share vital investigative information, and replace the obsolete Automated Case Support (ACS) system.

In ACS tremendous time is spend in processing paperwork, faxing and Fedexing standardized memo. Virtual case file (VCF) system was aimed at centralizing the IT operations and removes the redundancy present in various databases across the FBI system. In September 2000 the FBI Information technology upgrade project was underway. It was divided into three parts. • The Information Presentation Component • The Transportation Network Component • User Application Component The first part involved distribution of new Dell computers, scanners, printers and servers.

The second part would provide secure wide area networks, allowing agents to share information with their supervisors and each other. The third part is the virtual case file. The Virtual Case File system project was awarded to a US government contractor, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The FBI used cost plus – award fee contracts. This project was of great importance because the FBI lacked the ability to know what it knew; there was no effective mechanism for capturing or sharing its institutional knowledge. This project was initially led by former IBM Executive Bob E. Dies. On 3th December 2003, SAIC delivered the VCF to FBI, only to have it declared dead on arrival. The major reasons for the failure of the VCF system can be summarized as: • The project lacked clearly defined schedules and proper deadlines, there was no formal project schedules outlined for the project and poor communication between development teams that was dividing into eight teams to speed up the project completion. • The software engineering principle of reusing the existing components was ignored. SAIC was developing a E – mail like system even though FBI was already using an off – the – shelf software package. The deployment strategy followed in implementing the system was flash -cutover. It is a risky way a deploying a system as the system would be changed in a single shot. • The project violated the first rule of software planning of keeping it simple. The requirement document was so exhaustive that rather of describing the function what it should perform it also stated how the functions should be implemented. • Developers coded the module to make individuals features work but were not concerned about the integration of the whole system together.

There was no coding standards followed and hence there was difficulty in the integration process. • The design requirement were poorly designed and kept on constantly changing through the development phase. The high level documents including the system architecture and system requirements were neither complete nor consistent. • Lack of plan to guide hardware purchases, network deployments, and software development. • Appointment of person with no prior experience in management to manage a critical project such as this was grave mistake, appointment of Depew as VCF project manager. Project lacked transparency in the work within the SAIC and between SAIC and the FBI. • Infrastructure including both the hardware and network was not in place to test thoroughly the developed virtual case file system by SAIC which was essentially needed for flash cut off deployment. • The requirement and design documentation were incomplete, imprecise, requirement and design tracings have gaps and the maintenance of software was costlier. • According to the report by Harry Goldstein, “there was 17 ‘functional deficiencies’ in the deployed Virtual Case File System”.

It didn’t have the ability to search for individuals by specialty and job title. All these above factors contributed to the failure of the Virtual Case File System which wasted a lot of public tax payers’ money. AUTOMATIC BAGGAGE SYSTEM The automatic baggage system designed for the Denver International Airport is a classic example of a software failure system in the 1990’s. With a greater airport capacity, the city of Denver wanted to construct the state of art automatic baggage handling system. Covering a land area of 140 square kilometer the Denver airport has 88 airport gates with 3 concourses.

The fully automated baggage system was unique in its complexity because of the massive size of the airport and its novel technology. The three other airports that have such systems are the San Francisco International Airport, International airport in Frankfurt and the Franz Joseph Strauss Airport in Munich. This project is far more complex than any other projects, because it has 12 times as many carts as in exiting comparable system . The contract for this automatic baggage system was given to BAE automated systems. In 1995 after many delays, the baggage system project was deployed, which was a major failure.

The baggage carts derailed, luggage was torn and the system completely failed. But the system was redesigned with lesser complexity and opened 16 months later. GOALS OF THE PROJECT: The system calls for replacing the traditional slow conveyor belts with telecars that roll freely on underground tracks. It was designed to carry up to 70 bags per minute to and from baggage check-in and checkout at speed up to 24 miles/hour. This would allow the airlines to receive checked baggage at their aircraft within 20 minutes. The automatic baggage system was a critical because the aircraft turnaround time was to be reduced to as little as 30 minutes.

The faster turnaround time meant more quickly the operations and it increases the productivity. The installers are quoted has having planned “a design that will allow baggage to be transported anywhere within the terminal within 10 minutes”. PROJECT SCOPE: The International airport at Denver three concourses and initially it aimed at automating all the three concourses. But later the concourse B was alone designed to be made automatic. The project was later redefined to handle only outbound baggage. It does not deal with the transfer of bags. STAKE HOLDERS:

The major stake holders in the project can be identified as: • The Denver International Airport Management. • The BAE Automated Systems. • The Airline Management. The project blastoff according to Robertson & Robertson states that during this phase it has to identify all the stakeholders and ask their inputs for the requirements. In the ABS System the Airline Management was not made to involve in the blastoff meetings to provide their inputs and excluded from the discussions. As well as the risk should be analyzed properly during the blast off which was also a draw back in this system.

This was a perfect example of failure to perform risk management. The cost estimation of the project was incorrect as it exceeded the estimated cost during the development. So, Aspects in which the project blastoffs were not addressed can be summarized as follows: • The underestimation of complexity • Poor stakeholder management • Poor Design • Failure to perform risk management There were only three “intense” working session to discuss the scope of the project and the agreement between the airport management and BAE automated systems.

Although BAE automated systems had been working in the construction of the baggage system in concourse B for United Airlines, the three working session is not sufficient to collect all the requirements for the construction of the automate baggage systems. This shows clearly a poor software engineering principle because requirements are the key base factors for the project to be built upon. Reports indicate that the two year deadline for the construction of the automatic baggage system is inadequate. The reports that showed that project required more than two years are as follows: “The complexity was too high for the system to be built successfully” by The Baggage System at Denver: Prospects and Lesson – Dr. R. de Neufville Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 1,No. 4, Dec, pp. 229-236,1994 • None of the bidders quoted to finish the project within two years. • Experts from Munich airport advised that a much simpler system had taken two full years to complete and it was system tested thoroughly six months before the opening of the Munich airport. Despite all this information the decision to continue with a project was not based on the sound engineering principles.

ABS REQUIREMENT DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The Automatic Baggage System constructed by the Airport Management was a decision taken two years before the opening of the new Denver International Airport. Initially the concourse B meant for United Airlines was supposed to be constructed by the BAE Automated Systems and all other airlines had to construct their own baggage handling mechanism. Later the responsibility was taken by the Denver Airport Management to construct the Automatic Baggage System.

The integrated nature of the ABS system meant that airport looks after its own facility and has a central control. The BAE plan to construct for the concourse B was expanded to the other three concourses which was a major change in the strategy of the airport construction. Moreover the airport management believed that an automated baggage system would be more cost effective than manual system given the size of the massive airport. During the development phase the requirements kept on changing which added additional complexity to the project. Though in the contract there was learly statement no change in requirement would be accommodated, they accepted the changes to meet the stakeholder needs. For example the addition of the ski equipment racks and the addition of maintenance track to allow carts to be serviced without being removed from the rails and able to handle oversized baggage. The baggage system and the airport building shared physical space and services such as the electrical supply. Hence the designers of the physical building and the designers of the baggage system needed to work as one integrated team with lot of interdependency.

Since the construction of the airport was started initially the building designers made general allowances in the place where they thought the baggage system would come into place. Hence the designers of the automatic baggage system have to work with the constraints that have already been placed. For example sharp turns were supposed to be made due to the constraints placed and these were one of the major factors for the bags to be ejected from the carts. The design of the automatic baggage system “Systematic Biases and Culture in Project Failures”, a Project Management Journal is as follows. Luggage was to be first loaded onto the conveyor belts, much as it is in conventional baggage handling system. • These conveyors would then deposit the luggage in the carts that were controlled by computers. • The luggage would travel at 17 miles per hour to its destinations, as much as one mile away. • The automatic baggage system would include around 4000 baggage carts travelling throughout the airport under the control of 100 computers with processing power up to 1400 bags per minute. However the design with the above architecture failed as it was not able to handle variable load.

It was also suffering from various problems they are identified as: • The software was sending carts out at the wrong times, causing jams and in many cases sending carts to the wrong locations. • The baggage system continued to unload bags even though they were jammed on the conveyor belt. • The fully automated system may never be able to deliver bags consistently within the times and at the capacity originally promised. • In another case the bags from the aircraft can only be unloaded and loaded into the unloading conveyor belt is moving, this belt moves only when there are empty carts.

Empty carts will only arrive after they have deposited previous loads; this is a cascade of queues. • Achieving high reliability also depends on the mechanical and the computers that controlled the baggage carts’ reliability. • Errors may occur during reading or transmitting information about the destinations. There may be various scenarios during which these errors can take place. Some of them are listed as below. 1. The baggage handler may place the bag on the conveyor with the label hidden. 2. The baggage may have two labels on it. one from the previous flight. 3. The labels may be mutilated or dirty. . The label may not lie in the direction of the view of the laser reader. 5. The laser may malfunction or the laser guns stop reading the labels. • The reading of information is vital in the automatic baggage system since the whole system is dependent on the information transmitted from reading of the labels and this information must be transmitted by radio to devices on each of the baggage carts. • There is no available evidence of effective alternative testing of the capability of the system to provide reliable delivery to all destinations under variable patterns of load.

This variable demand made in the system is famously called as the line balancing problem. That is, it is crucial to control the capacity of the system so that all lines of flow have balanced service. This problem can be avoided by eliminating situations where some lines get little or no service, to avoid the possibility that some connections simply do not function or in other words control the emptiness. This failure also was because the entire system was developed within a two year deadline and hence the automatic baggage system was not testing completely with variable loads.

Lack of testing also is a major reason for this failure. These all are the major factors that led to the failure of the automatic baggage system in Denver international airport. Subsequently a much less complex system was design and implemented sixteen months later. This newly designed system had the following functionality as follows: • Serve only one concourse, the concourse B for United Airlines. • Operate on half the planned capacity on each track. • Handle only outbound baggage at the start. • Not deal with transfer bags. COMPARISON OF ABS, VCF and LAS PROJECTS All the management teams of the three projects wanted the software system to be built quickly without taking into consideration of the system requirement. • Hence all the system had unrealistic deadline to be met. • Because of these unrealistic deadlines the system didn’t follow proper software engineering standards and principles. • In all the three projects during the project blastoff phase the requirements gathering activity was not proper and incomplete, due to which the requirements kept on changing during the development phase. • Lack of consultation with the stake holders and prospective users. All the three projects Software requirement specification was excessively prescriptive, incomplete and not formally signed off. • All the three systems were not properly tested before deployment due to lack of time and tight schedules. The timeline was not reasonable for any of the projects. • There was poor communication between the developers, customers and the clients in all the projects. • The identification of the stake holders and collecting requirements from the stake holders and subject matter experts was not proper and incomplete. ASPECTS |ABS |VCF |LAS | |DEPLOYMENT STRATEGY |It was deployed in a single phase|Flash Cutover strategy was used in|Flash Cutover strategy was used | | |with a major failure of the |replacing the ACS System |in replacing the existing System | | |system | | | |PROJECT SCHEDULE/DEADLINE |Had a very tight schedule of two |Over ambitious schedule |Had a very tight deadline, two | | |years to implement | |years(1990 – 1992) | |PROJECT PLANNING |Poor Planning, The system was |Poor Planning and constantly |Good Engineering practice were | | |decided to be developed two years|changing milestones |Ignored | | |before the completion of the | | | | |airport | | | |SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION |Kept on changing to meet the |Slowly changing design |On the fly code changes and | | |needs of the stake holders |requirements |requirement changes | |PROJECT BLASTOFF |There was only three intense |The project blastoff phase didn’t |It left out the view of the | | |session to collect the |collect all the requirements |customers and subject matter | | |requirements which is inadequate |properly |experts | |REUSABLITY |This system didn’t have any back |They already had e-mail like |The existing communication | | |up system to reuse |system which could have been |devises in the ambulance system | | | |reused but new mail system was | | | | |written | | |CODING/TESTING |The system was not tested with |The software system followed the |Backup dispatch system not tested| | |variable load |spiral developmental model and not|and the overall software not | | | |tested as a whole |system tested | |SYSTEM DESIGN |The system design was too complex|The system was not base lined and |The System design was incomplete | | | |kept on changing | | |BUGS |System was unable to detect bugs |59 issues and sub issues were |81 Know Bugs in the Deployed | | | |identified |System | |ASSUMPTIONS/ |It was dependent on computers |No major assumptions were made in |Perfect location information and | |DEPENDENCY |that controlled the baggage cars |this project |dependent on the MDT | | | | |communications | PERSONAL REFLECTION: • After reading all the three projects I now understand that development of software not necessary has to be coding the software properly but there are various aspects apart from coding like requirement gathering, risk analysis, testing. • The requirements gather should plays a vital role in software development and it has to be properly made in consultation with all the stakeholders, customers of the software. • Understanding the complexity of the software being developed. • Proper planning and schedule of events for the development activities. Deadlines for the software development should be realistic and achievable • Use of any of the software engineering models for the development like waterfall model, Bohms’ spiral model, incremental work flow model or agile software development. • Last but not the least the software developed should be thoroughly tested for finding out flaws in the development and fixing them. REFERENCES: 1. H. Goldstein. Who Killed the Virtual Case File? IEEE Spectrum, Sept. 2005, pp. 24–35. 2. Statement of Glenn A. Fine, Inspector General, US Dept. of Justice, 27 July 2005. 3. A. Finkelstein and J. Dowell. A Comedy of Errors: the London Ambulance Service Case Study. Proc. 8th Int.

Workshop on Software Specification and Design (IWSSD96), pp. 2–4, Velen, Germany, 1996. 4. Report of the Inquiry into the London Ambulance Service (February 1993), International Workshop on Software Specification and Design Case Study. Electronic Version Prepared by A. Finkelstein, with kind permission from the Communications Directorate, South West Thames Regional Health Authority. 5. Richard de Neufville. “The Baggage System at Denver: Prospects and Lessons,” Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 1, No. 4, Dec. 1994, pp. 229–236. 6. Barry Shore. “Systematic Biases and Culture in Project Failures,” Project Management Journal, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2008, pp. 5–16.

Free Essays

Summary of “An Historical Preface to Engineering Ethics”

Summary of “An Historical Preface to Engineering Ethics” Michael Davis, in his article “An Historical Preface to Engineering Ethics” clarifies some misconceptions about engineering and distinguishes the differences between science and engineering by showing progressions through history. He makes a point to disprove engineer turned historian, Eugene Ferguson on his criticism that engineers have no consideration for human welfare by proving that not only do engineers have a deep consideration for human welfare, but that all of Ferguson’s criticisms of engineering are actually compliments given engineers’ military origin.

Davis first depicts the progression of the definition of technology from ancient Greece to modern times, showing how the reverence of technology and thus engineering has grown over time. The modern day definition being the study of how to make manual labor easier, and the ancient Greece definition being the study of manual labor, and since mental labor is more respected than manual labor, engineering has become better respected over time. He disqualifies the misconception that science preceded technology and is therefore older and better than engineering by showing how some inventions predated the science that explains them.

He even argues that engineering is better than science because it applies scientific knowledge to make things useful. Davis clarifies that engineering is not the same as technology. Technology being the creation of tools, and engineering being the planning and instruction for others to implement that creation. He shows the history of engineering and how it started in the military, branching out from France to other countries, progressively sophisticating over time. Beginning with engineers in the infantry, creating weapons such as catapults and artillery, France eventually found need of a congregation of the engineers.

They founded an organization called the corps du ge’nie, which proved very useful in increasing the flow of knowledge and skills and providing records for later use. In just a few short years, they were acclaimed all over France for their advances in military construction. Davis shows that the basis of all modern day engineering originated from the corps and officially started in the 1700’s when they finally came to understand what they could do as engineers and what they wanted to do. After this, he proceeds to show how he Ecole Polytechnique school, which practically perfected engineering curriculum, was formed in France and how it’s curriculum was adopted by the US. The first engineering school in the US, the West Point military academy, was founded on this curriculum. Davis includes these facts about history, not only to differentiate between science and engineering and to clarify misconceptions about engineering, but also to disprove historian Eugene Ferguson’s criticism of engineering. Ferguson criticizes engineering as unethical; he believes that engineers do not care about human welfare.

Davis agrees with Ferguson’s points about engineers, but argues that they are not criticisms, but compliments and that engineers do in fact have a deep consideration for human welfare. Ferguson criticizes engineers for being efficient, creating labor-saving devices, putting control into systems, favoring the majority, and treating engineering as a means to an end rather than a means to satisfying human welfare. Davis argues that the first four are actually commendable qualities given engineers’ military origins, and that engineers do hold human welfare paramount and have since very early in their history.

Since very early in engineering’s history human welfare has been held paramount. From almost the very beginning, even back in the 1700’s, human welfare was of great importance to engineers. The Ecole Polytechnique in France was noted for their regard for human welfare back in the 1700’s and England had the same attitude as France in regard to this as well. In 1828, Thomas Trigold, a member of The British Institution of Civil Engineers was asked to define civil engineering and he defined it as an art of directing Nature for the convenience of man.

Davis states that these beliefs still hold true in today’s society, the only thing that differs is the engineers’ code of ethics, to stay consistent with ordinary morals as they differ. Davis argues that even before engineers created a code of ethics involving human welfare that they were not unethical, because they were not expected to hold it paramount, and that they were not unmoral, because not holding the public welfare as paramount is not unmoral in any ordinary sense of morality.

Davis ultimately concludes that engineers’ do have high consideration for human welfare. Through historical references, definition contrasts, and counterargument, Davis provides a solid argument that engineering at its core is based upon the advancement of man, and thus human welfare. Word Count: 767 Citation: Davis, Michael. “An Historical Preface to Engineering Ethics. ” Science and Engineering Ethics 1995: 33-44. Print.

Free Essays

Electrical and Electronics Engineering

a report on practical traning taken at bhilai steel plant, bhilai (c. g. ) submitted to :- submitted by :- prof. sandeep aysha rahman chandravanshi hod, eee submitted by :- aysha rahman semester :- 4th sem branch :- electrical & elect ronics engineering course:- b. e. college:- kruti institute of technology and engineering location:- nardaha,raipur (c. g. ) line – up acknowledgement * certificate * introduction about sail * bhilai steel plant * sources of raw material * process flow of bsp * electrical repair shop * heavy maintainence electrical * safety * conclusion * bibilography acknoledgment

I extend my sincere thanks and gratitude to all people who, despite their hectic schedule managed to find time to give lectures on their concerned area of core competence, listened to my questionnaire patiently and dispelled my doubts through interactive correspondence. I am indebted and very grateful to extend my thanks to Mr.

Gaurav for all the knowledge they imparted to me and for making this training a joyful learning experience. My sincere thanks to Mr. P. V. V. Pawan and Mr. Lokesh for helping me to do my training well. C E R T I F I C A T E This is to certify that the report of B. E. 4th Semester, BHILAI STEEL PLANT project submitted by AYSHA RAHMAN bearing Roll No. :3412509004 & Enrollment No. :AF0574 , carried out for the partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of Degree in Bachelor of Engineering in ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS of Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technical University, Bhilai (C.

G. ), India. The project work as mentioned above is here by being recommended and forwarded for examination and evaluation. ________________________________ (Signature of Head of the department) Date : STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED| | TypeOwned by| State-owned enterprise Public (NSE: SAIL, LSE: SAUD)Government of India| Industry| Steel| Founded| 1954| Headquarters| New Delhi, India| Key people| Chandra Shekhar Verma (Chairman)| ProductionRevenue| 13. 5 million metric tons/year$9. 629 billion (2010)| Net income| 1. 520 billion (2010)|

Total assets| $15. 655 billion (2010)| Employees| 131,910 (2006)| Website| http://www. sail. co. in/| Steel Authority of India Limited  A Maharatna Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is the leading steel-making company; among the top five highest profit earning corporate and one of fastest growing Public Sector Unit in India. It is a public sector undertaking which trades publicly in the market is largely owned by Government of India and acts like an operating company.

It is a fully integrated iron and steel maker, producing both basic and special steels for domestic construction, engineering, power, railway, automotive and defence industries and for sale in export markets. SAIL is also among the five Maharatna’s of the country’s Central Public Sector Enterprises and is the 16th largest steel producer in the world. |  | SAIL manufactures and sells a broad range of steel products, including hot and cold rolled sheets and coils, galvanized sheets, electrical sheets, structural railway products, plates, bars and rods, stainless steel and other alloy steels.

SAIL produces iron and steel at five integrated plants and three special steel plants, located principally in the eastern and central regions of India and situated close to domestic sources of raw materials, including the Company’s iron ore, limestone and dolomite mines. The company has the distinction of being India’s second largest producer of iron ore and of having the country’s second largest mines network. This gives SAIL a competitive edge in terms of captive availability of iron ore, limestone, and dolomite which are inputs for steel making.

SAIL’s wide range of long and flat steel products is much in demand in the domestic as well as the international market. This vital responsibility is carried out by SAIL’s own Central Marketing Organization (CMO) that transacts business through its network of 37 Branch Sales Offices spread across the four regions, 25 Departmental Warehouses, 42 Consignment Agents and 27 Customer Contact Offices. CMO’s domestic marketing effort is supplemented by its ever widening network of rural dealers who meet the demands of the smallest customers in the remotest corners of the country.

SAIL’s International Trade Division (ITD), in New Delhi- an ISO 9001:2000 accredited unit of CMO, undertakes exports of Mild Steel products and Pig Iron from SAIL’s five integrated steel plants. With technical and managerial expertise and know-how in steel making gained over four decades, SAIL’s Consultancy Division (SAILCON) at New Delhi offers services and consultancy to clients world-wide. SAIL has a well-equipped Research and Development Centre for Iron and Steel (RDCIS) at Ranchi which helps to produce quality steel and develop new technologies for the steel industry.

Besides, SAIL has its own in-house Centre for Engineering and Technology (CET), Management Training Institute (MTI) and Safety Organization at Ranchi. Our captive mines are under the control of the Raw Materials Division in Kolkata. The Environment Management Division and Growth Division of SAIL operate from their headquarters in Kolkata. | Ownership and Management The Government of India owns about 86% of SAIL’s equity and retains voting control of the Company. However, SAIL, by virtue of its ‘Maharatna’ status, enjoys significant operational and financial autonomy.

MAJOR UNITS Integrated Steel Plants| * Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) in Chhattisgarh * Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) in West Bengal * Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) in Orissa * Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) in Jharkhand * IISCO Steel Plant (ISP) in West Bengal | | Special Steel Plants| * Alloy Steels Plants (ASP) in West Bengal * Salem Steel Plant (SSP) in Tamil Nadu * Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant (VISL) in Karnataka | | | | Joint  Ventures| | | | * NTPC SAIL Power Company Pvt. Limited (NSPCL) * Bokaro Power Supply Company Pvt.

Limited (BPSCL) * Mjunction Services Limited * SAIL-Bansal Service Centre Limited * Bhilai JP Cement Limited * Bokaro JP Cement Limited * SAIL ; MOIL Ferro Alloys (Pvt. ) Limited * S ; T Mining Company Pvt. Limited * International Coal Ventures Private Limited * SAIL SCI Shipping Pvt. Limited * SAIL RITES Bengal Wagon Industry Pvt. Limited * SAIL SCL Limited| | bHILAI STEEL PLANT The Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) – a public sector undertaking run by the Steel Authority of India – built with Soviet co-operation and technology, and began production in 1959.

Located in Bhilai, Chhattisgarh is India’s only producer of steel rails, and is a major producer of rails and heavy steel plates and structural components. In the 2004-05 fiscal year, it is the Steel Authority of India Limited’s most profitable plant. This steel plant was set up with the help of the USSR. Nine – time winner of Prime Minister’s Trophy for best Integrated Steel Plant in the country. The plant is the sole supplier of the country’s longest rail tracks of 260 metres. With an annual production capacity of 3. 53 MT of saleable steel, the plant also specializes in other products such as wire rods and merchant products. Since BSP is accredited with ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management System Standard, all saleable products of Bhilai Steel Plant come under the ISO umbrella. At Bhilai IS0:14001 have been awarded for Environment Management System in the Plant, Township and Dalli Mines. It is the only steel plant to get certification in all these areas. The Plant is accredited with SA: 8000 certification for social accountability and the OHSAS-18001 certification for Occupational health and safety.

These internationally recognised certifications add value to Bhilai’s products the best organizations in the steel industry. Among the long list of national awards it has won, Bhilai has bagged the CII-ITC Sustainability award for three consecutive years. Bhilai Steel Plant manages a well planned township (Bhilainagar) which as 13 sectors. It was deliberately located in what was then regarded as a remote and “backward” rural area, profits being secondary to employment in the planning priorities of the time.

BSP currently has nearly 55,000 permanent workers on its direct pay-roll, of whom approximately three-fifths work inside the 17 square kilometer plant and the remainder for its associated mines and quarries, and for the purpose-built BSP township. This compares with a regular workforce of 63,400 in 1987. In addition, on any one day there are at present something in the region of 8,000 contract workers employed by the plant and the township, and a further 3,500 – 4,000 employed by the mines. BSP has for some years shown a profit, and is widely regarded as the most successful of those in the Indian public sector.

It runs at its four million ton capacity; produces cheaper steel, and has a record of considerably more harmonious industrial relations than any of the other state-run steel plants, and also than the vast majority of private sector factories which now surround it, and for which it served as a magnet. Though local job creation was one of its main objectives, and though the principle was soon established that one member from every family which had relinquished land should have an automatic right to BSP employment, the local Chhattisgarhis were initially reluctant recruits.

Location : Forty kms west of Raipur, the capital city of Chhattisgarh, along the Howrah-Mumbai railway line and the Great-Eastern highway, stands Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP). Source of Raw Materials: 1. Iron Ore                          …. Dalli, Rajahara Mines   2. Lime Stone                      …. Nandini Mines 3. Manganese                      …. Balaghat Mines 4. Sinter                              …. Sintering Plants (SP-2, SP-3) 5. Coke                               …. Coke Ovens (Coke sorting plants) 6. Converter Slag                …. SMS – l Captive mines

Iron-ore| – Dalli-Rajhara Iron Ore Complex, 80 kms from Bhilai | Limestone| – Nandini, 23 kms from Bhilai| Dolomite| – Hirri, 150 kms from Bhilai| Coke Ovens BATT NO. | NO. OF OVENS| OVEN HEIGHT(M) | COAL HOLDING CAPACITY PER OVEN (T) | USEFUL VOLUME PER OVEN CU. M. | SP. HEAT CONSPN. KCAL/KG| 1-8| 65| 4. 3| 16. 8| 21. 6| 625-675 | 9&10| 67| 7. 0| 32. 0| 41. 6| 625-675 | Blast Furnaces * 3 of 1033 Cu m capacity each * 3 of 1719 Cu m capacity each * 1 of 2355 Cu m capacity Hot Metal Capacity: 4. 70 MT / year PROCESS FLOW OF BSP PROCUCTS OF BSP A. FINISHED PRODUCTS Rail & Structural Mill Rails in 13m, 26m, 65/78 m length and welded panels of 130m / 260m length Indian Railways, Export Heavy Structurals Construction, Crane Rails, Cranes, Crossing sleepers, Broad gauge sleepers * Merchant Mill Lt. Structurals, Engineering and Construction, Med. Rounds (Plain & TMT), Heavy rounds (Plain) * Wire Rod Mill Wire Rods- Plain Construction, Wire Rods- TMT, EQ Wire Rods Electrodes * Plate Mill Plates Boilers, Defence, Railways, Ship building, LPG cylinders, Export B. SEMIS

Billets (from BBM), Re-rollers Blooms (from BBM), Narrow width slabs, CC Blooms, Killed Slabs C. Pig Iron Foundry D. By Products Coal Chemicals, Ammonium Sulphate (Fertiliser) Tar and tar products, (Pitch, Naphthalene, Creosote Oil Road Tar, Anthracene oil, Dephenolised oil, PCM etc. ), Benzol & its products (NG Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Solvent oil, By. Benzol etc. ), Processed Slag Granulated slag from CHSG Plants & SGP for cement manufacture. RODUCT-MIX| TONNES/ANNUM| Semis | 5,33,000| Rail & Heavy Structural | 7,50,000| Merchant Products (Angles, Channels, Round & TMT bars)| 5,00,000|

Wire Rods (TMT, Plain & Ribbed) | 4,20,000| Plates (up to 3600 mm wide) | 9,50,000| Total Saleable steel | 31,53,000 | Requirements for producing of one ton of Hot Metal (Specific Consumption) Iron Ore                        …. 459 Kg Lime Stone                  …. 850 Kg(Depending on Sinter Usage) Manganese                   …. 800 Kg(50% in burden) Sinter                            …. 35 Kg Coke                             …. 08 Kg ELECTRICAL RERAIP SHOP JOB FLOW CHART PLANT RECEIPT & ISSUE AT ERS TESTING MACHINE &

SPARE PART ASSEMBLY COMMUTATOR WINDING & MAGNET TRANSFORMER VARNISHING TASKS done in ers * Assembles electrical parts such as alternators, generators, starting devices and switches; following schematic drawings, using hand, machine and power tools. * Repairs and rebuilds defective mechanical parts in electric motors, generators and related equipment, using hand tools and power tools. * Tests for overheating, using speed gauges and thermometers. * Rewinds coils on core while core is in slots, or make replacement coils, using coil-winding machine. Replaces defective parts such as coil leads, carbon brushes and connecting wires using soldering equipment. * Installs, secures and aligns parts using hand tools welding equipment and electrical meters. * Rewires electrical systems and repairs or replaces electrical accessories. * Reassembles repaired electric motors to specified requirements and ratings, using hand tools and electric meters. * Disassembles defective units using hand tools. * Measures velocity, horsepower, r. p. m, amperage circuitry and voltage of units or parts using electrical meters and mechanical testing devices. Cuts and removes parts such as defective coils and insulation. * Adjusts working parts such as fan belt tension, voltage output, contacts and springs using hand tools and verifies corrections using gauges. * Tests charges and replaces batteries. * Inspects parts for wear or damage or reads work order or schematic drawings to determine required repairs. * Cuts and forms insulation and inserts insulation into armature, rotor or stator slots. * Refaces, reams and polishes commutators and machine parts to specified tolerances using machine tools. HEAVY MAINTENANCE ELECTRICALS MAINTENANCE OF MOTORS

The key to minimizing motor problems is scheduled routine inspection and service. The frequency of routine service varies widely between applications. Including the motors in the maintenance schedule for the driven machine or general plant equipment is usually sufficient. A motor may require additional or more frequent attention if a breakdown would cause health or safety problems, severe loss of production, damage to expensive equipment or other serious losses. Written records indicating date, items inspected, service performed and motor condition are important to an effective routine maintenance program.

From such records, specific problems in each application can be identified and solved routinely to avoid breakdowns and production losses. The routine inspection and servicing can generally be done without disconnecting or disassembling the motor. It involves the following factors: Dirt and Corrosion: 1. Wipe, brush, vacuum or blow accumulated dirt from the frame and air passages of the motor. Dirty motors run hot when thick dirt insulates the frame and clogged passages reduce cooling air flow. Heat reduces insulation life and eventually causes motor failure. 2. Feel for air being discharged from the cooling air ports.

If the flow is weak or unsteady, internal air passages are probably clogged. Remove the motor from service and clean. 3. Check for signs of corrosion. Serious corrosion may indicate internal deterioration and/or a need for external repainting. Schedule the removal of the motor from service for complete inspection and possible rebuilding. 4. In wet or corrosive environments, open the conduit box and check for deteriorating insulation or corroded terminals. Repair as needed. Lubrication: Lubricate the bearings only when scheduled or if they are noisy or running hot.

Do NOT over-lubricate. Excessive grease and oil creates dirt and can damage bearings. Heat, Noise and Vibration: Feel the motor frame and bearings for excessive heat or vibration. Listen for abnormal noise. All indicate a possible system failure. Promptly identify and eliminate the source of the heat, noise or vibration. Winding Insulation: When records indicate a tendency toward periodic winding failures in the application, check the condition of the insulation with an insulation resistance test. Such testing is especially important for motors operated in et or corrosive atmospheres or in high ambient temperatures. Brushes and Commutators (DC Motors): 1. Observe the brushes while the motor is running. The brushes must ride on the commutator smoothly with little or no sparking and no brush noise (chatter). 2. Stop the motor. Be certain that: * The brushes move freely in the holder and the spring tension on each brush is about equal. * Every brush has a polished surface over the entire working face indicating good seating. * The commutator is clean, smooth and has a polished brown surface where the brushes ride.

NOTE: Always put each brush back into its original holder. Interchanging brushes decreases commutation ability. * There is no grooving of the commutator (small grooves around the circumference of the commutator). If there is grooving, remove the motor from service immediately as this is a symptomatic indication of a very serious problem. 3. Replace the brushes if there is any chance they will not last until the next inspection date. 4. If accumulating, clean foreign material from the grooves between the commutator bars and from the brush holders and posts. 5.

Brush sparking, chatter, excessive wear or chipping, and a dirty or rough commutator indicate motor problems requiring prompt service. Figure 1. Typical DC Motor Brushes and Commutator Brushes and Collector Rings (Synchronous Motors) 1. Black spots on the collector rings must be removed by rubbing lightly with fine sandpaper. If not removed, these spots cause pitting that requires regrinding the rings. Figure 2. Rotary Converter Armature Showing Commutator And Slip Rings. 2. An imprint of the brush, signs of arcing or uneven wear indicate the need to remove the motor from service and repair or replace the rings. . Check the collector ring brushes as described under “Brushes and Commutators”. They do not, however, wear as rapidly as commutator brushes. BEARING LUBRICATION: Introduction Modern motor designs usually provide a generous supply of lubricant in tight bearing housings. Lubrication on a scheduled basis, in conformance with the manufacturer’s recommendations, provides optimum bearing life. Thoroughly clean the lubrication equipment and fittings before lubricating. Dirt introduced into the bearings during lubrication probably causes more bearing failures than the lack of lubrication.

Too much grease can over pack bearings and cause them to run hot, shortening their life. Excessive lubricant can find its way inside the motor where it collects dirt and causes insulation deterioration. Many small motors are built with permanently lubricated bearings. They cannot and should not be lubricated. OILING SLEEVE BEARINGS: As a general rule, fractional horsepower motors with a wick lubrication system should be oiled every 2000 hours of operation or at least annually. Dirty, wet or corrosive locations or heavy loading may require oiling at three-month intervals or more often.

Roughly 30 drops of oil for a 3-inch diameter frame to 100 drops for a 9-inch diameter frame is sufficient. Use a 150 SUS viscosity turbine oil or SAE 10 automotive oil. Some larger motors are equipped with oil reservoirs and usually a sight gage to check proper level. (Fig. 3) As long as the oil is clean and light in colour, the only requirement is to fill the cavity to the proper level with the oil recommended by the manufacturer. Do not overfill the cavity. If the oil is discoloured, dirty or contains water, remove the drain plug. Flush the bearing with fresh oil until it comes out clean.

Coat the plug threads with a sealing compound, replace the plug and fill the cavity to the proper level. When motors are disassembled, wash the housing with a solvent. Discard used felt packing. Replace badly worn bearings. Coat the shaft and bearing surfaces with oil and reassemble. Figure 3. Cross Section of the Bearing System of a Large Motor GREASING BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS: Practically all Reliance ball bearing motors in current production are equipped with the exclusive PLS/Positive Lubrication System. PLS is a patented open-bearing system that provides long, reliable bearing and motor ife regardless of mounting position. Its special internal passages uniformly distribute new grease pumped into the housing during regreasing through the open bearings and forces old grease out through the drain hole. The close running tolerance between shaft and inner bearing cap minimizes entry of contaminants into the housing and grease migration into the motor. The unique V-groove outer slinger seals the opening between the shaft and end bracket while the motor is running or is at rest yet allows relief of grease along the shaft if the drain hole is plugged. Figure 4) The frequency of routine greasing increases with motor size and severity of the application as indicated in Table 1. Actual schedules must be selected by the user for the specific conditions. During scheduled greasing, remove both the inlet and drain plugs. Pump grease into the housing using a standard grease gun and light pressure until clean grease comes out of the drain hole. If the bearings are hot or noisy even after correction of bearing overloads (see “Troubleshooting”) remove the motor from service. Wash the housing and bearings with a good solvent. Replace bearings that show signs of damage or wear.

Repack the bearings, assemble the motor and fill the grease cavity. Whenever motors are disassembled for service, check the bearing housing. Wipe out any old grease. If there are any signs of grease contamination or breakdown, clean and repack the bearing system as described in the preceding paragraph. Figure 4. Cross Section of PLS Bearing System (Positive Lubrication System) HEAT, NOISE AND VIBRATION Heat Excessive heat is both a cause of motor failure and a sign of other motor problems. The primary damage caused by excess heat is to increase the aging rate of the insulation. Heat beyond the insulation’s rating shortens winding life.

After overheating, a motor may run satisfactorily but its useful life will be shorter. For maximum motor life, the cause of overheating should be identified and eliminated. As indicated in the Troubleshooting Sections, overheating results from a variety of different motor problems. They can be grouped as follows: * WRONG MOTOR: It may be too small or have the wrong starting torque characteristics for the load. This may be the result of poor initial selection or changes in the load requirements. * POOR COOLING: Accumulated dirt or poor motor location may prevent the free flow of cooling air around the motor.

In other cases, the motor may draw heated air from another source. Internal dirt or damage can prevent proper air flow through all sections of the motor. Dirt on the frame may prevent transfer of internal heat to the cooler ambient air. * OVERLOADED DRIVEN MACHINE: Excess loads or jams in the driven machine force the motor to supply higher torque, draw more current and overheat. Table 1. Motor Operating Conditions Motor Horsepower| Light Duty(1)| Standard Duty(2)| Heavy Duty(3)| Severe Duty(4)| Up to 7-1/2 10 to 40 50 to 150 Over 150| 10 years 7 years 4 years 1 year| 7 years years 1-1/2 years 6 months| 4 years 1-1/2 years 9 months 3 months| 9 months 4 months 3 months 2 months| * Light Duty: Motors operate infrequently (1 hour/day or less) as in portable floor sanders, valves, door openers. * Standard Duty: Motors operate in normal applications (1 or 2 work shifts). Examples include air conditioning units, conveyors, refrigeration apparatus, laundry machinery, woodworking and textile machines, water pumps, machine tools, garage compressors. * Heavy Duty: Motors subjected to above normal operation and vibration (running 24 hours/day, 365 days/year).

Such operations as in steel mill service, coal and mining machinery, motor-generator sets, fans, pumps. * Severe Duty: Extremely harsh, dirty motor applications. Severe vibration and high ambient conditions often exist. * EXCESSIVE FRICTION: Misalignment, poor bearings and other problems in the driven machine, power transmission system or motor increase the torque required to drive the loads, raising motor operating temperature. * ELECTRICAL OVERLOADS: An electrical failure of a winding or connection in the motor can cause other Windings or the entire motor to overheat. Noise and Vibration

Noise indicates motor problems but ordinarily does not cause damage. Noise, however, is usually accompanied by vibration. Vibration can cause damage in several ways. It tends to shake windings loose and mechanically damages insulation by cracking, flaking or abrading the material. Embrittlement of lead wires from excessive movement and brush sparking at commutators or current collector rings also results from vibration. Finally, vibration can speed bearing failure by causing balls to “brinnell,” sleeve bearings to be pounded out of shape or the housings to loosen in the shells.

Whenever noise or vibrations are found in an operating motor, the source should be quickly isolated and corrected. What seems to be an obvious source of the noise or vibration may be a symptom of a hidden problem. Therefore, a thorough investigation is often required. Noise and vibrations can be caused by a misaligned motor shaft or can be transmitted to the motor from the driven machine or power transmission system. They can also be the result of either electrical or mechanical unbalance in the motor. After checking the motor shaft alignment, disconnect the motor from the driven load.

If the motor then operates smoothly, look for the source of noise or vibration in the driven equipment. If the disconnected motor still vibrates, remove power from the motor. If the vibration stops, look for an electrical unbalance. If it continues as the motor coasts without power, look for a mechanical unbalance. Electrical unbalance occurs when the magnetic attraction between stator and rotor is uneven around the periphery of the motor. This causes the shaft to deflect as it rotates creating a mechanical unbalance. Electrical unbalance usually indicates an electrical failure such as an open tator or rotor winding, an open bar or ring in squirrel cage motors or shorted field coils in synchronous motors. An uneven air gap, usually from badly worn sleeve bearings, also produces electrical unbalance. The chief causes of mechanical unbalance include a distorted mounting, bent shaft, poorly balanced rotor, loose parts on the rotor or bad bearings. Noise can also come from the fan hitting the frame, shroud, or foreign objects inside the shroud. If the bearings are bad, as indicated by excessive bearing noise, determine why the bearings failed.

Brush chatter is a motor noise that can be caused by vibration or other problems unrelated to vibration. WINDINGS: Care of Windings and Insulation Except for expensive, high horsepower motors, routine inspections generally do not involve opening the motor to inspect the windings. Therefore, long motor life requires selection of the proper enclosure to protect the windings from excessive dirt, abrasives, moisture, oil and chemicals. When the need is indicated by severe operating conditions or a history of winding failures, routine testing can identify deteriorating insulation.

Such motors can be removed from service and repaired before unexpected failures stop production. Whenever a motor is opened for repair, service the windings as follows: 1. Accumulated dirt prevents proper cooling and may absorb moisture and other contaminants that damage the insulation. Vacuum the dirt from the windings and internal air passages. Do not use high pressure air because this can damage windings by driving the dirt into the insulation. 2. Abrasive dust drawn through the motor can abrade coil noses, removing insulation. If such abrasion is found, the winding should be revarnished or replaced. . Moisture reduces the dielectric strength of insulation which results in shorts. If the inside of the motor is damp, dry the motor per information in “Cleaning and Drying Windings”. 4. Wipe any oil and grease from inside the motor. Use care with solvents that can attack the insulation. 5. If the insulation appears brittle, overheated or cracked, the motor should be revarnished or, with severe conditions, rewound. 6. Loose coils and leads can move with changing magnetic fields or vibration, causing the insulation to wear, crack or fray. Revarnishing and retying leads may correct minor problems.

If the loose coil situation is severe, the motor must be rewound. 7. Check the lead-to-coil connections for signs of overheating or corrosion. These connections are often exposed on large motors but taped on small motors. Repair as needed. 8. Check wound rotor windings as described for stator windings. Because rotor windings must withstand centrifugal forces, tightness is even more important. In addition, check for loose pole pieces or other loose parts that create unbalance problems. 9. The cast rotor rods and end rings of squirrel cage motors rarely need attention.

However, open or broken rods create electrical unbalance that increases with the number of rods broken. An open end ring causes severe vibration and noise. TESTING WINDINGS Routine field testing of windings can identify deteriorating insulation permitting scheduled repair or replacement of the motor before its failure disrupts operations. Such testing is good practice especially for applications with severe operating conditions or a history of winding failures and for expensive, high horsepower motors and locations where failures can cause health and safety problems or high economic loss.

The easiest field test that prevents the most failures is the ground-insulation or 127 megger test. It applies DC voltage, usually 500 or 1000 volts, to the motor and measures the resistance of the insulation. NEMA standards require a minimum resistance to ground at 40 degrees C ambient of 1 mega ohm per kv of rating plus 1 mega ohm. Medium size motors in good condition will generally have mega ohmmeter readings in excess of 50 mega ohms. Low readings may indicate a seriously reduced insulation condition caused by contamination from moisture, oil or conductive dirt or deterioration from age or excessive heat.

One megger reading for a motor means little. A curve recording resistance, with the motor cold and hot, and date indicates the rate of deterioration. This curve provides the information needed to decide if the motor can be safely left in service until the next scheduled inspection time. The megger test indicates ground insulation condition. It does not, however, measure turn-to-turn insulation condition and may not pick up localized weaknesses. Moreover, operating voltage peaks may stress the insulation more severely than megger voltage.

Experience and conditions may indicate the need for additional routine testing. A test used to prove existence of a safety margin above operating voltage is the AC high potential ground test. It applies a high AC voltage (typically, 65% of a voltage times twice the operating voltage plus 1000 volts) between windings and frame. Although this test does detect poor insulation condition, the high voltage can arc to ground, burning insulation and frame, and can also actually cause failure during the test. It should never be applied to a motor with a low megger reading.

DC rather than AC high potential tests are becoming popular because the test equipment is smaller and the low test current is less dangerous to people and does not create damage of its own. CLEANING AND DRYING WINDINGS Motors which have been flooded or which have low megger readings because of contamination by moisture, oil or conductive dust should be thoroughly cleaned and dried. The methods depend upon available equipment. A hot water hose and detergents are commonly used to remove dirt, oil, dust or salt concentrations from rotors, stators and connection boxes.

After cleaning, the windings must be dried, commonly in a forced-draft oven. Time to obtain acceptable megger readings varies from a couple hours to a few days. BRUSH AND COMMUTATOR CARE Some maintenance people with many relatively trouble-free AC squirrel cage motors forget that brushes and commutators require more frequent routine inspection and service. The result can be unnecessary failures between scheduled maintenance. Many factors are involved in brush and commutator problems. All generally involve brush sparking usually accompanied by chatter and often excessive wear or chipping.

Sparking may result from poor commutator conditions or it may cause them. The degree of sparking should be determined by careful visual inspection. The illustrations shown in Fig. 5 are a useful guide. It is very important that you gauge the degree number as accurately as possible. The solution to the problem may well depend upon the accuracy of your answer since many motor, load, environmental and application conditions can cause sparking. It is also imperative that a remedy be determined as quickly as possible. Sparking generally feeds upon itself and becomes worse with time until serious damage results.

Some of the causes are obvious and some are not. Some are constant and others intermittent. Therefore, eliminating brush sparking, especially when it is a chronic or recurring problem, requires a thorough review of the motor and operating conditions. Always recheck for sparking after correcting one problem to see that it solved the total problem. Also remember that, after grinding the commutator and properly reseating the brushes, sparking will occur until the polished, brown surface reforms on the commutator. Figure 5. Degrees of Generator and Motor Sparking

NOTE: Small sparks are yellow in colour, and the large sparks are white in colour. The white sparks, or blue-white sparks, are most detrimental to commutation (both brush and commutator). First consider external conditions that affect commutation. Frequent motor overloads, vibration and high humidity cause sparking. Extremely low humidity allows brushes to wear through the needed polished brown commutator surface film. Oil, paint, acid and other chemical vapours in the atmosphere contaminate brushes and the commutator surface. Look for obvious brush and brush holder deficiencies: 1.

Be sure brushes are properly seated, move freely in the holders and are not too short. 2. The brush spring pressure must be equal on all brushes. 3. Be sure spring pressure is not too light or too high. Large motors with adjustable springs should be set at about 3 to 4 pounds per square inch of brush surface in contact with the commutators. 4. Remove dust that can cause a short between brush holders and frame. 5. Check lead connections to the brush holders. Loose connections cause overheating. Look for obvious commutator problems: 1. Any condition other than a polished, brown surface under the brushes indicates a problem.

Severe sparking causes a rough blackened surface. An oil film, paint spray, chemical contamination and other abnormal conditions can cause a blackened or discolored surface and sparking. Streaking or grooving under only some brushes or flat and burned spots can result from a load mismatch and cause motor electrical problems. Grooved commutators should be removed from service. A brassy appearance shows excessive wear on the surface resulting from low humidity or wrong brush grade. 2. High mica or high or low commutator bars make the brushes jump, causing sparking. 3.

Carbon dust, copper foil or other conductive dust in the slots between commutator bars causes shorting and sometimes sparking between bars. If correcting any obvious deficiencies does not eliminate sparking or noise, look to the less obvious possibilities: 1. If brushes were changed before the problem became apparent, check the grade of brushes. Weak brushes may chip. Soft, low abrasive brushes may allow a thick film to form. High friction or high abrasion brushes wear away the brown film, producing a brassy surface. If the problem appears only under one or more of the brushes, two different grades of brushes may have been installed.

Generally, use only the brushes recommended by the motor manufacturer or a qualified brush expert. 2. The brush holder may have been reset improperly. If the boxes are more than 1/8″ from the commutator, the brushes can jump or chip. Setting the brush holder off neutral causes sparking. Normally the brushes must be equally spaced around the commutator and must be parallel to the bars so all make contact with each bar at the same time. 3. An eccentric commutator causes sparking and may cause vibration. Normally, concentricity should be within . 001″ on high speed, . 002″ on medium speed and . 04″ on slow speed motors. 4. Various electrical failures in the motor windings or connections manifest themselves in sparking and poor commutation. Look for shorts or opens in the armature circuit and for grounds, shorts or opens in the field winding circuits. A weak interpole circuit or large air gap also generate brush sparking. SAFETY ACCIDENT in industrial sector defines any incident which has potential to cause injury to human, loss of property and damage to environment. Causes for occurrence of accident * Unsafe Act * Unsafe Conditions Hazards * Conditions prevailing in work place finally leading to accidents.

Types * Mechanical * Electrical * Chemical * Environmental Precautions * Look overhead * Watch steps * Wear shoes and helmets * Take care of the flow opening * Avoid lose clothing * Always carry your I-D card CONCLUSION In this project, I have studied the working of electrical repair shop and about the function of Bhilai steel plant. I have obtained some knowledge about * Rolling mill * Blast furnace * Electrical repair shop * Motor windings BIBLIOGRAPHY NOTES TAKEN DURING THE TENURE OF THE VOCATIONAL TRANING INTERNET: www. google. com INTRANRT: SAIL, BSP INTRANET SITE

Free Essays

Aircraft Engineering

AEROSPACE ACRONYM & Abbreviation Guide 3D, 4D three- or four-dimensional 3G third generation 4096 Code combinations of four-digit transponder code A A A-BPSK A-QPSK A-SMGCS  A mpere(s) autotuned navaid aviation binary phase shift keying aeronautical quadrature phase shift keying advanced surface movement guidance and control systems autobrake aircraft analog-to-digital air/ground; air to ground airline autoland alphanumeric autopilot autothrottle airframe and power plant aeronautical administration communications airline administrative communications Air Accident Investigation Branch (U.K. equivalent of NTSB) airway facilities service Airline Avionics Institute Aging Aircraft Enterprise Team air accident investigation unit above aerodome level autonomous approach landing capability advanced architecture microprocessor Automated Aerial Refueling Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (U. S. Army)

AATT advanced air transportation technology AAS advanced automation system (FAA) ABC automatic brightness control AC advisory circular AC alternating current AC2 Dolby surround ACAA Air Carrier Association of America ACAC air-cooled air cooler ACAMS aircraft condition analysis management system ACARS aircraft communications addressing and reporting system ACAS airborne collision avoidance system ACC active clearance control ACC airspace control center ACC area control center ACD automatic conflict detection ACDO Air Carrier District Office ACE actuator control electronics ACE advanced certification equipment ACG Assessment Compliance Group ACIPS airfoil cowl ice protection system ACF area control facility ACK acknowledgment ACMF airplane condition monitoring function ACMP alternating current motor pump ACMS aircraft condition monitoring system ACNSS advanced communication/navigation/surveillance system ACP audio control panel ACS active control system ACS audio control system ACT active ACTC airport traffic control towers www. avtoday. com/av ACTD advanced concept technology demonstration ACU aircraft communications ystem ACU antenna control unit ACU apron control unit ACU autopilot control unit AD airworthiness directive (FAA) ADAHRS air data attitude heading reference system

ADAS automated weather observing system data acquisition system ADB airport database ADC air data computer ADC Air Defense Command ADE application development engineer ADF automatic direction finding ADG air-driven generator ADI attitude director indicator ADIRS air data inertial reference system ADIRU air data inertial reference unit ADL aeronautical data link ADLP airborne data link protocol ADLP aircraft data link processor (Mode S) ADM air data module ADMS airline data management system ADN aircraft data network ADO airline dispatch office ADO airport district office ADP air driven pump ADR address ADR Advanced Data Research ADR alternative dispute resolution ADRAS airplane data recovery and analysis system ADS air data system ADS automatic dependent surveillance ADS-A automatic dependent surveillance-addressed ADS-A automatic dependent 20 Avionics Magazine December 2008 surveillance-automation ADS-B automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast ADS-C ADS-contract ADS-R ADS-rebroadcast ADSEL address selective ADSP automatic dependent surveillance panel ADSSG ADS Study Group (ICAO) ADSU automatic dependent surveillance unit ADT air data tester AEA Aircraft Electronics Association AECU audio electronic control unit AED ALGOL extended for design AEEC formerly Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee (ARINC)

AFDS autopilot flight director system AFDX avionics full-duplex switched Ethernet AFEPS ACARS front-end processing system AFGCS automatic flight guidance and control system AFI authority format identifier AFIRS autonomous flight information collection and reporting system AFIS airborne flight information system AFIS automated flight inspection system AFM aircraft flight manual AFMS automatic flight management system AFN air traffic services facilities notification AGIS AGL AGR AGRM AGS AGSS AGTS AGVS AGW AHC AHMS AHRS AI AI AI AIA AIAA AIC AIDC AIDS AIED AIEM AIFSS AIL AIM AIMS Raytheon Advanced Combat Radar, a retrofit AESA system, installed on F-16 AIMS AINSC

AEP ARINC engineering practices AEP audio entertainment player AERA automated en route air traffic control AES aircraft earth station (Inmarsat) AESA active electronically scanned array AESS aircraft environment surveillance system AEW airborne early warning AEW&C Airborne Early Warning and Control AF airway facilities AFC Aeronautical Frequency Committee (AEEC) AFC automatic frequency compensation AFC automatic frequency control AFCAS automatic flight control augmentation system AFCS automatic flight control system AFD adaptive flight display AFD autopilot flight director AFDC autopilot flight director computer AFP AFRL AFS AFS AFS AFSK AFSS AFTN AFTRCC AFU AGACS AGAE AGATE AGC AGCOS AGCS AGCU AGD AGDL

Airspace Flow Program Air Force Research Lab additional secondary factors aeronautical fixed service (ICAO) automatic flight system audio frequency shift keying automated flight service stations aeronautical fixed telecommunications network Aerospace and Flight Test Radio Coordinating Council artificial feel unit automatic A/G communication system A/G applications engineering Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (NASA) automatic gain control A/G communication services air-ground communication systems auxiliary generator control unit ADS-B guidance display A/G data link www. avtoday. com/av AIO AIP AIP AIP AIRAC AIRCOM AIRE AIRMET AIRO AIS AIS AISG AIV AJPS AKO ALC ALC A/G intermediate system above ground level A/G router air/ground router-regional manager A/G system ACARS ground system standard (AEEC) A/G test station A/G voice sub-network ARTS gateway attitude heading computer aircraft health monitoring system attitude heading reference system lternative interrogator application interface area incursion Aerospace Industries Association American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics aeronautical information circular air traffic services interfacility data communications aircraft/airborne integrated data system aeronautical industry engineering and development Airlines International Electronic Meeting (AMC) automated international flight service stations aileron airman’s information manual airplane information management system (Boeing 777) airport information management system aeronautical industry service communication analog input/output aeronautical information publication Airport Improvement Program analog input aeronautical information regulation and control digital air/ground communications service (SITA) Atlantic Interoperability Initiative to Reduce Emissions (FAA) airman’s meteorological information analog input/reference output aeronautical information service automatic information services (Eurocontrol) Applications Interface Sub-Group (IATA) accumulator isolation valve AFEPS journal processing system Army Knowledge Online airline link control asynchronous link control December 2008 Avionics Magazine 21 Aerospace Acronym Guide •••

ALC automatic level control ALMDS airborne laser mine detection system ALPA Air Line Pilots Association ALPS automatic line protection service ALS application layer structure ALT airborne link terminal ALT altitude/alternate ALT-HOLD altitude hold mode ALTM altimeter ALTN alternate ALTRV altitude reservation ALTS altitude select ALU arithmetic and logic unit AM access module AM amplitude modulation AMASS airport movement area safety system AMC advanced mezzanine card AMC Air Mobility Command AMC auxiliary maintenance computer AMC Avionics Maintenance Conference AMCP aeronautical mobile communications panel AMD advisory map display AME amplitude modulation equivalent AMF Airborne, Maritime and Fixed Station AMF-M AMF-Maritime AMF-SA AMF-Small Airborne AMF JTRS Airborne and Maritime/Fixed Station Joint Tactical Radio System AMI airline modifiable information AMLCD active matrix liquid crystal display AMIS aircraft management information system AMOSS airline maintenance and operation upport system AMP audio management panel AMP Avionics Modernization Program AMPL amplifier AMRAAM Advanced Medium-Range Air to Air Missile AMS acquisition management system AMS apron management service AMS ARINC maintenance service AMS avionics management service AMS(R)S aeronautical mobile satellite (route) service AMSS aeronautical mobile satellite service AMTOSS aircraft maintenance task oriented support system AMTS aeronautical message transfer service AMU ACARS/avionics management unit AMU audio management unit AMUX audio multiplexer ANC Air Navigation Commission (ICAO) ANDC airport and navigation data compiler ANFR Agence Nationale des Frequences (France) ANFS aircraft network and file server ANICS Alaskan NAS Interfacility Communication 22 Avionics Magazine December 2008 ANLP ANP ANP ANPA ANR ANS ANS ANSI ANSIR ANSP ANSU ANTC AO AOA AOA AOA AOAS AOC AOC AOC AOC AOC AOC AOCC AODB AODC AODE AOG AOHE AOM AOP AOP AOP AOPA AOR AOR AOR-E AOR-W AP APA APA APANPIRG APAS APB APB APC APC APC APCO APFA APFDS APEX API

ARINC network layer protocol actual navigation performance air navigation plan/performance advanced notice of proposed amendment active noise reduction air navigation system ambient noise sensor American National Standards Institute advanced navigation system inertial reference air navigation service provider avionics network server unit advanced networking test center acronymic obfuscation ACARS over AVLC angle of arrival angle of attack advanced oceanic automation system aeronautical operational control aircraft operational control Airline Operational Control Center airline operations center airport obstruction chart airport operational communications airline operations control center airport operational database age of data, clock (GPS) age of data, ephemeris (GPS) aircraft on ground air/oil heat exchanger aircraft operating manual aeronautical OSI profile airline operational procedure analog output Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Atlantic Ocean region area of responsibility Atlantic Ocean region-east Atlantic Ocean region-west airport location (ACARS/AFEPS) Allied Pilots Association autopilot amplifier Asia/PAC Air Navigation Planning & Implementation Regional Group Active/Passive Aircraft Survivability acquisition program baseline auxiliary power breaker aeronautical passenger communication aeronautical public correspondence autopilot computer Association of Public Safety Communications Officials Association of Professional Flight Attendants autopilot flight director system application/executive software application programming interface

APIM ARINC Industry Activities Project Initiation/Modification APIRS attitude and positioning inertial reference system APMS automated performance measurement system APL Applied Physics Laboratory APLC airport performance laptop computers APM approach path monitor APN ARINC packet network APP approach control APPR approach APR actual performance reserve APRL ATN profile requirement list APU auxiliary power unit APUC auxiliary power unit controller APX application/executive software AQF avionics qualification facility AQP avionics qualification procedure/ program AQP advanced qualification program AQS advanced quality system ARB arbitrary waveform generator ARC aviation rulemaking committee (FAA) ARD advanced requirement definition ARDEP analysis of research & development in Eurocontrol programs ARF airline risk factor ARM area regional manager ARMC area regional maintenance center ARP air data reference panel ARTAS ATM surveillance tracker and server ASAS aircraft separation assurance system (AEEC) ASAS aviation safety analysis system ASC aircraft system controller ASC aural synthesizer card ASCII American standard code for information interchange ASCB avionics standard communication bus ASCPC air supply and cabin pressure controllers ASCS air supply control system ASCU anti-skid control unit ASD aircraft situation display ASDAR aircraft-to-satellite data relay ASDB aircraft specific database ASDE airport surface detection equipment ASDE-X airport surface detection equipment, model X ASDI Aircraft Situation Display to Industry ASDL aeronautical satellite data link ASDR airport surface detection radar ASE altimetry system error ASECNA Agency for Security of Aerial Navigation in Africa and Madagascar ASG ARINC signal gateway www. avtoday. com/av ••• Aerospace Acronym Guide ASI airspeed indicator ASTA airport surface traffic automation ASI avionics system integration ASTAMIDS Airborne Standoff Minefield ASIAS Aviation Safety Information Detection System Analysis and Sharing (FAA) ASTERIX All-Purpose Structured EuroASIC application specific integrated control Surveillance Information circuit Exchange ASL above sea level ASTF airspace system task force ASM airspace management ASTM American Society for Testing ASM autothrottle servo motor and Materials ASME American Society of MechaniASTOR Airborne Stand-Off Radar (U. K. cal Engineers ASVI avionics serial video interface ASOR Allocating Safety Objectives ASV alternate servo valve and Requirements AT air transport ASOS automated surface observaAT at an altitude tion system ATA actual time of arrival ASP ACARS sub-network protocol ATA Air Transport Association ASP acquisition strategy paper ATAS aviation traffic and application ASP aeronautical fixed service syssoftware tems planning (AFS) ATC advanced technology center ASP altitude set panel ATC air traffic control ASP arrival sequencing program ATCA Air Traffic Control Association ASPP application specific programATCBI ATC beacon interrogator mable processor ATCC area and terminal control center ASR airport surveillance radar ATCRBS ATC radar beacon system ASRAAM advanced short range air-toATCSS ATC signaling system air missile ATCT air traffic control tower ASRS aviation safety reporting system ATIS airport traffic information system ASSTC aerospace simulation and sysATIS automated terminal informatems test center tion service XXXXX_Goodrich_EFB_Avionics_Jul08_120x178:24324_EFB_ATE_&_M_126x186 ASSV alternate source selection valve ATIS-B automatic terminal information ervice-broadcast air transport data link automatic test equipment avionics test and evaluation air traffic flow management advanced concept technology demonstration ATHR autothrust system ATSRAC Aging Transport Systems Rulemaking Advisory Committee ATI airborne tracker illuminator ATIDS airport surface target identification system/service ATIS airport traffic information system ATIS automatic terminal information service ATL autothrottle limit ATLAS abbreviated test language for avionics systems ATM air traffic management ATM asynchronous transfer mode ATMAC Air Traffic Management Committee (RTCA) ATMAS ATM automation system ATMB Air Traffic Management Bureau ATM DSS ATM decision support service ATMS area navigation, test and management services ATN aeronautical telecommunica5/6/08 17:42 Page 1 tion network ATDL ATE ATE ATFM ATG WHEN THE FLIGHT CREW DEPENDS ON IT, WE’RE RIGHT ALONGSIDE. Chart to right is © Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc. 2008. Chart shown is for illustration purposes and not to be used for navigation.

Aircraft Engineering

For an efficient, paperless cockpit and bigger cost savings, you can depend on Goodrich Class 2 and Class 3 EFB systems. Goodrich systems feature: • Avionics-grade hardware • Installed server or laptop computer-based solutions with video surveillance and EVS support • Numerous display options including 8. 4” (21. 3cm) or 10. 4” (26. 4cm) sizes, full bezel key set or basic key set only, and matching flight deck colours • ARINC 429 and multiple wireless connectivity options • EFB software and data services with partners Jeppesen, Lufthansa Systems and others. For more information, contact us at [email protected] com right attitude/right approach/right alongside www. goodrich. com www. avtoday. com/av December 2008 Avionics Magazine 23 Aerospace Acronym Guide •••

ATNE ATNP ATO ATO ATOL ATOP ATP ATPAC ATR ATR ATR ATS ATS ATS ATSAW ATSC AT/SC AVS aviation VHF seat availability (messages) AWACS airborne warning and control system AWAS automated weather advisory station AWG American wire gauge AWIN advanced weather information system AWIN aviation weather information AWIPS advanced weather interactive processing system AWLU aircraft wireless LAN unit AWM auto warning mixer AWO all weather operations AWOP AWO panel AWOS automated/airport weather observing system AWR aviation weather research AZ azimuth: angular measurement in horizontal plane B-NAV BAMS BBML BDA BDMIS BDS BEA Teledyne AWLU ATN engineering ATN panel air traffic operations Air Traffic Organization (FAA) automatic take-off and landing advanced technologies and oceanic procedures acceptance test procedure/plan Air Traffic Procedures Advisory Committee (FAA) acceptance test report air transport racking air transport radio: ARINC formfactor/standard case dimensions air traffic services air turbine starter autothrottle system Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness air traffic services communication autothrottle/speed control BP BPCU BPL BPS BPSK BR BRG BRI BRNAV BRT BSN BSC BSCU BSP BSU BSU BTB BTMU BU BUEC BUFR B asic area navigation Broad Area Maritime Surveillance broadband multi-link bomb damage assessment business data management and invoicing system comm-B designation subfield Bureau d’Enquetes Accidents (French equivalent of NTSB) back-end processor BEP management system bit error rate buyer furnished equipment beat frequency oscillator Blue Force Tracking basic general aviation research simulator bus grant inhibit border gateway protocol burn-in Bi-Strategic Command bilingual ground station (ACARS and VDL Mode 2) boundary intermediate system BIS management system built-in self-test binary synchronous control built-in test a binary digit built-in test equipment bus interface unit block/black brake metering valve binary boundary notification system (squitters) binary offset carrier bottom of climb bit-oriented protocol/characteroriented protocol bite processor bus power control unit broadband over powerlines bits per second binary phase shift keying bridge bearing basic rate interface basic area navigation brightness backbone sub-network binary synchronous communication brake system control unit board support package beam steering unit bypass switch unit bus tie breaker brake temperature monitor unit backup BU emergency communications binary universal form for communication representation BWAN BU wide area network Byte a grouping of eight bits C

C2 command and control C41 command, control, communications, computers & intelligence C4ISR command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance C-MANPADS Counter-Man Portable Air Defense System C/A code course acquisition code (GPS) C/NO carrier-to-noise density ratio C/R command/response C/SOIT communications/surveillance operational implementation team C/UT code/unit test C&C command and control (also C2) C&W control and warning CA conflict alert CAA Civil Aviation Administration CAA Civil Aviation Authority CAAC Civil Aviation Administration of China CAAFI Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (FAA) CAAS common avionics architecture system CAASD Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (MITRE Corp. ) CAB Civil Aeronautics Board CAC caution advisory computer CACP cabin area control panel CAD computer-aided design CADAG Communications, Automation and Data Link Applications Group CADC central air data computer (an

ATSGF air traffic services geographic filter ATSMP air traffic services message processor ATSO air traffic services organization ATSP air traffic services provider ATSRAC Aging Transport Systems Rulemaking Advisory Committee (FAA) ATSU air traffic services unit ATWR apron tower (and operator) AUSRIRE All Union Scientific Research Institute of Radio Equipment: CIS (former Soviet) agency AUX auxiliary AVC aviation VHF car rental availability (messages) AVH aviation VHF hotel availability (messages) AVLAN avionics local area network AVLC aviation VHF link control AVM airborne vibration monitor AVN avionics AVOD audio and video channels on demand AVOL aerodrome visibility operational level AVPAC aviation VHF packet communications 24 Avionics Magazine December 2008

BEP BEPMS BER BFE BFO BFT BGARS BGI BGP BI Bi-SC BiG BIS BISMS BIST BiSync BIT Bit BITE BIU BLK BMV BNR BNS BOC BOC BOP/COP www. avtoday. com/av ••• Aerospace Acronym Guide CDAM CDG CDI CDM CDMS CDMS CDP CDR CDS CDS CDS CDSS CDT CDTI CDU CDV CEC CEI CENTCOM CENTRIXS analog system) CADS centralized automatic dependent surveillance CAE component application engineer CAGE commercial avionics GPS engine CAH cabin attendant handsets CAI caution annunciator indicator CALSEL variation of SELCAL system CAM computer-aided manufacturing CAN controller area network CANbus control area network CANSO Civil Air Navigation Services Organization CAOC Combined Air Operations Center CAP Civil Air Patrol (U. S. CAPA Coalition of Airline Pilots Association CAPS commercial airliner protection system CARE cooperative actions on R&D in Eurocontrol CAS collision avoidance system CAS commercially available software CAS computed airspeed CASA controller automated spacing aid CASCADE Co-operative ATS (Air Traffic Services) through Surveillance and Communication Applications Deployed in ECAC (European Civil Aviation Conference) CASE computer-aided software engineering CASR Civil Aviation Safety Regulations CASS Consolidated Automated Support System CAT categories (I, II, IIIa/b/c) approach CAT clear air turbulence CAT computer aided testing CAVS CDTI assisted visual separation CBA cost/benefit analysis CBT computer-based training CC connection confirm CCA circuit card assembly CCB configuration control board CCB converter circuit breaker CCD category class diagram CCD charged coupled device CCD coherent change detection CCD cursor control device CCIR International Radio Consultative Committee CCITT Consultative Committee International Telephone and Telegraph CCP consolidated control panel CCS cabin communication system CCS common core system CCTV closed-circuit television CD carrier detect CD chrominance difference CDA continuous descent approach CDA coordinating design authority CDAM centralized data acquisition module common data acquisition module configuration database generator course deviation indicator collaborative decision-making CDM system control and data management system continuous data program critical design review central dispatch system cockpit display systems common display system cockpit door surveillance system controlled departure time cockpit display of traffic information control display unit compressed digital video cooperative engagement capability cabin equipment interfaces U. S. Central Command Combined Enterprise Regional Exchange System TechSAT Avionics Bus Interface Family

ARINC 664/AFDX® – ARINC 429 – MIL-STD-1553 Powerful on-board protocol engines Consistent features and interfaces Comprehensive error injection/detection capabilities Integration on PCI, cPCI, PXI, PCIe, and VME platforms Driver and API support for Windows, Linux, or VxWorks Bus analyzer software and support for many TechSAT avionics simulations: CMS/CMC/CMCF, CIDS, IFE, RDC www. techsat. com Test & Integration Systems Products Software Solutions Service & Support TechSAT North America Lake Washington Air Harbor • Hangar Three 3849 N. E. 98th Street • Seattle WA 98115 • USA Tel +1 (206) 910-3908 north. [email protected] com TechSAT GmbH Technical Systems for Avionics and Test Gruber Strasse 46c • 85586 Poing • Germany Tel +49 (8121) 703-0 • Fax +49 (8121) 703-177 [email protected] com TechSAT_Avionics 12_08_hmg. indd 1 www. avtoday. com/av December 2008 Avionics Magazine 25 04. 11. 2008 17:23:46 Aerospace Acronym Guide •••

CEP circular error probable CF change field CFDIU centralized fault display interface unit CFDS central fault display system CFDU configurable file data unit CFIT controlled flight into terrain CFM cubic feet per minute CFM configuration management CFMU central flow management unit CFS cabin file server CG center of gravity CHAIN Compartmented High Assurance Information Network CHI computer/human interface CHIS center hydraulic isolation system CI configuration item CI cabin interphone CID category interaction diagram CIDIN common ICAO data interchange network CIDS cabin interphone distribution system CIE Commission Internationale de I‘Eclairage CIGS opper-indium-gallium-diselenide CIP capital investment plan CIP convergence & implementation program (Eurocontrol) CIS common information services CIS corporate information system CLNP connectionless network protocol CLNS connectionless network service CLTP connectionless mode transport protocol CM context/configuration management CMC central maintenance computer CMCF CMC function CMCS CMC system CMD command CMF common message format CMGT contract management CMM capability maturity model CMM common mode monitor CMM component maintenance manual CMN control motion noise CMOS complementary metal oxide semiconductor CMP configuration management plan CMS cabin management system CMU communication management unit CND can not duplicate CNDB customized navigation database CNES Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (France) CNI communications, navigation and identification CNP com/nav/pulse CNR customer notification reports CNS communication, navigation surveillance CNS/ATM communications, navigation, surveillance/air traffic management CNSI com/nav/surveillance/identification 26 Avionics Magazine December 2008

CNUS cabin network server unit COA certificate of authorization CODEC coder/decoder COM cockpit operating manual COMINT communications intelligence COMINT/DF COMINT direction finding COMM communications COM/MET/OPS communications/meteorological/ operations CON continuous COMSAT Communications Satellite Corp. CONOPS concept of operations CONUS continental United States COP character-oriented protocol COTP connection-oriented transport protocol COTR contracting officer’s technical representative COTS commercial-off-the-shelf CP central processor CP conflict probe CP control panel CPA closest point of approach CPA Coalition of Airline Pilots Associations CPA collision prediction and alerting Rockwell Collins CMU-900 CPC CPC CPC CPCI CPCS CPDLC CPE CPI CPM CPM CPS CPS CPU CR CR CR CRA CRAF CRC CRD CRADA CRM CRPA abin pressure controller controller-pilot communications cursor position control computer program configuration item cabin pressure control system controller-pilot data link communications circular position error continuous process improvement core processing module critical path method cabin pressure sensor central processing system central processing unit change of request connection request contrast ratio conflict resolution advisory Civil Reserve Air Fleet cyclic redundancy checking/code current routing domain cooperative research and development agreement crew/cockpit resource management controlled reception pattern antenna CRS Congressional Research Service (U. S. CRISD computer resources integrated support document CRISTAL CoopeRative Validation of Surveillance Techniques and Applications (Eurocontrol) CRM collision risk model CRM crew resource management CRMA code reuse multiple access CRR cutover readiness review CRS course CRT cathode ray tube CRZ cruise CS commercial service CS common service CSC cargo system controller CSC common signaling channel CSC computer software component CSCI computer software configuration item CSF command/status frame CsLEOS BAE Systems real-time operating system CSMA carrier sense multiple access CSMA/CD carrier sense multiple access with collision detection CSCP cabin system control panel CSDB commercial standard data bus CSDS cargo smoke detector system CSEU control systems electronics unit CSMM crash survivable memory modules CSMU cabin system management unit CSP Common Sensor Payload CSPA closely spaced parallel approach CSS cabin systems subcommittee CSTAC Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (FAA) CSU channel service unit CSU computer software unit CSU configuration strapping unit CTA control area CTA controlled time of arrival CTAF common traffic advisory frequency CTAI cowl thermal anti-icing CTAS center TRACON automation system CTC cabin temperature controller CTD cabin training device CTL control CTMO centralized air traffic flow management organization CTOL conventional takeoff and landing CTR center CTR control zone CTRD configuration test requirements document CTRL control CTS clear to send CTS conformance test suite CTS/TCTS combat training system/tactical combat training system CTU cabin telecommunications unit CU channel utilization www. avtoday. com/av ••• Aerospace Acronym Guide

CU CU CUG CUTE CV/DFDR CVR CVRCP CW CW CWI CWID CWP CWP CWS DCAS DCD DCE DCGF DCL DCM DCMF DCMS DCN DCP DCP DCS DCU DCV DD DDA DDD DDM DDP DDR DDR DDRMI DDS DDT DER DERA DEU DF DFA DFCS DFDAF DFDAMU DFDAU DFDR DFDU DFGC DFGS DFIDU DFIU DFS DFS DfT DFU DG DGNSS DGPS DH DHCP DHS DI DIFAX DIGNU DIP DIP DIR DIRCM DIR/INTC DISA DISC DISCH DIST DITS DL DLAP DLC DLCI DLE DLK DLL DLM DLME DL/MSU DLNA DLORT DLP DLS DLU DM DMA DMD DME DME/N DME/P DMM DMS DMS DMU DoD DoT DOTS DPI DPR DPSK DR DR DRAM DRER DRN DRVSM DSAD DSARC DSB DSB-AM DSDU combiner unit (HUD) control unit closed user group common use terminal equipment cockpit voice and digital flight data recorder cockpit voice recorder cockpit voice recorder control panel clockwise continuous wave continuous wave interference Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration central weather processor controller/ed working position control wheel steering D

D8PSK differential 8-phase-shift keying D-ATIS digital automatic terminal information service D-OTIS data link operational terminal service D-TAXI data link taxi clearance delivery D-TOC digital transfer of communications DA descent advisor DA design authority DA digital-to-analog DABS discrete addressable beacon system DAC digital-to-analog converters DADC digital air data computer DADS digital air data system DAISS digital airborne intercommunication switching system DAP digital service access product DAP direct action penetration DAP downlink aircraft parameter DAP download of aircraft parameter DAR data access recorder DARC direct access radar channel DARP dynamic aircraft route planning DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (U. S. ) DAS designated alteration station DAS digital audio subcommittee DAS distributed aperture system DASS defensive aids sub-system DB database dB decibel dBA dB adjusted DBI downlink block identifier dBI dB referenced to an isotropic antenna dBI decibels above isotopic circular dBM dB below 1 milliwatt DBS direct broadcast satellite DBU database unit DBU dial backup dBW dB-watts or referenced to 1 watt DC direct current DC disconnect confirm igital control audio system double channel duplex data communications equipment data conversion gateway function departure clearance (European) digital coherent mute data communication management function data communication management system document/drawing/design change notice data communication process display control panel double channel simplex data concentration unit directional control valve data delivery digital differential analyzer dual disk drive difference in depth of modulation declarations of design and performance draft document review double data rate digital distance radio magnetic indicator direct digital synthesizer downlink data transfer designated engineering representative Defense Research and Evaluation Agency (U. K. display electronics unit direction finding direction finding antenna digital flight control system digital flight data acquisition function digital flight data acquisition management unit digital flight data acquisition unit digital flight data recorder digital flight data unit digital flight guidance computer digital flight guidance system dual function interactive display unit digital flight instrument unit Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH (Germany) digital frequency select Department for Transport (U. K. ) digital function unit directional gyro differential global navigation satellite system differential global positioning system decision height dynamic host configuration protocol www. avtoday. com/av Department of Homeland Security data interrupt digital facsimile deeply integrated guidance and navigation unit data interrupt program dual in-line package director direct infrared countermeasures direct intercept Defense Information Systems Agency (U. S. disconnect discharge distance data information transfer system data link data link application processor data link control data link control identifier data link entity data link (AEEC) data link layer data link management unit data link and message engineering data loader/mass storage unit diplexer/low-noise amplifier data link operational requirements team data link processor data link service/system download unit disconnected mode direct memory access digital memory device distance measuring equipment DME normal DME precision data memory module data link management system debris monitoring sensor data management unit Department of Defense (U. S. ) Department of Transportation (U. S. ) dynamic ocean tracking system dots per inch dual port RAM differential phase shift keying dead reckoning deduced reckoning dynamic random access memory designated radio engineering representative (FAA) document release notice domestic reduced vertical separation minimum digital service access device defense system acquisition review cycle double side band DSB-amplitude modulation data signal display unit December 2008 Avionics Magazine 27 Aerospace Acronym Guide •••

DSF DSP DSP DSP DSP DSP DSPDRV DSR DSS DSU DT&E DTD DTD DTE DTED DTG DTM DTMF DTP DTPDU DTRS DTS DTU DU DUAT DUATS DUST DVF DVM DVMC DVOR DVRS DWAN E-PIREPS E/D E/O E&E EAA EACARS EAD EAD EADI EADS EAFR EAI EAL EAL-7 EANPG EAP EAROM EARTS EAS EASA European Aviation Safety Agency EASIE enhanced ATM and Mode S implementation in Europe EATCHIP European air traffic control harmonization & integration program EATMS European ATM System (Eurocontrol) EATRADA European ATM Research and Development Association EBR extended bit rate EC European Commission ECAC European Civil Aviation Conference ECAM electronic caution alert module ECC error correcting code ECEF earth-centered, earth-fixed ECL emitter coupler logic eCM equipment conditioning monitoring ECMP electronic component management system ECN engineering change notice ECO engineering change order ECP EICAS control panel ECP engineering change proposal ECS engineering compiler system ECS environmental control system ECS event criterion subfield ECSL left environmental control system card ECSMC ECS miscellaneous card ECSR right environmental control system card ECU electronic control unit ED EICAS display EDA electronic design automation EDAC error detection and correction EDARC enhanced direct access radar channel EDS EDS EDU EE EE EEAS EEC EEC EEPROM EEU EFB EFC EFD EFDAS EFDP EFIC EFIP EFIS EFIS CP EGI EGIHO EGNOS EGP EGPWS EGT EHF EHSI EHV EIA EIA EICAS EICASC EIPI EIRP EIRP EIS EIS EIS EISA EIU ELB ELEC ELM ELMS ELS ELT EM EM EMATS display system function data link service provider departure sequencing program digital signal processor display select panel domain specific part display driver display system replacement decision support services data ignaling unit development test and evaluation data terminal display document type definition data terminal equipment digital terrain evaluation data distance-to-go demonstration test milestone dual tone multifrequency (telephone) distributed targeting processor data protocol data unit data transceiver router server digital theatre systems data transfer unit display unit direct user access terminal direct user access terminal system dual-use science and technology demonstration and validation facility digital voltmeter digital video map computer Doppler very high frequency omnidirectional range digital voice recorder system direct WAN E electronic pilot reports end-of-descent engine-out electronics and equipment Experimental Aircraft Association enhanced ACARS engine alert display European AIS database (Eurocontrol) electronic attitude director indicator European Aeronautic Defence and Space Co. enhanced airborne flight recorder engine anti-ice evaluation assurance level evaluation assurance level-7 European Air Navigation Planning Group engine alert processor electrically alterable read-only memory en route automated radar tracking system equivalent airspeed Sandel SN3500 EHSI

EDC error detection and correction EDDS electronic document distribution service EDI electronic data interchange EDI engine data interface EDIF engine data interface function EDIS emergency digital information service EDIU engine data interface unit EDMS electronic data management system EDP electronic data processing EDP engineering development pallet EDP engine driven pump www. avtoday. com/av embedded diagnostic system explosive detection system electronic display unit electrical engineer electronics equipment enhanced en-route automation system electronic engine control Eurocontrol Experimental Center electrical erasable programmable ROM ELMS electronics unit electronic flight bag expected further clearance electronic flight display European logical flight data server (Eurocontrol) European flight data processing (Eurocontrol) lectronic flight instrument controller electronic flight instrument processor electronic flight instrument system EFIS control panel embedded GPS/INS expedited ground-initiated handoff European Geostationary Overlay System exterior gateway protocol enhanced ground proximity warning system exhaust gas temperature extremely high frequency electronic horizontal situation indicator electro-hydraulic valve Electrical Institute of America Electronic Industries Association engine indication and crew alert system EICAS controls extended initial protocol identifier earth incident radiated power effective isotropic radiation power electronic instrument system engine indication system environmental impact statement extended industry standard architecture electronic interface unit electronic logbook electrical extended length message electrical load management system electronic library system emergency locator transmitter electromagnetic element manager endurance management air traffic system 28 Avionics Magazine December 2008 ••• Aerospace Acronym Guide

EMC electromagnetic compatibility EMC entertainment multiplexer controller EMD engineering, manufacturing and development EMER emergency EMI electromagnetic interference EMS emergency medical services EMS engine management system EMU expansion module unit ENG engine ENOC engineering network operations center EO/IR electro-optic/infrared EOD end of day EO DAS electro-optical distributed aperture system EOLA European pre-operational data link applications EOM end of message EOT end of text EOTS electro-optical targeting system EP engineering project EP external power EPC engineering project contractor EPCS engine propulsion control system EPLD electronically programmable logic device EPLRS enhanced position location and reporting system EPR engine pressure ratio ES ESA ESAI ESAS ESAS ESD ESDS ESH ESID ESIS ESIS ESM ESOIC ESR ESS ESS ESSD ESU ETA ETAS ETB ETB ETC ETD Mid-Continent ESAI EPROM EPS EPV EQTG ERAM ERAST ERB ERD EROPS ERP ERP ERPDU ERP PDU ERQ PDU ERU ES erasable programmable ROM electrical power system end-point voltage electronic qualification test guide En Route Automation Modernization environment research aircraft and sensor technology Engineering Review Board end routing domain extended range operations effective radiation power eye reference point error protocol data unit echo replay protocol data unit echo request protocol data unit engine replay unit end system xtended squitter European Space Agency electronic standby attitude indicator electronic situation awareness system enhanced situational awareness system electrostatic discharge electrostatic discharge and soldering end system hello engine and system indication display electronic standby instrument system engine and system indication system electronic support measures enhanced small-outline IC equivalent-series resistance electronic switching system environmental stress screening electrostatic sensitive devices environmental sensor unit estimated time of arrival enhanced TRACON/tower automation system end of block (ASCII/IA5 character) engineering test bed estimated time of completion estimated time of departure www. avtoday. com/av December 2008 Avionics Magazine 29 Aerospace Acronym Guide ••• ETE ETI ETM ETM ETMS ETMS ETNO ETOPS ETOPS ETP ETRC ETVS ETX EU EU EUAFS EUPS EURATN EURET EUROCAE EV EVM EVS EW EWIS EZAP FBL FBN FBO FBW FC FC FC-AV FCA FCC FCC FCDC FCM FCMA FCP FCP FCS FCS FCS FCS FD FD FDAF FDAU FF FFS FFT FGC FGS FHA FIAO FIB FIFO FIM FIR FIS FIS-B FIX FL FL FLCH FLIR FLTCK FltWinds FLW FM FMA FMAC FMC FMC FMC FMCDU FMCF FMCS FMCW Universal Avionics FMS stimated time enroute elapsed time indicator elapsed time measurement electronic training manuals engine-trend monitoring services enhanced traffic management system European Telecommunications Network Operators extended operations extended twin-engine operations equal time point (halfway there, by time) expected taxi ramp clearances enhanced terminal voice switch end of transmission electronic unit European Union enhanced upper air forecast system external uninterruptible power supply European ATN European research on transport systems European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (European equivalent of RTCA) earned value error vector magnitude enhanced vision system electronic warfare electrical wiring interconnection system enhanced zonal analysis procedures Fahrenheit first officer facilities and equipment final approach Federal Aviation Administration (U. S. FAA/Eurocontrol R&D committee FAA Technical Center functional airspace blocks family of advanced beyond-lineof-sight terminals flight augmentation computer full authority digital engine/electronic control final approach fix first article inspection full aircraft management/inertial system Future Air Navigation System (ICAO) federal acquisition regulation federal aviation regulation final approach spacing tool factory acceptance test Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below fly by light fly by night fixed-base operator fly by wire functional capability foot candles Fibre Channel-Audio Video functional configuration audit Federal Communications Commission (U. S. ) flight control computer flight critical direct current future concepts for maintenance FANS Central Monitoring Agency flight control panel flight control processor flight control system frame check sequence Future Combat Systems future concepts for simulators flight dynamics/director final data flight data acquisition function flight data acquisitions unit F F/O F&E FA FAA FAA/EURO FAATC FAB FAB-T FAC FADEC FAF FAI FAMIS FANS FAR FAR FAST FAT FBCB2 F

FMEA FMF FMGC FMGEC FMP FMS FMS FMSG FMST FMU FNPRM FOC FOC FOD FODA FOG FOQA FOS FOV FOWG FPA FDB FDDI FDE FDEP FDH FDI FDIMU FDIO FDM FDM FDMA FDPS FDR FDRS FDP FEATS FEC FEP FERNS flight plan data bank fiber distribution data interface fault detection and exclusion flight data entry panel flight deck handset fault detection and isolation flight data interface management unit flight data input/output flight data monitoring frequency division multiplex frequency division multiple access flight data processing system flight data recorder flight data recorder system flight data processor Future European Air Traffic Management System forward error correction front-end processor Far East Radio Navigation Service uel flow full flight simulator full flight trainer flight guidance computer flight guidance system functional hazard assessment flight inspection area office forwarding information base first in, first out fault isolation manual flight information region flight information services FIS-broadcast position in space usually on aircraft’s flight plan flight level foot lampert flight level change forward-looking infrared flight check flight and weather information and decision support forward-looking windshear radar frequency modulation flight mode annunciator Frequency Management Advisory Council flight management control/computer FPGA mezzanine card future concepts for maintenance flight management control and display unit (FMS) flight management computer function flight management computer system frequency-modulated continuous wave failure mode and effects analysis flight management function flight management guidance computer flight management guidance envelope computer flight mode panel flight management system full mission simulator Frequency Management Study Group (ICAO) flight management system trainer fuel metering unit further notice of proposed rulemaking full operational capability fuel/oil cooler foreign object debris flight operations data assurance fiber optic gyro flight operational quality assurance fiber optics subcommittee field of view fiber optics working group flight path angle 30 Avionics Magazine December 2008 www. avtoday. com/av ••• Aerospace Acronym Guide FPA FPAC FPC FPGA FPM FPV FQIS FQPU FQR FR FRA FRAD FRCS FRED FRM FRM FRM FRMR FRP FRPA FRQ FSAS FSDO FSE FSE FSEMC FSEU FSF FSM FSS FSWE FT FT/ADIRS FTE FTK FTP FTPP FTS FVHF FW FW FWC FWD FWS FY G/A G/G G/S GA GA GAAS GACS GAGAN geostationary augmentation network GAIN galley inserts GAIT ground-based augmentation and integrity technique GAMA General Aviation Manufacturers Association GAN global area network GAO Government Accountability Office (U. S. GATM global air traffic management GAViS general aviation vision system GBAS ground-based augmentation system GIG-BE GICB GIHO GINS GIOVE-A GIP GIS GIS GIVE GJU GL GL GLC GLNS GLONASS GLS GLS GLU GM GMC GMDS GMR GMR GMT GMTI GMU GNA GNE GNR GNSS GNSSP GoMATS GOPS GOS GOSIP GP GPADIRS GPCBT GP&C GPIB GPIRS GPP GPPU GPRS GPS GPSSU GPU GPWC GPWS GR GRAS GRIP focal plane array flight path acceleration flight profile comparator field programmable gate array feet per minute flight path vector fuel quality indicating system fuel quality processor unit formal qualification review frame relay flap retraction altitude frame relay access device flight recorder configuration standard flight recorder electronic documentation fault reporting manual flammability reduction means frame reject mode frame reject Federal Radionavigation Plan (U. S. fixed reception pattern antenna frequency flight service automation system Flight Standards District Office (FAA) FANS systems engineering field service engineer Flight Simulator Engineering and Maintenance Conference flap slat electronics unit Flight Safety Foundation flight schedule monitoring flight service station FANS software engineering functional test fault tolerant/air data inertial reference system flight technical error freight tonne kilometers file transfer protocol fault tolerant power panel Federal Telecommunications System future VHF system study (Eurocontrol) failure warning firewall router flight warning computer forward flight warning system fiscal year ground/air or ground-to-air ground/ground glide slope general aviation go-around gallium arsenide genetic ATN communications service Garmin GPS display GBST GBT Gbyte GCA GCAS GCB GCC GCP GCS GCU GDLP GDOP GDP GENOT GEO GEP GES GFE GFI GFLOPS GFSK GG GGR GGS GGTFM GH GHz GI GIB GIC GIC GIG G round based software tool ground-based transceiver gigabyte (billion bytes) ground-controlled approach ground collision avoidance system generator circuit breaker ground cluster controller (ACARS) glare-shield control panel ground clutter suppression generator control unit ground data link processor geometric dilution of precision ground delay program general notice geosynchronous/geostationary earth orbit ground entry point ground earth station government furnished equipment general format identifier gigaflops Gaussian frequency shift keying graphics generator G/G router GPS ground station ground-ground traffic flow management ground handling gigahertz group identifier GNSS integrity broadcast GNSS integrity channel GPS integrity channel Global Information Grid www. avtoday. com/av

GIG-Band Expansion ground-initiated comm-B ground initiated handoff GPS-inertial navigation systems Galileo In-Orbit Validation Experiment-A government-industry partnership geodetic information system graphical information system grid inospheric vertical error Galileo joint undertaking ground location (ACARS/AFEPS) group length geographic locator codes GPS landing and navigation system Global Navigation Satellite System (Russia) GNSS landing system GPS landing system GPS landing unit guidance material ground movement control ground mobile data service giant magnetoresistive Ground Mobile Radio Greenwich mean time ground moving target indicator GPS monitoring unit global network architecture gross navigational error global navigation receiver global navigation satellite system GNSS Panel (ICAO) Gulf of Mexico advanced traffic surveillance giga operations grade of service government open systems interconnection profile general purpose global positioning, air data, inertial reference system guidelines for the production of computer-based training (Eurocontrol) global positioning and communications general purpose instrument bus global positioning/inertial reference system general purpose processor general-purpose processing unit general packet radio services Global Positioning System GPS sensor unit ground power unit ground proximity warning computer ground proximity warning system ground router ground-based regional augmentation system gridded binary (National Weather Service model output) December 2008 Avionics Magazine 31 Aerospace Acronym Guide •••

GRP GS GSC GSE GSIF GSM GSMS GSP GTC GUI GVE GW GWDS GWS HF high frequency HF human factors HFACS human factors analysis and classification system HFDL high frequency data link HFDM high-frequency data modem HFDR high frequency data radio HFI human factors integration HFNPDU high frequency network protocol data unit HFS high frequency system HFSG human factor study group HFSNL high frequency subnetwork layer HFWG human factors working group HGA high gain antenna HGAS HGA system HGC head-up guidance computer HGS head-up guidance system HGS HFDL ground station HHLD heading hold HID host interface display HIL horizontal integrity limit HIRF high intensity radiated field HITS highway in the sky HLCS high lift control system HLE higher layer entity HLL high level language HMD helmet-mounted display HMI hazardously misleading information HMI human-machine interface HMOS high density metal oxide semiconductor HMS handheld manpack and small form fit HMSD Helmet Mounted Sight & Display HMU height monitoring unit HO handoff HOCSR host/oceanic computer system replacement HOTAS hands on throttle and stick HOW hand-over word HP high pressure HP holding pattern hPa hecto Pascal HPA high power amplifier HPC high pressure compressor HPR high power relay HPSOV high pressure shutoff valve HPT high pressure turbine HRD home routing domain HS-DSAD high speed frame relay service access device HSD high-speed data HSI horizontal situation indicator HSIT hardware and software integration test HSL heading select HSR high stability reference HSRP hot standby routing protocol HTC highest two-way channel HUD head-up display www. avtoday. com/av geographic reference point ground speed/station ground station controller (ACARS) ground support equipment ground station information frame global systems mobile ground station management system glare shield panel data link ground terminal computer graphical user interface graphics vector engine gateway graphic weather display system graphical weather services HUMS health and usage monitoring system HVPS high voltage power supply HWCI hardware configuration item HX heat exchanger HYD hydraulic HYDIM HYD interface module Hz Hertz (cycles per second) I

I/O IA I&TE IACSP IAC IAGS IANA IAOA IAOPA IAPA IAPS IARP IAS IAT IATA IBAC IC IC ICAO ICARD ICAP ICC ICCAIA ICD ICD ICD ICM ICMP ICNIA ICP ICS ICS ICSS ICU ICU ID IDC IDC IDD IDEN input/output interoperability assessment integration and test engineering international aeronautical communications service provider integrated avionics computer integrated ARINC ground station Internet assigned number authority indicated angle of attack International Council of Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association instrument approach procedures automation integrated avionics processing system inverse address resolution protocol indicated airspeed investment analysis team International Air Transport Association International Business Aviation Council integrated circuit intercabinet International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO five-letter name code & route designator system improved capability IAPS card cage International Coordinating Council of Aerospace Industries Association interactive design center interface control document/drawing installation control drawing interline communications manual Internet control message protocol integrated communications, navigation and identification avionics integrated core processor intercommunications system interface control specification integrated communication switching system instrument comparator unit integrated control unit identifier/identification indicator display/control internal diagnostic capabilities interface design document integrated digital enhanced network H

HAA HAD HADS HALE HARS HCI high-altitude airship hardware architecture document high-altitude platform station high-altitude, long-endurance high altitude route system human-computer interface Thales TopOwl HMD HCP HCS HDD HDG HDG SEL HDL HDLC HDLC-B HDLMS HDMI HDOP HDP HDTV HE HEA HERF heads-up control panel host computer system head-down display heading heading select hybrid data link high-level data link control HDLC-balanced hybrid data link management system high-definition multimedia interface horizontal dilution of precision hardware development plan high-definition television altitude error head equipment assembly high-energy radio frequency (or energy radiated fields: dense) 32 Avionics Magazine December 2008 ••• Aerospace Acronym Guide

IDG integrated drive generator IDI initial domain identifier IDIQ indefinite-delivery/indefinite quantity IDM Improved Data Modem iDMU integrated data management unit IDP initial domain part IDRP interdomain routing protocol IDS ice detection system IDS inter-domain system IDS integrated display system IDU interactive display unit IEC IAPS environmental control module IEC International Electrotechnical Commission IEC International Engineering Consortium IED insertion extraction device IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IF intermediate frequency IFALPA International Federation of Airline Pilots Association IFASS integrated system for surveillance and radio transmission IFATCA International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers’ Association IFC indicated final cost IFDL intraflight data link IFE in-flight entertainment IFF identification, friend or foe IFIS Integrated Flight Information System IFPS integrated initial flight plan processing system IFR instrument flight rules inHg inches of mercury INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization INMS integrated network management system INS inertial navigation system INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization InterNIC Internet Network Information Center Interop interoperability IOC initial operating capability ILA ILM ILS ILSP IMA IMC IMG IMU INFO INAV system International Law Association independent landing monitor instrument landing system integrated logistics support plan integrated modular avionics instrument meteorological conditions implementation manager group inertial measurement unit information frame interactive navigation … defining synchronized instrumentation All-In-One Toolset for MIL-STD-1553 Network Analysis Benefits: End-to-end testing of MIL-STD-1553 data networks using a single tool. Save time and money by locating problems faster and more precisely.

Easy to set up and use WindowsTM software. Perform comparative analysis against historical data. Monitor up to four 1553 bus channels simultaneously. TDR testing of twisted pair MIL-STD-1553 quickly detects opens, shorts and faulty shields. Quickly find cabling faults to within six inches. Bus Characterization and Integrity Toolset ITCN’s new BCIT toolset makes testing MIL-STD-1553 data bus networks faster, easier and more accurate. The BCIT troubleshoots bus networks and locates faults to within 6 inches on network cables up to 1,000 ft. long. It also aids in identifying faulty LRUs that do not participate in bus communications properly by monitoring bus health and performance.

The BCIT’s database driven Windows-based software allows users to configure and save their test data and bus topology for future analysis, and provides color-coded graphic displays for intuitive fault indications. Rockwell Collins IFIS Portable, rugged unit meets MIL-PRF-28800 Class 2, and is ideal for flightline and field use. Removable hard disk and memory write protection for classified environments. Contact? ITCN? to? get? your? free copy of? our NEW IFRB International Frequency Registration Board IGES initial graphic exchange specification IGES intermediate ground earth station IGIA Interagency Group on International Aviation IGV inlet guide vane IHAS integrated hazard avoidance Guide to Synchronized Instrumentation www. itcn-test. com/FREEGUIDE 1. 800. 439. 4039 www. avtoday. com/av December 2008 Avionics Magazine 33 Aerospace Acronym Guide •••

ION IOR IOS IOT&E IP IP IPACG IPC IPC IPD IPI IPT IPL IPR IPS IPT IPT IPT IR IRAC IR&D IRIG-B IRIS IRP IRR IRS IRS IRU IS ISA ISA ISC ISDN ISDOS ISDU ISH ISIS ISLN ISMS ISO ISO ISP ISP ISR ISR ISS ISSN ISSS ISU ITAR ITC ITD ITM ITS ITSE ITU ITWS IUPS IV IVSI JSTeF JTRS Science and Technology Forum JSAT joint system acceptance test JTAG Joint Test Action Group JTIDS joint tactical information distribution system JTRS joint tactical radio system JV joint venture JVMF joint variable message format kA kiloamperes KARI Korea Aerospace Research Institute KB kilobytes (thousand bytes) KBITS kilobits Kbps kilobits per second Kgls kinematic GPS landing system KHz kilohertz (1000 cycles per second) KPS KB per second KTS knots KVA kilovolt-ampere KW kilowatt L-band carrier (1575. 42 MHz) L-band carrier (1227. 6 MHz) local area augmentation system Latin American Civil Aviation Commission LADAR laser radar LADGPS local area differential GPS LAGPS local area global positioning system L1 L2 LAAS LACAC Institute of Navigation Indian Ocean region Internet operating system initial operational test and evaluation intellectual property Internet protocol Informal Pacific ATC Coordination Group intermediate pressure compressor interprocess communication industrial products division initial protocol dentifier integrated product team illustrated parts list Internet protocol router internet service providers integrated product team integrated project team intermediate pressure turbine infrared Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee investment research and development inter-range instrumentation group-time code format B Iris Recognition Immigration System integrated refuel panel internal rate of return inertial reference system interface requirements specification inertial reference unit intermediate system industry standard architecture Instrument Society of America integrated systems controller integrated services digital network information system design and optimization system inertial system display unit intermediate system hello integrated sensor is structure isolation in-flight safety monitoring system International Standards Organization PA ISO protocol architecture integrated switching panel internet service providers Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance interrupt service routine integrated surveillance system intermediate system sub-network initial sector suite system/subsystem initial signal unit International Traffic in Arms Regulations in-trail climb n-trail descent IT management integrated test system integrated test and support environment International Telecommunications Union integrated terminal weather system internal uninterruptible power supply isolation valve instantaneous vertical speed indicator K J-UCAS joint unmanned combat air systems J/S jammer-to-signal ratio JAA Joint Aviation Authority JCA Joint Cargo Aircraft JAR joint airworthiness requirement JAR-OPS Joint Aviation Regulations Operations JAR-AWO JAR-all weather operations JATO jet assisted takeoff JCAB Japanese Civil Aviation Bureau JCAT Joint Combat Assessment Team JFET junction field effect transistor JFEX Joint Expeditionary Force Experiment JFS Joint Strike Fighter JFX Joint Forces Exercise J L Flight Display Systems LCDs JHMCS joint helmet-mounted cueing systems JPALS Joint Precision Approach and Landing System JPDO Joint Planning Development Office (U. S. JPEO Joint Program Executive Office Joint Tactical Radio System JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory JPO Joint Planning Office JPS journal processing system JRANS Japanese regional air navigation system JRC Joint Resource Council LAHSO land and hold short operation LAIRCM large aircraft infrared countermeasures LAM levels of avionics maintenance LAN local area network LAPB link access protocol, balanced LASER light amplification by simulated emission of radiation LAT latitude LBA Luftfahrt-Bundesamt (Germany) LCA layered component architecture LCC leadless chip carrier LCC life cycle cost LCC low-cost carrier LCD liquid crystal display 34 Avionics Magazine December 2008 www. avtoday. com/av ••• Aerospace Acronym Guide

LCF LCI LCN LCP LCR LDA LDA LDCC LDCS LDGPS LDOC LDRCL LDU LE LED LEO LF LFE LFR LGA LHP LIDAR LIMNATRAN LINCS LISN LLC LLWAS LME LMI LMM LMT LNA LNAV LOB LOC LOM LON LOPA LORAN LOS LPB LPC LPDU LPT LPV LRC LRM LRR LRU LSAS LSB LSB LSD LS-DSAD MBE MBER MBPS MC MCA MCAP MCB MCC MCDP MCDU MCI MCN MCOS MCP MCP MCT MCU MCU MDA link control field logical channel identifier local communications network lighting control panel link connection refusal landing directional aid laterally displaced approach leaded chip carrier local departure control system local area differential global positioning satellite long distance operational control low density radio-communications link lamp driver unit link establish light-emitting diode low earth orbiting low frequency lead-free electronics LF radio range low gain antenna lighting HIRF rotection light detection and ranging limited North Atlantic regional air navigation long-haul/leased interfacility national airspace communications system line impedance stabilization network logical link control low-level wind shear alert system link management entity logical management interface locator middle marker local mean time low-noise amplifier lateral navigation left outboard localizer/location locator outer marker longitude layout of passenger accommodations long-range air navigation line of sight loss prevention bulletin low pressure compressor link protocol data unit low pressure turbine localizer performance with vertical guidance long-range cruise line replaceable module long-range radar line replaceable unit longitudinal stability augmentation system least significant bit lower sideband least significant digit low speed frame relay service access device LS-FRAD low speed frame relay access device LSI large scale integration LSK line select key LSN local subnetwork LSP link state PDU LSS lightening sensor syst

Free Essays

Computer Programing Engineering

Why did I choose Computer Programing Engineering major? In today’s world there exist all sorts of challenges to excite the keenest minds around its surroundings. To meet these challenges one would have to invent new techniques, new instruments and new approaches, which could easily open windows into the unknown area of nature and lead us to work at frontiers of science and contribute to world stock of knowledge. To compete with these scientific advances, engineering and scientific study are the key elements for a new innovation and research programs.

My long term goal was to be a Computer engineer. The guy from a village that no one has heard of and who had to cross various paths and finally made it here and that person is me. This has been my childhood ambition to study for Computer engineer program. As I heard from my high school teachers, XYZ has the finest and excellent Computer engineering program in the country. My dream has certainly come alive; I am still studying and working hard to achieve my childhood dream. XYZ is an exemplary and a top standard university in State. I feel proud to be a student in this university.

Before my day at this university, I came to see a significant amount about this field. I spoke with few modern Computer engineers, and asked them questions about their career. After spending time with those engineers, I came to realize that computer engineer are needed for various jobs all around the globe, and the work is tedious but in the end the computer engineers get paid hefty for their works. Most of the time computer engineers deal with designing and manufacturing memory systems, peripheral devices, and central processing units.

Computers are part of our daily life. We use them from microwave machines to smart phones and including cars. This creates an enormous eccentric for production and manufacturing of new products all around the world. One of the best examples comes from the Apple Company, each time when a person uses his or her iPhone or iPad they see a little note at the bottom that says “the product was designed in California and manufactured in China”. This also brings the needs of every computer engineer for various jobs.

A computer engineer could work with CAD for an auto company or establish a data room for the government buildings or simply create a website for someone’s needs. I choose Computer engineering as my major for many reasons. First, I am extremely innovative in subjects working with programing and fixing microprocessors, and I also adore in them. Second is due to the benefits of income and the prolonged need of computer engineers everywhere around the world today. After my graduation from here, I am hoping to have a job that will financially take care of me and also excite me every day about my work.

I have also planned my goals for upcoming semesters in XYZ Computer program. I am looking forward towards all my classes and its activities and new subjects to study. In order to see my future in a better place, I have set my goals towards hard working in my life in here at XYZ, and hoping that after four more years I’ll finally have my goal achieved. Until then, I will keep my mind and body focused to the task at hand, so I have nothing to focus other than my studies.

Free Essays

Genetic Engineering Tutorial

Chapter 14 Genetic Engineering Choose the best answer for each question. 1. Using this key, put the phrases in the correct order to form a plasmid carrying the recombinant DNA. Key: 1) use restriction enzymes 2) Use DNA ligase 3) Remove plasmid from parent bacterium 4) Introduce plasmid into new host bacterium. A. 1, 2, 3, 4C. 3, 1, 2, 4 B. 4, 3, 2,1 D. 2, 3, 1, 4 2. Which is not a clone? A. a colony of identical bacterial cells B. identical quintuplets C. a forest of identical trees D. eggs produced by oogenesis E. copies of a gene through PCR 3.

Restriction enzymes found in bacterial cells are ordinarily used A. during DNA replication B. to degrade the bacterial cell’s DNA C. to degrade viral DNA that enters the cell D. to attach pieces of DNA together 4. Recombinant DNA technology is used A. for gene therapy B. to clone a gene C. to make a particular protein D. to clone a specific piece of DNA E. All of these are correct 5. In order for bacterial cells to express human genes, A. the recombinant DNA must not contain introns. B. reverse transcriptase is sometimes used to make complementary DNA from an mRNA molecule.

C. bacterial regulatory genes must be included. D. All of these are correct. 6. The polymerase chain reaction A. utilizes RNA polymerase B. takes place in huge bioreactors C. utilizes temperature insensitive enzyme D. makes lots of nonidentical copies of DNA E. All of these are correct 7. DNA fingerprinting can be used for which of these? A. identifying human remains B. identifying infectious diseases C. finding evolutionary links between organisms D. solving crimes E. All of these are correct 8. DNA amplified by PCR and then used for fingerprinting could come from A. ny diploid or haploid cell B. only white blood cells that have been karyotyped C. only skin cells after they are dead D. only purified animal cells E. both B and D are correct 9. Which of these pairs is incorrectly matched? A. DNA ligase – DNA fingerprint B. Restriction enzymes – Cloning C. DNA fragments – DNA fingerprinting D. DNA polymerase – PCR 10. Which of these is an incorrect statement? A. bacteria secrete the biotechnology product into the medium B. plants are being engineered to have human proteins in their seeds. C. nimals are engineered to have a human protein in their milk. D. animals can be cloned, but plants and bacteria cannot. 11. Which of these is not needed in order to clone an animal? A. sperm from a donor animal B. nucleus from an adult animal cell C. enucleated egg from a donor animal D. host female to develop the embryo E. All of these are needed 12. Because the human genome Project, we know or will know the A. sequence of the base pairs of our DNA B. sequence of genes along the human chromosomes C. mutations that lead to genetic disorders D.

All of these are correct 13. The restriction enzyme called EcoRI has cut double stranded DNA in the following manner. The piece of foreign DNA to be inserted has what bases from the left and from the right? 14. Which of these is a true statement? A. Plasmids can serve as vectors B. Plasmids are linear DNA found in viruses C. Plasmids can replicate in the host cell D. Both A and C are correct 15. Which of these is a benefit of having insulin produced by biotechnology? A. It is just as effective B. It can be mass produced C. It is less expensive D. All of the above

Free Essays

The Influence of Roman Engineering and Architecture

The ingeniousness and beauty of Roman architecture has not been lost on us in the 2000 years since it was built. Even today, we still marvel at what incredible builders the Romans were, and at the sheer scale and integrity of many of their projects. It is hard to argue that today’s architecture will maintain the same lasting grandeur as that which the Romans built. If we can still respect and admire the grandeur of Rome as it was in it’s day, one can only imagine how much of an influence people of the time felt, due to the incredible innovations that the Romans brought to the new regions of their empire.

In fact, it is because of the superior engineering skills and architectural ideas possessed by the Romans, and respected by others, that allowed them to conquer, influence and rule such a vast area of the world, for such an extended period of time. Citizens of regions conquered by Rome were the beneficiaries of Roman innovations such as a (public) fresh water supply, bridges over previously impassable rivers, roads linking all parts of the empire (especially to the capital) and incredible public buildings like the forums and baths.

They were more easily persuaded into acceptance once the Romans arrived when they saw or heard of these innovations which they realized could have such a huge and beneficial impact on their lifestyles. The first thing the Romans did upon entering a new region, after winning the war that gained them their new territory, was construct roads and bridges. This was the best way to “Romanize” the new areas, as it permitted easier communication between the colony and the mother country.

The roads all led to the capital, which solidified its position as the centre of power, and also allowed the rulers easier and faster access to the colonies when necessary. It has been said that at the peak of Rome’s power, one could travel from the English Channel all the way to Rome without ever fording a stream, simply because the Romans had built so many bridges to link its colonies. As the Romans were the first to master bridge building on such a large scale, they had a huge influence on the people in even the most remote regions. Places that had been impassible could suddenly be crossed by bridge.

The bridges were a commanding presence on the landscape as well, easily conveying the sense of who was in power and influencing the people of the region. The Puente Alcantara in Spain can perhaps best show the expansive influence that the Romans held through their bridges, (Images 1 and 2). Built in AD100 and still standing today, Puente Alcantara reaches 164 feet at its highest point, is 600 feet long and has spans of 92 to 98 feet wide. Such an example of architecture so far from the centre of power is a lasting monument to the influential power once held by the Romans.

People were drawn into conformity when they saw the superior skills of the Romans, who also perfected pile driving for the construction of bridges and built each bridge arch as self-supporting to avoid damage to the entire structure if only one portion was damaged. The Roman use of the arch itself, which had never been used to such a great extent before, is itself the main reason they were able to build the huge and influential structures that they were. The use of the arch was of course not limited to bridges; it was common in all Roman architecture of the time.

The next major use for it in the new colonies, however, was in the construction of a water supply system—the system of Roman aqueducts. Rome already had an extensive system of aqueducts to supply the city with fresh water, and the Romans used the same system in other regions to civilize the “barbarian” tribes they had just subdued. Such a system was unheard of in other civilizations. The Romans were a very sanitary and hygienic people to whom fresh water was very important. The new colonies had never been concerned about such sanitation.

The Romans, however, were able to bring fresh water to the towns from long distances away by carrying it through tunnels and over valleys with their towering aqueducts. This water was then used for the public baths and toilets, besides the expected drinking water. The fact that this water was for the public, and not reserved for private use, pleased people in the new colonies even more, and made them even more accepting of Roman control. The actual aqueducts themselves, built by the Romans to carry the water, were perhaps even more influential.

Aqueducts like Pont du Gard at Nimes (Images 3 and 4), or Segovia in Spain (Image 5), the latter of which still carries water today, were monumental landmarks in the colonies where they were built and still are today. That the Romans would build such magnificent and monumental structures for the sole purpose of supplying water to its colonies was likely overwhelming to those benefiting from it. So the Romans supplied the towns with water, and made travel between towns easier. But what about improving life within the town itself?

It is in the public buildings such as the bath, the forum and the amphitheater, which people used and experienced daily, where Rome was able to exert its greatest influence. The fact that these buildings were open to all and not reserved for an elitist group of society only increased their significance. It is arguable that the grandness of the baths has yet to be surpassed in any public building since. These were huge, lavishly ornamented structures where citizens would go not only to bathe, but also for sports, club-life and exhibitions of art.

The baths acted as a community centre, uniting citizens in the towns in which they were located. There was also the Roman invention of the forum, today’s equivalent of which would be city hall, the law courts, a marketplace and a church all combined in a single structure. It was a novel idea that one could go to a single building at the centre of town and find everything they needed. People were also allowed open discussion here and were able to publicly voice their opinions and socialize with fellow citizens.

However, the forum’s accessibility and openness should not hide the fact that it was used by the Romans as a control centre, where legislative duties for the town were carried out, giving Rome further influence over the citizens. The amphitheaters cannot be forgotten, as they were used by the Romans to please and placate people through the presentation of spectacles. Their architectural grandeur was also influential, however, as they were usually four stories tall, could be covered by a canopy, and were the size of two theatres put together.

The Romans didn’t build the public buildings just for their own good, they were used to show “who’s boss” and keep people appeased. These buildings were superior to anything else that had been or was being built, which helped Rome keep the territory it had conquered. It is still difficult to comprehend that the Romans were able to create an empire as vast and as powerful as they did. Lasting several centuries and covering Europe, Asia Minor and Northern Africa and even overtaking their historical enemies the Greeks, their empire was of a magnitude that has been unsurpassed but often dreamed. When we look back at how they chieved such widespread influence there is no doubt that the principal factor in their achievements was due to their superior skills in architecture and engineering of the day. They brought fresh clean water to the towns and cities they conquered using the aqueducts which are still inspiring and influential monuments today. We can only imagine the significance they held 2000 years ago. As Frontius said of the aqueducts, they are “…a signal testimony to the greatness of the Roman Empire. ” The water brought by the aqueducts was then distributed to the public and used in even more magnificent structures like the baths.

How could people not be influenced by such great inventions as these and the forum and the amphitheater, which were used by the Romans not only to please the people but also to help maintain power? The Romans built bridges and roads to link their new colonies and built them so they were a lasting and powerful presence. These bridges were not just a show of power in their grandeur, but were also used by the Romans as quick access to the colonies they needed to keep under control. People of the world were not nearly as advanced in terms of the engineering ability of the Romans, and were persuaded to accept Roman rule.

They respected and admired the Roman’s superior abilities and innovations and were therefore easier to conquer and less likely to revolt, allowing the Romans to expand their empire and maintain their influence for such a long time. The Romans no doubt improved their quality of life upon conquering them, and it is hard not to accept a new ruling class if such improvements are occurring. The greatness of the Roman Empire as it was is a direct result of the fact that they were such superior engineers and architects.

Free Essays

Engineering the Impossible

Cities Inside a City Engineering the Impossible focused on three incredible, yet physically possible, engineering projects: the 170-story Millennium Tower, the nine mile (14 km)-long Gibraltar Bridge, and the 4000+-foot-long Freedom Ship. Millenium Tower Imagine a skyscraper almost twice the size of the Empire State Building. This colossus would be a city within a city, hosting its own hospitals, schools, and a range of entertainment and retail options large enough to attract and keep the traffic necessary for the financial success of such an endeavor. Stats:

Height: 2,755 feet, 170 stories Resident Population: 52,000 Elevator Traffic: 100,000 people per day Location: Hong Kong Harbor Closest Living Relative: Petronas Towers, Kuala Lampur (1,483 feet, 88 stories) Construction Duration: Approximately 10 years Cost: $10 billion Beyond the physical challenges of building the tallest skyscraper in the world, it will only be successful if it attracts residents, tourists and offices. The Millennium Tower needs to offer many choices to make it a destination of choice. Residents can go to not just one grocery store, but many.

Office workers can browse a few clothing stores on their level or the same amount 30 floors up. Tourists can find the movie they want in at least one of the many theaters available. Designers say Millennium Tower will house as many options as you’d find in several city blocks. Construction of the Millennium Tower will include traditional building techniques, that, in this case, will put ironworkers thousands of feet in the air to place 5-ton girders with a minimum of safety gear. But engineers are planning to also use a new technology — building by computer.

The Self-Rising Factory is a set of computerized cranes and lifts surrounded by a weatherproof enclosure. According to a precise schedule, the steel beams are essentially handed to the machinery which then places them for workers to bolt together. Once the beams and concrete panels for each floor are complete, the machinery hoists the entire structure and the process starts over. Gibraltar Bridge A bridge spanning 9 miles over the Straits of Gibraltar at the entryway to the Mediterranean would be the longest and tallest ever built.

It would connect cultures of Christianity and Islam and potentially increase ties between the economies of Europe and Africa. Stats: Location: Strait of Gibraltar. Links Spain and Morocco. Length: 9 miles, Two spans of 4 1/2 miles each Height: Each tower is 3,000 feet tall (twice as high as the world’s tallest skyscraper) Width: 5 traffic lanes, 2 breakdown lanes in each direction Road Deck Material: Fiberglass Length of Wire Cables: 1,000,000 miles (Enough to circle the Earth almost 30 times) Closest living relative: Akashi bridge in Japan, world’s longest suspension bridge at 12,828 feet.

Cost: $15 billion Dangers: Wind speeds of 80 mph at tops of towers, ship collision, ocean currents, traffic, Sahara Desert dust storms Building a bridge the size and configuration of Gibraltar Bridge is usually protected by artificial islands so that ships run aground before they can do any damage to the structure. But building an artificial island in the ocean isn’t an option. Instead designers envision a ring of underwater bumpers to withstand ship collisions. This could be impossible to span a 9-mile bridge but actually, they can.

When determining the exact size of the bridge, designers had to choose between a shallow area that spanned 20 miles, which would have meant many piers in a busy shipping zone, and a narrow portion that’s 2,700 feet deep. But designers lucked out. After closer inspection of the narrow portion revealed an underwater “mountain” in the center that could hold the center piers, dividing the bridge into to spans of 4 1/2 miles each. 5 lanes of traffic in either direction will flow over a roadbed made of spun glass.

Fiberglass materials of this sort are rated 5 times stronger than concrete, and any cracks or other damage could be isolated due to its web-like internal structure. Engineers say fiberglass bridge materials can last up to 100 years. They’re also easier to install. A concrete roadway on the Gibraltar Bridge would take 3 months to pour as opposed to a few days or weeks with fiberglass. Freedom Ship Freedom Ship’s designers originally planned to create an island community to provide Hong Kong-based businesses a place to relocate if the handover of that city to China were to make life difficult for them.

When they applied the same model to a moving sea platform, they ended up with what would be the largest ocean-going vessel ever constructed — the minimum requirement for a city at sea. Stats: Length: Approximately 1 mile Width: 3 city blocks (4,320 feet) Height: 25 stories Weight: 3 million tons Volume: Titanic, Queen Mary, USS Nimitz and super-tanker Jahre Viking would all fit comfortably inside. Population: 50,000 residents, 15,000 workers, 20,000 visitors/day Construction: Hull composed of 600 120’x100′ steel cells bolted together.

Location: Circles globe every two years Closest Living Relative: Japan’s Megafloat Airport, Tokyo Bay (1km long, 70 meters wide, 20 meters depth) (Series of interlocking pressurized steel boxes) Power: 100 electric podded propulsers at 3500 horsepower each. Cost: $9 billion Freedom Ship’s designers say it will be able to handle tidal waves and large-scale hurricanes by steering out of their way to avoid them altogether. If a confrontation is unavoidable, they’ll turn all of the ship’s 100 propellers, pointing towards the center of the ship for stability.

The ship’s hull is composed of 600 huge air-tight steel boxes. A significant number of these would have to be punctured before residents noticed anything amiss. Freedom Ship’s designers call it a floating sea platform. In simliar design, Japan’s MegaFloat airport id built out of steel boxes bolted together to form a surface on the water. Whereas the airport is moored to keep it from drifting, Freedom Ship would be mobile. A structure this size couldn’t be built in a traditional manner at a shipbuilding facility and subsequently be lauched into the sea.

The construction on this project would instead take place in the water, with large pieces floated out to be attached on the site. Freedom Ship’s designers aim to create a new lifestyle. Residents will have a homelife while constantly traveling. The ship would be like a “Disneyland” offshore, entertaining tourists with the amenities of a resort while residents enjoy daytrips in each port. If successfully built The Freedom Ship will be the largest ocean going vessel in history, it will become a luxury city afloat travelling the world.