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An analysis of who makes a better teacher: native or non-native speakers in English Language Teaching context.

Introduction

In the recent years, the increase in the number of non-native English speakers (NNS) in the world has led to the appearance of so many different varieties of English and has influenced some important issues related to English language teaching (ELT). The terms Native and Non-native have been used to refer to speakers of a language. Since about only one out of four users of English in the world is a native speaker (NS) of the language (Crystal, 2003), most interactions take place among non-native speakers (NNS) of English. According to Kachru’s three circles: inner (native English speaking countries), outer (counties where English is not the primary language but is widely spoken) and expanding (countries where learning of English is encouraged), the majority of English speakers are located in the outer or expanding circles, using English as lingua franca (EFL) (Quirk and Widdowson, 1985, p.11).

One of the main subjects running through discussions of ELF is the insignificance of native speakers, their ownership of English and their Englishes, confirmed by the fact that English is the language for international communication and is nowadays used by more non-native than native speakers. This leads to theoretical assertions such as ‘World English (WE) belongs to everyone who speaks it, but is nobody’s mother tongue’ (Rajagopalan, 2004, p.3) and how English develops in the world is of no relevance to native English speaking countries (Widdowson, 1994, p.385). Also a pedagogical claim, is that as long as English is learned as an international language, it should not be thought as an inner circle language and should not come from an inner circle country (Matsuda, 2003). What’s more, it is well-known that not all native speakeing teachers of English have the necessary qualifications to do so. However, it is often taken for granted that the only rightful speakers of a language are its native speakers (Cook, 1999). On the other hand, sometimes qualified non-native English speaking teachers are not considered good by administrators in order to get teaching jobs. In many cases they do not realise how much they can learn from non-native speaking teachers and they believe that the native speaker is the best.

In this paper, I will explore the topic of native speakers and the ownership of language. I will also discuss strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native language teachers and how they benefit them in ELT contexts. Also I will draw attention to which type of English we should teach and which language teacher is better: a native or non native English speaker.

Which type of model should we teach?

The general assumption of the purpose of teaching English is to develop student’s proficiency as closely as possible to that of native speakers. It is widely believed that Standard English can ensure the high quality of clear communication and standard of intelligibility. Therefore, both American English and British English are considered as the right choice for EFL/ESL learners in formal education. However, according to the up-going trend of world Englishes, EFL/ESL learners should be encouraged to learn different varieties of English to meet different needs, rather than only the Standard or standard variety of English.

Standard English is usually defined as a variety of English which is used in speaking and writing by ‘educated’ language users, and is concerned with lexis and grammar, but not pronunciation (Trudgill and Hannah, 1994).

Standard English is not a language, but only one minority of given English. Firstly, British English was regarded as Standard English because of the expansion of British colony power. Also, American English is commonly considered as Standard English due to the fact that U.S. grows to be a leading economic and military power. So, the next question is which variety of English will be the next Standard English in the futureIt is hard to predict the answer which country will dominate word economic and military power in the futureConsequently, from a historical perspective there is no fixed Standard English. Trudgil (1999, p.125) presumes, Standard English is the only dialect with great prestige that differs from other dialects of English and the difference in those varieties do not point out the linguistic superiority of the standard form.

Issues relying upon native speaker norms

Kachru suggests that if we classify Standard English dialects according to how closely they look like an original native speaker model, then we might also believe American English to be a fossilised interlanguage of its historically large immigrant population (Jenkins, 2002).

Jenkins (2002) tried to find a reasonable target for speakers of different first languages to be able to comprehend one another. Regardless of luck of available research on the subject, it is safe to say that specific characteristics of NSs pronunciation are likely to cause problems for NNs in both reception and production: one of this is the tendency of many native speakers to reduce unstressed vowels (Jenkins, 2002).

Another issue has been highlighted by Cook (1999) that to be a ‘native speaker’ of a language, you must have acquired that language from birth. She argues that, non-native English speakers can never assume the identity of a ‘native speaker’ no matter how hard they try… it is like expecting ducks to become swans (Cook, 1999, p.187-190). The study by Golobek and Jordan (2005) pointed out that some students see the native speaker ideal as unachievable: they feel that their English is never sufficient and that there are always new vocabularies and slang, thus they feel incompetent to speak English fluently (Golobek and Jordan, 2005, p.519-520).

Advantages of native and non-native English speakers in the EFL/ESL classroom

First indications regarding the differences between native and non-native speaking EFL/ ESL teachers appeared in the 80’s. For example Edge (1988) advocated the importance of giving ‘real’ models (native speakers of the EFL/ESL students’ languages) to the students. As supported by McKey (2003) these ‘real’ models speak the language of the students natively and have learned to speak English well, as opposed to ‘foreign’ models (NSs) who do not share the social, cultural and emotional experience of the students.

The first person to write an article comparing native and non-native English speaking teachers was Medgyes (1992, p.348). In the article he stated that the ideal NS teacher is the one who has attained a high degree of proficiency in the learners’ mother tongue and the ideal NNS teacher is the one who has atteined near-native proficiency in English.

Another ongoing debate is who makes a better teacher, native or non-native speakersAccording to Canagarajah NSs will be better teachers in EFL context because of their unique culture knowledge, while NNSs will be better teachers in ESL context because of their multicultural experience (Braine, 1999, p.77). This claim is not supported by Teachers of English to Speakers of other Languages (TESOL) teachers, who seem to believe that NNS teachers would be better teachers in their own countries (Llurda, 2005). In contrast to this Medgyes (1994) has described the following positive features about NNS teachers, that they:

can provide more information about the language to their students
are a good learner model to their students
can teach language strategies effectively
understand the difficulties and
can use the students native language to their advantage in EFL settings

And then he explains that if the insufficient language of the NNS teachers is corrective they have equal chance to achieve professional success as the native English-speaking teachers.

Several studies were conducted that investigated the pedagogical and linguistic differences between non-native and native English-speaking teachers. For example McNeil (2005) noticed that trainee Chinese non-native teachers were very skilled at predicting which word would be difficult and easy to understand for Cantonese-speaking EFL students, while both expert and trainee native –speaking teachers were incapable of making accurate predictions. Another example is when it comes to finding and correcting errors NNSs were often less tolerant of errors than NSs when marking college-level ESL assignments (Sheorey, 1986). According to Barratt and Kontra (2000) regarding to language awareness, NSs are often unable to empathize with students going through the learning process. Additionally, NS teachers can also easily discourage their students since they are hardly even able to make useful contrasts and comparisons with the learners’ first language. Arva and Medgyes (2000) supported the above statement in their study which showed a unique advantage NNS English teachers have over NS teachers is that they can empathise very well with their students’ learning difficulties and understand what it is to be homesick and experience culture shock (in ESL context).

Lastly, NNS teachers can be very much admired by their students because they are successful role models and often very motivated (Lee, 2000, cited in Llurda, 2005, p.107). As Cook (Llurda, 2005, p.57) clarifies, NNS teachers provide examples of people who have become successful second language (L2) users and provide models of proficient (L2) users in action in the classroom. This example shows that NNS teachers demonstrate to their students what is possible with a second language, their appreciation for that language and its culture. To conclude, instead of looking at NSs and NNSs as a two separate groups (one being better or more qualified to be a teacher than the other), we should emphasise cooperation and help between NS and NNS teachers, since both groups have specific advantages and weaknesses ( Matsuda and Matsuda, 2001).

Some classroom implications

Classroom implications comprise what needs to be done to give all the necessary tools to NNSs and NSs teachers so that they are able to meet the expectations of EFL and ESL students. The presented issues discussed above show a distinct need for TESOL preparation programs by offering additional courses for future NNS and NS teachers (Golombek and Jordan, 2005). Such classes could help ensure future teachers to get ready pedagogically for their teaching assignment. Additionally, this could help NSs of English become aware of their strengths and weaknesses and learn to collaborate with NNSs to offer the best teaching to students. This preparation and collaboration of both groups (NSs and NNSs) is important when NSs will be teaching in countries where English is not the main language and where NNSs may be at a distinct advantage (Medgyes, 1994; Govowdhan et al. 1999). Furthermore, recognising and working with the multiple identities of non-native and native EFL/ESL trainee teachers would help establish their legitimacy as teachers (Golombek and Jordan, 2005). Another aspect is that youth plays an important role in today’s globalisation and the spread of English (Berns de Bot and Hasebrink, 2007), because English is strongly influencing the lives of children and young adults to where the politics, economy, educational changes, culture and societies are shaped by their knowledge (or lack of knowledge) of English. It is uncertain that this knowledge of English will be restricted to one single variety of the language, because new varieties of Englishes are evolving throughout the world (Kachru, 1985; Jenkins 2000; Berns at al. 2007) with accents, words and expressions.

Conclusion

Taking into consideration in the use of English today, it appears vital not to teach ESL/EFL students one single model or accent, but essential to present them with a large range of English varieties represented by teachers from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds (Jenkins, 2000). What’s more EFL/ESL students can make a choice and decide for themselves what is most relevant to their context and experience (Bentahaila and Davies, 1989). Research has proved that both native and non-native speakers of English have their own strengths and weaknesses. The main difference between both groups is that “NSs have the more extensive experience as language users whereas the NNSs have had experience as language learners” (Widdowson, 1992, p.338). As a growing number of people around the world want to learn English the number of NN English teachers is accordingly increasing and better attention has been given to what they bring to the language classroom (Moussu and Llurda, 2008, p.341). Regardless of the existing belief that, native speakers of a language make better teachers, the amount of research questioning this and providing evidence on how important it is to recognise the strengths in native and non-native teachers has been valuable and has sown that both can be equally good professionals, in spite their native and non-native status. As stated by Matsuda (2001) ‘language background is only one of many factors that define who we are as a professional’ and without a doubt, it is unreasonable to judge professionals in regards to their native language alone.

References

Arva, V. And Medgyes, P. (2000) ‘Native and non –native teachers in the classroom’, System, 28(3), pp.355-372.

Barratt, L. and Kontra, E. (2000) ‘Native English speaking teachers in cultures other than their own’, TESOL Journal, 9(3), pp.19-23.

Bentahaila, A. and Davies, E. (1989) ‘Culture and language use: A problem for foreign language teaching’, International Review of Applied Linguistics, 17(2), pp.99-112.

Berns, M. de Bot and Hasebrink, U. (2007) In the Presence of English: Media and European Youth. New York: Springer.

Braine, G. (1999) Non-Native Educators in English Language Teaching. New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cook, V. (1999) ’Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching’, TESOL Quarterly, 33(2), pp.185-208.

Crystal, D. (2003) English as a Global Language. 2 nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Edge, J. (1988) ‘Natives, speakers, and models’, Japan Association of Language Teachers Journal, 9(2), pp.153-157.

Golobek, P. And Jordan, S. (2005) Becoming ‘black lambs’ ant ‘parrots’: A poststructuralist orientation to intelligibility and identity. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), pp.513-533.

Govowdhan, A.K, Nayar, P.B. and Sheorey, R. (1999) ‘Do U.S. MATESOL programs prepare students to teach abroad?’ TESOL Quarterly, 33(1), pp.114-125.

Jenkins, J. (2000) The phonology of English as an International Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, J. (2002) ‘A sociolinguistically Based, Empirically Researched Pronunciation Syllabus for English as an International Language’, Applied Linguistics, 23(1), pp.83-103.

Lee, I. (2000) ‘Can a nonnative English Speaker be a good English teacher?’, TESOL Matters, 10(1), pp.19.

Llurda, E. (2005) Non-native language teachers: Perceptions, challenges and contributions to the profession. New York: NY Springer.

Matsuda, A. (2003) ‘Incorporating world Englishes in teaching English as an International Language’, TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), pp. 719-729.

Matsuda, P. K. (2001) ‘My credo as an NNES professionals’, NNEST Newsletter, 3(1)4 jslw.org [Online]. Available at http://matsuda.jslw.org (Accessed: 13 May 2011)

Matsuda, A. and Matsuda, P. K. (2001) ‘Autonomy of collaboration in teacher education: Journal sharing among native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’, CATESOL Journal, 13(1), pp.109-121.

McKey, S. L. (2003) ‘Towards an appropriate EIL pedagogy: Re-examining common ELT assimptions’, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13(1), pp.1-22.

Medgyes, P. (1992) ‘Native or non-native: Who’s worth more?’, ELT Journal, 46(4), pp.340-349.

Medgyes, P. (1994) The non-native teacher. London: Macmillan Publishers.

Moussu, L. and Llurda, E. (2008) ‘Non-native English-speaking English language teachers: History and research’, Language Teaching, 41(3), pp.315-348.

Rajagopalan, K. (2004) ‘The Concept of the “World English” and its implications for ELT’, ELT Journal, 58(2), pp.111-117.

Quirk, R. and Widdowson, H. G. (1985) English in the World: Teaching and Learning the Language and Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sheorey, R. (1986) ‘Error perceptions of native-speaking and non-native-speaking teachers of ESL’, ELT Journal, 40(4), pp.306-312.

Trudgill, P. (1999) Standard English: What it isn’t. London: Routledge.

Trudgill, P. and Hannah, J. (1994) International English. A Guide to Varieties of Standard English. London: Edward Arnold.

Widdowson, H. G. (1992) ‘ELT and EL Teachers: matters arising’, ELT Journal, 46(4), pp.333-339.

Widdowson, H. G. (1994) ‘The Ownership of English’, TESOL Quarterly, 28(2), pp.377-389.

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English Language Essay on Spoken Text

Text B is an interview on television show conducted by two presenters with the purpose being to conceive as much information as they can from J. K. Rowling, a famous author on her newest Harry Potter book. The audience here would predominantly be avid young readers of the book who want to know about the book and regular followers of the show. The dominant speaker in this text B would be the interviewers and the chat show is based on adjacency pairs.

Using a false-start and contradiction in “no, I don’t – yes I do” illustrate aspects of spoken language although there are clear elements where the audience might know the interviewers had a basic idea of what was to be asked before-hand. The lack of non-fluency features more clearly suggest the questions were previously prepared, for example, when Richard says “All the papers that have been promoting this interview today clearly want us…” This tells us research was undertaken on what sort of questions the audience or readers wanted answered.

The change of tone at the end of a sentence suggests spontaneity and cues the other speaker’s turn to speak. For example, “But of course the last one at the moment is residing in your safe”, portrays the change in tone at the end. Judy, the interviewer used more interrogatives like “two much loved ones? ” while Richard uses ellipsis to try and create spontaneity and confidence, “you told your husband, obviously you confide in him all things…” allowing turn-taking.

The interviewee also seems a little uninterested through her short answers such as “He did one of the, yeah”; to perhaps show she isn’t in the mood or the fact she’s trying to be careful so as to not reveal any information thus considering her words. Text C is a play script from American Buffalo by David Mamet, with the purpose primarily being to entertain. The audience here would be predominantly educated theatre going audience.

The play script is structurally organized through the use of adjacency pairs, with interrogatives being a main aspect. Don is portrayed as the dominant speaker as he controls the conversation and asserts his position through speech. Don’s speech is also longer and more authorative to further portray his higher status than Bob. The use of turn-taking and the informal setting gives way to colloquialism such as “well she was real mad at him”, “jewed” and “yup”.

Don also uses “Bobby” to show familiarity with the other character as well as it being a little patronizing to represent their distinctive positions and relationship. Don also instigates topic shifts structurally as he tries to teach Bob about business, “Things are not always what they seem to be”, shows how a cliche to perhaps portray Don’s maturity and wisdom in comparison to the youth and naivety of Bob.

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Gender Discrimination on English Language

ABSTRACT Language plays an important role in society. As a phenomenon of society, language reflects all the sides of human society naturally. Sexism is a phenomenon that takes a male-as-norm attitude, trivializing, insulting or rendering women invisible. As a mirror reflecting the society, language images the social views and values. The causes of sexism in this thesis are not the language itself but due to the inequality between male and female in such areas as traditional culture, religious consciousness social status as well as social status.

Language, which has a close relation with the society, could reflect the certain social custom and characteristic of a nation. In addition, social development and changes in turn will affect language and can input fresh blood to it. English, as one of the oldest languages, which has an extensive influence in the current world, has also experienced numerous impacts from the reforms and changes. These changes and trends constantly updated the use of language as well.

In the 1960s ,great changes have been made in modern English since the rise of the American feminist movement,namely, the women’s liberation movement. That is, some of the original uses and meanings have been eliminated or become obsolete while some new expressions have emerged. On the one hand, it makes the English expressions and use more accurate, clear. On the other hand, however, it is hard to avoid bringing some new problems.

The thesis summarizes the phenomena of sexism in English as well as traces the reasons for the occurrence of sexism in the English language. Then it concerns the feminist influence on language. The paper documents and discusses feminist language reform: the efforts, the initiatives and actions of feminists around the world to change the biased representation of the sexes in language Key Words: Sexism in language; Feminist movement; Language reform; Contents 0. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. ,,,,,,,,1 1.. Sexism in Language ……………………………………. ………………………….. 2 1. 1 The definition of language sexism……………………………………………………. 2 1. 2 The phenomenon of language sexism in English…………………….. …………6 1. 3The reason of language sexism in English………………………………………. 7 1. 3. 1The influence of socialized prejudice and traditional idea…………………….. 7 1. 3. 2 The influence of religion consciousness…………………………………………….. 7 1. 3. 3 The Psychological reason…………………………………………………… 2. The Development of the English Language Sexism viewed from the American Feminist Movements and its Effects………………………………………………………………………………. 2. 1 The influence of feminist movement on Language Sexism………………. 2. 3 The effects on English language after the language reform ……………………………… 2. 3 The Different Attitude towards the Reform of English Language Conclusion………………………………………………………………13 References………………………………………………………………15 Acknowledgements………………………………………………… 16

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Brief History of the English Language

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The VIKINGS, also known as Norsemen, invaded England by the 8th century , which in turn, gave English a Norwegian and Danish influence. MIDDLE ENGLISH When William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, invaded England, he became its king. French became the language of the court, administration, and culture. It was the language used in schools. The English language became mostly the language of the uneducated classes and was considered a vulgar tongue.

Similar article: Failure in English Language

Most of the English words rooted in French are words that have something to do with power, such as crown, castle, parliament, army, mansion, gown, banquet, art, poet, romance, duke, servant, peasant, traitor, and governor. MODERN ENGLISH Modern English developed after Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press in Germany around 1450 and William Caxton established England’s first printing press at Westminster abbey in 1476.

Printing also brought standardization of English. Between the 18th to 20th centuries, the English language continued to change as the British Empire moved across the world—- to the USA, Australia, New Zealand, India, Asia, and Africa. American and British variants are the INTERNATIONALLY accepted variants of the English language. Differences of AE and BE Spelling center—– centre program— programme color—— colour

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English Language: Key to Global Access

English Language: Key to Global Access By: Kyle A. Tumapang “Language is the blood of the soul in which thoughts run and out of which they grow,” as once said by Oliver Wendell Holmes. We cannot deny that we are all experiencing the effects of globalization. Globalization, as we all know, is the process of interaction, and integration among peoples, companies, and governments of different nations. Due to its continuous rise, the unity of people around the world is greatly needed.

But how can unity be achieved if these people, with different cultures and languages, fail to communicate and understand each other? English language plays a great role in having global access. Not just for the reason that it is the universal language, but also to the fact that it contributes much to many aspects of life, like when you are travelling to other countries, you can really expect that these people will speak using their native language. Yet, you can assure that a few of these people know how to speak using the English language.

Their accent might be different and would vary every now and then, but their statements are completely understandable. Let me cite you an example, from an accent of “Good day mate! ” to a simple “Good day”, both still have the same meaning. In countries like the Philippines, which it consists of 7,107 islands with people of various cultures, the languages they speak also differ. During these situations, English can be the bridge in their communication. In the field of education, English is the medium used in most of the basic subjects like Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Math.

Moreover, all correspondences between offices in different countries, and also between political leaders of various nations, are still in English. This linking factor significantly tells us the importance of the English language. English is also the mainstay of internet users. This is the language in which most of the information and websites are available. Thus, the given situations emphasize the importance of the English language in the field of globalization. In addition to this, English language can also lead the progress of a nation.

Citing the Philippines as an example, the country is recently proclaimed as the third largest English speaking nation in the world. With this information there is no surprise that Philippines was named as the best country in Business English, according to a recent study of the Global English Corporation. Philippines attained a score above 7. 0, “a BEI level within range of a high proficiency that indicates an ability to take an active role in business discussions and perform relatively complex tasks”.

The corporation also noted that a country’s business English capability is an indicator of its economic growth and business success. If also other countries would imitate the Philippines, there is no doubt that one day these countries would contribute in the field of globalization. English is the queen of all languages. It has become the language of science, commerce, trade and international negotiations. We, would not be surprised that in the future, English can be the reason of the union of various nations, and also be the key to global access.

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Learning English: A Lesson in Language and Culture

To those outside the educational system, the teaching of language may seem to be a simple communication of skills from one person to another.  For those involved in education, however, language instruction has long been linked to cultural bias and social engineering, leading to debates over the notion of a “neutral language.”  Such a language would facilitate the exchange of objective concepts such as spelling, grammar, and pronunciation without imposing subjective cultural constructs such as beliefs abut class, gender, and religion.

As languages originate and develop in response to needs and conditions all too human, and therefore highly emotional, it is unlikely that any truly neutral language exists, and this is particularly evident when we consider the English language. The teaching of English has sociocultural implications that extend far beyond the learning environment, and this is best demonstrated by examining the relationship of Standard English to other varieties of English as well as to other languages being taught.

The distinction between standard and vernacular forms of a language is based on the perceived differences between the educated and the uneducated.  The term “standard,” when used to describe language, generally refers to that form of the language that is used for formal and written applications by those who occupy the highest ranks of society.  Rules governing its usage tend to be rather strict and resistant to change.

In contrast, a vernacular is the colloquial language used informally by a group of people, much less rigid in its forms and much more liable to change.  An online version of the Oxford English Dictionary, the recognized authority on the English language, exemplifies this divisiveness in its definition of the noun “vernacular” as “the language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people of a country or region.”  Aligning the vernacular form with so-called “ordinary” folks naturally infers a similar association between the standard form and less ordinary people, the literate elite who use it.

This lofty status is often justified by reference to the wealth of classical literature, historical documents, and scientific/technical writings that exist in both British and American Standar1d English.  An understanding of Standard English provides access to these canons and to the educational systems that utilize them.  These systems offer the knowledge and expertise necessary for the highest levels of professional and intellectual achievement.  Simply put, a better than average knowledge of Standard English offers a better than average chance at attaining prominence in highly skilled and specialized areas such as education, business, or technology (Brindley 208).

Whether this effect is seen as favorable or unfavorable depends, as most things do, on the perspective through which it is viewed.  Any experience that affords people greater personal control over important life issues may seem universally appealing, yet insistence upon teaching only Standard English has evoked considerable controversy (Brindley 205).  Those who advocate the teaching of Standard English writing in a way that emphasizes its reliance on stringent rules and formats have been accused of perpetuating a desired status quo (Brindley 226-227).

By learning Standard English, students are carrying on a long tradition of literary scholarship that has yielded many important intellectual gains and brought the western world to the forefront in industry and science.  Detractors see the teaching of Standard English as an imposition of social norms that depend on conformity and narrow-mindedness.  By forcing people to think in constrained ways about language, teachers are hindering both creativity and individuality for the sake of convention (Bourne 243).

Such adherence to uniformity often puts the learner in an uncomfortable and confusing situation, as when the home background and the educational environment clash in terms of language.  Katharine Perera describes the difficulties encountered by children being taught Standard English while living in homes and neighborhoods where the vernacular is the mode of expression.

For them, a change in their manner of speech represents an invalidation of their customary way of life and may create barriers between them and their peers.  The experience of speaking one way with friends or family who share their idiom, only to then be told by teachers that this language is wrong, forces most children to reluctantly choose one identity at the expense of the other (cited in Brindley 212).

Concern over this loss of identity has fueled heated disputes in “mother-tongue” contexts, where English is taught as a first language and some form of it is used by much of the population as a native language (Brindley 206).  Davis and Watson report that in Australia, post-war migration increased the nation’s multiculturalism while weakening the influence of a common British legacy.  Responding to the resultant search for a national identity, the Australian curriculum acknowledges the relationship between this identity and language yet also recognizes the diversity that exists within “Australian Standard English” (cited in Brindley 206).

The Australian Education Council’s statement on the English curriculum sets Australian English apart from American or British English chiefly by differences in vocabulary and pronunciation, and describes this national variety of English as a combination of the Standard Australian English used in schools and several vernacular forms, any one of which a student may use at home.   The curriculum statement also advises that Standard Australian English should be taught as an extension of local idioms and not as a replacement for them.

Although the report further stresses importance of Australian Standard English because of its role in educational structures, professional fields, and spoken communication, it also recognizes the value of vernacular forms and the cultural backgrounds they represent.  Its national plan for teaching English also notes that language changes in respect to context and purposes, and it urges that students be made aware of this fact so they can apply their language skills accordingly.  The Council also officially confers equal status to standard and local forms of English, viewing neither one as inherently superior to the other (cited in Brindley 207)

Sue Brindley relates that the issue of the relative worth of different language forms is intensely debated in Britain, where the world’s richest history of English has led to much linguistic diversity.  Standard English is an integral part of the official school curriculum, yet there is no consensus about exactly what constitutes standardized English and how it is connected to a student’s home variety (Brindley 208).  A Department for Education and Welsh Office statement cites strict observance to rules of vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and pronunciation as the distinguishing features of Standard English to be taught in England and Wales, yet this description is too vague to give a precise definition.

Although the British policy encourages the use of standardized language for both written and spoken applications, it also recognizes that spoken English is more spontaneous and therefore less apt to conform to the same rigorous criteria used in more carefully planned written applications (cited in Brindley 210).  By associating Standard English with qualities like precision and clear diction, the British curriculum contradicts the viewpoint of many linguists and educators, as well as the sentiments expressed in the Australian English statement, by implying that school-sanctioned standardized forms are linguistically superior to other varieties (Brindley 211).  The obvious counterpart to this attitude is a belief that vernacular forms of English are inferior.

Brindley speaks of educators who are concerned that such a prejudicial position will necessarily lead to a gradual erosion of the traditional cultural values that underlie the home life of those whose first language is the vernacular. Some teachers have taken it upon themselves to teach Standard English in a way that does not discriminate against home-based language varieties and, by extension, their associated ways of life. In this manner, they hope to allow students to derive the benefits inherent in a multicultural approach: a greater fund of knowledge about languages, a richer social experience, and a keener appreciation of different manners of thinking (212-213).

In countries where the native language is not English, there is every bit as much controversy regarding the cultural aftereffects of learning English.  For people living in geographical areas marked by poverty and need, an education in English may be seen as a way to rise to the echelons of power and privilege.  Yet for those already enjoying that power and privilege, the promotion of English for the masses may be seen as either a welcome conversion or a dangerous threat.  Anthea Fraser Gupta’s account of the spread of English in colonial India traces the complicated history of the English empire’s influence over native Indians.  When Great Britain officially endorsed the teaching of English to Indians, the intent was to introduce not only the language of the United Kingdom but also its cultural and religious values.

British officials were in effect attempting to create darker-skinned versions of themselves, seeing the inculcation of western ideals as a means of eradicating a way of life that they considered idolatrous, immoral, and unrefined ( 190-191).  At the same time, Indians in positions of power worried that giving the lower classes a glimpse of what was possible through an English education worked against their interests.  S.N. Mukherjee (cited in Gupta 192) reports that the Calcutta upper classes feared that those below their social rank would become dissatisfied with their inferior status.

More than a hundred years after the events chronicled in Gupta’s account, teachers of English still encounter resistance from pupils who either feel that language is being forced upon them or resent social exclusion from English-speaking society (Bourne 243-244)..  Despite this, Jill Bourne informs us that the current trend in non-English speaking countries is to incorporate English language lessons into the primary school system.  Even in Malaysia, where this is not endorsed, private schools offer English instruction to students whose wealthy parents are willing to pay for what they perceive as an important step on the road to social success (244).

Several countries, including Germany, the former Czech Republic, Hungary, Malay, and Hong Kong, have implemented some form of what America calls Language and Content Teaching, which blends language instruction with course content.  The focus is shifted from the English language to the curriculum material, which is presented through the medium of English.  However, in most parts of the world where English is taught, the emphasis remains on English as a subject itself (Bourne 244).  This suggests that for most nations, what is truly being sought is not an adoption of English values but the attainment of proficiency in a language that offers access to more profitable pursuits.

It is easy to understand why countries such as Hong Kong, whose economy is deeply invested in international commerce, would feel pressured to acquire English fluency.  English is a major language of trade, and an inability to speak it proficiently is a definite disadvantage in the business arena.  This becomes clearer when we consider it on a smaller, more personal scale.  Anyone who has spent time among people who shared a common, foreign language knows the frustration and stigmatization that can result from an inability to communicate easily and appropriately with others.

There is a natural human desire to feel connected to others in some way, and language provides an excellent means of achieving that sense of belonging.  When essential life factors such as economic, social, and professional standing are at stake, language becomes even more crucial.

This relationship between modes of communication and key life issues is precisely why the concept of a neutral language is a hypothetical one.  The teaching of any language involves the transmission of much more than rules about grammar and pronunciation.  It inevitably requires some measure of cultural change on the part of the learner, and in the case of English instruction those changes can have profound effects upon many major aspects of life.  For this reason, educators and students alike must respect the various forms of language as reflections of valuable cultural and social traditions.

Works Cited

Bourne, Jill. “English for Speakers of Other Languages.” Learning English: Development and

Diversity. Eds. Neil Mercer and Joan Swann. UK: The Open University, 2002, 243-270.

Brindley, Sue, with contributions from Swann, Joan. “Issues in English Teaching.” Learning English:

Development and Diversity. Eds. Neil Mercer and Joan Swann. UK: The Open University,

2002, 205-228.

Gupta, Anthea Fraser. “English and Empire: Teaching English in Nineteenth Century India.” Learning

English:  Development and Diversity. Eds. Neil Mercer and Joan Swann. UK: The Open University, 2002, 188-194.

“vernacular.” Compact Oxford English Dictionary. 2005.

http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/vernacular?view=uk (3 Dec. 2005).

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International English Language Testing System

Candidate Number Candidate Name ______________________________________________ International English Language Testing System Listening Practice test 40 minutes Time 40 minutes Instructions to candidates Do not open this question paper until you are told to do so. Write your name and candidate number in the spaces at the top of this page. Listen to the instructions for each part of the paper carefully. Answer all the questions. While you are listening, write your answers on the question paper. You will have 10 minutes at the end of the test to copy your answers onto the separate answer sheet. Use a pencil.

At the end of the test, hand in this question paper. Information for candidates There are four parts to the test. You will hear each part once only. There are 40 questions. Each question carries one mark. For each part of the test, there will be time for you to look through the questions and time for you to check your answers. Section 1 Questions 1–10 Questions 1–5 Complete the notes below. Write no more than two words and/or a number for each answer. Transport from Bayswater Example Answer Destination Harbour City • •• • Express train leaves at 1 ……………………. • •• • Nearest station is 2 ……………………. • •• Number 706 bus goes to 3 ……………………. • •• • Number 4 ……………………. bus goes to station • •• • Earlier bus leaves at 5 ……………………. Questions 6–10 Complete the table below. Write no more than one word and/or a number for each answer. Transport Cash fare Card fare Bus 6 $ …………… $1. 50 Train (peak) $10 $10 Train (off-peak) – before 5pm or after 7 …………… pm) $10 9 …………… ferry $4. 50 $3. 55 Tourist ferry (10 ……………) $35 – Tourist ferry (whole day) $65 – 8 $ …………… Section 2 Questions 11–20 Questions 11–14 Which counsellor should you see? Write the correct letter, A, B or C, next to questions 11–14. A Louise Bagshaw B Tony Denby C Naomi Flynn 1 if it is your first time seeing a counsellor 12 if you are unable to see a counsellor during normal office hours 13 if you do not have an appointment 14 if your concerns are related to anxiety Questions 15–20 Complete the table below. Write no more than two words for each answer. Workshop Content Target group Adjusting what you need to succeed academically 15 ………………… students Getting Organised use time effectively, find 16 ………………… between study and leisure Communicating talking with staff, communicating across cultures Anxiety 18 …………………, breathing techniques, meditation, etc. all students all students, especially 17 ………………… tudents about to sit exams 19 ………………… staying on track for long periods 20 ………………… students only Section 3 Questions 21–30 Questions 21–30 Complete the notes below. Write no more than three words for each answer. Novel: 21 ………………… Protagonists: Mary Lennox; Colin Craven Time period: Early in 22 ………………… Plot: Mary > UK – meets Colin who thinks he’ll never be able to 23 ………………… . They become friends. Point of view: “Omniscient” – narrator knows all about characters’ feelings, opinions and 24 ………………… Audience: Good for children – story simple to follow Symbols (physical items that represent 25 …………………): • the robin redbreast 26 ………………… • the portrait of Mistress Craven Motifs (patterns in the story): • the Garden of Eden • secrecy – metaphorical and literal transition from 27 ………………… Themes: Connections between • 28 ………………… and outlook • 29 ………………… and well-being • individuals and the need for 30 ………………… Section 4 Questions 31–40 Questions 31–35 Complete the table below. Write one word only for each answer. Time Zone Outlook Time Perspectives Features & Consequences Past Positive Remember good times, e. g. birthdays. 31 …………….. Keep family records, photo albums, etc. Focus on disappointments, failures, bad decisions.

Present Hedonistic Live for 32 …………….. ; seek sensation; avoid pain. Fatalistic Life is governed by 33 …………….. , religious beliefs, social conditions. Life’s path can’t be changed. Future 34 …………….. Prefer work to play. Don’t give in to temptation. Fatalistic Have a strong belief in life after death and importance of 35 …………….. in life. Questions 36–40 Choose the correct letter, A, B or C. 36 We are all present hedonists A at school B at birth C while eating and drinking 37 American boys drop out of school at a higher rate than girls because A they need to be in control of the way they learn

B they play video games instead of doing school work C they are not as intelligent as girls 38 Present-orientated children A do not realise present actions can have negative future effects B are unable to learn lessons from past mistakes C know what could happen if they do something bad, but do it anyway 39 If Americans had an extra day per week, they would spend it A working harder B building relationships C sharing family meals 40 Understanding how people think about time can help us A become more virtuous B work together better C identify careless or ambitious people Transcript

Narrator: Test 1 You will hear a number of different recordings and you will have to answer questions on what you hear. There will be time for you to read the instructions and questions and you will have a chance to check your work. All the recordings will be played once only. The test is in 4 sections. At the end of the test you will be given 10 minutes to transfer your answers to an answer sheet. Now turn to section 1. Section 1 You will hear a conversation between a clerk at the enquiries desk of a transport company and a man who is asking for travel information. First you have some time to look at questions 1 to 5. 20 seconds] You will see that there is an example that has been done for you. On this occasion only the conversation relating to this will be played first. Woman: Good morning, Travel Link. How can I help you? Man: Good morning. I live in Bayswater and I’d like to get to Harbour City tomorrow before 11am. Woman: Well, to get to Bayswater … Man: No, no. I live in Bayswater – my destination is Harbour City. Woman: Sorry. Right; so that’s Bayswater to Harbour City. Are you planning to travel by bus or train? Narrator: The man wants to go to Harbour City, so Harbour City has been written in the space.

Now we shall begin. You should answer the questions as you listen because you will not hear the recording a second time. Listen carefully and answer questions 1 to 5. Woman: Good morning, Travel Link. How can I help you? Man: Good morning. I live in Bayswater and I’d like to get to Harbour City tomorrow before 11am. Woman: Well, to get to Bayswater … Man: No, no. I live in Bayswater – my destination is Harbour City. Woman: Sorry. Right; so that’s Bayswater to Harbour City. Are you planning to travel by bus or train? Man: I don’t mind really, whichever option is faster, I suppose.

Woman: Well, if you catch a railway express, that’ll get you there in under an hour … Let’s see – yes, if you can make the 9. 30am express, I’d recommend you do that. Man: Great. Which station does that leave from? Woman: Helendale is the nearest train station to you. Man: Did you say Helensvale? woman: No, Helendale – that’s H-E-L-E-N-D-A-L-E Man: What’s the best way to get to the Helendale station then? Woman: Well, hang on a minute while I look into that … Now, it seems to me that you have two options. Option one would be to take the 706 bus from the Bayswater Shopping Centre to Central Street.

When you get there, you transfer to another bus which will take you to the station. Or, the second option, if you don’t mind walking a couple of kilometres, is to go directly to Central Street and get straight on the bus going to the train station. Man: Okay. Which bus is that? Woman: The 792 will take you to the station. Man: I guess the walk will be good for me so that might be the better option. What time do I catch the 792? Woman: There are two buses that should get you to the station on time: one just before nine o’clock and one just after.

But look, at that time of the morning it might be better to take the earlier one just in case there’s a traffic jam or something. The 8. 55 is probably safer than the 9. 05. Man: Yeah, I don’t want to the miss the train, so I’ll be sure to get on the five- to-nine bus. Narrator: Before you hear the rest of the conversation, you have some time to look at questions 6 to 10. [20 seconds] Now listen and answer questions 6 to 10. Man: By the way, how much will I have to pay in fares? Woman: Well, you can get a ticket on the bus for $1. 80 cash and you’ll need $10 each way for the train.

Wait, do you have a Travel Link Card? Man: No, but I can get one before tomorrow. Woman: Okay, well that’ll make it considerably cheaper then. The bus will cost $1. 50 each way, and the train will be – the train to Harbour City will … still cost $10. 00 because you’ll be travelling during peak hours in the morning, so no savings there, I’m afraid. However, if you could come back at an off-peak time … Man: What does that mean? Woman: Well, if you could start your return journey before 5pm or later than half past 7 in the evening … Man: Actually, I wasn’t planning on coming back till at least 8 o’clock anyway.

Woman: In that case, you can make quite a saving if you use your Travel Link Card. You did say you were planning to purchase one, didn’t you? Man: Yes, I’ll pick one up later today. Woman: Good – that would mean that your return train journey would only cost you $7. 15 with your card. Man: Thank you. Woman: Is there anything else I can help you with? Man: Actually, there is. Do you know if I can use the Travel Link Card on ferries? Woman: If you’re thinking of the Harbour City ferries that go back and forth between the north and south bank, those are the commuter ferries, then yes.

A one-way trip costs $4. 50 but with your card you’d make a 20% saving and only pay $3. 55. Man: So, $3. 55 for the commuter ferry …What about the tour boats? Woman: You mean the tourist ferries that go upriver on sightseeing tours? No – they only take cash or credit card. They’re not part of the Travel Link Company. Man: Oh, I see. I don’t suppose you know the cost of a tour? Woman: In actual fact, I do, because I took a friend on the trip upriver just last week. We decided on the afternoon tour and that was $35 each but I understand that you can do the whole day for $65.

Man: Thank you. You’ve been a great help. Woman: My pleasure. Enjoy your day out. Narrator: That is the end of section 1. You now have half a minute to check your answers. [30 seconds] Now turn to section 2. Narrator: Section 2 You will hear a guidance counsellor talking to a group of students. First you have some time to look at questions 11 to 14. [20 seconds] Listen carefully and answer questions 11 to 14. Speaker: Hello everyone. I’m the counselling administrator here at St. Ive’s College and I’ve been asked to come and talk to you about our counselling team and the services that we offer.

We have three professional counsellors here at St. Ives: Louise Bagshaw, Tony Denby and Naomi Flynn. They each hold daily one-on-one sessions with students, but which counsellor you see will depend on a number of factors. If you’ve never used a counsellor before, then you should make an appointment with Naomi Flynn. Naomi specialises in seeing new students and offers a preliminary session where she will talk to you about what you can expect from counselling, followed by some simple questions about what you would like to discuss. This can be really helpful for students who are feeling a bit worried about the counselling process.

Naomi is also the best option for students who can only see a counsellor outside office hours. She is not in on Mondays, but starts early on Wednesday mornings and works late on Thursday evenings, so you can see her before your first class or after your last class on those days. Louise staffs our drop-in centre throughout the day. If you need to see someone without a prior appointment then she is the one to visit. Please note that if you use this service then Louise will either see you herself, or place you with the next available counsellor.

If you want to be sure to see the same counsellor on each visit, then we strongly recommend you make an appointment ahead of time. You can do this at reception during office hours or by using our online booking form. Tony is our newest addition to the counselling team. He is our only male counsellor and he has an extensive background in stress management and relaxation techniques. We encourage anyone who is trying to deal with anxiety to see him. Tony will introduce you to a full range of techniques to help you cope with this problem such as body awareness, time management and positive reinforcement. Narrator:

Before you hear the rest of the talk, you have some time to look at questions 15 to 20. [20 seconds] Now listen and answer questions 15 to 20. Speaker: Each semester the counselling team runs a number of small group workshops. These last for two hours and are free to all enrolled students. Our first workshop is called Adjusting. We’ve found that tertiary education can come as a big shock for some people. After the structured learning environment of school, it is easy to feel lost. In this workshop, we will introduce you to what is necessary for academic success. As you might expect, we’re targeting first-year students with this offering.

Getting organised follows on from the first workshop. Here, we’re going to help you break the habit of putting things off, get the most out of your time and discover the right balance between academic and recreational activities. With Getting organised, we’re catering to a broader crowd, which includes all undergraduates and postgraduates. Next up is a workshop called Communicating. The way people interact here may be quite different to what you’re used to, especially if you’ve come from abroad. We’ll cover an area that many foreign students struggle with – how to talk with teachers and other staff.

We’ll cover all aspects of multicultural communication. International students tend to get a lot out of this class, so we particularly encourage you to come along, but I must say that sometimes students from a local background find it helpful too. So, everyone is welcome! The Anxiety workshop is held later on in the year and deals with something you will all be familiar with – the nerves and anxiety that come when exams are approaching. Many students go through their entire academic careers suffering like this, but you don’t have to. Come to this workshop and we’ll teach you all about relaxation and how to reathe properly, as well as meditation and other strategies to remain calm. We’ve tailored this workshop to anyone who is going to sit exams. Finally, we have the Motivation workshop. The big topic here is how to stay on target and motivated during long-term research projects. This workshop is strictly for research students, as less-advanced students already have several workshops catering to their needs. Well, that’s it, thanks for your time. If you have any questions or want more information about our services, do come and see us at the Counselling Service. Narrator:

That is the end of section 2. You now have half a minute to check your answers. [30 seconds] Now turn to section 3. Narrator: Section 3 You will hear a conversation between a tutor and two students who are preparing for an English literature test. First you have some time to look at questions 21 to 24. [20 seconds] Listen carefully and answer questions 21 to 24 Tutor: Hello Lorna, Ian. Glad you could make it. You’re the only two who put your names down for this literature tutorial so let’s get started, shall we? I want to run over some aspects of the novel, The Secret Garden, with ou before the test next week. Be sure to take some notes and ask questions if you need to. Ian: Hey Lorna, have you got a spare pen? Lorna: Sure, here you are. Tutor: Okay, so, the story follows two key characters – you should refer to them as protagonists – who go by the names of Mary Lennox and Colin Craven. The story is set shortly after the turn of the twentieth century, and the narrative tracks the development of the protagonists as they learn to overcome their own personal troubles together. Lorna: That’s quite a common storyline, isn’t it? Tutor: Yes, you’re right, Lorna.

So, what can you tell me about the character of Mary? Lorna: Well, in the beginning she is an angry, rude child who is orphaned after a cholera outbreak and forced to leave India and move to the United Kingdom to her uncle’s house in Yorkshire. Tutor: That’s right – and there she meets Colin who spends his days in an isolated room, believing himself to be permanently crippled with no hope of ever gaining the ability to walk. The two strike up a friendship and gradually learn – by encouraging each other – that they can both become healthy, happy and fulfilled in life.

Ian: Will we need to remember a lot of these details for the exam? Tutor: Just the basic outline. Examiners don’t want to read a plot summary – they know what the book is about. Focus on narrative techniques instead, such as point of view. Lorna: What’s that mean? Tutor: It’s all about how we see the story. This story, for example, is written from the perspective of what is called an “omniscient narrator”. Omniscient means all-knowing. So, as readers we get to see how all the characters feel about things, what they like and don’t like, and what their motivations are in the story. Narrator:

Before you hear the rest of the conversation, you have some time to look at questions 25 to 30. [20 seconds] Now listen and answer questions 25 to 30. Ian: Won’t it be hard to write a technical analysis? After all, it’s a kids’ book. Tutor: Well, it was initially pitched at adults you know, but over the years it has become seen as a more youth-orientated work. And you’re right in a sense – the simple vocabulary and absence of foreshadowing make the story very easy to follow and ideally suited for children. But that doesn’t mean there isn’t much to analyse. Look at the symbolism, for instance.

Lorna: Symbols are things, right? Material things – like objects – that stand for abstract ideas. Tutor: Absolutely, yes. And the author uses many of them. There’s the robin redbreast, for example, which symbolises the wise and gentle nature that Mary will soon adopt – note that the robin is described as “not at all like the birds in India”. Roses are used as well – as a personal symbol for Mistress Craven – you’ll see they’re always mentioned alongside her name. And Mistress Craven’s portrait can also be interpreted as a symbol of her spirit. Ian: Are symbols just another name for motifs?

Tutor: No, motifs are a bit different. They don’t have as direct a connection with something the way that a symbol does. Motifs are simply recurring elements of the story that support the mood. Lorna: Are there any in this novel? Tutor: Yes, two very important ones. The Garden of Eden is a motif. It comes up a few times in connection with the garden of the story. And then you’ve got the role that secrets play in the story. In the beginning, everything is steeped in secrecy, and slowly the characters share their secrets and in the process move from darkness to lightness, metaphorically, but also in the ase of Colin, quite literally. His room in the beginning has the curtains drawn, and he appears at the end in the brightness of the garden. Ian: Anything else we need to know about? Tutor: Yes. Nearly all novels explore universal concepts that everyone has experienced – things like love, family, loneliness, friendship. These are called themes. The Secret Garden has a few themes that all centre on the idea of connections. The novel explores, for example, the way that health can determine and be determined by our outlook on life. As Colin’s health improves, so too do his perceptions of his strength and possibility.

The author also examines the link between our environment and our physical and emotional prosperity. The dark, cramped rooms of the manor house stifle the development of our protagonists; the garden and natural environments allow them to blossom, just as the flowers do. Finally, this book looks at connections between individuals, namely Mary and Colin. This necessity of human companionship is the novel’s most significant theme – because none of their development as individuals would have occurred without their knowing each other. Well, that about sums it up, I think. Lorna: That’s a great help, thanks.

Ian: Yes, thanks very much. Narrator: That is the end of section 3. You now have half a minute to check your answers. [30 seconds] Now turn to section 4. Narrator: Section 4 You will hear a talk on the topic of time perspectives. First you have some time to look at questions 31 to 40. [20 seconds] Listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40. Speaker: Today, I’m going to be talking about time. Specifically I’ll be looking at how people think about time, and how these time perspectives structure our lives. According to social psychologists, there are six ways of thinking about time, which are called personal time zones.

The first two are based in the past. Past positive thinkers spend most of their time in a state of nostalgia, fondly remembering moments such as birthdays, marriages and important achievements in their life. These are the kinds of people who keep family records, books and photo albums. People living in the past negative time zone are also absorbed by earlier times, but they focus on all the bad things – regrets, failures, poor decisions. They spend a lot of time thinking about how life could have been. Then, we have people who live in the present.

Present hedonists are driven by pleasure and immediate sensation. Their life motto is to have a good time and avoid pain. Present fatalists live in the moment too, but they believe this moment is the product of circumstances entirely beyond their control; it’s their fate. Whether it’s poverty, religion or society itself, something stops these people from believing they can play a role in changing their outcomes in life. Life simply “is” and that’s that. Looking at the future time zone, we can see that people classified as future active are the planners and go-getters.

They work rather than play and resist temptation. Decisions are made based on potential consequences, not on the experience itself. A second future-orientated perspective, future fatalistic, is driven by the certainty of life after death and some kind of a judgement day when they will be assessed on how virtuously they have lived and what success they have had in their lives. Okay, let’s move on. You might ask “how do these time zones affect our lives? ” Well, let’s start at the beginning. Everyone is brought into this world as a present hedonist. No exceptions.

Our initial needs and demands – to be warm, secure, fed and watered – all stem from the present moment. But things change when we enter formal education – we’re taught to stop existing in the moment and to begin thinking about future outcomes. But, did you know that every nine seconds a child in the USA drops out of school? For boys, the rate is much higher than for girls. We could easily say “Ah, well, boys just aren’t as bright as girls” but the evidence doesn’t support this. A recent study states that boys in America, by the age of twenty one, have spent 10,000 hours playing video games.

The research suggests that they’ll never fit in the traditional classroom because these boys require a situation where they have the ability to manage their own learning environment. Now, let’s look at the way we do prevention education. All prevention education is aimed at a future time zone. We say “don’t smoke or you’ll get cancer”, “get good grades or you won’t get a good job”. But with present-orientated kids that just doesn’t work. Although they understand the potentially negative consequences of their actions, they persist with the behaviour because they’re not living for the future; they’re in the moment right now.

We can’t use logic and it’s no use reminding them of potential fall-out from their decisions or previous errors of judgment – we’ve got to get in their minds just as they’re about to make a choice. Time perspectives make a big difference in how we value and use our time. When Americans are asked how busy they are, the vast majority report being busier than ever before. They admit to sacrificing their relationships, personal time and a good night’s sleep for their success. Twenty years ago, 60% of Americans had sit-down dinners with their families, and now only 20% do.

But when they’re asked what they would do with an eight-day week, they say “Oh that’d be great”. They would spend that time labouring away to achieve more. They’re constantly trying to get ahead, to get toward a future point of happiness. So, it’s really important to be aware of how other people think about time. We tend to think: “Oh, that person’s really irresponsible” or “That guy’s power hungry” but often what we’re looking at is not fundamental differences of personality, but really just different ways of thinking about time.

Seeing these conflicts as differences in time perspective, rather than distinctions of character, can facilitate more effective cooperation between people and get the most out of each person’s individual strengths. Narrator: That is the end of section 4. You now have half a minute to check your answers. [30 seconds] That is the end of the listening test. You now have 10 minutes to transfer your answers to the listening answer sheet.

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Prioritizing English over the Loss of Your Language

Prioritizing the English language over the possible erosion of your native language Nearly 72% of the information available on the internet is in English. How did it all start? The English language spread throughout the world because England in the late 16th century formed colonies all around the world. And until now the English language is growing and becoming more and more popular worldwide, English has official or special status in at least seventy five countries with a total population of over two billion (The Cambridge Encyclopedia).

More and more people see learning English even if they might lose their native language as positive. Personally, I believe that English should be prioritized over the possibility of erosion of a native language for a number of reasons. English breaks the language barriers between different countries especially through the internet and there are more job opportunities if one is able to speak and write English fluently. In this essay I’m going to focus mainly on these two points. [good]

The internet is a system of interconnected computer networks, to serve billions of people worldwide. The internet is a place where everyone comes on from different countries to communicate with one another and to share all sort of things like what’s really happening in their community/ country. It’s a place where the people of the world come together as one. English breaks the language barrier also, by allowing people from around the world to get to know each other, work together and communicate whether it’s face-to-face, by phone, via email and most importantly via the internet. What percent of the internet is really in English? ’ this is a question asked by many. And the last time anyone made a serious attempt to answer this, was a study conducted by Excite AtHome in 1999, which looked at 600 million webpages and concluded that 72% were in English (Zukerman, 2009). With so much information mainly in English freely available on the internet, this motivated people from different countries to learn the language so they can seize the change of getting valuable information for almost free of charge.

There is only one language for airlines taking off and landing in 157 countries around the world and that’s English. English is the universal language of air traffic control. Therefore, a pilot from an Arab country for example, where English is not spoken that often, will have a better chance of being hired by any airline around the world if they can speak proper English. English is necessary also for official business that’s why companies hire their employees based on their y capability of speaking and writing English.

Job opportunities worldwide in let’s say big international companies such as Ernst & Young or other large companies; look for such employees with top notch English. Meanwhile, if more people speak English in a country, potential business opportunities sky rocket because it’s the only way business partner, franchisers and investors can communicate, discuss, negotiate and make a deal with one another.

This enhances the profit of a country and benefits the country as a whole in the long run. To sum it all up, personally, I feel that the advantages out way the disadvantage of prioritizing the English language over the possible erosion of you native language. First off, job opportunities increase when one is capable of speaking and writing English fluently because it’s one of the criteria in most major international companies.

Secondly, The English language allows people from different backgrounds and mother tongues to communicate effectively and get to know about each other. References: Zukerman, M. Musing on Africa, International development and hacking the media, 2009. http://www. ethanzuckerman. com/blog/2009/06/01/what-percentage-of-the-internet-is-in-english-in-. chinese/ MacNeil, R. , McCrum, R. , & Cran. W. (Producers). (1986). The Story of English . [Documentary]. http://topdocumentaryfilms. com/story-of-english/

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How Does the English Language Vary at Individual?

How does the English language vary at individual, societal and international levels? English has become the first `truly global language` (McCrum et al. , 2002, p. 9). As a result of advances in technology and transport, varieties of English have spread throughout the world. This internationalisation has been described by Shreeve as an `identified phenomenon` (1999, p. 1). English now underpins the lives and cultures of a broad spectrum of people, with one in four people in the world now fluent users of English (Crystal, 2002, p. 10).

Language involves making meaning and individual identity. It has been defined by Emmit et al. as mediating `between self and society […], a way of representing the world to ourselves and others` (2006, p. 17). There are strong links between how individuals use different varieties of English and the social implications of why they do so. According to Swann: `Language varieties are not simply linguistic phenomena. They carry important social meanings` (2007, p. 11). Many social factors have affected the English language, leading to the numerous varieties that are recognised and used today.

Variety can be seen in the way every individual uses the English language, the interaction between social groups and in the way different countries are utilising the language. The numerous dialects in use in the UK demonstrate the diverse nature of the English language. Dialects include variations in syntax, morphology, lexicon and phonology. It has been argued from a prescriptive perspective, by linguists such as Quirk and Greenbaum, that dialects are not true forms of English and that there needs to be a `common core of English` (Quirk, 1972; in Kachru et al, 2009, p. 513).

This is the pure and stringent form known as Standard English, which is traditionally linked to educated society. Standardisation consists of `language determination, codification and stabilisation` (Trudgill, 1992, p. 117). It is a model to be consulted; a unified code to refer to. Standard English is a publicly recognised, fixed form, a mastery of which affords `social and educational advantages` (Eyres, 2007, p. 16). It was formed by a particular social group, the group with the highest degree of social capital (Bourdieu, 1986, pp. 241-258), power and prestige (Rhys, 2007).

Rhys, however, perceives that Standard English is a `social dialect` (2007, p. 190) and argues that it is not superior to other dialects (Rhys, 2007). Labov states that: `all languages and dialects should be viewed as equal in terms of their ability to communicate` (1969; in Bell, 1997, p. 241). While a standard form of English can be seen as a social and communicative necessity useful for educational and international affairs, vernacular forms should not be discounted or regarded as inferior. Dialects represent a smaller locality and are therefore more personal.

A relevant example is the use of dialects in regional BBC news broadcasting. While the national news is presented in Standard English, a code with a particular grammar, pronunciation and register, the BBC’s regional programmes showcase a local identity that cannot be found in national broadcasting. Interviewees and `talking heads` often have strong regional accents and speak in the dialectal forms familiar to their viewers. The regional programmes are personal to their audience and emphasise the benefits of language variation. Dialects represent social bonds and form because of linguistic choice.

The formation of dialects has been explained by Freeborn: `Different choices were made among the varied speech communities forming the speakers of English in the past. These choices are not conscious or deliberate, but pronunciation is always changing, and leads in time to changes in word form` (1993, p. 43). The English language has fragmented into pockets of dialect due to social difference and geography. This is a microcosm of how international languages form; distance causes change. Freeborn believes that `all dialects of a language are rule-governed systems` (1993, p. 0). All vernaculars are consistent, although they may not have the written grammar core (Quirk, 1972; in Kachru et al, 2009, p. 513) that Standard English can boast. There is great variation in dialect throughout the United Kingdom. In 1921, Sapir classified his notion of `dialect drift`. He explained how `language moves down time in a current of its own making. It has a drift` (1921; in Rhys, 2007, p. 2007). This idea relates to how language evolves; lexical and phonological elements are absorbed and new dialects are formed.

However, while language is ever-changing, it is apparent in some cases that dialects are actually becoming more similar. This is defined by Rhys as dialect levelling (2007); when `regular contact between speakers of different dialects [causes them to] lose linguistic features of their dialect` (2007, p. 204). In the modern world this levelling process is a consequence of improved transport links, migration and the growth of media and broadcasting. The urbanisation of the UK means that rural areas are not as isolated from cities as they were when Sapir wrote of a dialect drift.

Advances in technology and industry mean that the boundaries of dialect, known as `isoglosses` (Freeborn, 1993), are being broken down. People within dialect boundaries hear more varieties of English than they used to, so they naturally accommodate words and pronunciations into their speech. This process of change, however, occurs over a long period of time. Therefore, making sweeping statements about the future of dialects is difficult. Major changes to language and dialect will not be visible for decades.

Different speech communities will always make different language choices (Freeborn, 1993), so there will always be regional variation. While language varies because of social groupings, there is also great variety within the speech patterns of an individual. Cheshire has found evidence that `speakers continually reassess the context and adjust their speaking style accordingly` (1982, p. 125). People alter the way that they speak depending on the person or group that they are speaking to, the location that they are in, the type of conversation and the topic being discussed (Swann and Sinka, 2007).

Bell is adamant that the `person or people you are speaking to will have the greatest effect on the type of language you will use` (1991; in Swann and Sinka, 2007, p. 230). He believes that the presence of another person or group causes people to change their linguistic code. This is known as the theory of `Audience Design` (Bell, 1997, p. 240). People feel the urge to fit in and adapt their language to meet their social and psychological needs. Audience Design can also be related to the idea of language performance (Hodge and Kress, 1988). People take on a variety of roles in their conversations due to a feeling of being atched and critiqued. Swann and Sinka perceive that `speakers can be seen as relatively creative designers of language` (2007, p. 255). Language is a creative medium, in which the performer changes their approach depending on the recipient. The way that we utilise language and make choices suits our individual discursive requirements. People improvise with language as they try to adapt to new linguistic codes. Individuals feel the need to inhabit certain conversational personas and to adopt the linguistic features of their interlocutors. This phenomenon is an element of `Communication Accommodation Theory` (Giles, 1971).

Giles and Powesland explain that accommodation can be `a device by the speaker to make himself better understood` (1997, p. 234) and that it can also be regarded as: `an attempt on the part of the speaker to modify or disguise his persona in order to make it more acceptable to the person addressed` (1997, p. 234). The concept of disguise is often associated with deception, but the linguistic adaption proposed by Accommodation Theory derives from constructive ideals. The ability to alter and weave linguistic codes in different situations is a socially integrative mechanism.

Variety in an individual’s use of language exists to meet the expected communicative requirements of society. The English language is forever evolving and is gradually becoming a global language. This is due, in part, to globalisation. Contemporary globalisation is often associated with the ‘shrinking’ of time and space. This has affected international trade and industry and also the way that the English language is used at global level. Rapid developments in technological and digital communications have led to the description of the world as a global village (Hollis, 2008, p. 38). As the world becomes theoretically smaller, the development of English as a global language mirrors how our own standard form has developed in the UK. The world requires a stable and recognisable common code for effective global communication in sectors such as business, science, politics and commerce. It could be argued that both Standard English and a new international standard are impersonal varieties of English. These language forms are functional; a means to an end, whereas dialect and variety within a country could be seen as representative of a more personal identity.

Crystal perceives that there are the `closest of links between language dominance and economic, technological and cultural power` (2003, p. 7). In the case of English developing into a global language the dominant force is the USA, which holds economic and political power. Due to the global position of the USA, countries which hold a lower international status are driven to adopt the English language. It appears that a universal, international standard is developing from an `urgent need to communicate at world level` (Crystal, 2002, p. 11).

An example is Kenya, which holds English as a joint official language with Swahili. While English is `not necessarily welcomed`, it is learnt in Kenyan schools and `enjoys a high status` associated with social and economic success (Heardman, 2009, p. 20). The Kenyan adoption of the English language demonstrates a need for their country to function in an international realm. There are opposing views on the idea that English should become the first global language. Some see it as an encroachment on culture and diversity, while others regard it as imperative to communication in a modern world.

In 1994, French legislation was passed in order to halt the advance of English into French language and culture. The `loi Toubon` (named after the Minister for Culture, Jacques Toubon), called for a ban on: `the use of foreign [English] in business or government communications, in broadcasting, and in advertising if “suitable equivalents” existed in French` (Murphy, 1997, p. 14). This law was a linguistic intervention, an attempt to prevent the fragmentation of the French language and to retain national identity. In this case, the `borrowings` (Dubois et al, 1973; in Swann, 2007, p. 4) that the French language had taken from English were becoming too frequent and were seen as being detrimental to France’s status as a historical and international power. The arrival of the internet, however, led French lawyer Thibaut Verbiest to enquire: `How can the Touban law be applied to internet sites created in languages other than French, that may be needed for the discharge of someone’s duties? ` (2005, in Swann, 2007, p. 37). As France and other countries have discovered, the adoption of the English language for global means is a modern, national necessity.

The positive effects of English are apparent in other countries around the world. In India: `English acts as a levelling rather than divisive agent, smoothing out the intra-vernacular conflicts of a multi-lingual nation` (Chakrawarti, 2008, p. 39). While language variety in every country is vital to culture and national identity, English as an international language offers a common form to be consulted and utilised. Evidence that a global language does not encroach on national identity can be seen in forthcoming changes to the English National Curriculum.

Andalo reports that: `from 2010, it will be a compulsory part of the National Curriculum for children from the age of seven to fourteen to study a modern foreign language` (2007). The English government holds foreign languages in high regard and sees them as vital to a rounded education. The English language is a stabilising force, rather than a dominating one. The evolution of global English is linked to linguistic `stabilisation` (Trudgill, 1992, p. 117); a question of international need in a digital age, rather than a means of eliminating international language diversity and national identities.

Language helps us to form ideas and process information on an individual level. It gives us our identity and allows us to make meaning within our social groups. Language will develop further as globalisation continues, as we strive to share meaning and communicate internationally. Crystal has suggested the idea of a `universal bidialectism` (2002, p. 294). His perception is that: `We may all need to be in control of two Englishes – the one which gives us our mutual or local identity, and the one which puts us in touch with the rest of the human race` (2002, p. 284).

However, it could be suggested that we will be universally tridialectal. There is the descriptive regional variation within our national language, the prescribed standard form required for educational purposes and then the newer globalised form of English with which we communicate with the world. The evolution of the English language will derive from international necessity, but will not eliminate the fact that language always returns to the individual and their place in the world. List of References Andalo, D. (2007) All Primary Schools to Teach Foreign Languages by 2010. Online]. Available at: http://www. guardian. co. uk/education/2007/mar/12/schools. uk [Accessed: 2 November 2009] Bell, A. (1997) ‘Language Style as Audience Design’. pp. 240-257, in Coupland, N. and Jaworski, A. (eds) Sociolinguistics: a Reader and Coursebook. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Bourdieu, P. (1986) ‘The Forms of Capital’. Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. 24 (1) pp. 241-258 Chakrawarti, P. (2008) ‘Decolonising and Globalising English Studies: The Case of English Textbooks in West-Bengal, India’.

English in Education. 42 (1) pp. 37-53 Cheshire, J. (1982) Variation in an English Dialect: a Sociolinguistic Study. New York: Cambridge University Press Crystal, D. (2002) The English Language: A Guided Tour of the Language. 2nd edn. London: Penguin Books Ltd Crystal, D. (2003) English as a Global Language. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Emmit et al. (2006) Language and Learning: An Introduction to Teaching. 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press Eyres, I. (2007) English for Primary and Early Years: Developing Subject Knowledge. 2nd edn.

London: SAGE Freeborn, D. (1993) Varieties of English: An Introduction to the Study of Language. 2nd edn. Basingstoke: Macmillan Giles, H. (1971) ‘Patterns of evaluation in reactions to R. P. , South Welsh and Somerset accented speech’. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 10 (1) pp. 280-281 Giles, H. and Powesland, P. (1997) Accomodation Theory pp. 232-239 in Coupland, N. and Jawowski, A. eds. (1997) Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Heardman, K. (2009) An Introduction to Linguistics – The Study of Language. [PowerPoint Presentation].

Faculty of Education: University of Plymouth Hodge, R. and Kress, G. (1988) Social Semiotics. Cambridge: Polity Press Hollis, N. (2008) The Global Brand: How to Create and Develop Lasting Brand Value in the World Market. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan Kachru, B. (2009) The Handbook of World Englishes. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell McCrum, R. et al. (2002) The Story of English. London: Faber and Faber Murphy, C. (1997) ‘The Spirit of Cotonou’. The Atlantic Monthly. 279 (1) pp. 14-16 Rhys, M. (2007) ‘Dialect Variation in English’. pp. 189-221, in Graddol, D. t al. (eds) Changing English. Abingdon: Routledge Shreeve, A. (1999) `The Power of English`. English in Education. 33 (3) pp. 1-5 Swann, J. (2007) ‘English Voices’, pp. 5-38, in Graddol, D. et al. (eds) Changing English. Abingdon: Routledge Trudgill, P. (1992) ‘Standard English: What it Isn’t’. pp. 117-128, Bex, T. and Watts, R. (eds) Standard English: The Widening Debate. London: Routledge Swann, J. and Sinka, I. (2007) ‘Style-Shifting, Code-Switching’. pp. 227-269, in Graddol, D. et al (eds) Changing English. Abingdon: Routledge

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Victor: English Language and White Community

Victor’s Last Wish Victor’s Last Wish “Victor’s Last Wish” is a realistic fiction by Kris Jitab who describes in depth the pain and hardship endured by the main character, Vickramadas Gopal who was an Indian immigrant to Malaysia. Vickramadas was known as Victor throughout the short story. He made great efforts to transform himself to be like whites who he thought were the best. “Anything and everything related to the whites was beautiful to Vickramadas. ” The author has painted a dramatic picture of sufferings and challenges of Victor in his course to attain a new identity – an Englishman.

But, his efforts did not help him to be recognised by the white men as a part of them. He was rejected by Miss Cunningham and insulted by Miss da Gama because his skin was dark in colour. He also thought that his failure to be promoted to Junior Accountant was due to his dark skin. Thus, Victor was so desperate to have his skin colour changed. He was very disappointed for not getting what he had striven so hard to achieve. As a result, he lost his hope and direction in his life. Consequently, he indulged in heavy smoking, drinking, gambling. At last, he became a thief to steal in order to pay his debt.

In one stealing, he was caught red-handed together with his accomplices. He tried to escape but unfortunately, in his escape, he fell into a tank of formic acid where his skin was turned white all over by the acid. His wish to change his skin into white was therefore realised but ironically he had lost his life. In this paper, two concepts of post colonial theory will be involved in the discussion of several issues and concerns raised by the author. The two concepts are mimicry and othering. Mimicry is best annotated through the main character, Vickramadas in the short story.

He aspired to be an Englishman. He imitated the dress, manners and language of the whites. The othering is expressed through some characters, Miss da Gama and Miss Cunningham, who assumed that they were superior to Vickramadas who had different skin colour from them. In the short story, Kris Jitab raised a colonial ideology that white men are the best and superior through Victor. Victor who obtained his tertiary education in King George College was greatly influenced by the English. He believed that the white men were gentlemen. In the very beginning of the short story, Victor paid his full respect to Mr.

Riley who was a white man. “He felt a little self-conscious-which is understandable, for he was inside the office of a white man,” indicated that Victor had a sense of inferiority in him towards the white men. When Mr. Riley pronounced his name “Vickramadas Gopal” in a way that it did not sound like Indian anymore, Vickramadas said it was very correctly pronounced. “Vickramadas beamed. He loved the way Mr. Riley pronounced his name. ” He had no will to tell Mr. Riley the correct way to pronounce his name. Everything Mr. Riley did was great and correct to Victor because he was a white man.

He told himself that there was no reason to doubt the white men. In firm thought that the white men were the best, Victor set out with the aims to be like the white and emulate them. The first thing he decided to do to make him similar to a white man was changing his Indian name into an English name. Name is the most basic element that can represent or symbolise one’s culture and tradition. But, Victor had ignored the importance of his name to claim himself as an Indian. He was willing to sacrifice his name in order to fit into the white community. Beside his name, he was willing to abandon his religion.

He was an educated person but the educated mind of his could not help him to think rationally. He wanted to be converted to Christianity because he thought being a Christian would make him the same as the whites. He was actually using the religion as a stepping-stone to his goal. However, Victor failed to realise that the white men would never accept him as a part of them for his skin was dark in colour. In the short story, English was viewed as an important language to success. When Malaya was colonised by the English, English language was used as medium of instruction in Education and Politic.

Victor could sense a need to master the English language as he was working for the white. In order to bring about his aim to emulate the white man, Victor concluded that all he needed to pay attention to was his speech. He attempted to improve his English speaking. He eliminated his Indian ways of speaking, which were shaking head and rolling his tongue while speaking, to speak like a white man. Victor viewed English as a powerful tool for him to advance in his career. If he could speak English fluently, he would gain confidence and deserved to be respected by the others.

Moreover, he knew that not all of the Englishmen spoke good English. Thus, if he could master the language, he could prove that he was actually better than the white man. He could also be a gentleman like the white man. Besides the language, Victor also followed the ways the white men dress and dine. He was now a chameleon that had transformed his outward appearance to adapt himself to the white man’s lifestyle and culture. He was in an illusion that he was a white man when he spoke, dressed and dined like a white man. He refused to admit that he was an Indian anymore. I’m a Christian” is Victor’s answer to the question, “what are you? ” which was asked by his acquaintance. He even behaved like a white man and started to correct others who were not behaving like him. For instance, when his friends did not eat their soup properly like gentlemen, he volunteered to give advices to them on how to eat the soup. “First of all, you shouldn’t slurp” and next “You hold your bowl by the edge facing you, and as you spoon your soup move your spoon away from you. ” Author also indicates that pursuing one’s dream blindly will cause one to lose himself or herself gradually.

Victor who was too possessed with his quest to attain a new identity lost himself as the story progresses. The rejection of the white man towards Victor to be part of them forced him to wander and seek companionship among the tappers as well as others outside the estate. He had tried so hard to improve his English and behave like a white man but now he had to go down to the tappers’ level, speak their kind of language and indulge in the type of activities that they preferred. He was repeating the action that he did to adapt himself to the white community.

He was confused and led a strange dual-role life. His mind was in turmoil. He did not know where he was heading towards. Initially, Victor was a happy person. He thanked all his Hindu Gods for helping him to get the job. But he changed when he failed twice to be promoted to Junior Accountant. He lost all his will to strive anymore. He even cursed the Almighty for failing him to achieve his ultimate goal-marrying Miss Cunningham. All his unfulfilled desires caused him to lose his own personality. At the end of the short story, Victor totally changed.

He indulged in smoking, drinking, gambling and even stealing from his own company. Victor used to believe that “the white men are gentlemen” in the beginning of the short story. This perspective of his changed. His respect towards the white men also deteriorated when he received unfair treatment from them. Mr. Hemming had promised to promote Victor to Junior Accountant after Mr. George left the post. But, this promise had made to be broken when Mr. Gross came to replace Mr. George as the Junior Accountant. After this incident, Victor stopped to admire the white men.

He started to not dress like a white man anymore. He even talked harshly to Mr. Hemming who asked about his new mode of dressing. “What happened to all your white clothes? ” “I shoved them all up my arsehole. ” Victor no longer treated Mr. Hemming, a white man, as a gentleman. He had lost his desire to be an Englishman as he abandoned their dress and manners of speech. From the main character, Victor, the author tried to tell the readers that humans have limited ability. There is something which is out of our control. For an example, we are unable to change other people’s perspective on us.

Though Victor had tried his very best to speak, dress and behave like a white man, the white men’s perspective on him remained unchanged. They still saw Victor as an inferior whose skin was dark in colour. Miss Cunnigham could not accept Victor’s proposal for he had dark colour skin. Victor was so frustrated when Miss da Gama insulted him as a stinking “black ape”. His anger caused him to slap Miss da Gama. Consequently, he was beaten up by the white men. No white man or any Eurasian club members was willing to stand at the same side as Victor.

All the white men formed a judgement that Victor was wrong. Victor was perceived as an inferior who had no right to fight back. This caused Victor to feel so helpless. He understood that he would never be accepted as a part of white men despite his great effort. He had sacrificed most of his time and money in order to get the membership of the Eurasian Club. But, the membership had been revoked due to a single deed, which was fighting back after he was insulted badly. Lastly, minority groups of any community will suffer from indiscernible oppression.

In the short story, Victor felt that he had been oppressed. He had not been upgraded for ages although he performed pretty well in his job. When he entered the company- Hancock Doherty Plantation, Mr. Hemming told him that the company rewarded capable staff and virtually the sky was the limit. But Victor discovered that it was not true. Two raw white men instead of Victor, who was more experienced, were promoted to Junior Accountant before him caused him to be subjected to unfairness. “The sky’s the limit” was now a lie to him. In his opinion, his dark skin was the limitation in his career advancement.

In “Victor’s Last Wish”, the main character, Victor had put in his full effort to transform himself to be like the whites who he perceived as superiors. He imitated the whites’ language, dress and manners. Unfortunately, his efforts to transform himself were not recognised by the white men. He was still perceived as a dark skin Indian who was inferior to the white men. Victor was so disappointed for not getting what he had striven so hard to achieve. He had abandoned his culture and religion to adapt himself to the white community but he received nothing in return.

He was oppressed and discriminated by the white men due to his dark skin. Finally, Victor lost himself and indulged in sins as well as crimes. At the end of the story, Victor’s wish to have his skin colour changed was realised when he fell into a tank of formic acid. But, ironically he had lost his life. The sense of inferiority in Victor had urged him to transform himself to be like his superiors. Unfortunately, he lost himself and his own identity in the process of transforming. It is not worth to sacrifice our own self and identity to achieve something that will never belongs to us.

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English Is the Only Foreign Language Worth Learning

English is the only foreign language worth learning I likely diasgree with this statement. Every language is worth learning because it is how we communicate with each other. English is third most spoken language in the world, after Chinese and Spanish. I think English is leading language on this planet because Chinese and Spanish are spoken only in few countries. There are approximately 370 million native English speakers all around the world. On top that, there are roughly the same amout who use English as second or third language.

And let’s not forget about technologies. Nowadays, it’s hard to find a device without built-in English interface. Is is also considered as the language of international business. In my honest opinion, I’d recommend to learn as many languages as possible. It doesn’t matter if it’s French, Dutch, Spanish, Mandarin, Korean or any other language. It breaks the language barrier between people. Few years ago, some teacher of mine told me that I have to learn as many languages as possible because it is my treasure. The treasure that cannot be taken away from me.

Since then I usually visualize language as a key that unlocks the world to me. Knowing other languages greatly increases the number of people on the globe with whom you can communicate. You can have friends, pen pals and spouses from all over the world. In addition, people with multilingual skills look more attractive to employers. Chances are that knowing languages will open up employment opportunities that you would not have had otherwise. With greater language skills you can easily raise the amount of your salary.

There are other advantages of learning languages. If you know foreign language it gives you the opportunity to step outside your comfort zone and have a deeper understanding of foreign cultures through books, songs and other aspects of culture. Any language is wonderful way to expand your horizon. In conclusion, we are only in the beginning of the journey through our life. Let’s not waste our time and learn languages so we can interact with as many people as possible. Any new language is a new opportunity for you.

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Causes of Mass Failure in English Language

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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences

Vol 3 (1) January 2012

Causes of rising failure of the students’ in the subject of English at Secondary Level Gulap Shahzada (Corresponding & Principal author) Institute of Education & Research University of Science & Technology, Bannu, Pakistan [email protected] com Dr. Safdar Rehman Ghazi Institute of Education & Research University of Science & Technology, Bannu, Pakistan [email protected] com Dr.

Umar Ali Khan Director Institute of Education & Research Gomal University DIKhan, Pakistan [email protected] com Doi: 10. 5901/mjss. 2012. 03. 01. 603 Abstract Purpose of this research was to find out causes of rising failure of the students’ in the subject of English at Secondary Level. This study was descriptive in nature. All the male secondary schools in district Bannu constituted population of this study. From 50 secondary schools 100 English teachers were randomly selected as a sample of the study.

A questionnaire for secondary school teachers was developed to collect data. To analyze and interpret data, simple percentage was used. Results of the study showed that majority of the respondents approved that teacher of English are not qualified and well trained, teachers of English do not teach English in a proper manner, Audio- Visual aids are not used in English class, The course is not compatible to the present time, teachers of linguistics are not present in our schools, English is given importance in the annual progress of the students in school.

It was recommended that Qualified and well trained teachers may be appointed for English, teachers of English may use modern teaching method instead of traditional methods, Audio visual aids may be used such as language lab, gramophone, English course may be made compatible to the present time, Teachers may be encouraged to get linguistics knowledge. Keywords: English language, Audio, Visual aids, Communication, International 1. Introduction The kind of Education, offered to their people by the countries of the world is always related to their progress and advancement.

The more the people of societies are Educated, the more they are civilized and well disciplined. It is a fact –universally recognized, that Education is the prime key to moral, cultural, political and socio-economic development of a nation. Islam being a revolutionary faith made it obligatory on every man and woman to acquire knowledge and exerted them undertake long and tedious journey to distant land in search of it. Emphasizing the importance of Education and learning in Islam it is enough to note that the first revelation of the Prophet was “Read in the name of thy Lord who created”.

It is through Education that a person gets an insight to understand and resolve his problems as well as those of his society (Government of Pakistan, 1998).

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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences

Vol 3 (1) January 2012 Secondary Education is considered to be an important sub sector of the entire Education system. If it provides middle level workers for the economy on one hand, and on the other, it acts as a feeder for the higher level of Education.

The quality of Higher Education depends upon the quality of secondary Education which is expected to produce high quality professionals in different fields of Social, Economic and Political life of the country. Thus Secondary level of Education therefore, requires to be organized in such a way that it should prepare young men and women for the pursuit of Higher Education, as well as make them able to adjust with their practical lives meaningfully and productively (Bhatti, 1987).

An excellent opportunity is, therefore provided by four years of secondary education to the Educators and Educationists to conceive and launch programs which initiate the learners in to proper forms of behaviour and attitudes, which leads to decent productive and peaceful life in future (Govt of Pakistan, 1998). According to Encyclopedia Britannica (2005), a system of conventional, spoken or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, communicate is called a language.

No nation on the globe can make progress in all fields of life, without having proficiency and good command of English. It is a great wonder that quality of instruction in English and results of the Examinations: in the subject of English were the lowest of all the other subjects. The medium by which we communicate our thoughts and feelings to our fellowmen , the tool with which we conduct our business or government, the vehicle in the Science, Philosophy, the poetry of the race have been transmitted is surely worthy of study . It is fact that most of the time and energy is consumed in teaching and learning of English.

In spite of all these our students are weak in English. So the government realized the importance of English and has made it compulsory from the very first level. According to Aggarwal (1995 ) command over English is a vehicle of thought and lack of command over it is bound to make thoughts inexpressible, only those who understand any language can express themselves in that language. This is the age of Science and technology, and no country can afford isolation from the social, Educational, Scientific and cultural movements profession like Engineering, Medicines, Agriculture and Industries.

After all English is the language of the greatest power of the world. It spread as the language of the colonies of Britain in Africa and Asian countries (Griffer, 2002). The power of English will be increased by globalization, United States, World Bank, IMF etc. will control these jobs, which have started operating increasingly in English. This trend will increase the demand for English Schooling, which will make parents invest in English at the cost of their own languages (Skutnabb, 2000).

According to Nicholas (1998), in the teaching of English, the teachers generally use Translation Method which is an old Method of Teaching; therefore, our students cannot get command over English language, as evident from the fact that there are a large number of students who fail in English at Secondary level. So, in light of the above mentioned facts the knowledge of English language is most important for a nation, but majority of the students fail in English because of lack of language learning Environment, Outdated curriculum, rigid Teaching Methods and incompetent English language Teachers in the Academic and professional Areas.

Functional grammar is not taught and practiced, in the classrooms more importance is given to the teaching of English text-Books. For the study of English successfully, the teacher must help the students to acquire four Art skills in the language, namely; speaking, reading, listening and writing (Kolawole, 1998). 2. The Importance of English The importance of the English language is an open secret . We sees in our society that a little child whom we say the best philosopher is also in the struggle of learning the English language.

Besides that we have remained the colony of the British Empire, therefore, we have the natural inclination towards the English language. The importance of the English language is naturally very great. English is the language not only of 606 ISSN 2039? 2117 Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences

Vol 3 (1) January 2012 England but of the extensive dominions and colonies associated in the British Empire, and it is the language of the United States spoken by over 260 million people, it is in the number who speak it the largest of the occidental languages.

English speaking people constitute about one tenth of the world’s population English, however, is not the largest language in the world. The more conservative estimates of the population of china would indicate that Chinese is spoken by about 450 million people. But his numerical ascendancy of English among European languages can be seen by a few comparative figures. Russian, next in size to English, is spoken by about 140 millions people, Spanish by 135 millions; German by 90 millions, Portuguese by 63 millions, French by 60 millions; Italian by 50 millions.

Thus at the present time English has the advantage in numbers over al other western languages. Bu the importance of a language is not alone a matter of numbers or territory; it depends also on the importance of the people who speak it. The importance of a language is inevitably associated in the mind of the world with the political role played by the nations using it and their fluency in international affairs; with the confidence people feel in financial position and the certainty with which they will meet their obligations i. e. pay their debts to other nations, meet the interest on their bonds, maintain the gold or other basis of their business enterprise and the international scope of their commerce; with the conditions of life under which the great mass of their people live; and with the part played by them in art and literature and music, in science and invention, in exploration and discovery. English is the mother tongue of nations whose combined political influence, economic soundness, commercial activity, social well being and scientific and cultural contributions to civilization give impressive support to its numerical precedence (Albert, 1983).

A study was conducted by Sabiha Mansoor of Agha Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan on culture and teaching of English as a second language for Pakistani students in the year 2008. If we have to make, the teaching of English in Pakistan we need to reform and restructure the teaching of English in Pakistan, as this study reveals. Not only would this involve an understanding of the needs of the English Students, but also the place of culture both local and global in their language learning process.

We would have to take in to account the sociolinguistic aspects of English in the Pakistani as well as the international context while redressing and restructure the English literature course. To make the learning of English interesting and useful for the learners, Pakistani English teachers will have to take cognizance of the relationship between language and culture. If local culture is included in to the curriculum, methodology and teaching materials of TESL, it would make, learning easier and more meaningful for Pakistani students. Vocabulary the most obvious influence of language and culture on thought.

The researcher pointed out that presently the material used for teaching, Family background is the most important and most weighty factor in determining the academic performance. A study was conducted by Shafiullah Khan of university of science and technology Bannu on the causes of failure in the subject of English at secondary level in district Bannu, in the year, 2007. The major findings of the result related to this area of study were given as under: 1. Majority of the respondents reported that untrained teachers are one of the causes of student’s failure in SSC. 2.

Majority of the teachers agreed that overcrowded class room is the cause of student’s failure in English. 3. Majority of respondents approved that SSC students are overcrowded and it is the cause of failure. 4. Majority of the teachers accepted that old system of examination is the cause of failure. 5. Majority of the respondents approved that English is the difficult subject. Keeping in view the importance of the problem this study was designed to know the causes of the rising failure in the subject of English. 607 ISSN 2039? 2117 Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences Vol 3 (1) January 2012 . Statement of the Problem The problem under the study was to investigate the causes of rising failure of the students in the subject of English at secondary level. 4. Objectives of the Study Following was the main objective of the study. 1. To find out causes of the rising failure of the students in the subject of English among students at secondary level. 2. To give suggestion for the improvement of the situation. 5. Significance of the Study Education plays a vital role in the progress of any country of the world. Those nations who have equipped themselves with better education enjoy their prestigious status amongst the world.

Today is the age of English language. English language is being taught as a compulsory subject in Pakistan. Being a foreign language, the teaching and learning English is a problem not only for the students but also for the teachers too. This study will be significant for the following reasons for both the teachers and students and curriculum developers. 1. The study may be helpful in finding the causes of rising failure in English. 2. The study may be helpful for the teachers in order to equip themselves with modern methodology and techniques regarding the teaching of English 3.

The study may be helpful in developing the proper curriculum for English. 6. Delimitation of the Study The study was delimited to all the male English teachers at secondary level in district Bannu. 7. Research Methodology This research was aimed to find out causes of the rising failure of the students in the subject of English at Secondary Level. This study was descriptive in nature. The following methodology was used: 7. 1 Population All the Govt. secondary schools in of district Bannu constituted population of this study. 7. 2 Sample One hundred English teachers of secondary level were selected from 50 secondary schools s a sample using simple random sampling technique. 7. 3 Research Instrument A questionnaire was developed with the help of research expert. It was administered to 30 students as pilot run in order to remove any ambiguity in the statements. 608 ISSN 2039? 2117 Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences Vol 3 (1) January 2012 7. 4 Data Collection The questionnaires were personally among the 100 teachers who were randomly selected. The researcher personally remained there in order to remove any misunderstanding in the questionnaire. 7. 5.

Analysis of Data The data collected were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted in the light of the objectives of the study. Simple percentage was used for analysis of data. 8. Findings 1. 0% teachers are strongly agree, 0% teachers are agree, 0% teachers are somewhat agree. 39% teachers are disagree and 61% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “Teachers of English are qualified and well trained”. 2. 0% teachers are strongly agree, 0% teachers are agree, 0% teachers are somewhat agree, 64% teachers are disagree and 36% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ Teacher of English teaches English in a proper way”. . 45% teachers are strongly agree, 54% teachers are agree, 1% teachers are somewhat agree, 0% teachers are disagree and 0% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ Teacher of English takes his class regularly”. 4. 52% teachers are strongly agree, 42% teachers are agree, 2% teachers are somewhat agree, 4% teachers are disagree and 0% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ Teachers of English explain difficult words in an easy way”. 5. 6% teachers are strongly agree, 36% teachers are agree, 10% teachers are somewhat agree, 8% teachers are disagree and 0% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ Teachers of English comes with full preparation for his lesson”. 6. 12% teachers are strongly agree, 11% teachers are agree, 2% teachers are somewhat agree, 29% teachers are disagree and 46% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ Audio-Visual aids are used in the teaching of English”. 7. %5 teachers are trongly agree, 5% teachers are agree, 3% teachers are somewhat agree, 37% teachers are disagree and 50% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ Syllabus of English is lengthy”. 8. 3% teachers are strongly agree, 7% teachers are agree , 14% teachers are somewhat agree, 20% teachers are disagree and 66% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ syllabus of English is difficult”. 9. 3% teachers are strongly agree, 6% teachers are agree, 0% teachers are somewhat agree, 40% teachers are disagree and 50% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ The course is compatible to the present time”. 0. 27% teachers are strongly agree, 13% teachers are agree, 5% teachers are somewhat agree, 20% teachers are disagree and 35% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ There are suitable number of English periods in timetable”. 11. 19% teachers are strongly agree, 31% teachers are agree, 20% teachers are somewhat agree, 10% teachers are disagree and 20% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ The length of time of an English period is suitable”. 12. 3% teachers are strongly agree, 34% teachers are agree, 8% teachers are somewhat agree, 10% teachers are strongly agree and 5% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ Tests are taken regularly in an English class”. 609 ISSN 2039? 2117 Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences Vol 3 (1) January 2012 13. 12% teachers are agree, 8% teachers are strongly agree, 0% teachers are somewhat agree, 43% teachers are disagree and 37% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ teachers of linguistic are present for teaching English”. 4. 40 % teachers are strongly agree, 35% teachers are agree, 10% teachers are somewhat agree, 8% teachers are disagree and 7% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ Headmaster asks about performance from our teacher”. 15. 36% teachers are strongly agree, 28% teachers are agree, 6 % teachers are somewhat agree, 20% teachers are disagree and 10% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ Head master takes interest in our English Lesson”. 16. 30% teachers are strongly gree, 21% teachers are agree, 8% teachers are somewhat agree21% teachers are disagree and 20% teachers are agree to the statement that “ duration of the period is reasonable”. 17. 30% teachers are strongly agree, 37% teachers are agree, 7% teachers are somewhat agree, 20% teachers are disagree and 6% teachers strongly disagree to the statement that “ Monthly tests are given at school”. 18. 38% teachers are strongly agree, 40% teachers are agree, 5% teachers are somewhat agree, 10% teachers are disagree and 10% teachers are disagree to the statement that “ period of English lesson begins in time”. 19. 3% teachers are strongly agree, 33% teachers are agree, 4% teachers are somewhat agree, 10% teachers are disagree and 10% teachers are strongly disagree to the statement that “ English is given importance in the annual progress of the student in school”. 20. 30% teachers are strongly agree, 15% teachers are agree, 30% teachers are somewhat agree, 10% teachers are disagree and 15% teachers strongly disagree to the statement that “ The method of setting English paper is correct”. 9. Conclusions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Teacher of English are not qualified and well trained. Teachers of English don not teach English in a proper manner.

They are teaching through traditional (grammar translation) method. Teachers of English take their classes regularly. Teachers of English come to class with preparation. Audio- Visual aids are not used in English class. The course is not compatible to the present time. Teachers of linguistics are not present in our schools. English is given importance in the annual progress of the students in school. 10. Recommendations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Qualified and well trained teachers may be appointed for English. Teachers who have command over pronunciation, functional grammar and vocabulary.

Teachers of English may use modern teaching method instead of traditional methods. Direct method of teaching English may be used because it is a natural method of teaching a language. Audio visual aids may be used such as language lab; cassette player, computer and English talking dictionary are very helpful in teaching a language. English course may be made compatible to the present time. Native literature should be included in the curriculum instead of foreign, in order to arouse interest of the students. Teachers may be encouraged to get linguistics knowledge. They may be trained in phonology and phonetics. 10 ISSN 2039? 2117 Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences Vol 3 (1) January 2012 References Aggarwal J. C. 1995. Essentials of Examination System, Vikas Publishing House (pvt) Ltd Bhatti, M. A. 1987. Secondary Education in Pakistan: Perspective Planning. National Education Council, Islamabad. Pakistan. pp. 223242. Brutt- Griffler, J. (2002). Word English. A study of its development. Clevedon, England. Multilingual Matters. Government of Pakistan. 1998. National Education Policy ,Ministry of Education , Islamabad,Pakistan. pp. 45-47. Khan, Shafiullah (2007).

Failure in the Subject of English at SSC Level . A Master Thesis ,University of Science and Technology ,Bannu. Sabiha Mansoor (2008) Culture and teaching of English as a second language for Pakistani students, Agha Khan University Karachi, Pakistan. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove (2000). Linguistic Genocide in Education – or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights? Mahwah, N. J. : Lawrence Erlbaum (also 2008, Delhi: Orient Longman). Kolawole (1997). ‘Essentials of Language Learning and Language Teaching’. In E. T. O. Bamisaiye (Ed. ). Studies in Language and Linguistics. Ibadan: Montem Publishers. Nicholas , H. (1982).

A History of Foreign World in English , 48 Governors Street , London , UK. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2005, vol 13. Delhi, India . pp. 12-16. Causes of rising failure of the students in the subject of English (N0=100) Strongly agree =SA, Agree =A, somewhat agree =SWA, Disagree =DA, strongly disagree= SDA SA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Teacher of English is qualified and well trained. Teacher of English teaches English in a proper manner. Teacher of English teaches his class regularly. Teacher of English explains difficult words in an easy way. Teacher of English comes with l preparation for his lesson.

Audio-visual aids are used in the teaching of English. Syllabus of English is lengthy. Syllabus English is difficult. The course is compatible to the present time. There is suitable number of English periods in timetable. The time of an English period is suitable. Monthly test are taken regularly in an English class. Teachers of linguistic are present for teaching English. head master asks about our performance from our English teacher The Head master takes interests in our English class duration of the periods is reasonable The 1st quarter, 3rd quarter and annual examination are given in School. he periods begin in time. English is given importance in the annual progress of the students in school. The method of setting the English papers is correct. 0% 0% 45% 52% 46% 12% 5% 3% 3% 27% 19% 43% 12% 40% 36% 30% 30% 38% 43% 30% A 0% 0% 54% 42% 36% 11% 5% 7% 6% 13% 31% 34% 8% 35% 28% 21% 37% 40% 33% 15% SWA 0% 0% 1% 2% 10% 2% 3% 14% 0% 5% 20% 8% 0% 10% 6% 8% 7% 5% 4% 30% DA 39% 64% 0% 4% 8% 29% 37% 20% 40% 20% 10% 10% 43% 8% 20% 21% 20% 10% 10% 10% SDA 61% 36% 0% 0% 0% 46% 50% 66% 50% 35% 20% 5% 37% 7% 10% 20% 6% 7% 10% 15% 611

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Spanish and Italian Borrowings to the English Language

Romanic languages, group of languages belonging to the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. They are spoken by about 670 million people in many parts of the world. Among the more important Romanic languages are Catalan, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish. My report is particularly about Italian and Spanish borrowings to the English language. Spanish borrowings appeared in English in 16 century. Historic circumstances which influenced on these borrowings are associated with some geographic discoveries at that time.

There was a colonization of the South and North America by the Spanish. So the close cooperation with Spain contributed to the developing of borrowings from Spanish into English language. In 16 century close political and economic ties of England with Spain and of Spain with France led to borrowings both directly from Spanish and through the French language. In the beginning of the 16th century there were many Spaniards in England due to dynastic relations between England and Spain. So England inherited many Spanish words which related to Spanish manners.

Associated essay: Reasons for Failure in English Language

Many Spanish words have come to us from three primary sources: many of them entered American English in the days of Mexican and/or Spanish cowboys working in what is now the U. S. Southwest. Some words were borrowed with the Spanish culture-dances and musicals instruments. Words of Caribbean origin entered English by way of trade. The other major source is the names of foods whose names have no English equivalent, as the intermingling of cultures has expanded our diets as well as our vocabulary. There are the following semantic groups: ) trade terms: cargo- ????, embargo- ??????????, contraband-???????????; b) names of dances and musical instruments: tango, rumba, habanera, guitar; c) names of vegetables and fruit: banana, cocoa , chocolate, cigar, cork – ??????, ???? ?????????? ??????, potato, tobacco, tomato. All of these were the objects of trade. They were borrowed from Spain to England. Anglo-Spanish War also greatly enlarged the vocabulary of English language which included such military terms: galleon – ??????, ??????? ???????, guerilla – ???????????? ?????.

Besides during the Renaissance period the whole layer of everyday Spanish words came to the English language. For ex: bravada – ???????????, canoe – ?????, ?????, Negro – ??????????, ranch – ?????????????? ?????, desperado – ?????????, ???????, peccadillo – ??????. In XIX century many borrowings from Spanish were brought through American literature. Such words as: cigarette, lasso, mustang – ????? ??????. There are following words among the recently borrowed ones: macho, amigo, gringo – ?????.

As we see, the majority of borrowings from Spanish retain their shape and are commonly used in English in the stylistic purposes to give the narration some Spanish shade. Of course it makes our speech more interesting and shows that we are culturally enriched. For example, we can say “adios” instead of “bye” to diversify our communication. English| Spanish| Alcove| Alcoba| Alfalfa| Al falfa| Artichoke| Alcarchofa| Apricot| Albaricoque| Calibre| Calibre| | Armada| Armado| Apricot| Albaricoque|

Binnacle| Bitacula| The Italian language had the strongest influence on the English language in the Renaissance period. The art and literature had the great importance for the whole European culture. Italy was the leading country in the economic, politic, cultural fields, so familiarity with the rich Italian literature of this period, painting, sculpture and architecture, traveling to Italy, an interest in the country itself, was reflected in the loans from the Italian language.

We should notice that, due to the wide spread of Italian debt in the European languages?? , some Italian words were borrowed to the English language, not directly but through other languages. Most of the Italian words was borrowed through French. And only in the XVI century, the borrowings were directly from the Italian language. The earliest borrowings related to trade and military affairs. There were borrowed the following words from the field of commerce and finance: ducat – coin, million – million, lombard – pawnshop, bank – bank.

From the field of military: alarm – alarm, brigand – bandit, bark – bark, colonel – Colonel, squadron – squadron, sentinel – guard, pistol – gun. The greatest number of words borrowed from Italian related to the field of art, literature, music, theater and architecture. For example, canto – song, sonnet – a sonnet, stanza – stanza, slogan, model – model, miniature – miniature, madonna – Madonna, fresco – fresco, balcony – balcony, mezzanine – mezzanine, mezzanine and so on.

Especially a lot of borrowing were from the field of music, such as: – The names of musical instruments: piano, violin, piccolo; – The name of singing voices: bass, baritone, alto, soprano; – The name of music: opera, sonata, aria. Among the 20-th century Italian borrowings we can mention : gazette, incognitto, autostrada, fiasco, fascist, dilettante, grotesque, graffitti etc. We should be notice that there are used even whole phraseological combinations in English, for example, sotto voce – whisper.

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People Whose Native Language Is Not English

People whose native language is not English, but who wish to learn English as a second language, must learn English as a new language, as a skill, as an additional means of communication. They have to learn how to pronounce strange words, and which syllables to emphasise, and what rhythms and tonal pitches should be used. But people whose mother tongue is English do not have to go to school to learn these things, they learn it automatically, from their parents, their relatives, their friends and from everyday life.

For example, they do not have to ‘learn’ the grammar structure, or the various forms for past, present and future tenses; they just acquire that ability subconsciously and instinctively, from sheer exposure to the language; they do not consciously ‘know’ the rules of grammar, and they probably could not even explain them. By the age of three, or maybe even earlier, they just automatically know what words to use in many situation and what form those words should take.

However, later, as part of their formal educational training, they will have ‘English’ lessons at school, along with other subjects such as Geography and History and Mathematics etc. They may be given writing practice, and the opportunities to read literature that will expand their communication and learning skills. They will be encouraged to read and write stories and poetry, and will be given opportunities to become more and more familiar with their native tongue and how it is used in different ways to communicate information and ideas. They do not need to learn to ‘understand’ the English language.

They can already do that, but by doing ‘English’ as a school subject, they will expand their vocabulary; discover alternative, and maybe better, ways to express themselves. In doing so, any little ‘mistakes’ in their English will be corrected along the way. ) SUMMARY •Those who are learning English as a ‘second language’ are learning it as an entirely new language. It is not easy to do this, but well worth the effort. •Native-English speakers do not have to learn ‘English’, they already ‘know’ English! But, by learning English as a school subject, their natural ‘English’ is enhanced and developed.

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English as a Global Language

Inroduction This is a long term desire which was in my mind on Globalization Of English. As we see the World most of the people speak english Some as their native language and some othe ras a second language and specially some learn english to connect or communicater with other people. So many people says it si an global language But It is not the worlds’ 1st highest spoken language. Its only 2nd highest spoken language. Now a question raises for me i think for others too “how can english language be the Global language ??? there raises the problem Any way i have find somwe points to clarify English as a gobal language So we will just check out to clear all our doubts English As A Global Language over the past year I’ve been searching, whether that English is well on its way to being the global language. Typically, my friends look puzzled about why I would even bother about it. They say firmly, Of course. Then they start talking about the Internet. It’s not that I believe they’re actually wrong.

But the idea of English as a global language doesn’t mean what they think it does — at least, not according to people I’ve interviewed whose professions are bound up especially closely in what happens to the English language. English has inarguably achieved some sort of global status. Whenever we turn on the news to find out what’s happening in East Asia, or the Balkans, or Africa, or South America, or practically anyplace, local people are being interviewed and telling us about it in English.

Related article: Causes of Mass Failure in English Language

Indeed, by now lists of facts about the amazing reach of our language may have begun to sound awfully familiar. Have we heard these particular facts before, or only others like them? . It is the official language of the European Central Bank, even though the bank is in Frankfurt and neither Britain nor any other predominantly English-speaking country is a member of the European Monetary Union. It is the language in which black parents in South Africa overwhelmingly wish their children to be educated. This little fact comes from British sources

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Teaching Competency of English Language Teachers

COMMUNICATION AS AN IMPORTANT SOFT SKILL IN LANGUAGE TEACHING Mrs. N. Mahalakshmi D. T. Ed. , M. A. , M. Ed. , NET. , PGDACE. Research Scholar Department of Education Annamalai University ————————————————- [email protected] com Abstract ————————————————- English is being taught as a second language in our Indian schools. As it is our national language, much importance is given to this language in our education system. The language teachers are expected to be more competent to develop the basic skills of the language so as to develop the communicative competence of the learners.

Now-a-days, soft skills are considered as another important aspect of the teachers for efficient teaching. Regarding the soft skills, communication skill is the most important one that is needed by the language teachers to optimize the learning experience of the students. This paper tries to reveal the need of Effective Communication Skill as one of the important soft skill for the language teachers. The concept of soft skills Soft skills can be said to incorporate all aspects of generic skills that include the cognitive elements associated with non-academic skills.

Soft skills are identified to be the most critical skills in the current global education and the era of technology. The reorientation of education for sustainability also relates the importance of these soft skills. Soft skills in Education Vast research and expert opinions have been sought in the effort to determine the specific soft skills to be implemented and used in higher institutions of learning. Based on the research findings obtained, seven soft skills have been identified and chosen to be implemented in higher education as: * Communicative skills * Thinking skills and problem solving skills * Team work force Life-long learning and information management * Entrepreneur skill * Ethics, moral and professionalism and * Leadership skill The important soft skill needed for the language teacher Communication is as important aspect of language teaching. Effective communication skills are required for effective language teaching. Teachers of English are expected to have good command over the language and possess excellent communication skills. Communication skills include – using the target language effectively, the way of speaking, body language and facial expressions, pitch and tone of voice and interpersonal skills.

It is possible that they have some presuppositions about communication and communication skills which are considered to be one major factor in becoming an effective teacher. According to Dettmer, Thurston, and Dyck (1996), West and Cannon (1988), and Carl Rogers (1962) communication is among the most important skills for educators to possess. The role of communication is emphasized also by Lunenburg & Ornstein (1996, p. 176) as: “Communication is the lifeblood of the school; it is a process that links the individual, the group, and the organization”.

A gap in meaning between the intended and the received message can cause problems in the outcome of even the best teaching decision. Poor listening skills, ambiguous use of verbal and nonverbal language, poor semantics, and differing values are all items that can distort a message. To become effective communicators, educators must be aware of these potential problems and consciously work to eliminate them from their classroom interactions. They must also become knowledgeable about the importance of language in the learning process which gives a vital role to language teachers.

Body language of the teacher In the communication skill, the body language and the facial expression of the teacher is of much importance which arrests students’ participation. The ‘presence’ that a teacher has in the classroom is crucial in determining ‘how much’ learning takes place and ‘how well’ learning takes place. A tension free atmosphere is extremely important in language learning classroom. More than what behaviour reveals, it is the non-verbal behaviour that is of significance. Self respect, confident behaviour and tone and eye contact are some positive indicators.

Some of the ways in which body language can improve the desired atmosphere within the class are: * Keeping eye contact with the student you are talking to, and with every student in the class; * Standing ‘tall’ and walking in with head held high, instead of shuffling in, head bowed; * Having a calm, relaxed face – smiling and laughing easily; * Using facial expressions that show you are listening and responding to what the student is saying; * Smiling and nodding when a student is saying something; Linguistic competence versus Communicative competence Language is a tool of communication.

One can communicate ideas, thoughts, feelings, opinions, attitudes, information and even misinformation through language. Different people express the same idea in different words. Language is a tool serving four main functions. These important functions are important for effective communication in the language classroom. The important functions of the language are: * Social function * Informative function * Expressive function * Directive function Keeping in mind these four important functions of language, let’s examine if our students are effective communicators in English.

Most of our graduates are good at writing beautiful and very literary answers to questions on Shakespeare, Wordsworth and other great writers. However, their literary competence isn’t enough for them to be able to communicate effectively and efficiently in everyday situations. The ability to communicate requires us to use language to perform interpersonal functions such as starting a conversation, joining and leaving a conversation, making the hearer feel comfortable, giving options, and so on. Mere linguistic competence isn’t sufficient.

Of course, there’s no denying the value of linguistic mastery, which is the basis for communicative competence. Without words and grammar patterns, one can’t think of building communicative competence. However, rules of use are more essential than rules of grammar. Many graduates don’t know how to introduce themselves and how to introduce others; they don’t know how to ask for information politely, how to disagree tactfully, how to offer suggestions, etc. This is one very significant aspect that we need to pay attention to. Secondly, their English is bookish.

They don’t know that choice of syntax and vocabulary depends on the topic, the occasion, and the relationship between the speaker and the listener. It’s important to know what to say, when, to whom and how. Thirdly, the students need to be told that the vocabulary and syntax of spoken English are different from vocabulary and grammar of written English. They seem to be unaware of the fact that the words and grammar of spoken English are simpler than those of written English. As a result, they don’t use contracted forms and question tags while conversing and their English sounds bookish.

Developing the communication skills of the learners In language teaching developing the skill of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills should be given importance. These language skills are the foundation of communication skills. A good communicator is a keen and interested listener. Even a good listener cannot be an effective speaker. In order to be a good speaker, one has to master the accent, the rhythm and the intonation of the English language. Also one has to mind the tone of voice and make an effective use of facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, and posture.

An excellent communicator uses verbal and non-verbal language to achieve the best effect. In order to develop good communication skills of the students, the language teacher need to * develop the listening, speaking, reading and writing skills * to be able to use language to perform various functions * master the rhythm, accent and intonation of the language * understand the differences between spoken and written language * remember the difference between meanings and messages Conclusion To remedy this situation we need to connect literature teaching with life outside.

In language teaching, the academic world and the real world should not stand apart as islands. From the standpoint of the learner, the great waste in the school comes from the learner’s inability to utilize the experiences he gets outside the school. To fill up this gap, the communication skill should be given importance in language teaching. Developing communication skills of the learners requires the efficiency of language teachers. So, the communication skill should be given primary importance both at the pre-service and in-service level of the language teaching.

REFERENCE * Applbaum, L. et. al. , 1973, Fundamental Concepts in Human Communication, Confield Press, London * Brown, H. D. 1981, Principles of Language Learning & Teaching, Prentice Hall, Enlewood Cligts. * Corner, J. et. al. , 1993, Communication Studies:An Introductory Reader, Edward Arnold, London. * Dickinsen L. and Carver D. J. 1980. Steps Towards Self-direction in Foreign Language Learning in Schools. ELT. Vol. 35:1-7. * Dickinsen L. 1987. Self-instruction in Language Learning. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

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English Language and Composition

AP® English Language and Composition 2011 Free-Response Questions About the College Board The College Board is a mission-driven not-for-profit organization that connects students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board was created to expand access to higher education. Today, the membership association is made up of more than 5,900 of the world’s leading educational institutions and is dedicated to promoting excellence and equity in education.

Each year, the College Board helps more than seven million students prepare for a successful transition to college through programs and services in college readiness and college success — including the SAT® and the Advanced Placement Program®. The organization also serves the education community through research and advocacy on behalf of students, educators and schools. © 2011 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board.

Admitted Class Evaluation Service and inspiring minds are trademarks owned by the College Board. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. collegeboard. org. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www. collegeboard. org/inquiry/cbpermit. html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. collegeboard. org. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral. collegeboard. om. 2011 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION SECTION II Total time—2 hours Question 1 (Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts for one-third of the total essay section score. ) Locavores are people who have decided to eat locally grown or produced products as much as possible. With an eye to nutrition as well as sustainability (resource use that preserves the environment), the locavore movement has become widespread over the past decade.

Imagine that a community is considering organizing a locavore movement. Carefully read the following seven sources, including the introductory information for each source. Then synthesize information from at least three of the sources and incorporate it into a coherent, well-developed essay that identifies the key issues associated with the locavore movement and examines their implications for the community. Make sure that your argument is central; use the sources to illustrate and support your reasoning. Avoid merely summarizing the sources.

Indicate clearly which sources you are drawing from, whether through direct quotation, paraphrase, or summary. You may cite the sources as Source A, Source B, etc. , or by using the descriptions in parentheses. Source A Source B Source C Source D Source E Source F Source G (Maiser) (Smith and MacKinnon) (McWilliams) (chart) (Gogoi) (Roberts) (cartoon) © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. collegeboard. org. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -2- 2011 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Source A Maiser, Jennifer. 10 Reasons to Eat Local Food. ” Eat Local Challenge. Eat Local Challenge, 8 Apr. 2006. Web. 16 Dec. 2009. The following is an article from a group Weblog written by individuals who are interested in the benefits of eating food grown and produced locally. Eating local means more for the local economy. According to a study by the New Economics Foundation in London, a dollar spent locally generates twice as much income for the local economy. When businesses are not owned locally, money leaves the community at every transaction. Locally grown produce is fresher.

While produce that is purchased in the supermarket or a big-box store has been in transit or cold-stored for days or weeks, produce that you purchase at your local farmer’s market has often been picked within 24 hours of your purchase. This freshness not only affects the taste of your food, but the nutritional value which declines with time. Local food just plain tastes better. Ever tried a tomato that was picked within 24 hours? ’Nuff said. Locally grown fruits and vegetables have longer to ripen. Because the produce will be handled less, locally grown fruit does not have to be rugged” or to stand up to the rigors of shipping. This means that you are going to be getting peaches so ripe that they fall apart as you eat them, figs that would have been smashed to bits if they were sold using traditional methods, and melons that were allowed to ripen until the last possible minute on the vine. Eating local is better for air quality and pollution than eating organic. In a March 2005 study by the journal Food Policy, it was found that the miles that organic food often travels to our plate creates environmental damage that outweighs the benefit of buying organic.

Buying local food keeps us in touch with the seasons. By eating with the seasons, we are eating foods when they are at their peak taste, are the most abundant, and the least expensive. Buying locally grown food is fodder for a wonderful story. Whether it’s the farmer who brings local apples to market or the baker who makes local bread, knowing part of the story about your food is such a powerful part of enjoying a meal. Eating local protects us from bio-terrorism. Food with less distance to travel from farm to plate has less susceptibility to harmful contamination.

Local food translates to more variety. When a farmer is producing food that will not travel a long distance, will have a shorter shelf life, and does not have a high-yield demand, the farmer is free to try small crops of various fruits and vegetables that would probably never make it to a large supermarket. Supermarkets are interested in selling “Name brand” fruit: Romaine Lettuce, Red Delicious Apples, Russet Potatoes. Local producers often play with their crops from year to year, trying out Little Gem Lettuce, Senshu Apples, and Chieftain Potatoes.

Supporting local providers supports responsible land development. When you buy local, you give those with local open space—farms and pastures—an economic reason to stay open and undeveloped. Jennifer Maiser, www. eatlocalchallenge. com © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. collegeboard. org. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -3- 2011 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Source B Smith, Alisa, and J. B. MacKinnon. Plenty: One Man, One Woman, and a Raucous Year of Eating Locally.

New York: Harmony, 2007. Print. The following passage is excerpted from a book written by the creators of the 100-Mile Diet, an experiment in eating only foods grown and produced within a 100-mile radius. Food begins to lose nutrition as soon as it is harvested. Fruit and vegetables that travel shorter distances are therefore likely to be closer to a maximum of nutrition. “Nowadays, we know a lot more about the naturally occurring substances in produce,” said [Cynthia] Sass. It’s not just vitamins and minerals, but all these phytochemicals and really powerful disease-fighting substances, and we do know that when a food never really reaches its peak ripeness, the levels of these substances never get as high. ” . . . Yet when I called to confirm these facts with Marion Nestle, a professor and former chair of nutrition, food studies, and public health at New York University, she waved away the nutrition issue as a red herring. Yes, she said, our 100-mile diet—even in winter—was almost certainly more nutritious than what the average American was eating.

That doesn’t mean it is necessary to eat locally in order to be healthy. In fact, a person making smart choices from the global megamart can easily meet all the body’s needs. “There will be nutritional differences, but they’ll be marginal,” said Nestle. “I mean, that’s not really the issue. It feels like it’s the issue— obviously fresher foods that are grown on better soils are going to have more nutrients. But people are not nutrient-deprived. We’re just not nutrient-deprived. ” So would Marion Nestle, as a dietician, as one of America’s most important critics of dietary policy, advocate for local eating? Absolutely. ” Why? Because she loves the taste of fresh food, she said. She loves the mystery of years when the late corn is just utterly, incredibly good, and no one can say why: it just is. She likes having farmers around, and farms, and farmland. © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. collegeboard. org. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -4- 2011 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Source C McWilliams, James E. “On My Mind: The Locavore Myth. ” Forbes. com. Forbes, 15 Jul. 2009. Web. 16 Dec. 2009.

The following is excerpted from an online opinion article in a business magazine. Buy local, shrink the distance food travels, save the planet. The locavore movement has captured a lot of fans. To their credit, they are highlighting the problems with industrialized food. But a lot of them are making a big mistake. By focusing on transportation, they overlook other energy-hogging factors in food production. Take lamb. A 2006 academic study (funded by the New Zealand government) discovered that it made more environmental sense for a Londoner to buy lamb shipped from New Zealand than to buy lamb raised in the U.

K. This finding is counterintuitive—if you’re only counting food miles. But New Zealand lamb is raised on pastures with a small carbon footprint, whereas most English lamb is produced under intensive factory-like conditions with a big carbon footprint. This disparity overwhelms domestic lamb’s advantage in transportation energy. New Zealand lamb is not exceptional. Take a close look at water usage, fertilizer types, processing methods and packaging techniques and you discover that factors other than shipping far outweigh the energy it takes to transport food.

One analysis, by Rich Pirog of the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, showed that transportation accounts for only 11% of food’s carbon footprint. A fourth of the energy required to produce food is expended in the consumer’s kitchen. Still more energy is consumed per meal in a restaurant, since restaurants throw away most of their leftovers. Locavores argue that buying local food supports an area’s farmers and, in turn, strengthens the community. Fair enough. Left unacknowledged, however, is the fact that it also hurts farmers in other parts of the world.

The U. K. buys most of its green beans from Kenya. While it’s true that the beans almost always arrive in airplanes— the form of transportation that consumes the most energy—it’s also true that a campaign to shame English consumers with small airplane stickers affixed to flown-in produce threatens the livelihood of 1. 5 million sub-Saharan farmers. Another chink in the locavores’ armor involves the way food miles are calculated. To choose a locally grown apple over an apple trucked in from across the country might seem easy. But this decision ignores economies of scale.

To take an extreme example, a shipper sending a truck with 2,000 apples over 2,000 miles would consume the same amount of fuel per apple as a local farmer who takes a pickup 50 miles to sell 50 apples at his stall at the green market. The critical measure here is not food miles but apples per gallon. The one big problem with thinking beyond food miles is that it’s hard to get the information you need. Ethically concerned consumers know very little about processing practices, water availability, packaging waste and fertilizer application.

This is an opportunity for watchdog groups. They should make life-cycle carbon counts available to shoppers. Reprinted by Permission of Forbes Media LLC © 2010 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. collegeboard. org. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -5- 2011 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Source D Loder, Natasha, Elizabeth Finkel, Craig Meisner, and Pamela Ronald. “The Problem of What to Eat. ” Conservation Magazine. The Society for Conservation Biology, July-Sept. 2008. Web. 16 Dec. 2009.

The following chart is excerpted from an online article in an environmental magazine. © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. collegeboard. org. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -6- 2011 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Source E Gogoi, Pallavi. “The Rise of the ‘Locavore’: How the Strengthening Local Food Movement in Towns Across the U. S. Is Reshaping Farms and Food Retailing. ” Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg, 20 May 2008. Web. 17 Dec. 2009. The following is excerpted from an online article in a business magazine.

The rise of farmers’ markets— in city centers, college towns, and rural squares—is testament to a dramatic shift in American tastes. Consumers increasingly are seeking out the flavors of fresh, vine-ripened foods grown on local farms rather than those trucked to supermarkets from faraway lands. “This is not a fringe foodie culture,” says [Anthony] Flaccavento. “These are ordinary, middle-income folks who have become really engaged in food and really care about where their food comes from. ” It’s a movement that is gradually reshaping the business of growing and supplying food to Americans.

The local food movement has already accomplished something that almost no one would have thought possible a few years back: a revival of small farms. After declining for more than a century, the number of small farms has increased 20% in the past six years, to 1. 2 million, according to the Agriculture Dept. . . . The impact of “locavores” (as local-food proponents are known) even shows up in that Washington salute every five years to factory farming, the Farm Bill. The latest version passed both houses in Congress in early May and was sent on May 20 to President George W.

Bush’s desk for signing. Bush has threatened to veto the bill, but it passed with enough votes to sustain an override. Predictably, the overwhelming bulk of its $290 billion would still go to powerful agribusiness interests in the form of subsidies for growing corn, soybeans, and cotton. But $2. 3 billion was set aside this year for specialty crops, such as the eggplants, strawberries, or salad greens that are grown by exactly these small, mostly organic farmers. That’s a big bump-up from the $100 million that was earmarked for such things in the previous legislation.

Small farmers will be able to get up to 75% of their organic certification costs reimbursed, and some of them can obtain crop insurance. There’s money for research into organic foods, and to promote farmers’ markets. Senator Tom Harkin (D-Iowa) said the bill “invests in the health and nutrition of American children . . . by expanding their access to farmer’s markets and organic produce. ” Reprinted from the May 20, 2008 issue of Bloomberg BusinessWeek by special permission, copyright © 2008 by Bloomberg L. P. © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. ollegeboard. org. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -7- 2011 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Source F Roberts, Paul. The End of Food. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2008. Print. The following is excerpted from a book about the food industry. [T]he move toward local food, for all its trendiness (the more adamant adherents, known as “localvores,” strive to buy products that have traveled the least “food miles”), highlights one of the problematic pieces of the modern food economy: the increasing reliance on foods shipped halfway round the world.

Because long-distance food shipments promote profligate fuel use and the exploitation of cheap labor (which compensates for the profligate fuel use), shifting back to a more locally sourced food economy is often touted as a fairly straightforward way to cut externalities, restore some measure of equity between producers and consumers, and put the food economy on a more sustainable footing. Such a shift would bring back diversity to land that has been all but destroyed by chemical-intensive mono-cropping, provide much-needed jobs at a local level, and help to rebuild community,” argues the UK-based International Society for Ecology and Culture, one of the leading lights in the localvore movement. “Moreover, it would allow farmers to make a decent living while giving consumers access to healthy, fresh food at affordable prices. ” While localvorism sounds superb in theory, it is proving quite difficult in practice.

To begin with, there are dozens of different definitions as to what local is, with some advocates arguing for political boundaries (as in Texas-grown, for example), others using quasi-geographic terms like food sheds, and still others laying out somewhat arbitrarily drawn food circles with radii of 100 or 150 or 500 miles. Further, whereas some areas might find it fairly easy to eat locally (in Washington State, for example, I’m less than fifty miles from industrial quantities of fresh produce, corn, wheat, beef, and milk), people in other parts of the country and the world would have to look farther afield.

And what counts as local? Does food need to be purchased directly from the producer? Does it still count when it’s distributed through a mass marketer, as with Wal-Mart’s Salute to America’s Farmer program, which is now periodically showcasing local growers? The larger problem is that although decentralized food systems function well in decentralized societies—like the United States was a century ago, or like many developing nations still are—they’re a poor fit in modern urbanized societies.

The same economic forces that helped food production become centralized and regionalized did the same thing to our population: in the United States, 80 percent of us live in large, densely populated urban areas, usually on the coast, and typically hundreds of miles, often thousands of miles, from the major centers of food production. © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. collegeboard. org. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -8- 2011 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS

Source G Hallatt, Alex. “Arctic Circle. ” Comic strip. King Features Syndicate, Inc. 1 Sept. 2008. Web. 12 July 2009. The following is a cartoon from an environmentally themed comic strip. ARCTIC CIRCLE © 2008 MACNELLY. DISTRIBUTED BY KING FEATURES SYNDICATE © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. collegeboard. org. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -9- 2011 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Question 2 (Suggested time—40 minutes.

This question counts for one-third of the total essay section score. ) Florence Kelley (1859-1932) was a United States social worker and reformer who fought successfully for child labor laws and improved conditions for working women. She delivered the following speech before the convention of the National American Woman Suffrage Association in Philadelphia on July 22, 1905. Read the speech carefully. Then write an essay in which you analyze the rhetorical strategies Kelley uses to convey her message about child labor to her audience.

Support your analysis with specific references to the text. We have, in this country, two million children under the age of sixteen years who are earning their bread. They vary in age from six and seven years (in the cotton mills of Georgia) and eight, nine and ten years (in the coal-breakers of Pennsylvania), to fourteen, fifteen and sixteen years in more enlightened states. No other portion of the wage earning class increased so rapidly from decade to decade as the young girls from fourteen to twenty years.

Men increase, women increase, youth increase, boys increase in the ranks of the breadwinners; but no contingent so doubles from census period to census period (both by percent and by count of heads), as does the contingent of girls between twelve and twenty years of age. They are in commerce, in offices, in manufacturing. Tonight while we sleep, several thousand little girls will be working in textile mills, all the night through, in the deafening noise of the spindles and the looms spinning and weaving cotton and wool, silks and ribbons for us to buy.

In Alabama the law provides that a child under sixteen years of age shall not work in a cotton mill at night longer than eight hours, and Alabama does better in this respect than any other southern state. North and South Carolina and Georgia place no restriction upon the work of children at night; and while we sleep little white girls will be working tonight in the mills in those states, working eleven hours at night. In Georgia there is no restriction whatever! A girl of six or seven years, just tall enough to reach the bobbins, may work eleven hours by day or by night.

And they will do so tonight, while we sleep. Nor is it only in the South that these things occur. Alabama does better than New Jersey. For Alabama limits the children’s work at night to eight hours, while New Jersey permits it all night long. Last year New Jersey took a long backward step. A good law was repealed which had required women and [children] to stop work at six in the evening and at noon on Friday. Now, therefore, in New Jersey, boys and girls, after their 14th birthday, enjoy the pitiful privilege of working all night long.

In Pennsylvania, until last May it was lawful for children, 13 years of age, to work twelve hours at night. A little girl, on her thirteenth birthday, could start away from her home at half past five in the afternoon, carrying her pail of midnight luncheon as happier people carry their midday luncheon, and could work in the mill from six at night until six in the morning, without violating any law of the Commonwealth. If the mothers and the teachers in Georgia could vote, would the Georgia Legislature have refused at every session for the last three years to stop the work in the mills of children under twelve years of age?

Would the New Jersey Legislature have passed that shameful repeal bill enabling girls of fourteen years to work all night, if the mothers in New Jersey were enfranchised? Until the mothers in the great industrial states are enfranchised, we shall none of us be able to free our consciences from participation in this great evil. No one in this room tonight can feel free from such participation. The children make our shoes in the shoe factories; they knit our stockings, our knitted underwear in the knitting factories.

They spin and weave our cotton underwear in the cotton mills. Children braid straw for our hats, they spin and weave the silk and velvet wherewith we trim our hats. They stamp buckles and metal ornaments of all kinds, as well as pins and hat-pins. Under the sweating system, tiny children make artificial flowers and neckwear for us to buy. They carry bundles of garments from the factories to the tenements, little beasts of burden, robbed of school life that they may work for us. We do not wish this. We prefer to have our work done by men and women.

But we are almost powerless. Not wholly powerless, however, are citizens who enjoy the right of petition. For myself, I Line 5 45 50 10 55 15 60 20 65 25 70 30 75 35 80 40 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. collegeboard. org. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -10- 2011 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS shall use this power in every possible way until the right to the ballot is granted, and then I shall continue to use both. What can we do to free our consciences? There is one line of action by which we can do much.

We can enlist the workingmen on behalf of our enfranchisement just in proportion as we strive with them to free the children. No labor organization in this country ever fails to respond to an appeal for help in the freeing of the children. For the sake of the children, for the Republic in which these children will vote after we are dead, and for the sake of our cause, we should enlist the workingmen voters, with us, in this task of freeing the children from toil! 85 90 95 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. collegeboard. org.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -11- 2011 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Question 3 (Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts for one-third of the total essay section score. ) The following passage is from Rights of Man, a book written by the pamphleteer Thomas Paine in 1791. Born in England, Paine was an intellectual, a revolutionary, and a supporter of American independence from England. Read the passage carefully. Then write an essay that examines the extent to which Paine’s characterization of America holds true today.

Use appropriate evidence to support your argument. If there is a country in the world, where concord, according to common calculation, would be least expected, it is America. Made up, as it is, of people from different nations, accustomed to different forms and habits of government, speaking different languages, and more different in their modes of worship, it would appear that the union of such a people was impracticable; but by the simple operation of constructing government on the principles of society and the rights of man, every difficulty retires, and all the parts are brought into ordial unison. There, the poor are not oppressed, the rich are not privileged. . . . Their taxes are few, because their government is just; and as there is nothing to render them wretched, there is nothing to engender riots and tumults. STOP END OF EXAM © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. collegeboard. org. -12-