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Masterpieces of English Literature

The world of English literature has produced many diverse and astoundingly amazing works. Two of the most hailed pieces of literature to have graced the lives of readers throughout the ages are Beowulf and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. These two poems have been around for a great number of years and have created many ripples across the lake of time. Despite its ancient roots, Beowulf and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight continue to be regarded as two the greatest masterpieces of English literature.

This essay will try to show the impact that these two different poems have had on English literature. It will show that despite the age of both poems, they continue to be relevant up to this very day. This essay will show that it is very much important to continue the reading, the study and the appreciation of these works, Beowulf and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, as well as the other masterful pieces of English literature that have been available to schools and readers for a very long time.


Let us first dissect the epic poem, Beowulf, before we continue with the discussion of the importance of these two pieces. Beowulf was believed to have been written around the time 700 A.D. by an Anglo-Saxon poet. To this day, no one truly knows who wrote the poem but the last surviving manuscript of the poem was found to date back to the time 1000 A.D. and was speculated to have been in the hand of two different scribes. The original manuscript of Beowulf was written in the vernacular, Old English. (Melissa, 1997)

The importance of this piece to the entirety of English literature is both very simple and complex. To put it straightforwardly, Beowulf is the oldest surviving poem to have been written in Old English. This is of great importance because all of the poems recovered from that era were found to have been written in Latin. (Anonymous, 2006)

The importance of Beowulf in English literature, and in fact to the whole of world literature, is very clear even up to this very day. Because of the wars and battles raging across Europe in those earlier decades, very few literary manuscripts were able to survive. Beowulf, in fact, is the beacon and representative of the meager ten percent of the poetry written in Old English that have survived up to today. (Meyerhoff, 2006) What sets Beowulf apart from its other very few Old English counterparts is that it is an epic poem. In Britain, it has been accepted as a national epic. This is despite the debates and contestations regarding its merits as an epic poem.

The mere fact that Beowulf has survived time and history and is available to us today among the very small population of Old English works is enough to prod us to continue in our appreciation and study of the piece. But another importance of the literary piece remains in just that fact, that it has survived an era from which only very few literary works have. This suggests that scholars and even simple individuals are able to take a glimpse at the culture and traditions of that time.

Through Beowulf, we are able to see what these individuals held as important and what factors, both literary and in reality, they took into consideration. We say this not in a manner that will suggest taking Beowulf word for word as a historical timeline but rather in a manner that suggests reading deeper into Beowulf and understanding the thoughts and the emotions of the author. One such aspect of the epic poem that sheds light upon the culture of the said time is its constant use of the theme of Christianity. Although it is supposedly written in a pagan setting, the Christian theme in the poem is highly evident and unmistakable to any of its readers. (Yeager, 1999)

Perhaps the most amazing part about Beowulf as an epic poem is its resilience as a literary piece. Even though it has much merit as an aged piece and as a standard bearer of Old English poetry, Beowulf would not have survived throughout time if it did not have any other merits. The most important aspect of the epic poem, to my mind, is the fact that despite its age, it still continues to strike every reader deeply. It still calls forth the same emotions among its readers.

This is perhaps due to the way it was written. Although the events and places seen in the epic are strange to us, at the very core of the story, we find the same values and interests that are inherent in us even to this very day.  Beowulf is so well-written that even to this day, it continues to enthrall and connect with its diverse readership. No matter how old you are, no matter what country you come from, you are able to recognize the masterful workmanship put into creating Beowulf.

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

Another much acclaimed piece of English literature is Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. It was believed to have been written some time during the fourteenth century. It is considered to be a metrical romance, a romantic tale written in poetic form, about the life of Sir Gawain. (Weston, 1900)

Gawain was one of the more talked about characters of the Arthurian tradition. He far outstrips many of King Arthur’s knights in the number of romantic exploits written about his character. In Sir Gawain and the Green Knigh, Gawain exemplifies many of the virtues considered to be important in men of his stature. (Harper) This adds to the importance of the piece itself. With the different virtues that Sir Gawain is seen to have in the romantic poem, readers can easily see what the culture of the 14th century was like.

The virtues and culture held to be of importance during that time are extolled clearly in the character of Sir Gawain and can easily be identified through his various actions and descriptions in the poem. This is in contrast to other poems and literary pieces written about Gawain wherein he was portrayed as a flawed and even sometimes brutish character.

The importance of this piece may lie in the fact that its author was able to keep up a play of words wherein the reader can derive several different interpretations. This allowed for many different reactions and critics regarding the piece. (Goodlad, 1987)This is probably what kept the piece alive for so long. With regards to literature, it has opened the way for readers to regard different pieces with more wariness, viewing these pieces as perhaps holding more interpretations than that initially viewed.

It also holds much importance as a literary piece that defied the genre from which it came. Instead of relinquishing to the trend of producing literary pieces that were straightforward and direct in their presentation of storylines and themes, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight’s wordplay and alliterative presentation brought a new style of writing to the fore. To this day, we can witness many new pieces of literature that have taken tot his style of writing providing readers with much more thought-provoking and reflection-inducing pieces. It is safe to say that Sir Gawain and the Green Knight has done much to enrich English literature.


Anonymous. (2006). Beowulf. Spark Notes Retrieved 7 January 2008 from

Goodlad, L. (1987) The Gamnes of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Comitatus: A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 18(1), Retrieved 7 January 2008 from

Harper, R. Gawain. The Camelot Project at the University of Rochester Retrieved 7 January 2008 from

Meyerhoff, S. (2006). The Question of Genre in Byliny and Beowulf. The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies, 4, Retrieved 7 January 2008 from

Snell, M. (1997) Beowulf. Retrieved 7 January 2008 from

Weston, J. L. (1900) Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Retrieved 7 January 2008 from

Yeager, R. (1999) Why Read Beowulf? Humanities, 20(2) Retrieved 7 January 2008 from

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Supernatural Elements in English Literature: the Werewolves

Supernatural Elements in English Literature: The Werewolves A werewolf, also known as a lycanthrope, is a mythological or folkloric human with the ability to transform into a wolf or an anthropomorphic wolf-like creature, either purposely or after being placed under a curse and/or lycanthropic affliction through a bite or scratch from a werewolf, or some other means. This transformation is often associated with the appearance of the full moon, as popularly noted by the medieval chronicler Gervase of Tilbury, and perhaps in earlier times among the ancient Greeks through the writings of Petronius.

In addition to the natural characteristics inherent to both wolves and humans, werewolves are often attributed strength and speed far beyond those of wolves or men. The werewolf is generally held as a European character, although its knowledge spread through the world in later times. Shape-shifters, similar to werewolves, are common in tales from all over the world, most notably amongst the Native Americans, though most of them involve animal forms other than wolves.

Werewolves are a frequent subject of modern fiction, although fictional werewolves have been attributed traits distinct from those of original folklore. For example, the ideas that werewolves are only vulnerable to silver bullets or pierced by silver weapons, or that they can cause others to become werewolves by biting or wounding them derive from works of modern fiction. Werewolves continue to endure in modern culture and fiction, with books, films and television shows cementing the werewolf’s stance as a dominant figure in horror.

The werewolf of the last 60 years is largely the product of Hollywood. The first big werewolf film was The Werewolf of London (1935) followed by The Wolfman (1941), Frankenstein Meets the Wolfman (1943) and The House of Frankenstein (1944). THE CHILDREN OF LYCAON The Greeks and Romans included the werewolf in their mythology, in the story of Lycaon, the Tyrant of Arcadia. Lycaon served Zeus (pronounced as ‘zeoos’) human flesh at a banquet. In return the god transformed the evil man into a wolf, reflecting the shape of his soul.

The very first transformation scene in werewolf literature was penned by the Roman poet, Ovid. Written in the 1st Century AD, the scene shows even the ancient writers knew what readers wanted to see: … There he uttered howling noises, and his attempts to speak were all in vain. His clothes changed into bristling hairs, his arms to legs, and he became a wolf. His own savage nature showed in his rabid jaws, and he now directed against the flocks his innate lust for killing. He had a mania, even yet, for shedding blood.

But though he was a wolf, he retained some traces of his original shape. The greyness of his hair was the same, his face showed the same violence, his eyes gleamed as before, and he presented the same picture of ferocity. From Lycaon’s name we get the word “Lycanthropy” or the state of being a werewolf. From mythology, the werewolf entered legend. In the works of Herodotus and Petronius, the werewolf goes from being a mortal cursed by a god to a shape-shifting witch or warlock with evil intentions. In Petronius’ The Satyricon is a segment sometimes called “Niceros’ Story.

Stories like “Niceros’ Story” were common well up to the feudal times. The werewolf was a man, transformed into the animal with all its vulnerabilities. Geraldis Cambrensis tells about two Irish folk cursed by an abbot, to be wolves for their ungodliness. After seven years penance as wolves, they were to change back into humans and return home. The Rawlinson Manuscript tells about “King Arthur and Gorgalon”. Gorgalon is another poor individual cursed to be a wolf. These medieval werewolves did not kill men or livestock, and could even speak the Name of God to prove their goodness.

They are victims of priests, witches and often their own sin. THE LITERARY WEREWOLF The Renaissance ushered in a new era, that of the literary werewolf. John Webster wrote of moral werewolves and vampires in his play The Duchess Of Malfi (1613), figurative creatures rather than literal ones. William Beckford, writing a century later during the Age of Reason, briefly mentions the lycanthrope in his arabesque tale Vathek (1787)as does Charles Maturin in his masterpiece, Melmoth The Wanderer (1820).

Other literary figures like Mrs. Crowe and Alexandre Dumas wrote works with werewolves central to the plot. Even the prolific and sanguine Penny Dreadfuls–semi-illiterate, often plaguaristic, newspapers sold for a penny a page–produced one lycanthrope: Wagner, The Wehr-Wolf (1846) by G. W. M. Reynolds. With the exception of Wagner, more often than not, the werewolf was used as a metaphor for the beastly sins of glutton, cruelty and avarice than as an actual creature. Despite works with Romantic tonalities like George

MacDonald’s “The Gray Wolf” and “The Romance of Photogen and Nycteris” as well as Robert Louis Stevenson’s “Ollala”, the majority of Victorians–perhaps the single period to produce the greatest werewolf classics–preferred the supernatural approach, in adventure stories like Rudyard Kipling’s “The Mark of the Beast”(1891), moral tales like Clemence Houseman’s “The Werewolf”(1896) and the masterpiece of vampirism, Dracula (1897) by Bram Stoker. More interesting to the lycanthrophile is the excised first chapter, published as “Dracula’s Guest” in 1914.

In this chapter–cut because of the novel’s length–Jonathan Harker leaves his carriage, which is taking him to Transylvania, and gets lost in a snowstorm. The graveyard he takes shelter in is inhabited by the undead. Only Dracula’s appearance as a great, red-eyed wolf, saves Harker, so that he can go onto Castle Dracula and the well-known events there. It is with Stoker and the other Victorians that lycanthrope returns to its true state as a supernatural creature, but retains some allusive qualities as a literary device.

The Twentieth Century brought many works about werewolves, more than in any preceding era. Early on these works resemble their Victorian counterparts in the works of writers like Algernon Blackwood and Eden Phillpotts, dealing largely with moral evil embraced in traditional ghost story techniques. It took a novel by New Yorker, Guy Endore (Harry Relis), to change the werewolf theme forever. Before Endore, the only werewolves to comment on social ills or the state of Mankind, were the allusive villains of Webster, evil men but not in actuality flesh-eating monsters.

Endore combine the “actual” werewolf and the “literary” werewolf to create a modern classic. During the years that Endure wrote The Werewolf Of Paris, the greatest explosion of entertainment writing in American history was taking place. During the 1920-50’s the Pulp magazines dominated popular entertainment. Titles like Weird Tales and Strange Stories produced hundreds of works about werewolves and other monsters. One writer who exemplified an imaginative use of the werewolf, was Robert E. Howard, the creator of Conan the Cimmerian.

One of his very first stories was the vignette “In the Forest of Villefere”(1925) which first introduces de Montour, a man who meets a werewolf and kills him in wolf form. By so doing, he assumes the curse from the last victim. When we meet him again in “Wolfshead”(1926) we get to see how the curse comes on him like a ghost, possessing him and turning him into a “wolf man”. De Montour was standing, legs braced, arms thrown back, fists clenched. The muscles bulged beneath his skin, his eyes widened and narrowed, the veins stood out upon his forehead as if in great physical effort.

As I looked, to my horror, out of nothing, a shapeless, nameless something took vague form! Like a shadow it moved upon de Montour. It was hovering about him! Good God, it was merging, becoming one with the man! It should be noted that Henry Hull had yet to appear as The Werewolf Of London and set Hollywood’s werewolf mould for all time. Across many stories, Howard sets down the idea that the wolf people, the harpies and other mythological creatures are ancient survivors of a time when man had yet to evolve from the trees. Contemporary with Howard was H.

Warner Munn who penned The Tales of the Werewolf Clan. Beginning with “The Werewolf of Ponkert”(1925) he creates a different image of the lycanthrope, not a man who becomes a wolf but another creature who only shares some of the wolf’s features: Munn’s work was inspired by a letter from H. P. Lovecraft published in Weird Tales. HPL asked “… why someone had not attempted a werewolf story narrated by the werewolf himself”. Munn tells the decline of a man who is selected against his will to join the wolf clan that is led by the fearsome Master, a vampire-like being who feeds on victims’ souls.

The sequel “The Werewolf’s Daughter”(1928) tells of the Werewolf of Ponkert’s daughter who is wrongfully prosecuted for his crimes. H. P. Lovecraft, whose fame lies with monsters on such a gigantic scale as to make the werewolf look trivial, himself used the werewolf in a collaborative story called “The Ghost-eater”(1923), in which the werewolf has been murdered but returns as a ghost, reliving over and over its revenge. He also used the lycanthrope in the poem, “The Howler”(1929).

MODERN WEREWOLVES With the coming of pulps like Astounding Science Fiction and Amazing Stories in the 1920’s, Science Fiction writers would eventually get around to explaining the werewolf in scientific terms, in magazines like John W. Campbell’s Unknown. Three of the most intriguing are “The Wolves of Darkness”(1932, Strange Tales) and the novel Darker Than You Think (1940, Unknown) by Jack Williamson and “There Shall Be No Darkness” (1950, Thrilling Wonder Stories) by James Blish.

Recent horror writers have used this same approach, playing fast and loose with the traditional werewolf but creating consistent, terrifying monsters. Whitley Strieber disposed with the shape-shifter altogether and gave us The Wolfen (1978), ancient wolf-like spirits who have been on the Earth longer than humans. Preying off the unwanted and derelict, the Wolfen are the top of the human food chain, taking the sick and the weak. The future of the werewolf is assured. The old lycanthrope has a few surprises left up his furry sleeve. ??

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Importance, Highlights of the 20th Century English Literature

The Importance of the 20th Century Literature The dawning of a new century marked a distinct change in the style and subjects of literature. Rural, agrarian lifestyles were fast becoming a thing of the past as industrialization made factory work the norm, and many people began to feel isolated despite living in big cities. Writers who identified as “modernists” reflected this new sense of isolation and displacement in their works. The entire Western world was also deeply affected by the devastation of World Wars I and II, and writers responded by evaluating humanity’s seemingly boundless inhumanity.

Women and minority voices became more prominent in the 1930s and beyond, further expanding the canon. The Beat Generation began in the late 1940s and writers reflected the growing trend of anti-conformist thought. By centuries end, Generation X writers were inspired by the fall of the Berlin Wall and the decline of imperialism but were often seen as cynical and self-serving. The material, intellectual and social advancements of this century, has led to literary pieces made in the 21st century.

There will no doubt be lasting effects from the twentieth century that will surely have a direct influence on the political, social and interpersonal relationships that develop from now on. The use of the label “Celtic fringe” as applied to non-English, or traditionally non-English-speaking, territories to marginalise these cultures is now analysed as a colonial attitude, and literatures of Ireland, Scotland and Wales may be studied through the methodology of postcolonialism.

But a legacy of Britishness also survives around the world: a shared history of British presence and cultural influence in the Commonwealth of Nations has produced a substantial body of writing in many languages, known as Commonwealth literature. The year 1922 marked a significant changed in the relationship between Britain and Ireland, with the setting up of the Irish Free State in the predominantly Catholic South, while the predominantly Protestant Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom.

This separation also leads to questions as to what extent Irish writing prior to 1922 should be treated as a colonial literature. Nationalist movements in other parts of Britain, especially Wales and Scotland, also significantly influenced writers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. During the 20th Century, much advancement and change occurred throughout English Literature. All of the works we studied from this period were heavily influenced by current events in the world.

The writers all examined the world around them and tried to express it through their writings. The three things that weave a common thread throughout all 20th Century English Literature are global warfare, radical artistic experimentation, and the effects of colonial expansion. The first point of global warfare is an easily identifiable and widespread one. All of the poetry we examined was centered around warfare and the effects of it on those involved. Sources: http://www. enotes. com/topics/century-literature http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/British_literature

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English Literature, the Secret Life of Sir Walter Mitty-James Thurber

Secret Life of Walter Mitty- James Thurber By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan Author of: Language and writing, DSB Publication Thimphu Communicative English, P. K. Books, Calicut A perception on Literary Criticism, P. K. Books, Calicut  -A popular American writer, humourist and cartoonist. -A classical story. -Traditional realistic fiction. -A third person narration. Mixture of fantasy and realism. -Can be called a best example of magical realism. -Explores the concept of the “American Dream”. -Introduces an average American male namely Mr. Mitty. Average Americans try to escape from the world of reality and “try to live in the world of fantasy”. To make life a successful one, one should keep a balance between reality and fantasy. It is difficult to live always in the world of reality and also it will be impracticable to fly always from the world of reality and resort always there in fantasy.

As Robert Frost said in his eminent poem “Birches” one should be a swinger of the Birches therefore keep balance between reality and fantasy. Otherwise life will be painful and will be a total failure. Day dreams are equal to Mitty, Mitty escapes from his mundane life (dull and uninteresting) by resorting to elaborate fantasies. The name Walter Mitty has become synonymous for day dreams. Mitty becomes a symbol for a person who enriches his private life with dynamic day dreams while working or while listening to every day conversations. Story focuses on escapism from mundane life into the world of fantasies.

The theme of success and failures in life is examined through Mitty? s inability to live an external life, which results in going back to an internal life full of dangers and heroism. -Stereotypical male and female roles. Mrs. Mitty appears as a practical woman (women are more practical than men in America). This aspect of women? s character is established in the story. Man has become weak ineffectual and overly in aggressive. 1. Five day dreams of Mitty. 1. In the first day dream, which comes in the outset of the story Mitty is presented as the Pilot of US navy hydroplane. 2.

In the Second day dream, Mitty is a wonderful doctor performing a serious surgery (appears as a world famous author of a medical book titled “Streptothricosis”). -An expert mechanic to solve any problem within no time. -Even not worried when he hears from the team of doctors that „A coreopsis? is formed on Mr. McMillan the patient. 3. In the third day dream Mitty is presented as a sharp shooter, a cool assassin, a convict who faces a great trail. 4. In the fourth day dream, Mitty is presented as a Royal Air force pilot -volunteering for a suicide mission to the ammunition dump and proudly says ?

We have only one life?. 5 In the fifth day dream, Mitty is presented as an eminent soldier fearlessly facing a firing squad –inscrutable, disdain and proud to the last. 2. -Five triggers that stimulate Mr. Mitty. 1. Mitty? s speed of the car above 55 km/phr. 2. Mrs. Mitty? s reference about Dr. Renshaw; hospital, Mrs. Mitty? s enquiry about „? gloves??. 3. Newspaper boy shouting at the top of his voice about the water Bury trail. 4. “Liberty” magazine with glossy pictures of war. 5. Smoke goes up from the cigarette. 3. Mitty brought back into reality by1. His wife? s timely intervene when Mr.

Mitty was driving his car above 55km/phr speed (Mitty was in hydroplane). 2. Parking -lot attendant warns Mitty when he is driving his car in wrong lane (Mitty was imagining he is a great doctor). 3. Sudden remembrance of “Puppy biscuits” (Mitty was in the imaginary scene of trail). 4. Mitty is brought back by his wife (Mitty imagines that he is a member of a suicide squad). Mitty with his wings of fantasy moves in the realms of fantasy-story ends here, story begins and ends in fantasy, so Mitty appears as an unchanged character. By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan

Mitty is presented as an ineffectual person criticized and rebuked by others, he feels he is insulted by his inability to do things properly. His Failures in everyday life is just opposed by the extraordinary successes he plays out in his world of fantasy. His failure in real life and success in the world of fantasy are closely connected with gender role (sex roles) in modern America. The story reveals the lack of opportunities for men to perform meaningful, heroic actions in modern, suburban, middle class America. Men in modern America become weak and ineffectual in front of overly aggressive women.

By the characterization of Mitty, James Thurber tries to criticize and mock the modern western ladies who dominate their husband in every walk of life. MITTY IN FANTASY v/sMitty in the world of reality. -He is a hero /heroic in action -Noble in action -Imaginative – An escapist -Man of forgetfulness – Weak/meek. -A superman /An extreme risk taker. -He always feels inferior. – Lacks competency -A man of decision. – Dependent. -A resourceful person. – feels sorry for everything. -Absent minded. -Giving orders. -Man of indecision waiting for orders. -Aware everything. -Even unable to park a car properly/chain properly. poor memory. -Not practical -Independent/ Never listens to others -Never mind the consequence. By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan . -Powerful in flying Hydroplane. -Great author. – a great mechanic finds out fault within no time. -Bold in admitting. -Man of truthfulness. -A patriot ready to sacrifice his life for the sake of his country. -The theme of success and failure in life is evaluated through Mitty? s inability to live a successful material life, which results him to retreat to a life of fantasy full of images of conquests. Mitty is portrayed as an unaffected rebuked by others –He feels insulted by his inability to do things properly. -The failure of his everyday life is just opposed by the extraordinary success he plays in his fantasy life. -In reality Mitty is a man of poor or limited achievement. Mrs. Mitty -Always bully her husband. -Dominating wife. -Worried about Mitty? s health and even notices the small changes. -Always appear as an adviser. -Responsible wife. -Aggressive and short tempered. -Behaves in a rough and merciless manner. Climax -no climax, or no particular climax. since story presents with a story within the story no clear beginning or end. By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan -action slowly rises and slowly falls throughout. -no change in Mitty? s character. -Mrs. Mitty is Mr. Mitty? s link to reality. She helps Mitty to avoid losing his grasp of everyday life. -Mitty? s day dreams are harmless but when he awakens he finds himself in anawkward position and finds difficulty to adjust with the reality. Conflicts Internal -Mitty in the real world V/s Mitty in the world of fantasy. External -Mitty v/s his wife. Mitty v/s society (especially his struggles to follow conventional social norms). Fantasy: -eightengined hydroplane is used in the first fantasy by Mitty. In utmost care of class 12 by P Baburaj -in thefirst fantasy ,Mrs. Mitty complains about the speed of the car. -crew members expressesMitty as great and brave and not afraid of hell (death). -Car was in 55km/hr speed. I -Mrs. Mitty went to do her hair done during Mitty? s second fantasy. -patient in second fantasy- Millionaire Wellington McMillan, the great Banker and friend of Roosevelt, famous American president. -team of doctors headed by Dr. Mitty –Dr.

Renshaw, Dr. Benbow, Dr. Remington, and Dr. Pritchard Mitford. -Dr. Pritchard Mitford appreciates Mitty for his book on Streptothricosis. -Mitty puts a fountain pen instead of a faulty piston in order to repair the anaesthetizer. – Webley-Vickcrs 50-80 –the brand name of Mitty? s gun in the third fantasy. By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan Meanings -Mitty- means –an ordinary, often an ineffectual person who indulges in fantastic day dream of personal triumphs. -Walt- someone who has aspiration to become a soldier, but posses none of the necessary personal qualities. Cocky- to be proud of one self. -A&P- name of a chain of grocery stores. Aupres de Ma Blonde- a song popular among the soldiers in world war I. -Cannonading –continuous firing of cannons. – Carburundum –a trade mark of abrasive chemical not something Mitty would actually need. -Obstreosis of the dual tract; meaningless medical Jargon invented by Mitty. -Streptothricosis- a sore on the skin, title of Mitty? s Book, medical Jargon misused by Mitty. -Overshoes –the shoes worn over another for protection. “I am going to take your temperature?? Mrs.

Mitty implies that she is going to give a lesson after reaching home-this shows that Mrs. Mitty is a dominating and all powerful wife taking control over Mr. Mitty. -„To hell with the handkerchief ? -the courage of Mitty even in the face of great danger, he is powerful enough to face any firing squad without covering his face with his handkerchief. -Inscrutable to the last-it means in this context the mysterious nature of Mr. Mitty, real meaning is- it cannot be understood or known fully till the end. By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan *********************

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English Literature-Bluffing, Gail Helgason

Bluffing- Gail Helgason By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan Author of: Language and writing, DSB Publication Thimphu Communicative English, P. K. Books, Calicut A perception on Literary Criticism, P. K. Books, Calicut Flashback: A term which is probably from the cinema and which is now also used to describe any scene or episode in a play,novel, story or poem which is inserted to show events that happened in an earlier time. It is frequently used in modern fiction. Flashback in the story.

Medicinal smell reminds homemade solution. Waiting in the hospital- she remembers the morning three weeks ago. When she sees Merlin- she remembers how she taught Liam to spot wildlife. Foreshadowing: The technique of arranging events and in formations ina narrative in such a way that later events are prepared for or shadowed forth beforehand. The end is contained in the beginning and this gives structural and thematic unity. It refers to plot technique in which a writer plans clues that hints at what is going to happen later in the plot .

Similar essay: Unknown Woman by Rabindranath Tagore

Foreshadowing is used to arouse the reader’s curiosity,build suspense and help prepare the reader to accept events that occur later in the society. Fore Shadowing -She is running to Jasper hospital but we don’t know why –arouse curiosity to read further to know more. -The expensive trade mark-the word expensive is used to let the readers know in the later part of the story that he is extravagant and spends all his money. -That wasn’t the same as telling the whole story-it gives us a clue that there is some story which we will come to know later. Contemporary story, languagemodern, charactersrealistic, third person limited. -Five scenes- alternate from present to past. -Present- Gabriella is running in the pavement and is waiting to see Liam in the hospital. -Past- the scenes set three weeks earlier at a remote lake. Theme- Commitment Third person limited- The point of view is limited to Gabriella and anything known about Liam is filtered through Gabriella’s perceptions. Bluffing means try to deceive somebody by pretending to be stronger, braver, clever, loving etc. Than one really is (pretending -Chambers Dictionary) Setting Jasper

Hospital and Jasper National Park. Conflict Internal- Person V/S Person (Gabriella V/S Gabriella). External-Gabriella V/S Liam. The couple V/S Nature. Liam He is anegoist (not want to learn from other people) He is jealous (Clive) as he was not invited for a big expedition. Extravagant- in spending all his money to buy boots, jacketsetc,(outdoor gear) Ambitious- wants to see his pictures in the glossy Magazines. Clever and selfish- trick the two young men. Jolly type Very determined, serious, silent and not trustable(in the face of great danger he ran away).

Lacks dedication and sincerity and commitment in life. Gabriella Gabriella was not sure- why Liam ran away, whether to save her or himself. Gabriella failed to understand Liam. Oneminute he behaves like a stranger-does not care anything,another minute he surprises her through surprising small deceitsor sometime extravagant gestures. Gabriella’s dream gets shattered. Very sincere, committedand a dedicated wife. A biology teacher. She is very clever and resourceful. In front of the grizzly, she exhibits her presence of mind and courage. She is very practical minded and good at bluffing.

By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan Liam -On the other hand not committed in the beginning. -He is careless and carefree. -Always away from her. -Does not show his feelings and affections. -He does not spell out his feelings. Gabriella Gabriella plans to break her commitment and may leave him (they may separate which will result in loss of faith and loss of love for Liam). Gabriella feels – Liam will be a great burden (wounded Liam). Gabriella thought- just to stay for the rest of the afternoon.

Gabriella/Liam -Two different persons having two different characters. – In the beginning Gabriella is very much committed to Liam and their relation. -She always finds a way so that they can be together. -She takes care of him and always worries about uncertainty in their commitment. But at the end -She sees his distorted face. -She charges and backs off from the commitment (even if she knew that his condition is due to his love towards her). -He sacrifices his life for her. Gabriella cannot be trusted. -When Liam-strong, healthy, smart and capable-she seems to be committed. But after the accident-she sees the distorted face and she awares the uselessness of Liam, she breaks the commitment. -When Liam is really in need of her care and support, she backs off. Bluffing Gabriella -She hides her egg sandwiches to make Liam. -Gabriella throws away the cleaning solution given by Liam-another example. -Gabriella getting angry and running away from Jasper park-example of bluffing. By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan -Gabriella’s story of waiting outside the room in hospital for three weeks. -Gabriella stretches her lips when she sees the wound- another example of bluffing. Though Gabriella cannot stand and she sees Liam’s horrific scared face, she sits there and smiles. -May be in heart of heart she might have expected Liam to come forward and save her from the Grizzly. But he runs away without telling even a word. Liam The food items Liam carries and hides. Liam’s bluffing to the teenagers-telling the story of Grizzly and elk carcass. He says the reasons for his running away-he said just to save her life but he wanted to save his life only. By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan **************************************

Free Essays

English Literature Romantic Period

Breeana Whitehead The Art in Romanticism The works of William Woodsworth and William Blake are some of many great examples of Romantic literature. Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that began in Europe in the early 1800’s. It was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution as illustrated in William Woodsworth’s “Michael. ” This poem mourns the changes made by the Industrial Revolution. In Romantic texts, everything written is out of the ordinary and very fictional. The characters in a romantic piece of literature are created from nothing and the plot is often in imaginary places.

All pieces of art and intellect were nothing but fantasy put to paper in one form or another. There is nothing realistic about Romantic literature. This is the Romantic Period. Every piece of art, whether it is music or paintings or drawings or literature, was created to make their readers think about their own emotions within the art. William Blake displays the Romanticism in his poem “Garden of Love” by showing discussing an aspect of spirituality. He shows how with religion there is a disconnect of freedom. The poem speaks of a chapel that was built where the speaker, whether Blake or an unknown character, used to play.

The speaker notices a sign saying “Thou Shall Not” on the door of the chapel and so he turned to the garden of love. The speaker soon notices that there are tombstones where flowers should be, and priests were walking around in black binding the character’s joys and desires. This shows the captivity that Blake believed came to a person when that person claimed religion. This shows a free thought that well expresses the idea of Romanticism. This shows the intellectual freedom that the Romantic Period brought forth. William Woodsworth showed Romanticism in his many works, such as his poem, “Michael. Woodsworth romanticizes or dreams up the characters of Michael and Luke. Michael is a shepherd that lives in the forest side of Grasmere Vale, and Luke was his son. Michael’s family happily lives off in this beautiful countryside when a financial burden falls upon them because of a contract that Michael had signed. Instead of selling his land, Michael sends Luke off to work to pay off this debt. While gone Luke prospers well for himself at first but them falls into a criminal line and has to flee. Michael mourns the loss of his son and soon thereafter Michael and Isabel, Michael’s wife, both die.

This poem is a good example of the changes from the Industrial Revolution that spurred the Romantic Movement but it is also a great example of the fictional aspect of Romanticism. Another brilliant example of Romantic literature is the poem, “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty” by Percy Shelley. In this poem Shelley turns inward to this idea of intellectual beauty. This beauty is an intangible, spiritual idea that is different for everyone. This intellectual beauty becomes the freedom from the doom and gloom that Shelley describes the world to be.

The spiritual aspect and emotional pull of this poem makes it a perfect illustration of a Romantic poem. The literature and other arts from the Romantic period were created to create emotion within a person and to make them think about their emotions. This poem does a great job at forcing its reader to look inward to determine his or her own intellectual beauty, whether it be love or hope or self-esteem. A final example of a Romantic poem is Lord Byron’s “When We Two Parted. ” This poem definitely pulls at a readers heartstrings. The poem talks about two people who were lovers but something happened to break them apart.

It seems that one of the two in the relationship had had an affair or somehow broke their vows and forced a separation between the two lovers. Byron’s poem brings out the emotions of the audience. The Romantic Age was basically an era of an outpouring of feelings. All of the works of this time period were based on an effort to make their audience feel something. The works were of religious and intellectual standards that caused the reader or the observer to stop his or her own life for a second and contemplate a deeper meaning to the work and to life.

Artists and authors such as William Blake in his poem “Garden of Love,” William Woodsworth in his poem “Michael,” Percy Shelley in his “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty,” and Lord Byron in his emotional poem, “When We Two Parted,” developed pieces of art that brought this emotional appeal to the table. These pieces of literature represent and explain Romanticism and the Romantic Era perfectly with everything from the fantasy and fictional characters and plots and settings in the pieces such as “Michael,” to the emotional aspects as shown in “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty” and in “When We Two Parted. ”

Free Essays

English Literature

1. Test-Theodore Thomas By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan Author of: Language and writing, DSB Publication Thimphu Communicative English, P. K. Books, Calicut A perception on Literary Criticism, P. K. Books, Calicut ? A fantasy ? Story takes place in an advanced form of hypnosis In simple level the protagonist-Robert Proctor behaves responsibly but he is denied the license. The story is futuristic. ? Contains the elements of a science fiction. ? Uses technical and scientific facts.

Science fiction A broad genre of fiction that often involves speculation based on current/future science and technology. It is a fiction based on futuristic science. A form of fiction normally set in future that deals with an imaginary scientific or technological development. It is a kind of writing in any literary piece through science background but not necessary that everything written can be based on facts. The writing includes science but it is not a real thing, just an imagination/imaginative work presented through science. Features of science fiction Based on technology and science.

Related article: Short Story Woman Unknown by Rabindranath Tagore

Futuristic (making prediction about life in future) * Make believe the reader. Examples ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Too badIsaac Asimov. Robert- Isaac Asimov. Test- Theodore Thomas. Mirror ImageLena Coakley. All summer in a dayRay Brad Ben. ‘The Test’ is a Mixture of action stories and realism. The story explores the theme of the ethics of the power of the state to ‘control’ its citizens. -Individual versus state. ? Short and direct sentences are used to maintain the pace of action (esp. during the accident scene). ? Story shows how writers are using sentence length to create mood. Short sentences create a sense of tension, urgency and fast action. ? Longer sentences-slow the pace and create a more thoughtful environment. ? Story has two plots-in two different times or two different states of mind. 1) Accident (Hypnotizing) 2) Action in the testing centre The story brings an interesting platform for discussion of the individual rights and rights of the state. The story is an attack on all forms of totalitarian or authoritarian forms of government which harness individual freedom and identity. ? Citizen under such governments becomes mere ‘cog’ in the wheel. “Men are born free but always in chain”- Jean Jacque Rousseau Chain of religion, cast, region, wealth all these come in the way to check our innate freedom. Thus men are “Robert Proctors”. Even though Robert Proctor meets with an accident in the state of hypnotism but he behaves responsibly, but at the end fails miserably. Emotions expressed here are true but the incident that he imagines never takes place. ? Story is about humanities need for power-power to control others ideas/opinions/self identity, through totalitarian governments control because of fear that something may happen. Test is derived from the fear of diversification and self identity. ? The foundation of the world is based on ‘control’. Hypnotism itself is a form of control. Symbols ? Blue uniform-police and government’s dominance over modern citizen. ? Robert Proctor-being watched throughout, recorded and observed all his actions. ? ‘Big brother’ (authority) always watching him (citizen) Modern man has been observed like a rabbit or a rat in the experiments-unable to show ones identity and individuality. This is the dilemma of modern man under the totalitarian form of govt. govt. cts like a dictator. By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan ? White uniform- experimentalist in the laboratory. Our ability to take wise decision is checked and controlled every time. Modern men under authoritarian government are treated like rats and rabbits under experiments in the laboratory. ? They are living in a hypnotic nausea. their life is like a dream under authoritarian. So they are negated of their reality and unable to live in the world of reality. ? Reality of life is always negated and rejected. Reality of life they forget or unaware. So story reminds them the power comes with all its might. ? Story reminds us ‘man is born free but he is everywhere in chain’ no one is happy to live in cages even if it is made out of gold. ‘How can the bird that is born for joy sit in a cage and sing’ we should not allow anyone to suppress our innate freedom and ability. Conflicts ? Ethical/emotional/physical character is most alien. ? Can comment on important issues in societies Setting 1. -Is on the turn-pike road on a cool morning in May. 2. In the testing centre where Robert Proctor is hypnotized by officials. Content The totalitarian Govt. ppears like a dictator in a way that completely destroys the human diversity. Diversity (diversification) is what makes this world, an amusing and interesting place to live in, without diversification- people of different races, religion, regional background life would be boring and dull. People should raise their ideas and opinions, all these opinions are to be tolerated, constructive criticism should be allowed. No one should escape from criticism. -bear all criticism with patience. If our varied ideas and opinions are taken away from us, we would end up our life like Robert Proctor.

Slowly we will be transformed as automaton and compelled to live a slavish life of obedience that will be the end of all our free thinking and individuality. “Test”-the story reminds us this noble concept. By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan (A model essay) Theodore Thomas, one of the vigilant writers, tries to explore the idea that one must come out of one’s shell letting the prevailing dormant dreams to germinate into reality. He shatters the totalitarian form of government through the story titled “TEST”.

He provokes the true image of the modern citizen with his true prophetic writing. ‘Test’ is a fantasy in an advanced form of hypnosis. The story is futuristic and comprises the elements of science fiction. However, the story tries to explore the theme of the ethics of the power of the state to “control” its citizen. ‘Test’ is a mixture of action stories and realism whereby the story mainly focuses on humanities need for power, the power to control others ideas/opinions /self identity through government’s control because of the fear that something may happen.

The protagonist, Robert Proctor, though being a good driver, came for applying for the driving license. However, he was made to undergo hypnosis where he had an experience of an accident. But as he opened his eyes and was out of the hypnotic effect the officials refused to provide him with the license as he made an accident. But instead he was dragged out of the room without a feeling of mercy on his situation. Basically they hypnotized Robert Proctor to lower his selfconfidence and prove that he’s not at all worthy to be a driver. They did so, to harness is individuality because of the fear of getting diversified. The story which is derived from the fear of diversification and self-identity reveals the fact that modern citizen is a cog in the wheel under the totalitarian form of government. He is not provided any privilege to explore his emotions and feelings. The foundation of the world is based on “control” where authoritarian always tries to maintain conformity among its citizens. People under authoritarian are living in a hypnotic nausea where their ability to make wise decision is checked and controlled.

The modern citizens are no better than a rabbit or rat in the experiments. The charming wishes of modern men is crushed and injured by the policies that ‘big brothers’ implement on him. He is never provided any liberty to raise his head so that he can create a free society. The story is really relevant in the pretext of the recent developments in countries like Libya, Egypt and Oman. The realities of modern men are always suppressed. He is being watched thoroughly; all his actions are recorded and observed.

Robert Proctor is like a rat or rabbit in the experiments. If he or she shares his or her opinion, the totalitarian government is ever ready to shut him or her down. Story reminds us the power comes with all its might. The time has come for us to teach the totalitarian government to suck the eggs in order to regain the lost liberty. people under authoritarian need to keep their nose to the grind stone and fight. We should remember man is born free but he is everywhere in chain. No one is glad to live in cages even if it is made out of gold.

The suppressed must rise from ashes and pave the way better for their generations to come. Thus, what they have to do is to find a key for the locked cage. And they are sure that in the long run, they become victorious in their life and become inseparable from free birds. Luckily we the people of Bhutan enjoying a life of Gross National Happiness and let us sing the praise of it in now and in coming time. By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan.

Free Essays

English Literature-Gullivers Travels, Jonathan Swift

Gulliver’s Travels]- Jonathan Swift * By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan Author of: Language and writing, DSB Publication Thimphu Communicative English, P. K. Books, Calicut A perception on Literary Criticism, P. K. Books, Calicut  The eighteenth century was an age of satire.

Dryden and pope immortalized themselves by their verse while Jonathan Swift was undoubtedly the greatest British satirist in prose. The political and religious controversies of the time were conducive to the promotion of satire in an age of urbanity and refinement which not only tolerated but delighted in satire, provided, it was humorous and witty it has been remarked that satire is the fine art of calling names. In Rome Horace and Juvenal used satire for the purpose of ridiculing human affectations, follies and vices with a view of reforming society.

But when the satire is too general it stands in danger of falling wide of its target and when it is directed against individuals it is likely to be debased in to personal lampoons. Swift wrote personal satires but his attacks were generally directed against common abuses and his main purpose was to reform society. Jonathan Swift was born of English parents in Dublin in 1667. He was a distant cousin of Dryden who happened to incur the lasting displeasure of Swift by his remarks: ”cousin Swift you will never be a poet”.

Distantly related to Sir William Temple, a retired politician and an elegant writer of the period Swift came to London and stayed with his wealthy relation as a poor dependent and confidential secretary. He graduated from Trinity College Dublin and was well read in the classics. Later he studied theology and was ordained priest . one of his squibs on religion offended Queen Anne and he was baulked of his promotion in the church but after her death he rose to be the Dean of St. Patrick’s in Dublin towards the close of the century.

Temple happened to dabble in literature. The controversy regarding the relative merits of the ancient and modern authors roused more heat than light for some time in France and Temple made some references to it in one of his essays. Virulent attacks and counter attacks appeared in the press. It was a veritable storm in a tea cup. Swift was neither concerned with the controversy nor qualified to take an effective part in it. Nevertheless he entered in to the fray with all the weapon in his arrows – satire, humour, irony, sarcasm, ridicule and invective.

In his ‘the battle of the books’ he supported Temple and ridiculed his opponents. In the famous allegory of ‘the bee and spider’, he praised the ancients as furnishing honey and wax, sweetness and light, and ridiculed the moderns as weaving flimsy webs, like the spider , with the poisonous stuff that flowered from themselves. In the tale of a tub, swift set out to ridicule the extremist in Catholicism and the fanatical dissenters and to advocate the middle course as represented by the Anglican church.

For this purpose he invented an allegorical fable of three brothers who inherited a coat of a piece from their father with strict instructions regarding its use. The coat, of course, is the Christian theology. The three brothers Peter, Martin and Jack symbolise respectively Roman Catholicism, the Anglican Church and the dissenters. It is a master piece of satire, but the ultimate result of swift’s satire was to bring all religion in to contempt, though that was not his real aim. Swift’s irony can best illustrated by his short pamphlet entitled a modest proposal.

He was roused to righteous indignation at the ruthless exploitation of the Irish peasantry by their absentee landlords in England. But swift opens his ‘proposal’ with a quietly deceptive tone of seriousness. He puts forth his modest proposal for the economic uplift of the poor Irish peasants; “every woman of child-bearing age is to produce as many children as possible and bring them to the market when they are one year old; Page 1 children aged one year are most delicious according to the best authorities and so they would be in great demand at an English noble man’s table.

It is not difficult to see the righteous indignation beneath the apparently cold-blooded argument, the irony is devastation. Swift is the author of the pamphlets, political, religious and literary in which he sought the reform of the society of its abuses and affections. But his magnum opus is Gulliver’s travels (1726). It is at once children’s classics as well as a serious treatise in which satiric pours corrosive ridicules of he on what Swift considers to be the abuse of his age. As children’s classic it can be read as a marvelous adventure in wonderland. With an abundance of circumstantial details. e are told how a certain Gulliver happened to make several voyages into strange undiscovered countries. Swift makes certain preposterous assumptions but once the initial premise is granted what follows conforms it with mathematical precision. in his first voyage, ‘A voyage to Lilliput Gulliver was driven. Far away from his course ;he was cast ashore on an island called Lilliput, where the inhabitants were about six inches tall and all the environment of animate and inanimate conformed exactly to those human dimensions. They were equipped with bows and arrows in which they were adepts.

It was mathematically calculated that Gulliver would require food which 1728 Lilliputians would consume. The king was a patron of learning, he was handsome and majestic. Gulliver was carefully searched and dispossessed of his pistols and ammunitions. The courtier practiced tight rope walking and official preferment went to those who excelled in this exercise. The most accomplished of them was the filmnap, the treasurer. (the king supposed to stand for the George l and filmnap, the Whig prime minister Robert Walpole). The Lilliputians were engaged in war with the neighboring country, Belfuscu.

It was easy for the Lilliputians to win with the help of their gigantically, but as soon as they accomplished they turn against him in ingratitude. Filmnap continued to be his chief enemy. Gulliver knew that he ws likely to be unjustly accused of high treason and therefore he secretly grossed over to Belfuscu and escaped from eminent danger. He returned home and stayed with his wife and family for two months. A Voyage to Brobdingnag. He was again possessed of an insatiable desire to go on another voyage. This time he was bound for India. This second voyage proved to be equally eventful and strange.

All alone he happened to be cast ashore on a strange land where corn was at least forty feet high and the first person he saw appeared as tall as an ordinary spire steeple. He was farmer’s servant who first looked at Gulliver as a curious creature and took him to his master. This country was Brobdingnag, where the people were sixty feet in height. The skin of these giants was repulsively hard and ugly, freckled and covered all over with wrat and moles and rough hair. When one of the nurses was suckling the child entrusted to her Guilllver saw her revoltingly big breasts, which “cold not be less than ixteen feet in circumference. The nipple was about half of my head and the hue both of that and dug so verified with spots, pimples and freckles that nothing could appear more nauseous” . Many times he was in the danger of being killed by gigantic creatures of Brobdingnag but luckily for him he had nine year old nurse ,the farmer’s daughter called Glumdalclitch, who took care of him and protected him from dangers. In his greed the farmer exhibited Gulliver in market places and finally brought to Metropolis where the king and the queen took a fancy to him and took him under their special protection.

But Gulliver’s kind nurse was asked to stay in the palace to take care of him. Though the Brobdingnag were physically gross and repulsive they were kind and sensible. The king observed how “contemptible a thing was human grandeur which could be mimicked by such diminutive insects like I”. the queen’s maids of honour always invited Glumdalclitch to visit them in their room with Gulliver whom they thought to be as sort of pet. “They would often strip me naked from top to toe and lay me in their bosoms, where I was disgusted because….. very offensive smell came from their skins”. Gulliver had the most dangerous experience of his life when a monkey took him in his paw and fliited from one building to another with Gulliver dangling from his paw. From that day onwards Glumdiltich took greater care of Gulliver. Page 2 A Voyage to Brobdingnag The king used to enquire of the political and religious conditions of the Europe. Gulliver ironically expatiated upon the wonderful parliamentary system and elections in European nations, their standing armies and their institutions.

Far from admiring these, the Brobdingnagian king was astonished, and he protested that it was only a “heap of conspiracies rebellions massacres, revolutions and banishments. The very worst effects that avarice, factions, hypocrisy, cruelty, rage, madness, hatred, envy, lust, malice and ambition could produce. ” “Finally the king concluded with the most ferocious attack on the state of affair in contemporary Europe, I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be most pernicious race of little odious vermin that ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth. Further Gulliver informed the king about the invention and use of gun powder which could destroy whole batteries of an army. The king’s ingenious remark was certainly an echo of Swift’s own opinion: “he gave it for his opinion that whoever could make two ears of corn or two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before would deserve better of mankind, and more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together”.

Gulliver speaks with approval of Brobdingnagian’s learning which consist only immortality, history, poetry, maths; to write a command upon any law is a capital crime; their style is clear, masculine and smooth, but not florid. This is Gulliver’s and (Swift’s) criticism of European civilization in his own age. When he returned home at first Gulliver had a good deal of difficulty in adjusting to himself to his wife and friends; he felt that they were all pygmies and he a giant; he felt for some time that he had lost his wife.

A Voyage to Laputa Gulliver’s third voyage was to East Indies; he rounded the Cape of Good Hope and reached fort St. George, Madras where he stayed for three weeks. He resumed his journey but was captured by pirates and left alone in a group of islands called Laputa. Here the important persons were so much absorbed in speculation, scientific and political that they had to have flappers who brought them back to their sense by flapping their ears and mouths. An opaque flying island often hovered over the islands when they were cut off from the sun’s light.

Here Gulliver visited several islands and in the grand academy situated in Lagado he found people engrossed in various projects. One was trying to “extract sun beams from cucumber”; another was working trying on an “operation to reduce human excrement to its original food”. Yet another was trying to “calcine ice into gun powder” and so on. Most of them begged Gulliver for monetary assistance, in one of these islands there were magicians and conjurers; in another there were a group of people called Struldburgs, people who would not die was a curse rather than a blessing.

Afterwards Gulliver sailed towards Japan and from there returned to England. Voyage to Houyhnhnms Gulliver’s fourth voyage took him to the land of the Houyhnhnms( pronounced as hou-in’em), a strange species of rational horses. By a curious accident he landed on Houyhnhnm land, where the first object he saw was a physically repulsive creature. Gulliver was disgusted for “upon the whole I never beheld in all my travels so disagreeable an animal, or one against which I naturally conceived so strong an antipathy. And yet he could recognize in him a man like himself.

The horses were the master of these debased human creatures called Yahoos. Gulliver was amazed to see the most urbane conduct in the Horses (though they were beasts) and the most bestial behavior among the human-looking Yahoos. These Horses were endowed with a fine degree of reason; their behavior was “so orderly and rational, so acute and judicious” that Gulliver at last concluded that they must needs be magicians who had thus Page 3 metamorphosed themselves. In a few months Gulliver was able to communicate in the language of the Honyhuhums.

Curiously enough their language did not have words to express lies and other similar concepts; they were dignified and handsome, and their strength and speed were marvelous. On some occasions Gulliver discussed to the King that in Europe, human beings trained the horses and rode on their back and naturally roused great indignation in the king. When he went on to describe the fierce wars in Europe the king of Honyhuhums was greatly amazed at the perversion of human reason, but he consoled himself with the thought that these petty creatures could not do much mischief even if they wanted to.

His amazement grew when he was told how many people in Europe were ruined by law and all advocates without exception were so accustomed to lying that they would never take up a true case. Gulliver further informed the king how in his own country a man rose to power “with prudence to dispose of a wife, a daughter or a sister” by betraying a predecessor or by pretending to a furious zeal in public assemblies against the corruptions of the court. The chief minister’s palace was a seminary to breed others in his own trade, and they excelled in insolence, lying and bribery.

The yahoo in Houyhuhums land has to ‘lick his master’s feet and posteriors and drive the female yahoos to his kennel, for which he was now and then rewarded with a piece of ass’s flesh “The houyhuhums were endowed by nature with a genial disposition to all virtues……their grand maxim is to cultivate reason. ” Their convictions were never discolored by passion and self-interest. A universal friendship and benevolence governed all their conduct, but they had no ‘fond nesses or pets. They practiced a control of their population by restricting the progeny of each couple to one male and one female colt.

It was again, reason and not passion, which governed propagation. The four lessons of their education were ‘Temperature industry, Exercise and Cleanliness. ’ They trained up their youth to strength, speed and hardness. On the whole Houyhuhums maintained a high degree of decency and dignity. If they were not able to rise to great glories of the spirit, they were also incapable of descending into the depths of bestiality. Some of the Houyhuhums were afraid that because Gulliver possessed some rudiments of reasons he might try to seduce the yahoos of the land so it was decided that he must be expelled from the country.

So he had a vessel constructed and he resumed his voyage. He fell into the hands of very cruel people but eventually a very kind-hearted Portuguese captain took him and put him safely on the shore of Byland, where he soon joined his wife and children. But he shuddered at the sight of them as they resembled the disgusting yahoos. “As soon as I entered my house. ” Gulliver tells us, “my wife took me in her arms and kissed me; at which, having not been used to the touch of the odious animal for so many years. I fell in a swoon for almost an hour. During the first year (of my return) I could not endure my wife or children in my presence.

The very smell of them was intolerable; much less could I suffer them to eat in the room. ” So great was his admiration for Houyhuhumn that for some time he used to walk like a horse and neigh like a horse. The tragic denunciation of man is rounded off with comic laughter. The book concludes with an assertion that “a traveler’s chief aim should be to make men wise and better, and to improve their minds by the bad as well as the good example of what they deliver concerning foreign places. ” And Swift seems to feel that the most intolerable vice among the yahoo kind is pride.

In one of his letter to Alxander Pope, Swift explained his aim in writing Gulliver Travels “the chief end I propose to myself in all my labours is to vex the world rather than divert it. ” Nevertheless the book has been infinitely diverting and has established itself as a children’s classic. it is a universal favorite not because it is sought to ‘vex’ the reader’s into a realization of their individual and social follies and vices, but because the scene conceived a series of diverting situations and episodes and described them with plenty of imaginative and humorous details.

In the first voyage, the diminutive Lilliputians, providing themselves on their destructive arms mere bows and arrows and their stratagems of war are ridiculous. And Gulliver could easily capture dozens of the enemy ships disregardful of the arrows which hit him. Page 4 The factions between the Big Enders and the Little_Enders been the High_heels and Low_heels, are ludicrous in the extreme. In the land of the Brobdingnagians the gigantic creatures as tall as church_steeples are equally amusing, particularly to children.

The account of Gulliver’s fall through the fingers of one of the two men and his miraculous escape from death by being stuck up on the pin of her ‘stomacher’, his adventure with the monstrous monkey, which took him all over the house-tops and tree-tops with the prospect of imminent death for Gulliver, the diversion of one of the maids of honour who stretched Gulliver on her breast, and a dozen similar episodes cannot fail to fascinate the reader. It is to be admitted that the third voyage, a voyage to Laputa is not half as successful as the one before it or the one that comes after it.

It is episodic and confused. But the scientific and political projects such as trying to extract sun beams out of cucumbers, food out of human excreta, and gun powder out of ice are travesties of what Swift considers to the unprofitable research-projects in his own time. The tempo rises once again when we follow Gulliver through his last voyage. This time into the land of the rational Honyhuhmns. Apart from its satiric purpose, the fourth book describes with humor and imagination the debased mankind and the rational noble Horses, who was Gulliver’s unbounded admiration for them.

Since his return to England Gulliver found it difficult to adapt himself to his own species: he was repulsed, by his wife’s embraces and kisses; he walked like a horse and neighed like a horse; he built his tent in the stables and chose horses rather than human as his companions. Swift’s satire is directed as much against the Yahoo’s and the Honyhuhmns as against Gulliver himself. Certainly we shall be committing a gross mistake if we, like the 19th century critics of Swift, identify Gulliver with Swift himself, though it is true that in general places the identification is unmistakable.

If we could ignore for the moment the political and moral allegory of “Gulliver’s travel” we can enjoy it as a fascinating narrative of adventures in which the imaginative frame work is amazingly filled with apparently realistic details. It is at once an imitation and a parody of the traveller’s accounts and imaginary utopia’s which enchanted the Elizabethan’s and their successors. But “Gulliver’s Travels” is much more than a children’s classic. It is a merciless satire on the political and moral conditions of Europe in eneral and of England in particular. Swift intended to ‘vex’ his contemporary into a realization of their pettiness and pride, their avarice and manners, the enormity of their follies and vices, the degradation of their institution and their needless wars of destruction. Swift did not care to point out human follies and vices with gentle humor as did Addison and Steele; on the other hand his righteous indignation burnt fiercely in him, he fretted and fumed at the mouth; he quashed his teeth and poured out satire and sarcasm and invective.

So fierce was the onslaught and so great the disgust that he has often been branded as a misanthrope and a cynic, but as we have already seen his Modest proposal should put us on our guard. In one of his letters to his friends, Alexander Pope, he said, ‘I hate and detest that animal called man, although I heartily love John, Peter Thomas and so forth. In the first book, the political satire is transparently clear. After his disillusionment with the Whigs, Swift went over to the Torries. Ever since he stood firm as a conservative and an ardent member of the Anglican church.

He was indignant at the undeserved fall and exile of oxford and Bolingbroke (with whom Gulliver often identifies himself). The Lilliputians are the English; the Blefuscudians are the French, who were often at war with each other. Bolingbroke and saved England can Gulliver had saved the Lilliputians, but ingratitude and treachery drove the benefactor out of the country. The sexual promiscuity, the political machinations and the pettiness (as represented by their size) and pride of the Lilliputians are a satire on contemporary English society. Lilliput is sometimes utopia sometimes 18th century England made utterly contemptible by the small size of the people who exhibit the same vices and follies as the English. The account of Lilliputians politics with the quarrel between the high- heels and the low-heels and between the big-enders and the little-enders, is clearly a parody of English politics, on the other hand, this chapter on Lilliputian law and education is almost wholly utopian” (David Daichas). Page 5 In the second book, the satire is more complex.

If in the first book, Swift satirized the pettiness of man and disproportionate pride and sense of importance, here Swift applies the magnifying glass to man’s disgustingly bloated vices, his repulsive physical features and bodily odour. Even the fairest of the female Brobdingnagians had disgustingly big blotches, pimples and freckles all over their skin and the offensive smell which emanated from their body indicated that man had no reason to be proud. But, the satire here is two edged.

When Gulliver expatiated upon the conditions of Europe in ironic admiration of its institutions and its warfare. The virtuous king of Brobdingnag was moved to exclaim-“I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth” for their history revealed. Nothing but ‘a heap of conspiracies, rebellions, murders, massacres, revolutions, banishments, the very affects that avarice fraction, hypocrisy, perfidiousness, cruelty, rage, madness, hatred, envy, just, malice and ambition could produce. It is to be admitted that this type of general satire the intended affect because everyone lays the blame at the door of others and never applies it to himself The voyage of Laputa satirises England’s tyranny over Ireland . It is easy to see in the flying island the oppressive role of England on the life of Ireland. Lindalino is anagram of Dublin. Swift ridicules the activities of the scientific experiments under taken by the Royal Society. Which is represented here by the academy of projectors in Lagado?

Swift was concerned only with the ethics of life and the experiments in science and politics appeared to him as needless waste of time in the innumerable cells of the academy, one has been working at the ridiculous project of extracting sunbeams out of cucumbers another has been encaged for long in the project of turning human excrement in to human food and yet another has been trying to convert it in to gun powder here at any rate swift satire mysteries, for if science had been discouraged by this sardonic attack on them the present marvels of scientific discovery would have been impossible.

The last voyageto houyhnhnm land take us into deeper waters. Critics of swift in the 18th and 19th centuries were misled into thinking that here swift was extolling the sensible animals and branding human beings irredeemably vicious and intolerably disgusting like the yahoos. it is true that swift scorn of debased man is terrible but Gulliver is not swift the ardent Anglican dean could not have held up to our unqualified admiration the houyhnhnms who were of course rational, decent, benevolent and friendly. They limited their families to two colts- one male and the other female.

They imparted instruction to their youth intemperance, industry exercise and cleanliness. The praise of these animals is intended to show how very debased man can be when he perverts his reason and yields to his passions but if the houyhnhnms escape the depths of human depravity, they also miss the glory of the human life, certainly the modern view that swift is not to be identified with Gulliver does not admit of further dispute. 3. Swift is often accused of being a pessimist, a cynical gloomy misanthrope, a seventeenth century Timon of Athens.

At any rate this was the view of swift which 18 th and 19th century critics of swift had consistently maintained This view has been stoutly challenged by modern critics who have examined the book from a variety of angles. In the first two books of Gulliver’s travels in Gulliver s voyage to Lilliput and Brobdingnag, there is obvious gentility though the narrator shows his disgust at the pettiness and the squabbles of the pygmies and the grossness of the Brobdingnaginas physical features.

In Brodingnaginas, the nine year old Glumdaiclits is full of tender solicitude for his safety, and is almost in tears at her fathers greed in intending to amass money buy exhibiting Gulliver at the market place. The educational system of the Lilliputians and the Brodingnaginas view of life are almost utopian. The charge of pessimism and misanthropy cannot be sustained on the basis of these two voyages. In the third book the voyage to Laputta swift seems to ridicule with unspairing the severity the scientific experiments and philosophical speculations of his time, but ridicule is not misanthropy.

The charge then is made mainly on the four book. The Yahoos are undoubted caricature of human beings: they lick the feet of the horse and are happy when some piece of ass’s flesh is thrown to them. The human kind seems Page 6 to be infinitely debased when contrasted with the Horses, which, by comparison, are governed by reason. There seems to be no redeeming quality in the Yahoos and the nineteenth century critics had no hesitation to brand the satirist as a misanthrope who hated man, a pessimist who saw in him not one redeeming virtue.

The voyage to the Houyhnhnms was even considered “more or less symptomatic of mental disease”. But Gulliver was saved by a Portuguese captain, who showed him great kindness and refused to accept from him his passage money. The presence of Don Pedro is alone enough to disprove the charge of misanthropy. Besides are we justified in identifying Gulliver with swift? Gulliver himself is often the victim of comic humour, when he returns home he feels disgusted with his own wife and family, he erects his residence in stables, and neighs like a horse.

He is here the victim of the comic muse rather than the serious reformer of society. In this book, the Anglican clergyman appears as a preacher who believes in original sin and ridicules the eighteenth century clad about the perfectibility of man. Louis A. Landa has substantiated the view that Swift’s ‘pessimism is quite consonant with the pessimism at the heart of Christianity. ” She has quoted in support of this view several passages from contemporary sermons. in my opinion”, says another modern critic, :the work is that of a Christian humanist and a moralist who no more blasphemes against the dignity of human nature than do St. Paul and some of the angrier prophets of the Old Testament”. It has been truly observed that his savage indictment of man” arises from philanthropy, not misanthropy, from idealism on what man might be, not from despair at what he is”. By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan Page 7

Free Essays

English Literature- Lamb to the Slaughter

Lamb to the slaughter -Roald Dahl   By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan Author of: Language and writing, DSB Publication Thimphu Communicative English, P. K. Books, Calicut A perception on Literary Criticism, P. K. Books, Calicut   Black comedy/blackhumour -is concerned with the humorous treatment of the shocking, horrific and macabre. Black comedy is actually a form of drama which displays a marked disillusionment and cynicism.

It shows human beings without conviction with little hope, regulated by fate or fortune or comprehensible powers. In fact, human beings in an ‘absurd’ predicament at its darkest, such comedy is pervaded by a kind of sour despair; we can’t do anything. So we may as well laugh. The wit is mordant and the humor sardonic. Dramatic irony When the audience understands the implication and meaning of a situation on stage, or what is being said, but the characters do not. Example-Oedipus does not realize his crime. Sir Peter Tezel (in school for scandal) does not know his wife is behind the screen when he is talking about Joseph Surface.

Symbols. ? The ‘warm’ and ‘clean’ attic indicates the desire for normal domestic pattern. ? The ‘curtain drawn’- shows a calm atmosphere that foreshadowing of hidden subconscious desires that are yet to surface in the form of murderous action. ? Two lamps alight- point to Mary and Patrick. ? Fresh ice cubes in the thermos points to coldness and heat. Ice is cold and thermos brings heat to the mind. Contemporary story. ? Story tells of how a pregnant woman when faced with the certainty of her husband leaving her, takes control of her situation. ? Powerful woman protagonist -breaking away from the stereotypical role of a woman. Packed with suspense and humor. ? Fast-paced action. ? ? ? ? ? ? Third person omniscient narrative. Conventional and straight forward language. Role reversals- reversal of Mary’ the merry innocent docile wife to a cruel murderer Dramatic irony, A type of situational irony. A best example of a black comedy. . . Contrasting what a character perceives and what the audience and one or more of the characters know to be true. Revenge, deception and ethics are some of the issues that one could explore in this story. Theme- love- betrayal, revenge and deception. Mary Maloney a victim and a villain. A faithful, docile pregnant wife who gets cheated. Story of? Married and a romantic couple. ? Maloney’s unexplained decision to leave his wife….. ? Violation of the marriage law(deception) ? Mary’s killing of her husband and her ultimate deception ? ? ? ? ? ? Setting-Maloney’s drawing room -Entire room of the house. -Sam’s grocery shop (short scene). ? Lamb is a Biblical Symbol of innocence/ symbol of peace, but here a powerful weapon of murder. ? So lamb symbolizes here violence, death and revenge- topsy-turvy to its conventional biblical concept. By P. Baburaj, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of English, Sherubtse college, Bhutan *********************************

Free Essays

English: Literature and Common Courses

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT (Abstract) BA Programme in English under Choice based credit semester systemSchool of Distance Education/ Private mode- Syllabus in tune with Choice based credit semester System School of Distance Education regulations-approved implemented with effect from 2011 admissionOrders issued  GENERAL AND ACADEMIC BRANCH­IV­‘B’ SECTION  No: GAIV/B2/9842/2010 Dated, Calicut University. P. O 01. 09. 2012 Read: 1. UO No GAIV/J2/3601/08 dated 17. 12. 2010 2. UO No GAIV/J2/3601/08 Vol IV dated 10. 05. 2011 3. UO of even no dated 08. 5. 2012 4. UO Note EX IV/1/Setting/Gen/2011 dated 25. 05. 2012 and Letter no SDE/C3/7144/2011 dated 02. 06. 2012 5. Letter SDE/C3/7144/2011 dated 06. 07. 2012 6. Email message forwarded by the Board of Studies Chairman English(U. G) along with the English(UG) Syllabus on 09. 08. 2012 7. Notes made by the Assistant Registrar in file of even no dated 09. 08. 2012 and telephonic conversation with the Board of Studies Chairman English(U. G) on 09. 08. 2012 8. Soft and hard copies of the Syllabus handed over by the Chairman,Board of Studies in English(UG) on 22. 08. 2012 ORDER

Vide paper read first above , Choice based credit semester system and grading has been introduced for UG Programmes under School of Distance Education/ Private mode of the University with effect from 2011 admission onwards. Vide paper read second above, Orders were issued to implement the additions to clause1 of the Regulations governing the Choice based credit semester system UG Programmes in School of Distance Education/ Private mode as follows 1 The Syllabus of UG Programmes under Choice based credit semester system will be the same for the Regular, School of Distance Education and Private mode.

The number of courses and credits of School of Distance Education/ Private mode will be the same as that of Regular Programme except for BA Programmes. For BA Programmes there will be one complimentary course in each semester with 4 credits. The complimentary course in 1st and 4th semesters and 2nd and 3rd semesters will be the same. Vide paper read third the Syllabus of BA Programme in English under Choice based credit semester system in School of Distance Education/ Private mode was implemented with effect from 2011 admission.

Vide paper read fourth EX IV Section , Pareeksha Bhavan and Director School of Distance Education had highlighted a few discrepancies in the Syllabus of English(UG) Choice based credit semester system School of Distance Education with effect from 2011 admission. Vide paper read fifth the Director, School of Distance Education sought clarifications again in the complementary course offered by School of Distance Education and remarked that the complementary course English for Communication is not offered for any of UG Programmes under School of Distance Education .

Taking into consideration the discrepancies noted by the Pareeksha Bhavan and Director School of Distance Education the Board of Studies Chairman English(UG) had forwarded a corrected version of the syllabus of BA English Choice based credit semester system School of Distance Education with effect from 2011 admission vide paper read as sixth above. On verification of the syllabus it was found that in page 5 and 6 clause 12 examinations Internal assessment reads as 25% and end semester external examination reads as 75% which does not go along with the School of Distance Education Regulations.

The Board of Studies Chairman English UG was informed the same as per paper read seventh above. Vide paper read eight the corrected version of the soft and hard copies of syllabus of BA English Choice based credit semester system School of Distance Education with effect from 2011 admission was forwarded by the Chairman Board of Studies in English(U. G) 2 Orders are therefore issued implementing the syllabus of BA English Choice based credit semester system in School of Distance Education/ Private mode with effect from 2011 admission in tune with

Choice based credit semester system regulations. Orders are issued accordingly. School of Distance Education The U. O read third above stands modified to this extent. The Syllabus is uploaded in the University website. Sd/                                                                                          ASSISTANT REGISTRAR (G&A? IV)                                                                                                        For REGISTRAR To  The Director,   School of  Distance Education. Copy to:? Controller of Examination. / Ex.

Section/EG Section/DR/AR        BA Branch/Tabulation Section/ Enquiry/                    System Administrator with a request to upload the syllabus in  the University Website/ G & A I ‘F’ section/                    Library/SF/DF/FC                                                                                                                                                                          Forwarded/By Order  Sd/SECTION OFFICER. 3 B A Programme in –EnglishUnder CCSS-in School of Distance Education / Private mode – Syllabus – Implemented with effect from 2011 admission UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT BOARD OF STUDIES IN ENGLISH, UG RESTRUCTURE D CURRICULUM FOR COMMON COURSES 1-6, CORE COURSES, ELECTIVES & OPEN COURSES PREAMBLE 1. PHILOSOPHY The massive curriculum restructuring of the undergraduate programme undertaken by the University of Calicut envisages a thorough revamp of the existing one in concept, structure, content, spirit and methodology. The attempt is not to ‘sever the cord and shed the scales’ or to throw overboard the great legacy of the past, but to establish a stronger link with it in a more meaningful way.

The three principles that govern a UG programme are: greater emphasis on methodology, interdisciplinarity and academic freedom. All these factors together should be able to contribute to the attainment of the larger goals viz. to develop communication skills, to foster essential sensibility to cherish and appreciate aesthetic values across borders, to inculcate the essential sensitivity to social concerns, to prepare for specialized study, and ultimately to develop a holistic personality in students.

The structure of an Undergraduate Programme comprises ten Common Courses, Core Courses (including two Methodology Courses, Informatics, an Elective and a Project), Complementary Courses and an Open Course. 2. COMMON COURSES (IN ENGLISH) 1-6: The Common Courses include courses in English and other languages as well as courses specifically intended to create an interest in and to facilitate a serious discussion about vital societal and environmental issues and to promote the spirit of scientific enquiry.

Language Courses are intended to encourage reading of the various genres of literature in English and other languages. They are also intended to train the students in various kinds of reading using appropriate literary strategies. However, the teaching of language at this level is not limited to teaching of literature or teaching of language through literature alone. Knowledge content is also seen as equally important in the study of language. Since every language is a vast repository of knowledge, language teaching should also aim at developing a person’s ability to use it in a precise and effective manner.

It can be seen that the restructured curriculum in its attempt to redefine the approach to language study has in fact enhanced the space for the study of language and literature in the common courses. 5 The broad objectives of the new common courses are: developing communicative competence and enhancing intellectual ability and aesthetic sensibility with a larger focus on inculcating human values. Care has been taken to see that the new curricula meet the linguistic, intellectual and cultural requirements of the students.

These foundation courses have been widely felt andappreciated to be sufficient to develop the core competencies in a student to undergo an undergraduate programme of his/her choice and to help him/her pursue lifelong academic, cultural and economic activities. On completion of these courses, a student should be able to: • • • • • • • Master communication skills in English with fluency and accuracy. Approach an issue from various points of view, and develop the habit of questioning varied views critically and objectively.

Perform academic writings and make academic presentations precisely, logically and effectively Teach himself how far literary language deviates from ordinary language Have a general understanding of India’s constitution and its secular and plural traditions leading to an increased awareness of the value and spirit of comradeship, patriotism and national integration. Analyze environmental issues in the right perspective and recognize the need for adopting strategies for sustainable development.

Have an overall understanding of some of the major issues in the contemporary world and respond empathetically as a learned citizen. Realize that science is a human endeavor based on facts and proven results, without taking recourse to any supernatural power or influence and discern the kind of socio-political environment which encourages scientific enquiry and that which stifles it. 4. CORE COURSES Restructuring a system that has stood for a wide span of time and moulded generations past and present is no easy task.

However, a duty that was initiated more than two years ago immediately after the present Board of Studies assumed charge, and carried forward with much enthusiasm, had a natural happy ending when the forty-odd teachers from various colleges and the members of the Board met at a five-day workshop at the University in January-February 2009. The newly restructured curriculum for BA English Language and Literature is a product of that workshop though the later readings of the papers have necessitated slight modifications in the outline and content of the original draft.

Framing of courses like the Methodology of Humanities and the Methodology of Literature is a totally new experience to UG curriculum designers in Kerala. The introduction of a stream-wise methodology course assumes significance as it is neither feasible nor desirable to teach everything even within a subject area. Moreover, subject boundaries have to be constantly crossed to explore the possibilities for the production of new knowledge. The methodology of the area of discipline helps a student explore further on his own in his chosen field of specialization. The study of Informatics renders the much needed modern day ICT tools.

The four courses on READING envisage hands-on training in theoretical literary readings. Language and Criticism courses have been shaped to include more advanced areas in the field. The modern English literature course is designed to render a purely English flavour whereas interdisciplinary areas and other literatures 6 would present a comparison and contrast , making learners aware of the fact that other flavours are also equally palatable and relishing. Special care has been taken to see that the teaching learning materials encourage intercultural dialogue wherever possible.

The course in Writing for the Media would give the necessary cutting-edge tool for many. A project equivalent to a full course is a novelty. Detailed guidelines for the project would be issued in due course. 3. a. CORE COURSES FOR BA DOUBLE MAIN PROGRAMMES WITH ENGLISH The Double Main Programmes (with English as one of the mains) will have English as Core Course A and the other main as Core Course B. Such Programmes also have a compulsory component of ten Common Courses (38 credits), two Core components (A&B) consisting of nine Core Courses each, electives, and projects (78 credits) and an Open Course (4credits). . COMPLEMENTARY COURSES Complementary courses (hitherto known as Subsidiary papers) are no longer seen as subsidiary or second rate. The study of these courses is intended to encourage interdisciplinarity and to expose the students to the possibilities in other disciplines. It also enriches the study of the core subjects. In BA Programmes , there will be one complementary course in each semester with 4 credits. The complementary course in 1st and 4th semesters as well as in 2nd and 3rd semesters will be the same. 5.

OPEN COURSES Besides the Complementary Courses, a student will be required to choose in the Fifth Semester an Open Course from a discipline of his or her choice to further consolidate the flair for interdisciplinary approach he/she has already acquired at the beginning of the programme of study. 6. ELECTIVES Electives, offered in the Sixth Semester, are the frontier areas of a specialized discipline. The courses such as World Classics in Translation and Regional Literatures in Translation should further widen the horizons of knowledge and lead students to fresh woods and pastures new. . APPROACH TO CURRICULUM DESIGN Unlike in the past where the unintelligible topic descriptions on crumpled sheets of paper fondly called syllabus undergo various evolutions in the hands of students, teachers and the question paper setters who finally seal the fate of the syllabus, the curriculum materials contained herein are so designed that a predetermined educational experience as set out in the course objectives is delivered. 7 8. CURRICULAR TRANSACTIONS RING OUT THE OLD RING IN THE NEW The current practice of curricular transactions has to be given a farewell.

Old practices such as dictation of notes are to be frowned upon. Carefully guided home assignments that are well-followed up, reinforced by well-monitored activities/projects individual/group, discussions, seminars, presentations and other modern techniques should make classes lively, imparting the joy of learning. The specific requirements of below average students who have failed to learn their lessons in the lower classes and of students who learn a particular language for minimal social interactions are to be met using the space and time outside the common classrooms. 9.

USE OF ICT Various tools available in ICT are to be optimally utilized wherever possible. Effective use of Language Lab in skills training and spoken English drills yields marvelous results. Meticulously planned screening sessions of plays/films, replay of poetry recitals, recording of famous speeches etc are to be resorted to make the class rooms lively and effective. 10. COMMUNICATING THE SPIRIT OF THE CURRICULUM This curriculum represents a major change from the trodden path, demanding positive readjustments from various stake holders: the university administration, teachers, students and parents.

Effective motivating sessions and course-wise workshops should be organized by the university for the benefit of the teachers. It is recommended that the university print the syllabi and upload it on the university website. 11. CONTACT HOURS As per the university regulations, the total number of contact hours for a course is 18 (weeks) x 4 hours/week = 72 hrs or 18 x 5 h/w = 90 hrs. However, it should be possible for a student to set apart 2-3 hours of self study per day over 18 weeks which will total around 375 hours of self study/semester. 2. EXAMINATIONS 1) There shall be University Examination at the end of each semester. For practical convenience, 1st and 2nd semester examinations may be conducted at the end of 2nd semester only. 2) The theory examination of each course will be of three hours duration. It shall contain two parts (Internal and External). The internal examination will be conducted with 20 multiple choice questions and OMR answer sheet, at the beginning for 15 minutes. The rest 2 hours and 45 minutes is utilized for the external examination of that course. ) The external question paper may contain short answer type, paragraph type and essay type questions. 8 4) Different types of questions shall possess different weightage to quantify their range. Weightage can vary from course to course depending on their comparative importance. EVALUATION AND GRADING 1. The evaluation scheme for each course shall contain two parts. i) Internal evaluation (20%) ii) External evaluation (80%) The weightage of internal and external evaluation is as follows. Evaluation Internal External Weightage 1 (20%) 4 (80%) Both internal and external evaluation will be done using Direct Grading system. 13.

DIRECT GRADING SYSTEM Direct Grading System based on a 5 point scale is used to evaluate the performance (External and Internal) of students. Letter Grade A B C D E Performance Excellent Very Good Good Average Poor Grade Point 4 3 2 1 0 Grade Range 3. 50 to 4. 00 2. 50 to 3. 49 1. 50 to 2. 49 0. 50 to 1. 49 0. 00 to 0. 49 14. DISTRIBUTION OF COURSES FOR UG PROGRAMME IN ENGLISH There are 5/6 courses in each semester and a total of 35 courses spread over six semesters. 1-10 Common Courses 11-24 Core Courses 25 Elective 26 Open Course 27 Project 28-35 Complementary Courses 9 15. OUTLINE OF COMMON COURSES Course Code A01 A02 No. f Contact Hours/Week 4 5 No. of Credits 3 3 Semester in which course to be taught 1 1 Title of Course Communication Skills In English Critical Reasoning, Writing & Presentation Reading Literature in English Readings on Indian Constitution, Secularism & Sustainable Environment Literature and Contemporary Issues History and Philosophy of Science Communication Skill in the additional language Translation and Communication in the additional language Literature in the additional Language Culture and Civilization (with a compulsory component on Kerala culture) A03 A04 4 5 4 4 2 2 A05 5 4 3 A06 A07 A08 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 2 A09 A10 5 5 4 4 3 4 10 16. OUTLINE OF THE CORE COURSES No. of Contact No. of Hours/Week Course Code Title of Course Credits in which CC To be taught 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 Semester EN1B1 EN2B1 EN3B1 EN3B2 EN4B1 EN4B2 EN5B1 EN5B2 EN5B3 Methodology of Humanities Methodology of Literature Informatics Reading Prose Reading Poetry Reading Fiction Reading Drama Language and Linguistics Literary Criticism and Theory Literatures in English: American & Postcolonial Project* (to be continued in Semester 6) Women’s Writing Modern English Literature Indian Writing in English Writing for the Media 6 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 EN5B4 5 4 5 EN5B5(Pr) EN6B1 EN6B2 EN6B3 EN6B4 2 5 5 5 5 3 0 4 4 4 4 2 5 6 6 6 6 6 EN6B5E(1/2/3) Elective (See table in 18 below) EN6B6(Pr) Project * 2 4 6 * The four (4) credits for the Project is to be considered only in Semester 6 11 17. CORE COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR DOUBLE MAIN PROGRAMMES WITH ENGLISH AS ONE OF THE COMPLEMENTS No. of Contact Hours/Week Course Code Title of Course Semester in No. of which to be Credits taught.

DMEN1B1 DMEN2B1 DMEN3B1 DMEN3B2 DMEN4B1 DMEN5B1 DMEN5B2 -DMEN5B3(Pr) DMEN6B1 DMEN6B2 DMEN6B3E(1/2/3) Methodology of Literature Reading Prose Reading Poetry Reading Fiction Reading Drama Language and Linguistics Literary Criticism and Theory Open Course Project * Modern English Literature Indian Writing in English Elective (See table in 18 below) Project * 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 5 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 4 4 2 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 DMEN6B6(Pr) 0 2 6 * The Projects in Core Courses A and B are to be completed in Sem 5 and Sem 6 respectively.

Bur the credits (2 x 2 = 4) are to be considered only in Semester 6 12 18. OUTLINE OF ELECTIVES ELECTIVES Course Code No. of Contact Hours/Week 3 3 3 No. of Credits Semester in which El. is to be taught 6 6 6 Title of Course EN6B5E1 EN6B5E2 EN6B5E3 World Classics in Translation Regional Literatures in Translation Dalit Literature 2 2 2 19. OUTLINE OF OPEN COURSES OPEN COURSES FOR STUDENTS OF OTHER DISCIPLINES Course Code No. of Contact Hours/Week No. of Credits Semester in which OC is to be taught 5 5 5 Title of Course

EN5D01 EN5D02 EN5D03 Film Studies Creative Writing in English Applied Language Skills 3 3 3 4 4 4 20. LIST OF COMPLEMENTARY COURSES (As per the decision of the Steering Committee on CCSS UG held on 29/06/2011, the list of complementary courses of English Programme of Choice based Credit Semester System under SDE of Calicut University w. e. f. 2011is as follows. ) English Political Science/Indian Constitution Politics/Modern World History Social and Cultural History of Britain and I and IV semesters II and III Semesters OR

English Journalism/History of Journalism Mass Communication/Modern Indian History I and IV semesters II and III Semesters 13 21. BA PROGRAMME IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE & LITERATURE COURSES (SEMESTER-WISE) SEMESTER 1 Course Code A01 A02 Title of Course No. of Contact Hours/Week 4 5 No. of Credits 3 3 Communication Skills in English Critical Reasoning, Writing & Presentation Communication Skill in the additional language Methodology of Humanities Complementary Paper A07 EN1B1 4 6 6 4 4 4 Total 25 18 SEMESTER 2 Course Code A03 A04 Title of Course No. f Contact Hours/Week 4 5 No. of Credits 4 4 Reading Literature in English Readings on Indian Constitution, Secularism & Sustainable Environment Translation and Communication in the additional language Methodology of Literature Complementary Paper Total A08 EN2B1 4 6 6 25 4 4 4 20 14 SEMESTER 3 Course Code A05 A09 EN3B1 EN3B2 Title of Course Literature and Contemporary Issues Literature in the additional language Informatics Reading Prose Complementary Paper No. of Contact Hours/Week 5 5 4 5 6 No. of Credits 4 4 4 4 4 Total 25 20

SEMESTER 4 Course Code Title of Course No. of Contact Hours/Week 5 5 5 4 6 No. of Credits 4 4 4 4 4 A06 A10 EN4B1 EN4B2 History and Philosophy of Science Culture and Civilization Reading Poetry Reading Fiction Complementary Paper Total 25 20 15 SEMESTER 5 Course Code EN5B1 EN5B2 EN5B3 EN5B4 EN5B5(Pr) —–Title of Course Reading Drama Language and Linguistics Literary Criticism and Theory Literatures in English: American & Postcolonial Project* (to be contd in Sem 6) Open Course Total SEMESTER 6 Course Code Title of Course No. f Contact Hours/Week 5 5 5 5 3 2 25 No. of Credits 4 4 4 4 2 4 22 No. of contact Hours/week 5 5 5 5 2 3 25 No. of Credits 4 4 4 4 0 4 20 EN6B1 EN6B2 EN6B3 EN6B4 EN6B5E(1/2/3) EN6B6(Pr) Women’s Writing Modern English Literature Indian Writing in English Writing for the Media Elective Project * Total 16 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMMES SYLLABI FOR COMMON COURSES COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT

A01 COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH 1 3 72 (4 hrs/wk) NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS MODULE – I 1. Listening: Sounds, Stress and Intonation a) Phonemic symbols: Vowels – Diphthongs – Trip thongs – Consonants b) Stress: Syllables – Word Stress – Stress in Monosyllables – Stress in Polysyllables – Stress in words used as different Parts of Speech – Stress in compound words – Stress – Sentence Stress. c) Strong forms – Weak forms – Contracted forms d) Intonation: Falling Intonation and Rising Intonation 2.

Listening Skills: Barriers to listening – Academic listening – Listening to talks and descriptions – Listening to announcements – Listening to news on the radio and Television – Listening to casual conversations MODULE – II Speaking: Word Stress and Rhythm – Weak Forms and Strong forms – Pauses and Sense Groups – Falling and Rising tones – Fluency and pace of Delivery – Problem Sounds – Different Accents (British and American) – Influence of Mother Tongue MODULE- III Communication Skills 1.

What is communication? – importance of the situation (formal, semi-formal, informal – spoken and written communication – essentials of effective communication – Greeting and Introducing – Making requests – Asking for permission – Giving and denying 17 permission – Offering and accepting help – Asking for and declining help – giving instructions and directions 2.

Telephone Skills: Understanding Telephone conversation – Handling calls – Leaving Message – making requests – Asking for and Giving permission – Giving instructions 3) Discussion Skills: Giving your opinion agreeing and disagreeing, Explaining, Making suggestions – Interrupting – Questioning – Reporting – Dealing with questions MODULE – IV Reading Surveying a textbook – scanning – using an index – reading with a purpose – making predictions about your reading – Surveying a chapter – unfamiliar words – connections between facts and ideas – locating main points – understanding text structure – making inferences – reading graphics – identifying view points – reading critically – analyzing argument Note on Course Work The course work should give emphasis to the practice of the skills of listening, speaking, and reading undertaken both as classroom activity and as homework. 4. READING LIST A) FURTHER READING Sl. No 1

Title Study Listening: A Course in Listening to Lectures and Note-taking (Book with Audio CD) Study Speaking: A Course in Spoken English for Academic Purposes (Book with Audio CD) Spoken English Part I & II A Foundation Course for Speakers of Malayalam Oxford Guide to Effective Writing and Speaking Author Tony Lynch Publisher & Year Cambridge University Press (2008) Cambridge University 2008 Press, 2 Kenneth Anderson, Joan Maclean and Tony Lynch Kamlesh Sadanand, & Susheela Punitha John Seely 3 4 Orient Longman Pvt Ltd (2008) New Delhi, OUP, 2007 5. MODEL QUESTION PAPER (To be incorporated) 18 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMMES SYLLABI FOR COMMON COURSES CRITICAL REASONING, WRITING & PRESENTATION COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT A02 CRITICAL REASONING, PRESENTATION 1 3 90 (5 hrs/wk) WRITING & NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS

COURSE OUTLINE MODULE – I Introduction to Critical Thinking: Benefits of Critical Thinking – Barriers to Critical Thinking – Deductive and Inductive Reasoning – Recognizing Arguments – Identifying flaws in arguments – Evaluation of Arguments – – fallacies of relevance & insufficient evidence – Evaluating and using sources of information – Social influences on thinking – Persuasion Conformity – Prejudices MODULE – II Language of Critical thinking: Characteristics of Critical and Analytical Writing – Precision, avoidance of vagueness, over-generality, ambiguity. Sense of audience, Clarity, Selection, Sequencing, Sign posting, Conventions, Evaluating Critical Writing MODULE III A) Resources: Using the Library – Net Sources – Reading for Writing B) The Writing Process: Background to writing Developing plans from titles – Evaluating a text – Understanding Purpose and Register – Selecting key points – note making – paraphrasing – summary writing – combining sources – Planning a text – organizing paragraphs – organizing main body – introductions – conclusions – re-reading and rewriting – proof reading C) Elements of Writing: Cause and effect – cohesion – comparison – definitions – discussion – examples – generalization – Numbers – references and quotations – style – synonyms – visual information MODULE IV A) Accuracy in Writing: Abbreviation – adverbs – articles – caution – conjunctions – formality in verbs 19 – modal verbs – Nationality language – nouns and adjectives –countable and uncountable nouns – Passives – Prefixes and suffixes – Prepositions – Prepositions after verbs – Punctuation –– Referring verbs – Relative pronouns – Singular/plural – Tenses – Time words and phrases.

B) Writing Models: Formal letters – Curriculum Vitae/Covering Letter – Designing and Reporting Surveys – Seminar Papers – Project Reports – Documentation MODULE – V A) Soft Skills for Academic Presentations: Theory – The audience – primary and secondary and their knowledge and expectations – the objective of the presentation – choosing the appropriate medium for presentation techniques of effective presentation – Structuring the presentation visual presentation aids – handouts – Power point presentation – L. C. D Clarity and persuasion – Non verbal communication – Opening and Closing – Time Management. 3. A) READING LIST FURTHER READING Sl. No 1 2 Title Critical Thinking Skills Author Stella Cottrell Publisher & Year 3 4 5 6 7 8 Palgrave Macmillan, 2005 Critical Thinking: A Student’s Gregory Bassham, McGraw-Hill, 2006 nd Introduction, 2 Edition William Irwin, Henry Nardone, James M.

Wallace Critical Thinking: Learn the Richard Paul and Pearson Education, Tools the Best Thinkers Use Linda Elder 2006 Thinking Skills John Butterworth Cambridge & Geoff Thwaites University Press, 2006 th Keys to Successful Writing, 4 Marilyn Anderson Pearson Longma Edition Study Writing: A Course in Liz-Hamp-Lyons & Cambridge Writing Skills for Academic Ben Heasly University Press, Purposes 2007 Oxford Guide to Effective John Seely New Delhi, OUP, Writing and Speaking 2007 Presentation Skills for Students Joan Van Emden & Palgrave Lucinda Becker Macmillan, 2004 5. WEB RESOURCES • • • www. criticalthinking. org http://www. ou. edu/ouphil/faculty/chris/crmscreen. pdf www. thinkersway. com 20 6. MODEL QUESTION PAPER (To be incorporated) UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMMES SYLLABI FOR COMMON COURSES READING LITERATURE IN ENGLISH COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT A03 READING LITERATURE IN ENGLISH 2 4 72 (4 hrs/wk) NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS COURSE OUTLINE MODULE 1: PROSE 1. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan 2. Bertrand Russell 3. Aldous Huxley 4.

Anne Frank MODULE 2: POETRY 1. Edmund Spenser 2. Maya Angelou 3. Abraham Lincoln His Son’s Teacher 4. Mina Asadi 5. Dilip Chitre 6. H. W. Longfellow 7. Lewis Carroll 8. Sylvia Plath MODULE 3: SHORT STORY 1. Maxim Gorky 2. Bessie Head 3. Natsume Soseki MODULE 4: DRAMA : Humanities vs. Science : How to Escape from Intellectual Rubbish : The Beauty Industry : An extract from The Diary of a Young Girl : One Day I wrote Her Name : A Poor Girl : Abraham Lincoln’s Letter to : A Ring to Me is Bondage : Father Returning Home : A Slave’s Dream : The Walrus and the Carpenter : Mirror : One Autumn Night : Heaven is not Closed : I Am a Cat 21 1. A. A. Milne 2. Fritz Karinthy The Boy Comes Home : Refund 4. READING LIST CORE TEXT 1. Reading Literature in English K. Narayan Chandran Foundation Books, 2009 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMMES SYLLABI FOR COMMON COURSES READINGS ON INDIAN CONSTITUTION, SECULAR STATE & SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE A04 PROSE READINGS ON INDIAN CONSTITUTION, SECULARISM & SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT 2 4 90 (5 hrs/wk) COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS COURSE OUTLINE MODULE 1 INDIAN CONSTITUTION AND SECULARISM 1 . Ambedkar’s Speech On 4 Th November 1948 In The Constituent Assembly 2.

Concluding speech of Ambedkar delivered on 25 th November 1949. 3. Secularism in India Asghar Ali Engineer 4. The Executive and the Judiciary Andre Beteille 5. Signs Of Change S. Viswanathan 6. Deep Roots J. B. Kripalani 7. When The Press Fails In Its Duty Ajit Bhattacharjea. 8. The Choice Before us Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. 9. A Dialogue on Democracy A. S. Hornby 10. Democratic Model for India Subhash C. Kasyap 11 The Making of the Constitution L. M. Singhvi MODULE II SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT 1. Arundhathi Roy : The End of Imagination (Essay) 22 2. 3. Medha Patkar : A Different Kind of Development (Essay) Kiss of Life for Mother Earth : Prophets of New India (Essay) 4.

Krishna Kumar : Green Schools in a Greying World (Essay) 5. Chief Seattle (Narrative) : The End of Living and the Beginning of Survival 6. Romila Thapar : Forests and Settlements (Essay) 7. Amitav Ghosh : The Hungry Tide (Short Story) 8. Deep Ecology –A New Paradigm :  Fritjof Capra 4. CORE TEXT (A text containing the above lessons will be made available) 5. MODEL QUESTIONS (To be incorporated) UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMMES SYLLABI FOR COMMON COURSES LITERATURE AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT A05 LITERATURE AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES 3 4 90 (5 hrs/wk) NO.

OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS COURSE OUTLINE MODULE – I ‘GLOBALIZATION’ AND ITS CONSEQUENCES (ESSAYS) 1. Fighting Indiscriminate Globalisation : Vandana Siva 2. Riches : Ramachandra Guha 3. Sharing the World : Amartya Sen 4. Confronting Empire : Arundhati Roy 5. Villages for Sale in Vidharbha : Dionne Bunsha 6. Future of Our Past : Satchidanandan MODULE – II – HUMAN RIGHTS 1. Basic Rights: : Malini Sheshadri ,Hema Nair 2. Disgrace: : Swami Wahind Kazmi 3. Labels Everywhere: : Sunder Ramaswamy 4. Under my Napkin? In Sky? In Trees? A Child’s questions: Susan Biskebone 5. The Tree of Violence: : Namadeo Dhasal MODULE –III 23 THE GENDER QUESTION 1.

Dinner for the Boss : Bisham Sahni 2. Learning to be a Mother : Sashi Despande 3. Aruna : Rinki Battacharya 4. Medea : Nabneeta Dev Sen 5. Organising for Change : Ela Bhatt 6. Child Marriages are Linked to Poverty : Usha Rai 7. The Summimg Up 4. READING LIST : Kamala Das CORE TEXT Reading and reality Malini Seshadri and Hema Nair 2009 5. MODEL QUESTIONS (To be incorporated) UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMMES SYLLABI FOR COMMON COURSES HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE COURSE CODE A06 HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE OUP TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS 4 4 90 (5 hrs/wk)

COURSE OUTLINE MODULE I ANCIENT HISTORY OF SCIENCE Introduction to history and philosophy of science – What is science – Origins of scientific enquiry – European origins of science – Early India – China – Arabs MODULE II SCIENCE IN MIDDLE AGES Europe 1450 1550 – Fall of Aristotle – Bruno, Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes – Medical sciences – Advancement in India – Modern scientific outlook 24 MODULE III MODERN SCIENCE Newton – Contemporaries – Mathematics – Industrial Revolution – French Revolution – Scientific Determinism – Modern medicine – Microbiology – Darwin – Genome – Electron, Atom, Nuclear physics Information Technology, Biotechnology, Nano Technology MODULE IV PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE What is philosophy of science – science & pseudo science – Scientific Reasoning: Deduction, Induction; Hume’s problem; Inference; Probability & Induction – Explanation in Science: Symmetry, Irrelevance, Explanation vs. ausality& reduction Realism And Antirealism – Scientific Change And Scientific Revolutions – Philosophical Problems In Physics, Biology And Psychology – Science And Its Critics: Scientism – Science and Religion – Darwin on Trial: A Case study – Science and Society – People’s Science – Response to Criticisms 4. READING LIST a) CORE TEXT Sl. No 1 Title History and Philosophy of Science Authors R. V. G. Menon Publisher & Year Pearson Longman, 2009 b) FURTHER READING Sl. No 1 2 3 History of Technology Title Science Author and R. V. G. Menon Publisher & Year Calicut University Central Coop Stores, 2002 Gupta Pearson Longman New York, 2002 OUP, History and Philosophy of P. K. Sen Science (Gen. Ed) Philosophy of Science: A Very Okasha Samir Short Introduction 5. MODEL QUESTIONS (To be incorporated) 25

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR BA PROGRAMME IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE SYLLABI FOR CORE COURSES METHODOLOGY OF HUMANITIES COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT EN1B1 METHODOLOGY OF HUMANITIES I 4 108 hrs/wk) NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS COURSE OUTLINE MODULE I Introduction – difference between the natural, social and the human sciences – facts and interpretation – history and fiction – study of the natural world compared to the study of the subjective world – study of tastes, values and belief system – the question of ideology CORE READING Terry Eagleton. Literary Theory: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell, 1983. Chapter: ‘What is Literature? ’ EH Carr. What is History? Ed 2. London, Macmillan. 1986. – 24, 50-80 (Chapter 1: The Historian and His Facts & Chapter 3: History, Science and Morality) GENERAL READING Peter Widdowson. Literature. London, Routledge. 1999 MODULE II Language, Culture and Identity – the relation between language, culture and subjectivity – the question of agency in language – the social construction of reality – language in history – language in relation to class, caste, race and gender – language and colonialism CORE READING Peter L Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966. 13-30. Introduction J. G. Merquior, From Prague to Paris. London: Verso, 1986. 10-17, Chapter 1, 26

Sections ‘The Linguistic Paradigm’ and ‘From Language to Culture GENERAL READING Rosalind Coward and John Ellis, Language and Materialism. London: Routledge, 1977. MODULE III Narration and representation – reality and/as representation – narrative modes of thinking – narration in literature, philosophy and history – textuality and reading CORE READING Shlomith Rimmon Kenan, Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics. London: Methuen, 1981. Chapter 1. Javed Akhtar, “The Syntax of Secularism in Hindi Cinema,” in Composite Culture in a Multi-cultural Society, ed. Bipan Chandra and Sucheta Mahajan. New Delhi: NBT and Pierson, 2007. 265-72. GENERAL READING Linda M Shires and Steven Cohen, Telling Stories. London: Methuen, 85

MODULE IV Indian theories of knowledge – Methodologies of Indian knowledge systems – what is knowledge – concepts of knowledge in the Indian tradition – origin and development of Indian philosophical systems CORE READING M. Hiriyanna. Outlines of Indian Philosophy. London. 1956. Chapters 1 & 2. Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya. Indian Philosophy: A popular Introduction. New Delhi, Peoples Publishing House, 1982. Chapters 4, 8 & 24. GENERAL READING S. Radhakrishnan. Indian Philosophy. 2 vols. London, 1943. Note on Course work The teaching of the course will involve making the student enter into a sort of dialogue with some of the issues raised in the reading material given below.

While the student should be encouraged to read the recommended section of the text or the whole text outside the class hours, representative excerpts from individual texts may be used for intensive reading in the class. 4. COURSE TEXT Sl. No 1 Title Authors Publisher & Year Methodolog y and Perspectives Abhijit Kundu & Pearson Longman, of Humanities Pramod Nayar 2009 (To be incorporated) 27 5. MODEL QUESTION PAPER UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR BA PROGRAMME IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE SYLLABI FOR CORE COURSES METHODOLOGY OF LITERATURE COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT EN2B1 METHODOLOGY OF LITERATURE 2 4 108 (6 hrs/wk) NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS

COURSE OUTLINE MODULE I Traits of Literature: What forms literature? How is literature different from other discourses? – Canon Formation: Who determines taste? How are certain works and authors marginalized? – English literatures: British, American, African, Indian, Canadian, Australian etc. MODULE II Textual approaches: New criticism,Formalism, Close Reading, Deconstruction, Reader response – Psychoanalytic: Freud, Lacan and Zizek (not the heavy jargon but reading possibilities) – Archetypal: Unconscious and universal patterns of repetition MODULE III Gender: Marginalized genders – Ethnic: Marginalization of aboriginals, how their culture is demolished and specimens? Subaltern: A unique Indian phenomenon, Dalit literature, marginalization MODULE IV Post colonial: How texts are reread? Quest for expression, assertion of nationalism with special reference to India and Arica – Cultural studies: Cultural Materialism, New Historicism, Marxism, Postmodernism – Eco-critical: Awareness of nature and environment, eco-feminism Approach The approach has to be open and flexible in sensibility, avoiding judicious judgments. Instead of offering rigid definitions and 28 descriptions, the teacher is to stimulate thinking process and help students form positions through familiar examples. A few poems (or stories) are to be selected and read from different theoretical frames so that the student can grasp how one contrasts with the other.

Classes may be devoted to simple explication of the methodologies followed by practical illustrations of the application of the methodologies on short works and finally, student assignments on these lines. 4. READING LIST A) CORE TEXT (A text containing the above lessons will be made available) B) FURTHER READING Sl No 1 2 3 Title Principles Criticism of Author Literary S. Ravindranathan Publisher/Year Chennai, 1993 Emerald, A Handbook of Critical Wilfred L. Guerin, Earle Delhi, OUP, 2006 Approaches to Literature Labor, et al Contemporary Criticism: An V. S. Sethuraman (ed) Chennai, Macmillan, Anthology 1989 5. MODEL QUESTION PAPER (To be incorporated) 29

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR BA PROGRAMME IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE SYLLABI FOR CORE COURSES INFORMATICS COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT EN3B1 INFORMATICS 3 4 72 (4 hrs/wk) NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS 1. AIMS OF THE COURSE • This course introduces students to all the different aspects of Information Technology and Computers that an educated citizen of the modern world may be expected to know of and use in daily life. The topics in the syllabus are to be presented as much as possible with a practical orientation so that the student is given a perspective that will help him to use and master technology. 2.

OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE Upon completion of the course: • The student will have a thorough general awareness of Computer hardware and software from a practical perspective. • The student will have good practical skill in performing common basic tasks with the computer. 4. COURSE OUTLINE MODULE I: GENERAL INTRODUCTION Outline history of the development of computers – Types of computersPC/ Workstations – Laptops – Palmtops – Mobile Devices – Notebooks Mainframes –Supercomputers – Significance of IT and the Internet MODULE II: INTRODUCTION TO BASIC HARDWARE Monitor – CRT and LCD – issues – CPU-mouse-keyboard-processor types – Ports – USB 2. 0 – Input-output devices – Printers-scanners-graphic tablet-thumb drive- modems-digital cameras-microphones-speakers. Bluetooth devices MODULE III: INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE

Topics: Operating Systems – Windows- Windows versions- Linux – Linux distributions- Free software- software licenses – Software Tools 30 (applications) – Windows software tools- Word, PowerPoint, Excel Linux tools – Open Office, etc. Security issues- viruses – antivirus tools. MODULE IV: INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING AND THE INTERNET What is Networking – LAN- WAN- Wireless networks – Benefits of Networking- file sharing- sharing of printers- examples – networking in an office- in an internet cafe. The Internet- HTML- websites – blogs search engines- e-mail- chat- wikis- social networking- Security issuesHacking- Phishing etc. MODULE V: KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES ON THE INTERNET

Encyclopedias – libraries – book sites – journals – content repositories online education – other information sites – internet directories – other information sources – websites of universities and research institutions Online courses and Virtual Universities MODULE VI: COMPUTER LOCALIZATION What is localization – using computers in the local languages in India language packs for operating systems and programs – fonts –Unicode ASCII – keyboard layout issues – software tools for typing local languages – TDIL project. 4. CORE TEXT (A text containing the above lessons will be made available) MODEL QUESTION PAPER(To be incorporated) 31 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR BA PROGRAMME IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE SYLLABI FOR CORE COURSES READING PROSE COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS EN3B2 READING PROSE 3 4 90 (5 hrs/wk) 1.

AIM OF THE COURSE • The aim of the course is to enhance the level of critical thinking of the students to such a degree that the students could critically interact with prose writings from different contexts – social, political, economic, historical and national as subjects conscious of their own socio-historic specificity. 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE • To enable the students to identify the specificities of various modes of prose writing and to equip them to write prose in as many different modes as possible To develop the critical thinking ability of the student to respond to various modes of prose writings in relation to their socio-historic and cultural ontexts. 3. COURSE OUTLINE MODULE I PROSE FORMS Fiction/Short Story/Tales – Autobiography/Biography – Newspaper/Journal Articles – Philosophical/Scientific Essays – Travelogues – Speech Introduce various modes of narrative so as to enable the students to distinguish between them and identify the characteristics specific to each mode. The students must be encouraged to write prose in as many different modes as possible. • MODULE II PROSE READINGS (CORE) 1. Francis Bacon 2. Intizar Husain : Of Studies : A Chronicle of the Peacocks (Short story) (From Individual Society, Pearson Education) 32 3. Paul Krugman: : Grains Gone Wild (http://www. nytimes. om/2008/04/07/opinion/07krugman. html) 4. Martin Luther King, Jr. : Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech (nobelprize. org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/kingacceptance. html) 5. Sylvia Nasar : A Quiet Life (Princeton, 1970-90) From Nasar, Sylvia. A Beautiful Mind. London: Faber and Faber, 1998) 6. Omprakash Valmiki : Joothan :A Dalit’s Life (From Individual Society, Pearson Education) 7. E. F. Schumacher : Technology With A Human Face (From Insights. K Elango (ed) 8. Daniel Goleman Elango (ed). Hyderabad, Orient Blackswan, 2009) : Emotional Intelligence (From Insights. K Hyderabad, Orient Blackswan, 2009) : Filming India ( An Interview) (From India Ramin Jahanbegloo. Delhi.

OUP, 2008) : On Good Resolutions (From English : Religion and Civilization (From Writing A : My Dungeon Shook ( From The Fire Next Michael Joseph) 9. Mrinal Sen Revisited by 10. Robert Lynd Essayists, OUP) 11. Mishirul Hassan Nation, Rupa) 12. James Baldwin Time by 4. READING LIST A) CORE TEXT (A text containing the above lessons will be made available) B) FURTHER READING Walter Benjamin: Experience (Essay) (From Marcus Bullock and Michael W. Jennings. ed, Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings, Volume 1, 1913-1926, Cambridge: The Belknap Press of HUP, 1996) Stephen Hawking: Public Attitude towards Science (Scientific Essay) (From Stephen Hawking: Back Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays. Toronto: Bantam Books, 1993) http://beemp3. om/download. php? file=2740600&song=Public+At titud es+Toward+Science Martin Luther King: I Have a Dream (Speech) (http://www. americanrhetoric. com/speeches/mlkihaveadream. htm) Ngugi Wa Thiong’o: Weep Not, Child, (Fiction). 33 Chennai: B. I. Publications, 2007. Guy De Muapassant: The Diamond Necklace (Short Story) (From Robert Scholes, Nancy R. Comley et al (ed). Elements of Literature: Fiction, Poetry, Drama, Essay, Film, ed IV. OUP, 2007. Pages 297-303) James Baldwin: Autobiographical Notes (From Robert Scholes, Nancy R. Comley et al (ed). Elements of Literature: Fiction, Poetry, Drama, Essay, Film, ed IV. OUP, 2007. Pages 98 – 102) A. P. J.

Abdul Kalam: Wings of Fire. Hyderabad: Universities Press (India) Private Ltd. 2004. Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl. New York: Bantam Books, 1993. Martin Luther King III: Martin Luther King III reflects on his pilgrimage to India. (Newspaper article) (From ‘The Hindu’, Op-Ed Page 11, dated Saturday, March 14, 2009. ) 5. MODEL QUESTION PAPER (To be incorporated) 34 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR BA PROGRAMME IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE SYLLABI FOR CORE COURSES READING POETRY COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT EN4B1 READING POETRY 4 4 90 (5 hrs/wk) NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS

COURSE OUTLINE MODULE I BASIC ELEMENTS OF POETRY Prosody: Rhythm, Meter – Rhyme-hard rhyme, soft rhyme, internal rhyme Alliteration, Assonance – Diction – (Demonstration and Drilling) Forms: Lyric, Ode, Haiku, Tanka, Jintishi, Ghazal, Rubai etc Genres: Narrative Poetry – Epic Poetry – Dramatic Poetry – Satirical Poetry Lyric Poetry Prose Poetry MODULE II READING ENGLISH POETS 1) FOUR POEMS a) b) c) d) 2) 3) 4) 5) Shakespeare : Sonnet 116 Elizabeth Barret Browning : How Do I Love Thee Mattew Arnold : Longing Lord Byron : When We Two Parted : A Valediction Forbidding Mourning : The Affliction of Margaret : Grecian Urn : The Laboratory John Donne Wordsworth John Keats Robert Browning 35 6) Thomas Gray 7) D. H. Lawrence Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard : Mosquito (Note: The first set of ‘Four Poems,’ taken as a single unit, is meant to serve as a formal initiation into the world of poetry. Students should be able to read, understand and appreciate them on their own, without much help from the teacher. A post reading discussion should be centred on aspects such as genre, poet, theme, similarity, contrasts, style, language, metre, rhyme etc. Teaching techniques such as ‘elicitation’ could be mainly resorted to (by way of asking short questions, giving hints etc. ). Written assignments are to be given. Loud reading sessions of the poems would be helpful in many ways. MODULE III POETRY AND PERSPECTIVES 1) Alexander Pushkin 2) Edwin Markham 3) Robert Frost 4) Wole Soyinka 5) Pablo Neruda 6) Maya Angelou 7) Hira Bansode 8) Chinua Achebe 9) Bertolt Brecht 4. READING LIST A) : No Tears : The Man with a Hoe : Birches : Telephone Conversation : Tonight I can Write : I know Why the Caged Bird Sings : Bosom Friend : Refugee Mother and Child : General, Your Tank CORE TEXT (A text containing the above lessons will be made available) B) FURTHER READING : London : 4. 02 p. m. : Psalm Three : Bosnia Tune : Death Mummer : The City : Daddy : Song for Gwydion : Speak, You Also : One Art : Ekalaivan : The Little Mute Boy : Vowels 1)William Blake (2)Suheir Hammad (3)Mahmoud Darwish (4)Joseph Brodsky (5)Jeanette Armstrong (6)Daya Pawar 7) Sylvia Plath (8) R. S. Thomas (9) Paul Celan (10) Elizabeth Bishop (11) Meena Kandasamy (12) Federico Garcia Lorca (13) Arthur Rimbaud 5. MODEL QUESTION PAPER 36 (To be incorporated) UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR BA PROGRAMME IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE SYLLABI FOR CORE COURSES READING FICTION COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT EN4B2 READING FICTION 4 4 72 (4 hrs/wk) NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS COURSE OUTLINE MODULE I – FICTION & NARRATIVE STRATEGIES a) Plot – Character – Atmosphere – Technique – Style – Points of view b) c) d) CORE READING

Fiction as the base for other literary and media writing Difference between long and short fiction – definitions Types of Fiction B. Prasad. A Background to the Study of English Literature, rev. ed. 3. Delhi: Macmillan, 2008. (Pages 193 – 229) Robert Scholes et al (ed). Elements of Literature: Fiction, Poetry, Drama, Essay, Film, ed IV. OUP, 2007. (Pages 121 – 140) MODULE II – READING LONG FICTION . Man and the Sea’ by Ernest Hemingway (1951) MODULE III – READING SHORT FICTION 37 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ‘The Phoenix’ ‘Of white Hairs and Cricket’ ‘Schools and Schools’ ‘The Diamond Necklace’ ‘Miss Brill’ ‘Misery’ : Sylvia Townsend Warner : Rohinton Mistry : O. Henry : Guy de Maupassant : Katherine Mansfield : Anton Chekhov 4. A) READING LIST:FURTHER READING Sl.

Title No 1 Literature, Criticism, and Style: A Practical Guide to Advanced Level English Literature 2 The Rise of the Novel 3 4 5 Rhetoric of Fiction Craft of Fiction. Author Steven Craft and Helen D. Cross Publisher/Year Oxford: OUP, 2000 Ian Watt Wayne C. Boot Percy Lubbock University of California Press, 2001 Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1983 Penguin, 2007 Cambridge University Press, 2008 New Delhi: OUP, 2007 6 Literature and Gillian Lazar Language Teaching: A Guide for Teachers & Trainers A Hand Book of Wilfred L. Guerin et al Critical approaches to Literature 5. CYBER RESOURCES www. Questia. com www. Bookrags. com www. Novelguide. com www. gradesaver. com/the-old-man-and-the-sea http://www. parknotes. com/lit/oldman/ http://www. studygs. net/fiction. htm 6. MODEL QUESTION PAPER (To be incorporated) 38 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR BA PROGRAMME IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE SYLLABI FOR CORE COURSES READING DRAMA COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT EN5B1 READING DRAMA 5 4 90 (5 hrs/wk) NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS 1. AIM OF THE COURSE • To develop in students a taste for reading drama with a theoretical basis, and to enter imaginatively into other worlds, to consider issues and to explore relationships from the points of view of different people • • • • • • 3. 2.

OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE To develop a critical understanding of drama and various kinds of theatre and a range of dramatic skills and techniques To familiarize students with the cultural diversity of the world To provide students with a meaningful context for acquiring new language and developing better communication skills To foster a strong sense of involvement which motivates and encourages students to learn through active participation To facilitate exploration of attitudes, values and behaviour and creation of roles and relationships so that the student gains an understanding of themselves and others through dramatic, imaginative experience To develop confidence and self-esteem in their relationships with others and sensitivity towards others COURSE OUTLINE MODULE I – DRAMA & THEATRE a. Drama as a performing art – Drama as a tool for social criticism – Theatre – Introduction to theatres such as Absurd, Epic, Street, Cruelty, Anger, Feminist, Ritualistic, and Poor. b. Genres: Tragedy, Comedy, Tragi-Comedy, Farce and Melodrama, Masque, One-ActPlay, Dramatic Monologue c. Setting – Plot – Character – Structure – Style – Theme – Audience – Dialogue 39 CORE READING TEXTS B. Prasad. A Background to the Study of English Literature, Rev. Ed.

Delhi: Macmillan, 2008. (Pages 106 – 182) Robert Scholes et al (ed). Elements of Literature: Fiction, Poetry, Drama, Essay, Film, ed IV. OUP, 2007. (Pages 773 – 800) MODULE II – READING DRAMA William Shakespeare Ibsen :Macbeth (1623) : Doll’s House (1881) Act III (A general awareness of the entire play is expected) J. M. Synge 4. READING LIST:FURTHER READING Sl. Title No 1 Elements of Drama 2 3 4 A Hand Book of Critical approaches to Literature The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama Literature, Criticism, and Style: A Practical Guide to Advanced Level English Literature Literature and Language Teaching: A Guide for Teachers & Trainers Author J. L. Styan Wilfred L.

Guerin et al Keir Elam Steven Craft and Helen D. Cross Publisher/Year Cambridge University Press, 1967 New Delhi: OUP, 2007 London: Routledge, 2009 Oxford: OUP, 2000 : Riders to the Sea (1904) 5 Gillian Lazar Cambridge University Press, 2008 6. CYBER RESOURCES http://virtual. clemson. edu/groups/dial/AP2000/drama. htm http://www. hmie. gov. uk/documents/publication/eltd-03. htm www. criticalreading. com/drama. htm – www. angelfire. com/ego/edp303/ www. associatedcontent. com/article/110042/anton_chekhovs_play_the_bear_ a_tragedy. html http://www. theatrehistory. com/irish/synge002. html http://www. theatredatabase. com/20th_century/john_millington_synge_002. ht ml http://www. answers. om/topic/all-god-s-chillun-got-wings http://www. eoneill. com/library/newsletter/iv_1-2/iv-1-2b. htm 40 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR BA PROGRAMME IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE SYLLABI FOR CORE COURSES LANGUAGE AND LINGUISTICS COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT EN5B2 LANGUAGE AND LINGUISTICS 5 4 90 (5 hrs/wk) NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS 1. AIM OF THE COURSE The course studies what is language and what knowledge a language consist of. This is provided by basic examination of internal organization of sentences, words, and sound systems. The course assumes no prior training in linguistics.

Students of Linguistics begin their studies by learning how to analyze languages, their sounds (phonetics and phonology), their ways of forming words (morphology), their sentence structures (syntax), and their systems of expressing meaning (semantics). 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE • To lead to a greater understanding of the human mind, of human communicative action and relations through an objective study of language • To familiarize students with key concepts of Linguistics and develop awareness of latest trends in Language Study • To help students towards a better pronunciation and to improve the general standard of pronunciation in every day conversation and in reading. To help the students develop a sense of English grammar, idioms, syntax and usage. • To improve writing and speech skills. • 3. 4. LANGUAGE COURSE OUTLINE MODULE I – a) What is Language? – Speech and Writing – Language and Society b)Variations in language – Language Behaviour – Dialect – Idiolect – Register – Bilingualism MODULE II – LINGUISTICS 41 a) What is Linguistics? – Is Linguistics a Science? b) Branches of Linguistics : Phonology – Morphology – Syntax – Semantics – Semiology c) Approaches to the Study of Linguistics Synchronic Diachronic – Prescriptive – Descriptive Traditional – Modern d)Key Concepts in Linguistics Langue – Parole – Competence – Performance etc

MODULE III – PHONETICS Speech Mechanism – Organs of Speech Overview of English Sound System Classification of Vowels – Diphthongs – Triphthongs and Consonants Cardinal Vowels Phonemes – Allophones and Allophonic Variations Homonyms and Homophones c)Suprasegmentals : Stress and Rhythm – Intonation – Juncture d) Elision and Assimilation e) Syllable f) Transcription and Practice g) Application (to be done preferably in the Language Lab) The need for Uniformity and Intelligibility – Distinctions between Regional and RP Sounds – articulation and Auditory Exercises MODULE IV – STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH a) b) Introduction to Grammar Grammar of words Morphemes and allomorphs – Lexical/Content Words – Form Words – functional/Structural Words – Formal, Informal and Academic words – Idioms c) Word Class/Parts of Speech – Word formation – Derivation – Inflexion d) Grammar of Sentence Word Order – Phrase – Clause – Sentence Patterns e) Kinds of Sentences Declarative – Interrogative – Imperative – Exclamatory – Simple – complex – Compound f) Transformation of Sentences (Practical Exercises to be given in the prescribed areas) a) b) 4. READING LIST 42 A.

CORE READING Sl Title No 1 Language and Linguistic: An Introduction 2 An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English 3 English Grammar 4 5 6 7 Key Concepts in Language and Linguistics Elements of General Linguistics Practical English Usage Linguistics and English Grammar B. GENERAL READING Sl Title Author No 1 New Horizon in Language John Lyons (Ed. ) 2 English Pronunciation in Use Mark Hencock 3 4 5 6 A Practical English Grammar Thomson and Martinet An Introduction to Language Christopher. J. Hall and Linguistics Introducing Phonology David Odden Linguistics: A Very Short Introduction P. H. Matthews Publisher/Year Pelican Books, 1970 Cambridge University Press, 2003 Oxford University Press Viva Continuum Edition, 2008 Cambridge University Press, 2005 Oxford University Press Author John Lyon A. C Gimson Raymond Murphy R. L. Trask Andre Martinet Michael Swan H. A. Gleason

Publisher/Year Cambridge University Press, 1999 London, 1980 Cambridge University Press, 2005 Routledge, 2004 Midway Reprint Series Oxford University Press, 2005 Holt, Rinehart &. Winston, Inc. , 1965. 5. MODEL QUESTION PAPER (To be incorporated) Sample Topics for Assignments Language and society – Branches of Linguistics – Bilingualism – The Need for the Study of Grammar – RP and Standard English – Approaches to the Study of Grammar – Linguistics as a Science 43 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT RESTRUCTURED CURRICULUM FOR BA PROGRAMME IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE SYLLABI FOR CORE COURSES LITERARY CRITICISM AND THEORY COURSE CODE TITLE OF THE COURSE SEMESTER IN WHICH THE COURSE IS TO BE TAUGHT EN5B3 LITERARY CRITICISM 5 4 90 (5 hrs/wk) AND THEORY NO. OF CREDITS NO. OF CONTACT HOURS 1. •

AIM OF THE COURSE To familiarise the students with the literary terms and introduce to them the various streams in literary criticism, to make them aware of the inter-disciplinary nature of contemporary criticism and to develop in students, skills for literary criticism. OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE To make the students aware that all readers are critics To familiarise them with the factors involved in criticism like interpretation, elucidation, judgement and appreciation. To introduce the students to basic texts in criticism, relating to various movements and schools of thought. To develop critical thinking by introducing various tools of criticism-analysis, comparison, theoretical approaches etc.

COURSE OUTLINE MODULE I – CLASSICAL AGE Aristotle: Concepts of tragedy, plot Plato: Concept of Art, criticism of poetry and drama Contemporary relevance of the ideas in the above to be discussed CORE READING 2. • • • • 3. Aristotle. “Poetics” classical appendix in English Critical Texts , OUP, Madras, 1962. Prasad, B. An Introduction to English Criticism. Macmillan, India, 1965. pp 1-28. MODULE II – INDIAN AESTHETICS Theory of Rasa, vyanjana and alankara. (The relationship between Module I & II to be discussed. For eg. The concept of Rasa and purgation, Alankara and figures of speech etc. CORE R