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A Critical Reflection of a Six Week Placement within the Rugby Football League

Chapter I

1.0 Introduction

Vocational practice is becoming a fundamental educational experience for students (May and Veitch, 1998). Colley, Hodkinson and Malcom, (2002) claim that vocational practice and training aids the development of technical skills and knowledge thus increasing behavioural competence within the workplace. Lyle and Cushion (2010) states there is no substitution for experience when it comes to hands on coaching, this belief is supported by Ericsson, (1998) whos research shows that a minimum of ten years experience is needed within the field to excel to an expert level of coaching. Vickers and Bavister (2005) go on to claim that coaches who regularly achieve success while coaching are often those who can reflect on their experiences from other events. This claim is supported by Schempp et al (2007) who believe that coaches who can thoughtfully analyse and critique the parts of their sessions which were successful and those which were not and then make adjustments where necessary are the “outstanding” coaches.

Before beginning any form of vocational placement it is crucial to set out key aims and objectives as this will allow you to asses just how successful the placement experience was and how much you gained from it. For my placement I set out three key aims. These aims are clearly laid out in section 1.1 as seen below.

1.1 Goals for Placement

To gain hand on experience while developing my practical skills and tacit knowledge.
To obtain at least two contacts which I could use after university.
To increase my own self confidence when in front of others.

1.2 Goal Setting

Correct goal setting can improve focus, persistence, confidence and performance but poor goal setting can create anxiety and sometimes hinder performance (Lynn, 2010). All three of my placement goals stick to the idea of SMARTER goal setting, these are defined by Finn, (2008) as “specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time phased and re evaluated”. Lewis and Smith (1994) explains that a good tip for coaches and athletes is to keep your goals SMARTER as it is easy to remember and makes your goals more achievable. This claim is supported by Lynn (2010) who claims that is vast amounts of literature that supports SMARTER goal setting. Weinberg and Gould (2003) claim that as a coach it is important to make your goals specific as without an aim you can lose interest and may not fully strive for the goal. It is also crucial for the goal to be measurable as without this there is no real drive for the coach. Coaches must also believe their goals are achievable and realistic as this will help keep them motivated to perform. Harter’s competency motivational theory agrees with this statement, explaining that more mastery attempts will take place if there is early success within the athlete’s goals (Harter, 1981). It is also essential that coaches make sure goals are realistic, if an athlete believes the goal is unrealistic they are almost guaranteed to fail (Martens, 2004). This belief is supported by Kidman and Hanrahan (2011) who state goals must have a balance between being challenging but also realistic. Time must also be taken into consideration as without this the coach will not drive themselves to achieve it in the required time frame. Finally the targets a coach aims for should be reviewed and evaluated as this shall help them make changes during their goals. During my placement I reviewed my goals through reflection. Cox, R, (2001) states goals can be viewed as being focused on outcome, performance, or process. Outcome goals are defined as goals which mainly focus on an overall result. An example of this would be winning a rugby game, or placing first in a competition. Therefore to successfully achieve an outcome goal one must not only perform to their best but also hope they out perform their opponent. An example of this would be when a football team plays ninety minutes of football to their best possible standard but still comes out on the losing team because the other team out performed them. Performance goals however look at the standard of ones performance. An example of this would be a golfer who does not win a tournament but has their lowest round on that course. Research suggests that goal setting is one of the most influential methods of increasing motivation and achieving goals (Locke and Latham, 1985). In 1981 Locke complied a comprehensive review of over a hundred studies which found over 90% of cases resulted in positive effects due to goal setting.

1.3 Curriculum Vitae and Covering Letter

Before actively searching for a vocational placement, it was my job to firstly construct a curriculum vitae (CV) and a covering letter. A CV is crucial when applying for any form of job or vocational practice as this is the first time a prospective employer will make an opinion of you. Houston (2004) supports this claim, stating that “a CV is not the whole you but just a taste of you and it is the first opportunity for you to make a good impression”. Provenzano, (2004) argues that a covering letter is in fact more important to a CV as the covering letter allows the applicant to personalise their application unlike a CV. When both the CV and covering letter were complete and spell checked for any errors it was then up to me to get in contact with prospective employers. As I have always had a keen interest in physical fitness and well being my first option was to work in the military either with the royal navy or the army as a personal trainer.

1.4 Potential Employers

Due to working within schools previously I had decided that I wanted to gain some experience elsewhere so I decided to take a sports coaching and development route which led me to another very strong passion, rugby. After I had made this decision it was easy for me to pick the types of institute I would like to work in. Firstly I sent my CV and covering letter to both the Rugby Football League (RFL) and the Rugby Football Union (RFU) as I have experience within both codes. Fortunately I quickly received word from the Cumbria Rugby Football League development team which stated that they would love to have a work experience student within their ranks. From this it was easy to make my decision and I began by replying to the RFL. Planning early and realising which employers were available to me allowed me plenty of time to enforce my contingency plan of working within sports development. Ntoumanis and Biddle (1997) explain that contingency planning is pre planning for problems within practice or competition and creating a solution for these possibilities if any troubles arise.

As in many schools, a major section of the work carried out by the RFL involves making people aware of the health benefits of physical activity and making sure the public can see there are possibilities for them to utilise such activities. By gaining a work placement within Cumbria Rugby League development I felt I would receive far greater hands on experience which would allow me to gain a much more rewarding vocational practice, as appose to working within the military where I feel I would have taken a much more back seat approach to the world of work. This level of first hand experience is essential for me due to the nature of my three smarter goals, as it would allow me to increase my own self confidence but also allow me to develop connections within the world of rugby league which I could potentially use after university. Colley et al, (2002) would argue that as well as these goals it would also allow me to craft my own practical and technical skills which I have acquired within the class room. Also by coaching children in this sports development scenario it will allow me to work with children of all ages with a range of backgrounds and upbringings thus creating the challenge of utilising skills in all kinds of situations this would allow me to develop my tacit knowledge. Knowles, Borrie and Telfer, (2005) would support this style of learning, suggesting that effective coach learning is based on appropriate use of tacit experiential knowledge and not just formal theoretical knowledge about coaching pedagogy, physiology or other bodies of knowledge.

Chapter II

2.0 Coaching Literature

Bompa, (1994) states that “coaching is a process”, Cross and Lyle (1999) support this claim stating that coaching in an “ongoing process”. Coaching is not something that can be achieved through a couple of qualifications, the overall process of coaching takes years to develop and it is argued that coaches can always improve in someway or another (Kidman and Lambardo, 2010). Even if a coach believes they have fully achieved their goals they must always be aware of the coaching process and continually strive to develop (Kidman and Hanrahan, 2011). Self reflection is a vital tool which coaches can use to further develop their own abilities (Kidman and Hanrahan, 2011). Cassidy et al., (2009) supports this statement and claims there is “more than one technique which can be used”. During my placement I decided to use a reflective log while using the Gibbs cycle as a model of reflection as this method allowed me to self reflect on my own coaching practice on a daily basis. While working within sports development it was vital that as a coach I was able to not only coach athletes with a lack of experience but also cater for the small number of athletes with more advanced levels of performance, so the participants I was coaching could achieve their peak performance. Cote and Gilbert, (2009) define these different groups as coaching domains. Coaching domains can be split into four different categories, child performance, child participation, adult performance and adult participation (Cote, Gilbert and Mallet, 2006). Jones (2006) explains that each coaching domain creates its own difficulties thus creating a variety of behaviours that must be used in order to overcome these difficulties. This claim is supported by Cushion and Lyle (2010) who state that coaching domains all require different “environmental demands”. While working within the RFL my regular role was coaching in the participation domain, however I occasionally had to work with one or two athletes within the performance domain. Abraham and Collins, (1998) explains that to achieve peak performance the coach must demonstrate a range of different skills to aid the performers learning. To some extent Woodman (1993) would agree with this statement, however Woodman (1993) claims that “regardless of a coaches level of skill and their own abilities it is the application of their knowledge which would separate a great practitioner from an average one”. De Marco, Mancini and Wuest (1996) extend this further stating that in order to enhance performance a coach must facilitate for the athletes learning by adapting their instructional behaviour. Therefore whilst on my vocational placement it was essential that I constantly changed not only my behaviours while coaching but also the styles which I used when coaching depending on the athletes needs and desires. Northouse, (2001) would claim this is good coaching practice as he explains that leadership styles must aim to match learner needs. Weinberg and Gould (1999) states that if a coach successfully meets the needs of the athlete, they are far more likely to take more mastery attempts at their desired goals. For this I used the Chelladurai model of leadership due to its use of situational, member and leader characteristics observation when looking at a coach’s performance. While looking at coaching behaviours it is always important to think about leadership theory, and which theories are relevant to that particular coach. Since the development of the Multi-Dimensional Model of Leadership (MDML) (Chelladuria and Carron, 1978), the ability to study leadership has increased significantly. This model proposes that three key leadership behaviours must be congruent in order to achieve an effective group performance as well as athlete satisfaction. The three leadership behaviours include required behaviour, preferred behaviour and finally actual behaviour. Shields, Gardner, Bredemeier and Bostro (1997) explain that required behaviour is prescribed for a particular situation, preferred behaviour is the desired behaviour of the coach by the athlete and finally actual behaviour is the behaviour perceived by the athlete. Chelladurai (2006) claims that “required leader behaviour is influenced by situational characteristics such as organizational goals, formal structure, group task, social norms, government regulations, technology, and member characteristics”.

This method was used constantly as other models only focus on certain aspects of coaching, such as the personality of the coach (Sage, 1975) or the different coaching styles such as democratic and autocratic (Lenk, 1977) and my aim was to develop as a whole coach.

2.1 Sports Policy and Participation

In 2000 DCMS set out the “Sporting Futures for All” policy which showed Labours clear interest in school sport and sport for young people in general (Houlihan and White, 2002). To achieve “Sporting Futures for All” the government created a five point plan to allow children to get the most out of sport within school. Since the government have recognised that children are not taking part in enough compulsory sport at school they have put over half a billion pounds into getting a minimum of two hours of practical sports a week in every school and also have worked to create an additional three hours available outside of school hours by 2010. This target is an improvement on the previous objective of having just three hours of physical activity per week within schools (DCMS 2004). From this initiative the government has introduced the seven core sporting activities which schools should include in their timetable these were: Gymnastics, Dance, Outdoor activities, Net/wall games, invasion games, striking/fielding games and athletics. Schools now base their minimum of two hours of lessons around these core sporting activities (PE and School Sport CPD report 2006).

In terms of the Rugby Football League it could be argued that the government’s plans and the RFLs plans are on somewhat on a different wave length. The government seem to be focused predominantly on increasing participation where as the RFL seem to have a keen interest in improving the professional and semi professional game. Out of the four key mission statements on the RFL website only one of the aims is to maximise numbers within the participation level of the game (Rugby Football League, 2011). This would suggest that the RFL has placed priority on developing the professional game ahead of developing the grass roots level.

Chapter III

3.0 Reflective Theory

Over the past two decades the focus on reflective practice has grown significantly in a wide range of contexts these include education, medicine and now coaching. This is mainly down to the work of Schon (1983), who by using and applying a basic principle of reflecting on experience to improve action and professional practice, helped to develop the importance of reflective practice (Cassidy, Jones and Potrac, 2004). Schon (1987) also explains that “wisdom can be learnt by reflection on dilemmas that occur within practice”. Reid (1993) supports this study explaining that reflective practice is not only a way of learning but also a way to develop your own practice once formal education ceases. More recently Knowles, Gilbourne, Borrie and Nevill, (2001) explain that by encouraging practitioners to reflect on practice is an excellent way to create better practice thus identifying areas for improvement and potential changes that should be made. There are many different interpretations of what reflective practice is, however most studies would argue that reflection is an active, conscious process (Dewey, 1933, Boud, 1985, Schon, 1987, and Reid, 1993). Moon (2004) supports this by defining reflective practice as “a set of abilities and skills that indicate the taking of a critical stance, a course to problem solving or state of mind”. However Ghaye and Lillyman (2000) argue that reflection is not an intellectual endeavour but an intricate procedure involving the person as a whole, therefore making one simple definition impossible.

Essentially reflective practice means taking our experiences as a starting point for learning. By thinking about them in a purposeful way, using the reflective process we can come to understand them differently and take action as a result (Jasper, 2003). Reflective practice is particularly relevant to sports practitioners where learning requires a degree of self examination. The reason for this is because it allows tacit knowledge, cognitive professional shortcuts and non deliberative and contingent decision making to be made, which are necessary for the sports practitioners to generate an understanding and appreciation for practice (Lyle, 2002). Anderson, Knowles, and Gilbourne (2004) recently argued that reflective practice offers a practical structure for the training and development of sport practitioners. The reason for this is because reflective practice is an approach to practice that creates opportunities for access. It has been suggested that putting tacit knowledge into action, which includes values, experiences, knowledge, and social norms, is vital to practice. Being able to access and understand this tacit knowledge will make a significant contribution to a practitioner’s professional and personal development, which can be achieved through reflective practice (Knowles, Gilbourne, Tomlinson and Anderson, 2007).

Pollard et al (2005) states that the importance of reflective practice towards the sports practitioners is that “the process of reflective practice must support the development and preservation of professional practitioners”. If the coach cannot find an area of weakness to work on then it is time for them to pass that athlete on. This is where reflective practice is introduced as it allows the coach to see if any further improvements can be made to the athlete, if they can not they then must pass the athlete onto a coach who can further enhance there development. This links to the humanistic approach of coaching which is a person centred ideology, emphasising the empowerment of the individual, towards achieving personal goals within an interpersonal relationship. A major thrust of humanistic ideology is the interpersonal relationship between the coach and athlete. This emphasises that the athlete should not lose control of the coaching process (Lyle, 2002). Research carried out by Tinnings (1995) suggests that if becoming reflective was simply a rational process it would be easy to train sport practitioners to be reflective. He argues that it is not easy to train someone to become a reflective practitioner because the issues that the practitioner is required to reflect on, are not simply a matter of rational argument, but have a large level of emotion and subjectivity embedded within them (Tinning, 1995).

There are however many benefits of using reflective practice to a sports practitioner. Reflective practice allows the practitioner to become more aware of values and beliefs that shape their practices, resulting in enhanced athlete learning and performance. It also allows the practitioner to become more sensitive to the needs and interest of the athlete, leading to coaching sessions being developed that are more meaningful for all concerned (Tinning, 1991). Reflective practice is essential for increasing coaching success. Clifford and Feezell (1997) consider coaching success to be determined by factors such as knowledge, skills and experience.

Schon (1983) identified two main types of reflection these are, reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action. These were identified as the principle ways professionals use to articulate there knowledge. Reflection-in-action is the way that people think about practice while they are doing it. This is seen as an automatic activity that occurs subconsciously everyday. It is seen as a way that advanced practitioners develop as a result of a combination of their skill, knowledge and practice. An example of this could be adapting a coaching session in order to cater for the unforeseen needs and ability of the group. Reflection-on-action involves us consciously exploring experience and thinking about practice after they have happened. This usually happens away from the scene of practice, because of this it is assumed that practice is underpinned by knowledge making it a cognitive process. An example of this could be a practitioner discussing positive and negative aspects of the session with another coach who has witnessed the activities (Jasper, 2003)

When using reflective practice, practitioners often use models to help structure their reflection. There are a number of different models that have been constructed over the years. According to Ghaye and Lillyman, (2000) all the models share some of the same qualities. The one quality all models share is that they require us to engage in the process of knowledge creation by helping us to move from tacit knowledge into conscious and explicit knowing (Ghaye and Lillyman, 2000). Each model however is also in some way different. For example, some models place a big emphasis on explicating a process of reflection while others believe that the process is more of a “means to an ends”. The model I have most consistently used is one of the most well known models, the Gibbs cycle.

I decided to use the Gibbs (1988) framework as research explains that it is a basic frame work which endeavours to incorporate knowledge, feelings and actions within one cycle, therefore making it more suitable for the novice practitioner (Ghaye and Lillyman, 2000). The Gibbs approach features all the strategies or frameworks for reflection that have been developed over the years by various academics (Ghaye and Lillyman, 2000). However a major criticism of the Gibbs cycle is the unlikelihood of the exact same incident arising again thus making it difficult to create a fully effective action plan, this can also be linked to role frames. Gilbert and Trudel (2004) explain that as coaches develop through their experiences they also develop their own role frames. The problem with role frames is that every coaches role frame is different, an example of this can be linked to my first critical incident. What I perceive as an expectable form of punishment may not be the same as another coach’s perception of acceptable punishment, thus creating the issue of double standards.

Chapter IV

4.0 Description

The first of my critical incidents occurred on the 25th June, 2010 which was the 8th working day of my vocational practice. In the previous days leading up to the incident I had been working alongside Mr. Smith and was informed at 9 a.m that I would be working with Mr. Todd at a local primary school after my recent request to partake in more hands on coaching. I was briefly informed of what I would be assisting with, which involved general setting up and leading the warm ups which did not leave me feeling too worried as I had covered these within my applied sports coaching module.

Upon arrival at the school I was greeted by Mr. Todd who was introduced to me by Mr. Smith. After a brief discussion Mr. Smith left to go back to the office and Mr. Todd and I begun to talk about his role within rugby and what we would be doing today. I was informed that we would be working with three different classes of year six children aged ten to eleven. As the first class walked out Mr. Todd began to take charge of the session and instructed the children to get into neat line using an extremely autocratic approach to coaching, while I started to set up my warm up. When I had finished placing the cones where I wanted them for the warm up Mr. Todd introduced me to the class and informed them all that I would be working with him for the rest of the afternoon. The session then began and the first class went well with only a few disruptions through out. When I had finished my warm up Mr. Todd then took charge and led the remainder of the session. At the end of the lesson the same process was applied with me setting up the warm up for the next class and Mr. Todd introducing me. During the second session there was a lot more disruptions and the children seemed to be getting restless. This began to aggravate Mr. Todd and he then began to distribute punishments for bad behaviour such as talking when someone else was or bouncing the balls when not instructed to do so. This led to my first critical incident of my placement. During the main section of the session one girl aged ten was throwing the ball in the air while Mr. Todd was speaking this then caused Mr. Todd to verbally abuse the child and then demand the child perform a task called “belly-back-bellies”. This involves the child first going down on their stomach, then standing up, then down onto their back, then standing up again, then back down onto their stomachs which seemed to be extremely distressing for the children as some had begun to cry, we then finished the second session. Finally we moved onto the third class which once again followed the same warm up and skills drills as the previous two sessions.

4.1 Thoughts and Feelings

As the session started I began to feel slightly anxious and could feel myself becoming increasingly nervous as I had never worked with this coach before and had no idea what his perceptions of my coaching abilities would be. This was also heightened by a slight sense of inexperience which brought me to question my own coaching ability as I had limited experience working in this coaching domain. During the critical incident itself I felt extremely uneasy as I had never been in a situation were a child was crying because of the punishment they had been given. Another issue that worried me was the fact the teacher of the class was only on the other side of the playground and seemed to want nothing to do with the children that were crying or shouting and just seemed to be ignoring the whole situation. This made me question whether or not anything was going unacceptable or whether this was just standard practice within schools, it also made me question what type of example this was supposed to be setting for both me as an observing coach as well as the children who had not been punished.

4.2 Evaluation

Reflecting on the session now I feel I did not question either the coach or the teacher to see if this was just standard practice in schools, and whether or not it happened a lot of the time. Also I did not try to comfort the children which looking back now seems like the wrong thing to do as the children were clearly distressed. Due to not working with I this coach or teacher before I did not wish to seem like I was stepping on anyone’s toes as I had wanted to get more hands on coaching. In hindsight I feel I exhibited poor coaching practice as I knew there was something wrong, however I failed to react in what I believed to be the most appropriate manor. This is supported by my reflective log as it clearly shows that I knew at the time what I should have done but failed to do so when I felt it was most appropriate.

4.3 Analysis

During the session I felt the coach’s behaviours were extremely demoralising of the child and that some of his coaching methods could have been seen as over the top. Research carried out by Raakman, Dorsch and Rhind (2010) found that indirect psychological abuse was the most commonly used type of abuse when coaching children with 52.8% of all abuse being in this category, however from the criteria used within this study the type of abuse used by this coach would be defined as direct physical abuse which occurred only 5.5% of the time.

All coaches have a personal style and approach when it comes to working with any athlete. However Pyke (1991) claims that you can not successfully coach every type of athlete using the same style and states that better coaches must use a variety of styles in order to aid learners needs. In relation to this critical incident I feel the coach did not allow enough freedom for the children, who quickly lost interest in the session as Mr Todd was using a very autocratic coaching style. A possible way of overcoming this would have been to step into the session and lead with a most democratic style. Tenenbaum and Eklund (2007) would support this claim stating there are a range of coaching behaviours which are split into different dimensions, two of which include democratic and autocratic coaching styles which is a refection of the coach’s decision making (Mosston & Ashworth, 1990). Gill and Williams (1986) would argue that autocratic coaching is extremely “coach led and directive” in its approach. This claim is supported by Lyle, (1999) who claims that autocratic coaching is a direct approach in which a coach will give a set of rules and orders which must be followed by the athletes. Autocratic coaching has been heavily criticised as it restricts the freedom of the athletes, as they must follow what the coach is instructing them to do (Cross, 1995). However Andrews (2009) states that,

“in situations where members lack the intelligence, ability, experience, and/or personality dispositions to make judgments about situational requirements, the leader must make an appropriate decision for the members”.

Martens (2000) also supports Andrews (2009) statement by explaining when teaching beginners an autocratic approach should be taken as the athletes need to be instructed as they do not have the knowledge base to interact via a reciprocal style. Had I have stepped in when I felt I should have this incident could have been avoided by allowing the children more freedom with a democratic approach.

4.4 Action Plan

From this critical incident it is clear to see that this specific situation caught me off guard as I had never seen this style of coaching before, and due to it being a coaching style I would not use, took me by surprise. After reviewing the literature I feel there are a varietyof coaching methods which I could have used to aid Mr Todd within this situation which would not have involved a physical punishment such as “belly-back-bellies”.Since the incident I have had time to reflect on my own personal practice and have been able to identify weaknesses within my coaching, such as not stepping in when I feel it is necessary or discussing my opinions on coaching styles with colleagues when I feel it is appropriate. However I now have experience within this situation and feel if this problem ever arose again I would be better equipped to deal with it in a more suitable manner. One such way in which I could initiate this would be to sit down with the coach prior to any session and discuss what we would class as appropriate discipline for the athletes.

Chapter V

5.0 Description

The second of my critical incidents occurred on the 3rd August, 2010 which was my 20th day of working within the RFL. In the days leading up to this incident Mr Smith had informed me that he would be going away for two weeks for his brother’s wedding and that during this time I would be working from home on a database task which had been set by Mr Black but also that I would be running two one and a half hour tag rugby sessions with members of the BAE systems work force to promote rugby within the local community. Before departing for his holiday Mr Smith had informed me that he would be leaving all the required equipment for the sessions with Mr Todd and that I should go and collect them on the day of the event in the morning. When I arrived at Mr Todd’s office I was informed that Mr Smith had not left any equipment and Mr Todd had not even heard about the session which was due to be running later that day. This then left me to find balls, cones, bibs etc as independently without this equipment the session would not have been able to run. Fortunately the session was running at my own local rugby club and seen as I was captain of the 1st team this allowed me access to all their own equipment. The day then went from bad to worse as the participants began to arrive there was almost double the number of competitors Mr Smith had informed me there would be, however this was easily dealt with as I was able to think on my feet and create another couple of teams to add to the competition.

When all the competitors had arrived it was just a matter of getting them into games and to get the referees to run the matches, however Mr Smith had also forgotten to book any referees for this event which caused even more confusion as there was not any qualified referees. Miss Proctor (the leader of the BAE development programme) then started to become increasingly angered by the lack of organisation on the part of the RFL, some of which was directed at me. I then had to explain the situation to Miss Proctor and let her know that the games would have to be refereed between the teams and fair play would have to be enforced by the players themselves, which help calm the situation. When the session was finished Miss Proctor apologised for over reacting and stated that she could see that I had been left without the equipment and was just as upset as she was about the lack of organisation.

5.1 Thoughts and Feelings

When I had found out that no equipment had been left by Mr Smith I was immediately shocked and extremely worried as I did not know how I would be able to run the session and whether I would be able to call it off if I was unable to get hold of anything. When I went up to Hawcoat Sports Club and was able to get into the equipment stores I felt a huge relief as I knew even if it was not the RFLs equipment that the participants would not know any difference and the session could go on as planned.

When Miss Proctor became distressed at the lack of organisation on the part of the RFL I felt extremely worried that this would come back against me and my boss (Mr Black) would find out and say he did not want me to complete my work placement due to my apparent incompetence, however this was quickly over come when I explained the situation to Miss Proctor. Finally I felt very angered and let down by the lack of organisation on the part of Mr Smith for being irresponsible enough not to leave me any equipment or any referees. I was also angry at my own inability to contingency plan ahead as we had learnt a lot about this in class but I had not thought I would have needed to in this specific situation.

5.2 Evaluation

Looking back and reflecting on the session now I feel that I should have done a lot more in terms of preparation for the session and did not need to leave it until the last minute to get the equipment. I also feel I should have got in contact with the referees to make sure they remembered the session as Mr Smith booked them over three weeks prior to the event and they may have not remembered. I strongly believe that I had the relevant knowledge prior to this incident happening however I feel it was my lack of experience and naivety within the situation which aided my failure. This was definitely poor coaching practice on my part as it was my failure to prepare which caused the initial incident to occur.

5.3 Analysis

After reviewing the literature it is clear to see that planning is one of the most central features of the coaching process (Lyle and Cushion, 2010). This claim is supported by research from Gould (1990) and Lyle (1992) who have looked at elements of coaching which coaches would class as significant, and in both studies planning is seen as a central role of the coach. Lyle and Cushion (2010) also explain that the planning process for coaches must include some “pre determination” and “accounting for consequences”. Lynn (2010) also suggests that within planning there are seven key part of the session which should be accounted for, these include:

Session structure
Specific activities
Range of activities
Time allocated to each activity
Feedback to athletes
Equipment
Athlete safety

This would suggest that during my coaching I failed to successfully account for the planning process thus performing poor coaching practice.

An ongoing debate with planning is that coaches only plan for problematic environments (Jones and Wallace, 2005). This argument is supported by Cushion et al (2006) who asks the question what can coaches truly plan forMore recently Cushion (2007) has claimed that coaches have “limited roots” when planning, thus limiting what coaches can fully plan for. However Lyle (2007) would argue that planning is the role of the coach and must be managed on a daily basis, taking into account all possibilities. Plan-do-review is commonly seen as the most suitable method of planning to use when coaching (Lyle and Cushion, 2010). I feel that it was my inability to plan for problematic situations which caused me to execute poor coaching practice when running my session.

5.4 Action Plan

From this critical incident it is easy to see that I failed to fully prepare myself for the session and in doing so left myself open to fail. After reviewing the literature it is clear to see that in order to fully prepare yourself for any event it is important to cover every possible scenario with contingency planning and risk assessments as this is allow for the best possible outcome on the day. Since the incident I have had time to look at my reflective log and analyse my own personal practice and have been able to notice that on the day of the session I had planned the session but had failed to make a contingency plan, thus causing me to have to think on my feet and look at other ways to make sure the even still went ahead. This has allowed me to see that in future session I must always create a contingency plan in order for it to run smoothly.

Chapter VI

6.0 Evaluation

The overall aim of the placement was to further increase my tacit knowledge, gain valuable experience and improve my confidence within the coaching world. I feel was able to achieve these aims through working alongside Cumbria Rugby League Development team, as these provided me with a extremely good platform for learning and allowed me to get a very hands on experience.

Prior to starting the placement I believed my weaknesses were that I lacked craft knowledge and experience of coaching new people, especially young children as I had limited experience working within this coaching domain (Cote and Gilbert, 2009). However the basic knowledge I had gained through completing my level 1 rugby union course and other experiences at university helped me to start off. My perceived weaknesses seen above became evident in the early stages of my placement, when my lack of knowledge and experience led me into situations which I struggled to handle, this resulted in poor and in some cases unethical practice on my part. These incidents in some cases affected the group as they sometimes had to sit around while the incidents were being dealt with. On top of having to wait around, the summer heat and times of lessons e.g. after school caused children to become restless, bored and inevitably hard to coach. However through reflection and the recording of day to day events and outcomes I was able to use knowledge and experience of successful practice to ensure I repeated this, the next time the scenario arose. Also if the practice was not successful I was able to use relevant literature, to provide me with the knowledge required to deal with the same situation effectively if it were to occur again. It is when these similar situations occur, that the improved coaching knowledge gained through successful past experience is applied, this practice is known as evidence based practice (Chapman and Hough, 1998) and has been described as the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of best evidence in making decisions about the care of students (Sackett, Richardson, Rosenberg, Haynes, 1997). This style of practice was used in the latter weeks of coaching.

As well as increasing my tacit coaching knowledge and hands on experience it was also my aim to gain two useful contacts within the RFL which I could use when leaving university. In terms of contacts there was a long list of different coaches I feel I could now contact if I wanted some more coaching experience, however the two most influential contacts I made while working at the RFL were Mr Black and Mr Smith as these coaches can both provide useful references for me in any line of work as well as within rugby league. I would describe the acquisition of these contacts as successful to my aims as I now have two reliable points of contact within the RFL which have both stated they would have no problem granting me reference to potential employers.
Chapter VII

7.0 Conclusion

For my placement I went to Cumbria Rugby Football League Development, this was undertaken for a period of one hundred and fifty hours over the space of six weeks. During this time I was mentored by Mr Black who is the Head of Cumbria Rugby League Development. In terms of rugby league, Cumbria is one of the most highly thought of counties in the country. With an extremely proud rugby league heritage, Cumbria along with Yorkshire and Lancashire is what the RFL describe as the birth place of rugby league. With such a prestigious heritage it was an honour to work in one of the countries most influential rugby league development teams. This sense of honour made me want to truly excel in my work and put 100% in when ever I was asked to perform a task.

Over the course of my placement I used the Gibbs Cycle as a method of reflecting on my sessions, this allowed me to not only analyse my performance whilst working but also to go away and gain valuable information about what I could do differently in future sessions. However a major criticism of this method is the likelihood of being placed with a specific situation more than once thus making it highly unlikely to fully benefit a coach. Reviewing the placement experience as a whole I would have to say that this placement was a success as it has allowed me to meet all three of my goals within the allotted time frame with very little in terms of problematic experiences.

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Los Angeles Rams Football Club V. Cannon

Los Angeles Rams Football Club v. Cannon 185 F. Supp. 717 (S. D. Cal. 1960) Plaintiff prays for an injunction to restrain defendant playing football or engaging in related activities for anyone other than the plaintiff without the plaintiff’s consent during the term of a contract or contracts allegedly entered into by the parties on November 30, 1959, and an order declaring the existence of a valid written contract or contracts. Defendant denies he ever entered into a contract or contracts as alleged and further claims, as defenses to plaintiff’s claims, fourteen affirmative defenses.

Cannon never formally accepted the contract offered, therefore it is only an offer. The Commissioner never signed the contract so this makes not valid. There did not come into existence a valid written contract or contracts binding upon plaintiff and defendant there is no basis upon which to consider plaintiff’s claims for equitable relief or defendant’s affirmative defenses in opposition thereto. Specifically, therefore, I make no findings as to the issues of fraud and deceit, or any other of the equitable issues raised by defendant’s affirmative defenses.

Judgment will be for defendant, with costs…. Sample v. Gotham Football Club, Inc. 59 F. R. D. 160 (S. D. N. Y. 1973) Defendant is the owner and operator of a professional football team popularly known as the “New York Jets. ” On September 1, 1968, it entered into three separately executed written agreements with plaintiff under which plaintiff was required to render services as a professional football player for the 1968, 1969 and 1970 football seasons. Each document represents the agreement between plaintiff and defendant for a different year.

The current dispute only pertains to the contracts covering the 1969 and 1970 football seasons. The New York court of appeals has stated that when the terms of a written contract are clear and unambiguous the intent of the parties must be ascertained from the language used to express such intent. Plaintiff argues that an injury was sustained during the performance of a three-year contract he is entitled to his salary for the remaining term of the contract. Defendant argues that they were three separate one year contract and would only be liable to pay for the season the injury took place.

After determining that the exercise of the option clause had the effect of creating a new contract with the plaintiff, the Fifth Circuit concluded: [I]t follows that Hennigan was not entitled to compensation for the 1967 football season from the Chargers. He suffered no injury while in the performance of any services required of him after the option was exercised. Consequently, he is not entitled to payment under paragraph 15 (the injury provision) The result reached above concerning Sample’s second claim is thus on all fours with Hennigan.

Reviewing the dispositions, the court denies plaintiff’s cross-motion for summary judgment on both its first and second causes of action…. Eckles v. Sharman 548 F. 2d 905 (10th Cir. 1977) This is an action by the owner of a professional basketball team for breach of contract by a former coach and for the inducement of that breach by the owner of another professional basketball team. Judgment was entered on a jury verdict for $250,000 against the coach and for $175,000 against the inducing owner.

We reverse and remand with directions. We have repeatedly held that a verdict may not be directed unless the evidence all points one way and is susceptible of no reasonable inference which sustain the position of the party against whom the motion is made…. On the record presented it may not be said, as a matter of law, that the option and pension clauses were unessential and hence severable. Neither can it be said, as a matter of law, that without the resolution of the controversy ver those clauses Sharman agreed to the assignment of the contract to the owners of the Utah Stars. The pertinent intent questions required factual determination by the jury under proper instructions. The court erred in directing a verdict against Sharman and in favor of Mountain States on the liability issue. The judgments are severally reversed and the case is remanded for a new trial in accordance with this opinion. National Football League Players Ass’n v. National Football League Management Council 233 Cal. Rptr. 147 (Cal. Ct. App. 1986

The Raiders and Management council content that the arbitrator exceeded his powers in that he made an error in law by failing to apply the doctrine of mitigation of damages. They further content that the award violates public policy and that the award was incorrectly calculated. We affirm the judgment. Pastorini’s dispute with the Raiders clearly falls within the ambit of section 301(a) of the labor Management Relations Act, which pertains to “suits for violation of contracts between an employer and a labor organization representing employees in an industry affecting commerce…. Therefore, we must apply federal substantive law…. However; we may also rely on the state law if it is compatible with the purposes of federal law…. We conclude that offset is inapplicable in the instant case and that the arbitrator did not make an error of law. This court may reverse the arbitrator’s award only if there is a manifest disregard of the agreement, totally unsupported by principles of contract construction…. No such manifest disregard appears in the instant case. The judgment is affirmed.

Alabama Football, Inc. v. Stabler 319 So. 2d 678 (Ala. 1975) Stabler filed a complaint on December 4, 1974, seeking a declaratory judgment and other relief, contending that the defendant had breached its contract with Stabler by failing to pay the balance due in 1974 under the contract between the parties; that the terms of the contract prohibited him from negotiating a contract with any other professional football club; and that irreparable damage would result to him if the contract was not held to be null and void.

After a hearing, the trail court entered its judgment on January 6, 1975, holding that the contract between Stabler and Alabama Football, Inc. had been breached by Alabama Football, Inc. and that Stabler was free from any obligation under any terms of the contract. Since there was substantial evidence from which the trail court could have concluded that appellant was unable to perform its contract with Stabler, we find no basis for reversal on this point….

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How to Be a Football Player

How to be a Football Player Football has always been America’s natural past time. Many fans love watching football but do not realize how hard it is to prepare for a football season. Most fans think the players just show up on the one day and perform. This belief is completely false. Preparing for a football season requires much preparation. The preparation for most football players usually includes working on strength, conditioning, and fundamentals of the game. These steps are necessary for football players to have a successful season.

These steps have proven to be a valuable aid in helping players such as myself prepare for the season. I believe these steps are the basic steps to becoming a great Football player. The first step to becoming a great football player is working to improve your conditioning. Conditioning is basically a way of improving your body’s endurance resistance and overall athleticism. To improve your conditioning you start off running for multiple times daily. Every second of the day you spend running your increasing your athleticism and the condition your body is in which is a very valuable concept in any sport.

The more u condition the more your body will be able to endure and endurance is a big part in football if you plan to stay on the field. By increasing the condition your body is you will have set your self up in improve your physicality, endurance, and mentality. Next, you should start working out using weights to improve your chances for success in the upcoming season. I believe that this step puts you ahead of the other athletes. A strict weight training schedule has allowed many athletes to stay in top shape throughout the years.

This second step is imperative to becoming a successful football player is by increasing your strength. Strength is just important as conditioning because football is game of physicality. To improve your strength you can start off with push ups dips and sits to get your body toned up. After toning your body that’s when you start lifting weights to build lean muscle instead of toning up your muscles. Weights lifting include exercises such bench press, squats, and leg presses etc. Every work out in the weight room improves different parts of the body like you chest, calves, triceps, biceps, forearms etc.

By working on all these body parts different days of the week such as Mondays, Wednesday, and Fridays you will continue to develop strength and your body mass. The final step in preparing for the upcoming season and being successful in football is being prepared mentally. Being mentally prepared consists of four things concentration, confidence, control and commitment. Football requires concentration because you have to be able to focus on the task that is at hand. Football requires confidence because you have to believe you achieve a certain goal then go achieve it.

Control is also a part of the mental process because an athlete’s ability to maintain control of their emotions in the face of adversity and remain positive is essential to successful performance. The fourth and final asset of the mental process is commitment, there is an insurmountable amount of things you have to remember in football and a football players performance depends on the athlete being fully committed to the game and his team if the player plans on being successful at the game. As much emphasis as athletes put on the physical aspect of the game the mental part is just as important.

Football Consist of plays, assignments, coverage’s and a thousand other things that you have to be cognizant of. In conclusion, I feel that preparing to be a great football player requires much preparation. It’s not enough to just play the game you have to understand the game and how much dedication and preparation goes into the game. You have to have a great amount of endurance, strength, speed and commitment to play this sport. Once you connect all of the pieces to the puzzle you will be a football player.

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The club he supports has won quite a lot of trophies, but then he also has to follow Scotland, so it all balances out. Acknowledgments I would like to thank everyone at Wiley, especially Simon Bell for his help and never-ending patience, especially upon being quizzed about the managerial merits of Frankie Gray. I would also like to thank Annabel Merullo and Tom Williams at PFD. Publisher’s Acknowledgements We’re proud of this book; please send us your comments through our Dummies online registration form located at www. dummies. com/register/.

Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following: Commissioning, Editorial, and Media Development Development Editor: Simon Bell Content Editor: Jo Theedom Acquisitions Editor: Wejdan Ismail Assistant Editor: Jennifer Prytherch Copy Editor: Charlie Wilson Technical Editor: Ollie Jones Publisher: David Palmer Production Manager: Daniel Mersey Cover Photos: © PBWPIX / Alamy Cartoons: Ed McLachlan Composition Services Project Coordinator: Lynsey Stanford Layout and Graphics: Nikki Gately, Joyce Haughey, Christine Williams Proofreaders: Melissa Cossell, Lauren Mandelbaum Indexer: Slivoskey Indexing Services

Contents at a Glance Introduction ………………………………………………………. 1 Part I: Kicking Off………………………………………………. 7 Chapter 1: Welcome to Planet Football ……………………………………………………………….. 9 Chapter 2: The Ball Starts Rolling: A Potted History of Football…………………………. 19 Chapter 3: Getting Your Boots On: The Gear You Need ……………………………………… 31 Part II: Playing the Game …………………………………… 5 Chapter 4: Laying Down the Laws ……………………………………………………………………… 47 Chapter 5: Players, Positions and Tactics ………………………………………………………….. 67 Chapter 6: Honing Your Skills ……………………………………………………………………………. 91 Chapter 7: Keeping Fit for Football…………………………………………………………………… 115 Chapter 8: Coaching, Managing and Leadership ………………………………………………. 29 Chapter 9: Getting the Game On ………………………………………………………………………. 141 Part III: Exploring the World of Football ……………….. 153 Chapter 10: The World Cup ……………………………………………………………………………… 155 Chapter 11: Surveying the International Scene…………………………………………………. 169 Chapter 12: The Club Scene …………………………………………………………………………….. 187 Chapter 13: Focusing on Famous Clubs ……………………………………………………………. 13 Chapter 14: Women’s Football …………………………………………………………………………. 239 Part IV: The Fans’ Enclosure: Following the Game …… 255 Chapter 15: Going to the Match ……………………………………………………………………….. 257 Chapter 16: Compulsive Viewing: Football on Screen ………………………………………. 271 Chapter 17: Read All About It! ………………………………………………………………………….. 287 Chapter 18: Other Football-based Pastimes ……………………………………………………… 05 Part V: The Part of Tens ……………………………………. 319 Chapter 19: Ten Great Players ………………………………………………………………….. ……. 321 Chapter 20: The Ten Greatest Teams of All Time …………………………………………….. 331 Chapter 21: Ten Great Matches ……………………………………………………………………….. 339 Part VI: Appendixes …………………………………………. 347 Appendix A: Roll of Honour ……………………………………………………………………………… 49 Appendix B: Glossary ………………………………………………………………………………………. 361 Index ……………………………………………………………. 369 Table of Contents Introduction ……………………………………………………….. 1 About This Book …………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Foolish Assumptions …………………………………………………………………………… 2 How This Book Is Organised ……………………………………………………………….. Part I: Kicking Off ……………………………………………………………………….. 3 Part II: Playing the Game …………………………………………………………….. 3 Part III: Exploring the World of Football ……………………………………… 3 Part IV: The Fans’ Enclosure ………………………………………………………. 4 Part V: The Part of Tens ……………………………………………………………… 4 Appendixes ………………………………………………………………………………… Icons Used in This Book ……………………………………………………………………… 4 Where to Go from Here ……………………………………………………………………….. 5 Part I: Kicking Off ………………………………………………. 7 Chapter 1: Welcome to Planet Football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Football: The Simplest Game ………………………………………………………………. 9 The basic aim: it really is that simple!……………………………………….. 10 So why is football so popular? …………………………………………………. 10 Where do people play footie?……………………………………………………. 11 Explaining a Few Rules………………………………………………………………………. 11 The pitch ………………………………………………………………………………….. 12 The players ………………………………………………………………………………. 13 General behaviour ……………………………………………………………………. 13 Goal! ………………………………………………………………………………………… 14 Keeping score . . . …………………………………………………………………….. 14 . . . and keeping time …………………………………………………………………. 14 Playing the Game ………………………………………………………………………………. 14 Playing solo………………………………………………………………………………. 15 Playing with others …………………………………………………………………… 5 Watching Football – and Supporting a Team ……………………………………… 16 Following club and country ………………………………………………………. 16 Winning trophies: the be-all and end-all? ………………………………….. 17 Chapter 2: The Ball Starts Rolling: A Potted History of Football. . . . . 19 The Birth of Football …………………………………………………………………………. 19 Anyone for Cuju? ………………………………………………………………………. 0 Kemari, Marn Gook and Calcio Fiorentino ………………………………… 20 England: The Home of Football………………………………………………………….. 21 The 1850s: time to lay down some rules ……………………………………. 22 Enter the FA ……………………………………………………………………………… 22 x Football For Dummies Step aside for the professionals! ……………………………………………….. 22 The world’s first league…………………………………………………………….. 4 The first international ………………………………………………………………. 24 The World Takes Notice ……………………………………………………………………. 25 The game takes over Europe . . . ………………………………………………. 25 . . . then South America . . . ……………………………………………………….. 26 . . . and finally the world ……………………………………………………………. 26 Football’s Golden Age ……………………………………………………………………….. 7 Television switches on ……………………………………………………………… 27 Players become stars ……………………………………………………………….. 28 The Modern Game …………………………………………………………………………….. 29 How TV changed everything …………………………………………………….. 29 Player power…………………………………………………………………………….. 30 Chapter 3: Getting Your Boots On: The Gear You Need . . . . . . . . . . .31 Having a Ball ……………………………………………………………………………………… 31 Getting Kitted Out……………………………………………………………………………… 34 Shirts ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 34 Shorts ………………………………………………………………………………………. 35 Boots………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 Trainers ……………………………………………………………………………………. 36 Shinpads…………………………………………………………………………………… 36 Goalkeeping gear………………………………………………………………………. 37 The referee……………………………………………………………………………….. 38 Additional garments …………………………………………………………………. 38 Approaching Equipment ……………………………………………………………………. 9 Goals and nets ………………………………………………………………………….. 39 First-aid kits ……………………………………………………………………………… 40 Training aids …………………………………………………………………………….. 40 Other kit and equipment …………………………………………………………… 40 Meeting Up with Merchandise …………………………………………………………… 41 Replica strips ……………………………………………………………………………. 1 Numbering and lettering …………………………………………………………… 42 Retro shirts ………………………………………………………………………………. 42 Scarves …………………………………………………………………………………….. 43 Other official merchandise ……………………………………………………….. 43 Knowing Where to Get It All ………………………………………………………………. 43 Part II: Playing the Game ……………………………………. 5 Chapter 4: Laying Down the Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Living by the Laws …………………………………………………………………………….. 47 Law 1: the field of play………………………………………………………………. 48 Law 2: the ball ………………………………………………………………………….. 49 Law 3: the number of players ……………………………………………………. 50 Law 4: the players’ equipment ………………………………………………….. 1 Law 5: the referee……………………………………………………………………… 52 Table of Contents Law 6: the assistant referees …………………………………………………….. 53 Law 7: the duration of the match ………………………………………………. 53 Law 8: the start and restart of play …………………………………………… 54 Law 9: the ball in and out of play ………………………………………………. 55 Law 10: the method of scoring ………………………………………………….. 5 Law 11: offside ………………………………………………………………………….. 55 Law 13: free kicks ……………………………………………………………………… 57 Law 12: fouls and misconduct …………………………………………………… 59 Law 14: the penalty kick ……………………………………………………………. 61 Law 15: the throw in …………………………………………………………………. 62 Law 16: the goal kick…………………………………………………………………. 3 Law 17: the corner kick …………………………………………………………….. 63 Other Points to Note …………………………………………………………………………. 63 Extra time …………………………………………………………………………………. 64 Penalty shootouts …………………………………………………………………….. 64 Away goals ……………………………………………………………………………….. 64 The technical area ……………………………………………………………………. 5 Common sense …………………………………………………………………………. 65 xi Chapter 5: Players, Positions and Tactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Perusing Positions …………………………………………………………………………….. 67 The goalkeeper …………………………………………………………………………. 68 Defenders …………………………………………………………………………………. 71 Midfielders ……………………………………………………………………………….. 4 Strikers …………………………………………………………………………………….. 76 Tactics: Linking It All Up ……………………………………………………………………. 77 Dribbling: the first tactic …………………………………………………………… 77 The main styles of play …………………………………………………………….. 78 Formations ……………………………………………………………………………….. 80 Chapter 6: Honing Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Mastering the Basics ………………………………………………………………….. …….. 91 Dribbling ………………………………………………………………………………….. 92 Basic passing skills …………………………………………………………………… 92 Trapping the ball………………………………………………………………………. 95 Heading the ball ……………………………………………………………………….. 8 Shooting …………………………………………………………………………………… 99 Keeping It Tight at the Back …………………………………………………………….. 100 Marking ………………………………………………………………………………….. 100 Tackling ………………………………………………………………………………….. 101 Key defensive principles …………………………………………………………. 103 Sharpening Your Skills Up Front………………………………………………………. 04 Shielding the ball ……………………………………………………………………. 105 Chip pass………………………………………………………………………………… 105 Outside of foot pass………………………………………………………………… 106 Back heel ………………………………………………………………………………… 106 Bending the ball ……………………………………………………………………… 106 Feinting …………………………………………………………………………………… 07 xii Football For Dummies Free kicks ……………………………………………………………………………….. 107 Taking penalties ……………………………………………………………………… 108 Goalkeeping …………………………………………………………………………………….. 108 Catching …………………………………………………………………………………. 109 Diving……………………………………………………………………………………… 09 One-on-one ……………………………………………………………………………… 110 Going for crosses ……………………………………………………………………. 110 Punching ………………………………………………………………………………… 111 Parrying and tipping ……………………………………………………………….. 111 Positioning ……………………………………………………………………………… 112 Distribution…………………………………………………………………………….. 12 Saving penalties ……………………………………………………………………… 113 Chapter 7: Keeping Fit for Football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Keeping Fit ………………………………………………………………………………………. 115 Stretching those muscles………………………………………………………… 116 Running ………………………………………………………………….. ……………… 119 Exercising aerobically …………………………………………………………….. 20 Training with weights ……………………………………………………………… 120 Sorting out your stomach ……………………………………………………….. 121 Cooling down ………………………………………………………………………….. 121 Balancing Your Diet…………………………………………………………………………. 121 Investigating Injuries ……………………………………………………………………….. 123 Preventing injuries………………………………………………………………….. 23 Treating injuries ……………………………………………………………………… 124 Chapter 8: Coaching, Managing and Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 A Brief History of the Manager ………………………………………………………… 129 Coach or Manager (Or Boss or Gaffer)? …………………………………………… 130 What the role involves ……………………………………………………………. 131 Chess – or all-out war? ……………………………………………………………. 32 Player-managers……………………………………………………………………… 132 Building – and Picking – a Team ………………………………………………………. 133 Building a squad……………………………………………………………………… 133 Choosing a captain …………………………………………………………………. 134 Selecting a first XI …………………………………………………………………… 135 Deciding on tactics …………………………………………………………………. 35 Taking Charge Yourself……………………………………………………………………. 136 Preparing the team …………………………………………………………………. 136 In-game decisions …………………………………………………………………… 137 Dealing with Kids …………………………………………………………………………….. 139 Chapter 9: Getting the Game On. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Joining an Existing Team …………………………………………………………………. 41 Starting Your Own Club …………………………………………………………………… 143 Building the club from scratch ……………………………………………….. 143 Affiliation: counties and leagues …………………………………………….. 144 Finding players ……………………………………………………………………….. 145 Table of Contents Finding a manager…………………………………………………………………… 145 Fixtures…………………………………………………………………………………… 45 Booking a pitch ………………………………………………………………………. 146 Match officials ………………………………………………………………………… 146 Insurance ……………………………………………………………………………….. 147 Kit and equipment ………………………………………………………………….. 147 Results ……………………………………………………………………………………. 147 Disciplinary procedures………………………………………………………….. 47 Fees and funding …………………………………………………………………….. 148 Social events …………………………………………………………………………… 148 Volunteer roles……………………………………………………………………….. 148 Commercial Leagues ……………………………………………………………………….. 149 Park Kickabouts ………………………………………………………………………………. 49 Five-a-side and Futsal ………………………………………………………………………. 150 Soccer Schools and Training Camps ………………………………………………… 150 Becoming a Referee …………………………………………………………………………. 150 xiii Part III: Exploring the World of Football ………………… 153 Chapter 10: The World Cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 The Biggest Show on Earth ……………………………………………………………… 55 The long and winding road begins ………………………………………….. 156 The shape of things to come …………………………………………………… 157 The finals countdown ……………………………………………………………… 157 From Montevideo to Johannesburg: Eighty Years of Top-class Drama ….. 158 Uruguay and Italy set the template ………………………………………… 158 They think it’s the World Cup’s golden age . . . it is now! …………. 159 Germany and Argentina take centre stage ………………………………. 60 Brazil bounce back …………………………………………………………………. 163 And so to 2010 . . . …………………………………………………………………………… 165 Teams to look out for ……………………………………………………………… 165 Players to watch……………………………………………………………………… 166 And when it’s all over . . . ……………………………………………………….. 167 Chapter 11: Surveying the International Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Friendlies ………………………………………………………………………………………… 169 The modern friendly international ………………………………………….. 170 The European Championships ………………………………………………………… 170 How it’s organised ………………………………………………………………….. 171 The early years……………………………………………………………………….. 171 The Euros go large . . . and even larger ……………………………………. 72 The Euros in the new millennium ……………………………………………. 173 Copa America ………………………………………………………………………………….. 174 How it’s organised ………………………………………………………………….. 174 The oldest – and the best? ………………………………………………………. 175 An erratic history ……………………………………………………………………. 175 The Copa’s revival ………………………………………………………………….. 176 xiv Football For Dummies

Africa Cup of Nations ………………………………………………………………………. 177 How it’s organised ………………………………………………………………….. 177 The ACN: A slow burner………………………………………………………….. 178 The cup catches fire ……………………………………………………………….. 178 Other tournaments ………………………………………………………………………….. 179 Asian Cup ……………………………………………………………………………….. 80 Gold Cup ………………………………………………………………………………… 180 Nations Cup ……………………………………………………………………………. 180 Olympic Games ………………………………………………………………………. 181 Confederations Cup ………………………………………………………………… 181 All Around the World . . . ………………………………………………………………… 182 England……………………………………………………………. …………………….. 82 Scotland …………………………………………………………………………………. 182 Wales ……………………………………………………………………………………… 183 Northern Ireland …………………………………………………………………….. 183 Republic of Ireland………………………………………………………………….. 183 Brazil………………………………………………………………………………………. 184 Italy ………………………………………………………………………………………… 84 Germany …………………………………………………………………………………. 184 France …………………………………………………………………………………….. 185 Spain ………………………………………………………………………………………. 185 Argentina………………………………………………………………………………… 185 Uruguay ………………………………………………………………………………….. 186 Chapter 12: The Club Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Clubbing Together …………………………………………………………………………… 187 The first clubs ………………………………………………………………………… 187 The rise of the super clubs ……………………………………………………… 188 The ‘smaller’ clubs………………………………………………………………….. 189 Clubs today ………………………………………………………………….. ………………… 90 The players …………………………………………………………………………….. 190 The manager …………………………………………………………………………… 191 Backroom staff ……………………………………………………………………….. 192 The chairman, owners and the board ……………………………………… 192 Club Competitions …………………………………………………………………………… 194 Seasons…………………………………………………………………………………… 94 Leagues ………………………………………………………………………………….. 194 Cups ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 198 The Big Leagues ………………………………………………………………………………. 199 England: The FA Premier League …………………………………………….. 199 Scotland: The Scottish Premier League …………………………………… 200 Wales, Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland …………………….. 02 Italy: Serie A ……………………………………………………………………………. 202 Spain: Primera Division …………………………………………………………… 203 Germany: Bundesliga………………………………………………………………. 203 Brazil: Campeonato Brasileiro Serie A …………………………………….. 204 Argentina: Primera Division ……………………………………………………. 204 USA…………………………………………………………………………………………. 05 Table of Contents Domestic Cups ………………………………………………………………………………… 205 FA Cup ……………………………………………………………………………………. 205 League Cup …………………………………………………………………………….. 206 Scottish Cup …………………………………………………………………………… 207 Other famous cups …………………………………………………………………. 07 International Club Competitions ……………………………………………………… 207 European Cup/UEFA Champions League …………………………………. 208 Europa League and UEFA Cup …………………………………………………. 209 Copa Libertadores ………………………………………………………………….. 210 Other continental tournaments ………………………………………………. 211 Intercontinental Cup/FIFA World Club Cup ……………………………… 211 xv Chapter 13: Focusing on Famous Clubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 England …………………………………………………………………………………………… 213 Arsenal …………………………………………………………………………………… 214 Aston Villa ………………………………………………………………………………. 214 Chelsea …………………………………………………………………………………… 215 Everton …………………………………………………………………………………… 216 Leeds United ………………………………………………………………….. ……… 217 Liverpool ………………………………………………………………………………… 217 Manchester City ……………………………………………………………………… 218 Manchester United …………………………………………………………………. 219 Nottingham Forest ………………………………………………………………….. 220 Tottenham Hotspur ………………………………………………………………… 221 West Ham United ……………………………………………………………………. 21 Scotland ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 222 Aberdeen ………………………………………………………………………………… 223 Celtic ………………………………………………………………………………………. 223 Rangers…………………………………………………………………………………… 224 Europe …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25 Ajax ………………………………………………………………………………………… 225 Barcelona ……………………………………………………………………………….. 225 Bayern Munich ……………………………………………………………………….. 226 Benfica ……………………………………………………………………………………. 226 Internazionale …………………………………………………………………………. 227 Juventus …………………………………………………………………………………. 27 Marseille …………………………………………………………………………………. 228 Milan ………………………………………………………………………………………. 229 Porto ………………………………………………………………………………………. 230 Real Madrid…………………………………………………………………………….. 230 South America …………………………………………………………………………………. 31 Boca Juniors …………………………………………………………………………… 231 Flamengo ………………………………………………………………………………… 231 Fluminense ……………………………………………………………………………… 232 Independiente…………………………………………………………………………. 232 Millonarios ……………………………………………………………………………… 232 Nacional …………………………………………………………………………………. 33 Penarol …………………………………………………………………………………… 233 xvi Football For Dummies River Plate ………………………………………………………………………………. 234 Santos …………………………………………………………………………………….. 234 Some Selected Others ……………………………………………………………………… 235 Al-Ahly and Zamalek ……………………………………………………………….. 35 Raja Casablanca ……………………………………………………………………… 235 Asante Kotoko and Hearts of Oak ……………………………………………. 235 LA Galaxy ……………………………………………………………………………….. 236 New York Cosmos …………………………………………………………………… 236 Chapter 14: Women’s Football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 From China to Crouch End: How It All Began …………………………………… 40 Dick, Kerr Ladies get popular . . . ……………………………………………. 240 . . . and the FA get sexist …………………………………………………………. 242 The women fight back …………………………………………………………….. 242 The FA lift the ban – and FIFA get serious ……………………………….. 243 The Game Today……………………………………………………………………………… 243 England…………………………………………………………………………………… 44 Rest of the world …………………………………………………………………….. 244 The Women’s World Cup …………………………………………………………………. 245 1991: The first World Cup ……………………………………………………….. 245 The tournament comes of age…………………………………………………. 246 The 2011 World Cup ……………………………………………………………….. 246 Other Major Tournaments ………………………………………………………………. 46 Major International Teams ………………………………………………………………. 247 United States ………………………………………………………………………….. 247 Germany …………………………………………………………………………………. 248 Norway …………………………………………………………………………………… 248 England…………………………………………………………………………………… 248 Great Players …………………………………………………………………………………… 49 Lily Parr (England)………………………………………………………………….. 249 Kristine Lilly (United States) …………………………………………………… 249 Mia Hamm (United States) ………………………………………………………. 250 Michelle Akers (United States)………………………………………………… 250 Sun Wen (China) …………………………………………………………………….. 251 Birgit Prinz (Germany) ……………………………………………………………. 52 Kelly Smith (England) ……………………………………………………………… 252 Marta (Brazil) …………………………………………………………………………. 253 Part IV: The Fans’ Enclosure: Following the Game ……. 255 Chapter 15: Going to the Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257 Preparing for the Match…………………………………………………………………… 257 Season tickets …………………………………………………………………………. 57 Choosing where to sit……………………………………………………………… 258 Looking into club membership ……………………………………………….. 259 Buying a single ticket in advance…………………………………………….. 259 Table of Contents Buying a single ticket on the day …………………………………………….. 259 Away games ……………………………………………………………………………. 260 Executive boxes ……………………………………………………………………… 61 International matches …………………………………………………………….. 261 Making Your Way to the Match ………………………………………………………. 262 Obtaining your tickets …………………………………………………………….. 262 Making travelling arrangements ……………………………………………… 262 Dressing for the occasion ……………………………………………………….. 263 Taking a look round the city……………………………………………………. 64 Checking out the ground ………………………………………………………… 264 The club shop…………………………………………………………………………. 265 A pint . . . ……………………………………………………………………………….. 265 . . . and a pie …………………………………………………………………………… 266 Matchday programmes …………………………………………………………… 267 The Game Itself ……………………………………………………………………………….. 67 Kick-off……………………………………………………………………………………. 268 Shouting, screaming and other matters of general etiquette …… 268 Wireless communication ………………………………………………………… 269 Half-time …………………………………………………………………………………. 269 Stewards, police and PA announcements………………………………… 269 Keeping out of trouble ……………………………………………………………. 270 xvii

Chapter 16: Compulsive Viewing: Football on Screen . . . . . . . . . . . .271 Television ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 271 Terrestrial ………………………………………………………………………………. 273 Satellite and cable …………………………………………………………………… 273 Official club channels ……………………………………………………………… 274 Essential shows and channels…………………………………………………. 74 The Internet …………………………………………………………………………………….. 277 Live streaming ………………………………………………………………………… 277 Recent action ………………………………………………………………………….. 278 Classic clips ……………………………………………………………………………. 278 Exploring Radio……………………………………………………………………………….. 278 Live commentaries …………………………………………………………………. 79 Round-ups ………………………………………………………………………………. 279 Listener phone-ins ………………………………………………………………….. 279 Podcasts …………………………………………………………………………………. 280 Focusing on Football Films ………………………………………………………………. 280 Escape to Victory ……………………………………………………………………. 280 Zidane: A 21st-Century Portrait ………………………………………………. 81 The Damned United ………………………………………………………………… 281 The Firm (1988 TV movie) ………………………………………………………. 281 The Arsenal Stadium Mystery …………………………………………………. 281 Gregory’s Girl …………………………………………………………………………. 282 Looking for Eric ………………………………………………………………………. 282 Discovering DVDs ……………………………………………………………………………. 82 Season reviews ……………………………………………………………………….. 282 Club histories …………………………………………………………………………. 283 xviii Football For Dummies Other club titles ……………………………………………………………………… 283 Country histories ……………………………………………………………………. 284 Player histories ………………………………………………………………………. 284 Tournament histories……………………………………………………………… 85 Classic matches………………………………………………………………………. 285 Novelty titles ………………………………………………………………………….. 285 Classic television programmes ……………………………………………….. 285 Chapter 17: Read All About It! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287 Knowing the Newspapers ………………………………………………………………… 287 What newspapers offer …………………………………………………………… 87 The nationals ………………………………………………………………………….. 289 The locals ……………………………………………………………………………….. 289 Employing the Internet ……………………………………………………………………. 290 What the Internet can do for you…………………………………………….. 290 The mainstream media …………………………………………………………… 291 Blogs and other websites………………………………………………………… 91 Making the Most of Magazines…………………………………………………………. 292 FourFourTwo ………………………………………………………………………….. 292 Champions ……………………………………………………………………………… 292 When Saturday Comes ……………………………………………………………. 292 World Soccer ………………………………………………………………………….. 293 France Football……………………………………………………………………….. 93 The Official Club View ……………………………………………………………………… 293 Matchday programmes …………………………………………………………… 293 Official club magazines …………………………………………………………… 294 Official websites ……………………………………………………………………… 294 The Fans’ View ………………………………………………………………………………… 295 Fanzines …………………………………………………………………………………. 95 Internet sites…………………………………………………………………………… 296 Forums and message boards…………………………………………………… 296 Branching Out into Books ……………………………………………………………….. 297 Autobiographies……………………………………………………………………… 297 Biographies …………………………………………………………………………….. 298 Club-specific books…………………………………………………………………. 99 Country specific books …………………………………………………………… 300 General history……………………………………………………………………….. 301 Reference ……………………………………………………………………………….. 302 Literature ……………………………………………………………………………….. 303 Chapter 18: Other Football-based Pastimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Betting …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 05 The pools ……………………………………………………………………………….. 306 Fixed-odds betting ………………………………………………………………….. 307 In-game betting ……………………………………………………………………….. 309 Spread betting ………………………………………………………………………… 309 The bookies or punter exchanges?………………………………………….. 309 Table of Contents Taking Control with Fantasy Football ………………………………………………. 10 The rules ………………………………………………………………………………… 310 How to choose your players……………………………………………………. 310 Scoring points ………………………………………………………………………… 311 Collecting memorabilia ……………………………………………………………………. 312 Cigarette cards ……………………………………………………………………….. 312 Stickers …………………………………………………………………………………… 12 Programmes …………………………………………………………………………… 313 Newspapers ……………………………………………………………………………. 313 Old shirts ……………………………………………………………………………….. 313 Autographs …………………………………………………………………………….. 314 Visiting Grounds ……………………………………………………………………………… 314 The 92 club …………………………………………………………………………….. 14 Playing Computer Games ………………………………………………………………… 315 PES and FIFA …………………………………………………………………………… 315 Championship Manager and Football Manager ……………………….. 316 Joining Supporters’ Clubs ……………………………………………………………….. 316 Regional clubs ………………………………………………………………………… 316 Supporters’ federations ………………………………………………………….. 17 Owning Your Own Club …………………………………………………………………… 317 xix Part V: The Part of Tens …………………………………….. 319 Chapter 19: Ten Great Players . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Pele …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 321 Diego Maradona ………………………………………………………………………………. 322 Franz Beckenbauer ………………………………………………………………………….. 23 Johan Cruyff ……………………………………………………………………………………. 324 Garrincha ………………………………………………………………………………………… 325 Zinedine Zidane ………………………………………………………………………………. 326 Alfredo di Stefano ……………………………………………………………………………. 326 Ferenc Puskas …………………………………………………………………………………. 27 George Best …………………………………………………………………………………….. 328 Gerd Muller……………………………………………………………………………………… 329 Chapter 20: The Ten Greatest Teams of All Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331 Preston North End (1881–1890) ……………………………………………………….. 331 Austria (1931–1934) …………………………………………………………………………. 332 Torino (1943–1949)………………………………………………………………………….. 33 Hungary (1950–1954)……………………………………………………………………….. 334 Real Madrid (1955–1960) …………………………………………………………………. 334 Celtic (1967) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 335 Brazil (1970) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 336 Netherlands (1974–1978) …………………………………………………………………. 37 Milan (1987–1994) ……………………………………………………………………………. 337 Barcelona (2009) ……………………………………………………………………………… 338 xx Football For Dummies Chapter 21: Ten Great Matches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339 Arbroath 36, Bon Accord 0 (Scottish Cup, 1885) ……………………………… 339 Brazil 1, Uruguay 2 (World Cup, 1950) ……………………………………………… 340 England 3, Hungary 6 (Friendly, 1953) ……………………………………………… 41 Charlton Athletic 7, Huddersfield Town 6 (English Second Division, 1957) …………………………………………………………………. 341 Real Madrid 7, Eintracht Frankfurt 3 (European Cup, 1960) ……………… 342 England 4, West Germany 2 (World Cup, 1966) ………………………………… 343 Manchester United 4, Benfica 1 (European Cup, 1968) …………………….. 344 Brazil 4, Italy 1 (World Cup, 1970) ……………………………………………………. 344 Nigeria 3, Argentina 2 (Olympics, 1996) …………………………………………… 45 Liverpool 3, Milan 3 (Champions League, 2005) ……………………………….. 346 Part VI: Appendixes ………………………………………….. 347 Appendix A: Roll of Honour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 World Cup……………………………………………………………………………………….. 349 European Championship …………………………………………………………………. 351 Copa America ………………………………………………………………………………….. 52 Africa Cup of Nations ………………………………………………………………………. 353 Confederations Cup…………………………………………………………………………. 354 Olympic Games ……………………………………………………………………………….. 355 Women’s World Cup ……………………………………………………………………….. 356 European Cup / Champions League …………………………………………………. 357 Appendix B: Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .361 Index …………………………………………………………….. 369 Introduction ongratulations! You’ve got a copy of Football For Dummies in your hands. This book has been written specially for people who want to know all they can about the greatest and most popular sport on the planet: association football. Football For Dummies aims to satisfy your curiosity, help you to understand the basics of how to play the game, arm you with knowledge so you can enjoy watching it to the full and show you that you have a whole world of football to be explore.

There’s a reason football has taken off all around the globe, after all! Millions are passionate about the sport, from fans of the ‘beautiful game’ in Brazil to lovers of ‘soccer’ in the US. And none more so than fans in the British Isles, where the game as you know it today took off back in the mid 1800s. It’s the simplest of sports in principle – in the final analysis, all you need to know is that one team has to score more goals than the other to win. Nevertheless, a plethora of laws, tactics and skills exist that can easily flummox the beginner. That’s where this book comes in.

I wrote it so that anyone who wants to enjoy football – whether by playing it or watching it – can get to grips with the sport quickly and easily, without feeling overwhelmed or intimidated. And I promise it won’t be long before you’ve become something of an expert on the most talked-about sporting pastime in the world. You’ll never look back! C About This Book The simple aim of Football For Dummies is to provide you with all the basic skills and help you remember every scrap of crucial knowledge that you need to become a football fan. All the information you need is between the covers of this book.

But although it’s all crammed in here, don’t feel daunted: you certainly don’t have to read every word, from start to finish, to get the most from the book. Each chapter covers a separate topic about football, so you can easily dip into the chapters to find out about something you don’t quite understand. Say you’re watching a Champions League game on television, but don’t really 2 Football For Dummies know much about the history of the competition; just turn to the chapter that talks about important football competitions and Football For Dummies will fill the gaps in your knowledge.

If you fancy getting up off the sofa and turning out for a team yourself, Football For Dummies explains how you can set about getting involved as a player. The book offers plenty of handy hints and practical s

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Football Religion

Christianity, with more than 2 billion believers, ranks second among the major religions of the world. Soccer is first. FIFA, the guardians of the faith, calculated that a cumulative television audience of 28. 8 billion people tuned in to watch the 2002 World Cup tournament. Keep in mind that the world’s total population is only 6. 6 billion Hello I am one of the biggest football fan in the world. And I am here to show you how football is synonyms to any religion in the world.

I will be telling you about the customs, rituals, the gods, the holly places and the like of football a. . a. soccer and how they are some what of same nature as the ones practiced in some of the world’s major religions like Christianity and Islam. Like Hinduism, football has many gods. If we take Arsenal FC for instance the striker god of all time is Henry, the Mid field god was Vieria but now its Fabregas, the defensive god has to be Tony Adams. Its not just arsenal FC, every FC and every national team has its own gods. Few people wear the vestments of their favourite molana or priest as compared to the jerseys worn by the fans of their favourite player.

Football provides the ritual of a weekend gathering for those who are truly committed. Fewer people visit churches on Friday as compared to the the fans that go to the Mecca of Football ‘the football stadium’. Football has its own mythology too, those stories that believers tell to explain their identity and history and every club or nation has got one. It even has its own book in which all the rules are written. And like any religion the love of the game is passed through generations.

If my father supported a team I am automatically put into the hierarchy of followers when I am born. Extremism also exists in the religion of football, and the extremists are known as the hooligans. Fans use the mean of violence to show there love for the team. They can be viewed as the jihadis, fighting the rival team supporters for the pride of their team. Religion is not complete without rules and code of conduct and football is no exception. It has got its own rules, its own mysterious language and song of praise.

And if the rules are broken then it has the priest, the father or the molana of its own blowing whistle and punishing the players by showing yellow and red cards. In the end I would like to say that even though football falls in every category of a religion it has its gods, book, followers, holly warriors etc it fall a just short of a religion because The faithful don’t get angry if God doesn’t deliver a miracle every week. Football fans on the other hand do get very annoyed if their teams are not performing to the expected level, and miracles are often demanded.

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Footballers Do Not Deserve The High Salaries

Many people think that footballers are paid too much money for doing too little effort. However, this can be argued because they are people who have dedicated their entire life to this sport and therefore they should be rewarded. This leads us to the question: Do footballers deserve high salaries? Firstly, some famous footballers are paid huge amounts of money such as Cristiano Ronaldo who are paid millions of euros every year to play for his parent club Real Madrid .

Currently the highest paid footballer is Lionel Messi who earns ? 0 million per year not including his sponsership money which is ridiculess . This makes us feel that it is unreasonable that there are so many people dying of famine in the world and these people are given so much money for performing an insignificant effort. It even make us feel irritated to know how these football players waste their money in wants that are of no use such as Etoo who plays for Inter Milan in Italy . Eto ownes about fifteen expensive cars at the moment and people may argue that the money should be used wisely.

A lot of money is needed for many purposes: for example for the aid of starving people in the less economically developed countries or in the building of more hospitals for our own health and security. My second arguement is that people argue that there are other professions that provide far much more for the population that footballers do and that they are poorly paid in comparison. They should be paid more. Other people even think that what they are paid would be justified if they performed better in the actual matches.

Other sports stars across the world including Tiger Woods And Floyd Mayweather Jnr Earn alot more money than your average footballer and no one seems too complain. Many people say that one goal in a ninety-minute match or a draw implies an awful quality performance. On the other hand, the opinion of the spectators is that these players have dedicated their full lives to their job which involves harsh training and the maintenance of physical fitness through intense daily training so he has to be under the pressure of their trainer who requires them to be completely fit and train strictly.

Furthermore, apart from the pressure exerted from heir club they are under the pressure of the audience. They have always to play correctly and not make any mistake so that the media and the public will not criticize them. A single error would represent a possible end of the career of that player. In addition to this, we have to consider the fact that the age of retirement for a professional football player is of about 30-40 years means that this person relies on the money he has gained in his short lifetime as a professional footballer therefore football players need the money for the future so they can sustain themselves and their future generations.

Finally, the football business is private, no public money pays for the bills so why should we care about how much are the players paid? It is a sport that is enjoyed by millions of people and it is known everywhere so it is maybe true that these players are worth the money, that their talent deserves this money. In conclusion, my opinion is that footballers don’t perform such a simple, undemanding and effortless job, they dedicate their lives to this sport so that the people can enjoy it and it is quite complex for them to maintain their physical strength and fitness to survive ninety minutes running.

They also are under a lot of pressure from their managers, media and the whole audience and one mistake publicly or on the pitch can lead to hatred. However, I do consider that the sum of money they are paid is quite over exaggerated, it is too much and even if it is not that easy to become a professional player, the effort is not worth millions of euros and I believe that some of these money should be for other purposes such as stopping the famine and starvation in the world. So footballers should be compensated for their effort but with so much money.

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International Communication Focusing on Fifa 2014

Vuvuzelas sound and it fills the stadiums with a noise that is still heard ringing in the ears of millions days later, even months after it has ended. The overwhelming feeling of excitement spreads through the veins of everyone watching and those on the edge of their seats just waiting for the next goal to be scored, determining who wins the world cup and takes home the famous gold “FIFA World Cup Trophy. ” The World Cup is a tournament that comes every four years and lasts a month long with tournaments every day from June 13th- July 13th The World Cup brings in a whirlwind of excitement and emotions.

This victorious event will be held in Brazil in the year of 2014 but before June 13th hits, there is a massive amount of planning to be done. With all the preparations leading up to the World Cup we will capture the trials and tribulations through the eyes of four locals in Rio de Janeiro. First, we will film one year before hand and capture everyday life without the World Cup. We will take a look at how Brazilians live their lives on a day to day basis without the chaos and media attention of the event.

We will do this by following four individuals, interviewing them about how they feel about the World Cup and how it is affecting their daily routine. Our second round of filming will place our crews with the same four peole on the day of the first game in Rio de Janeiro. The World Cup takes the world by storm every four years. While in America, soccer has just recently gained a large following, it has been a way of life for generations in many countries throughout the world. We can identify with this phenomenon somewhat if we relate it to the impact of the Olympics when they were held in Atlanta, Georgia in 1996.

An event of this scale becomes all-consuming and places the city and country under a worldwide microscope. The World Cup produces a whirlwind of excitement with years of preparation that costs and generates millions of dollars. Many sports in America have a strong following and fan-base, but nothing can truly be compared to that of soccer overseas. Countries such as Mexico, Spain and Brazil look at soccer, its players, and the games, as a way of life. Brazil especially has been known for its talented and renowned soccer (“futebol”) team throughout the years and they have won five World Cups.

From the outside looking in, Brazil has been known as one of the powerhouses, if not the powerhouse of soccer worldwide. The fact that FIFA and all of the other governing and deciding bodies have chosen to place the World Cup 2014 in Brazil generates further excitement, but also places this country under close watch from viewers worldwide. As we saw with the World Cup 2010 in South Africa, a country can be drastically altered and affected by such a large-scale event. We want to create this documentary to shed light on the impacts, trials and jubilation of such an incredible event.

While many see the benefits of hosting such an event, there are plenty of drawbacks as well. We want to create an in-depth look of this phenomenon, the World Cup, and show also how it affects the country that is producing the event. So much goes on behind the scenes and many lives are impacted, whether negatively or positively. By following four real people with everyday jobs and average, normal lives, we hope to inform the public of the on-goings of the preparation for the World Cup, as well as how individual lives are impacted. We want to follow four people; a ticket scalper, police officer, a fan and a street vendor.

Through this we hope to achieve a more personal view of such an immensely grand event. We want to inform the public of the preparations involved in the World Cup as well as the madness that ensues once it all begins. We will chronicle this massive worldwide soccer tournament through the eyes of normal everyday Rio de Janeiro citizens in the attempt to show a real-life perspective of a fantastical and media-centric event. While there are documentaries aplenty, ours is unique in that it shows the impact on a country and its citizens, something many viewers of the World Cup never consider.

By creating a personal and impactful narrative that comments on economic repercussions, nationalism and pride, we hope to appeal to viewers who want to see a cultural view of soccer that has never before been created. Nicknamed “Cidade Maravilhosa” — Portuguese for “marvelous city” — Rio de Janeiro conjures many images including Ipanema Beach and the famous Cristo Redentor statue atop Corcovado Mountain. But in 2014, one of the most important global sporting events, the World Cup, will arrive in Brazil where soccer — or futebol as they know it — is the lifeblood of the culture.

After FIFA announced Brazil as the hosts of the 2014 World Cup on October 30, 2007, a different set of images would materialize for the population of Rio de Janeiro. Once upon a time it was the site of the final match of the 19 50 World Cup in Maracana Stadium. Uruguay came from behind to beat its host 2-1, even though Brazil was heavily favored after eliminating previous opponents Spain and Sweden. Since then, Rio de Janeiro has been home to some of Brazil’s most popular soccer clubs: Botafogo, Fluminense, Vasco da Gama and Flamengo.

With a past and present such as this, tensions and expectations will undoubtedly be high, especially where soccer is so inter-meshed with their culture. Choosing to film in Rio de Janeiro will capture much of this drama associated with the World Cup as we follow our four subjects: the police officer, the fan, the street vendor and the ticket scalper. In general, we want to keep the area surrounding Maracana Stadium as our locus of interest, but this isn’t necessarily realistic. The subjects have dynamic lives each and every day, especially as the World Cup draws closer, so it may be difficult to remain under the shadow of the venue.

As each subject travels through different areas of the city, the camera crews will have to make critical judgment calls about when to uncap the lens. Our film crews can expect to capture the best footage in some of Rio de Janeiro’s most exciting sites. The city is known for its soccer, tourism, night life and beaches, but we will want to focus on the North Zone. It contains several neighborhoods and important tourist attractions, including our primary filming location, Maracana Stadium, which is located in the Tijuca neighborhood.

It is home to many of the middle class residents and also the lower class favelas, which are crime-ridden neighborhoods filled with poorly built shanties. Our police officer will certainly be answering calls from this poor section of Rio de Janeiro where our ticket scalper is a resident. Our street vendor and soccer fan will also be residents of the Rio North Zone. It is there in the North Zone that we will want to follow each of our characters into their homes. Once inside their homes, our camera crews can film the effects of the World Cup on the Brazilian household unit.

We will discover just how the home family life is transformed both demographically and psycho-graphically. Questions can be answered such as: a) Has new disposable income, as provided by the World Cup’s economic opportunities, increased the family’s standard of living? b) Has Brazilian pride in its national sport entered the home life? c) Has the importance of home security changed due to the hysteria associated with the World Cup? Once these questions are answered, a more complete view of the character is revealed and analyzed by the audience. Another set of important sites will be public centers for transportation.

The primary modes of transportation are by municipal train and bus lines since driving by car is very difficult. Due to a great deal of highway congestion, cars often move at a snail-like pace. Important themes will manifest themselves as we travel to and from each location. These places, which are usually replete with a colorful culture, will be amplified in the presence of the World Cup. The documentary will actively connect the dots between Brazil’s national pride and their national sport at these various locations. The Maracana Stadium will be the most important site.

There we will capture each of our characters’ paths intersecting outside and inside the venue. The fan will obviously be destined for the stadium itself; the street vendor will set up shop as close to the stadium as possible so as to snag the most consumers as possible; and the policeman will have critical interactions with the ticket scalper, who will be acting against the law. Many memorable characters exist in a documentary just like any other genre of film. The goal is to capture reality but there is no need to move away from the act of story telling.

The idea behind the characters of our documentary is that they are all connected through each other by the duties they perform throughout the documentary.. Our first character to appear is the police officer. Juan Sminho is 38 and works for the Rio de Janeiro tourist police. He performs regular policing in the streets of Rio by assisting tourists and pointing them in the proper direction to where they are headed. Juan also performs similar duties to what the united states police force does but he is not as involved with crime as our police forces are. He lives on the north side in a two bedroom apartment with his wife and brother.

He does not come from a wealthy family but did inherit some from his parents when they were murdered 10 years ago in a robbing which pushed him to become part of the Brazil police force to keep things like that from happening to other families. He will show the audience what it is like in everyday life as a tourist officer, then there will be a dramatic change of pace a year later on the chaotic streets of Rio where his duties are truly put to the test with all the tourist in town for the World Cup games. Juan’s duties will be to perform crowd control, assist tourists and seek out ticket scalpers; this is a highly illegal offense in Brazil.

Most everyone has seen a ticket scalper before, but if not, they are the ones that stand on the corners of concert/sport venues and sell those last minute tickets needed for the fans. Ticket scalping is very illegal in Brazil and punishable by jail time, but that does not stop our scalper from risking it all for some extra cash. We will follow Gustavo Silva, a thirty-four year old Rio native who has never left the North region. He works as a ticket scalper primarily, but during the slow months tries to make ends meet by helping out at his parents’ modest fruit stand in the outskirts of Rio.

The popularity of soccer as a sport, particularly in Brazil, directly effects his livelihood and well-being. Seeing Gustavo in his element both before and during the World Cup will create a dynamic story for the viewers. Viewers will identify with Gustavo’s endearing and persuasive personality because of his hard-working attitude. Ticket scalping just became illegal in Brazil, which is obviously a threat for Gustavo. The documentary will show the discrepancies in this law as it is not seriously enforced until the World Cup in 2014. The effects of this on Gustavo will prove to be detrimental.

With money being tight and having to find work wherever possible, some residents of Rio do not have a choice. Our team has high hopes for our scalper that he will sell a ticket to our next character, the fan. What is a team without its fans; similar to a sandwich without bread. A sandwich does not exist without bread much like a team would be nowhere without fans. Soccer fans have been seen taking their “fandom” to the extreme, but the more extreme it is, the more the team feels honored and welcome. Brazil soccer fans are famous throughout the world for their enthusiasm and carnival atmosphere at the World Cup.

Many soccer managers will often claim that soccer fans can act as an extra man or the infamous “12th Man” and this is certainly the case when Brazil plays in front of over 100,000 soccer fans at the famous Maracana Stadium. The fans are not always as supportive though, in fact, they can be rather harsh. This was shown when the team came home after the 2006 world cup without a win, according to Kevin McNally of E-zine Articles. We hope to capture all this excitement while following around our dedicated fan, if Brazil loses then it is possible that our film gets even more interesting with the outrage that the country will have on them.

Choosing a fan for our documentary was tough but we have found one who truly shows the spirit needed to connect with our audience. Paulo Cardoso is originally from Rio and lived there until he was 18. Once old enough, he moved to the United States to attend college but soon wanted to return to his home country after graduating. Paulo is a business major but is currently working at his parents coffee shop as a manager to help them out. He is 28 and has been an avid futebol fan since he was born, according to him.

Every four years he gathers around the big screens in Rio to watch Brazil triumph, or try to, over their competitors. He will take us through the festivals in Rio including “Fan Fest Rio 2014. ” His grandfather attended the World Cup in 1950 when it was last held in Brazil followed by the World Cup in 1978 held in Argentina and this time Paulo’s father went alongside. Paulo has been saving as much money as he can to be able to hold the tickets that so many others strive to have. He does not plan on buying a ticket before the games due to hopefully cheaper prices on game day.

He will be a huge help on guiding us around Rio due to our unfamiliarity to the city. Paulo brings to the documentary the familiar language of English but with the Brazilian traditions that we could all stand to learn from. He as well as many other fans will interact with many people but as always, he will buy some form of merchandise from a street vendor before the game. This will allow for our fan and street vendor to interact with one another. There will be a numerous amount of street vendors trying to sell anything they have that represents the world renowned Brazil “Futebol” Team.

Our film crews will follow around one vendor who sets up shop close to the stadium in hopes of catching the most business. Gearing up for the World Cup takes a lot of preparation, which is why it is imperative that we catch her one year before hand before she starts ordering merchandise and preparing for the mass amounts of fans to flood the city of Rio. Claudia Trigoso, 26, lives in the favelas in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro. Under normal circumstances Claudia deals with irregular employment due to his low socioeconomic standing, but the arrival of the World Cup will give her the opportunity to transform her situation.

She has applied to Eurosport catalog to sell some of their merchandise near Maracana stadium. Soon, with the proper licenses, she will be cleared by Rio’s municipal administrators to set up in this area. Claudia hopes she can make enough profit to start a business of her own after the World Cup and its excitement wane. With this in mind, she might someday have the opportunity to move out of the North Zone favelas into a safer, more affluent neighborhood where she hopes to start a family of her own.

In addition to highlighting the changes from life before the World Cup to life uring the tournament from the perspective of our four main characters, our camera crew will venture out into the streets and local pubs. Our crew will conduct first-hand interviews with everyday citizens to get a better grasp on the impact of the World Cup on the people of Rio. The filming crew will ask the public questions pertaining to how the World Cup has economically impacted their businesses, their transportation around the city, and whether or not they will be watching or attending the World Cup. There are many components that go into making a documentary outside of the characters, locations and themes.

While the overarching themes will make a large impact on our viewers, the intricate details disbursed throughout the film will contribute drastically to the overall feel of the documentary. Throughout the documentary our characters and locations will be introduced using typewriter text as it is typed across a blank screen. The segments will not necessarily be rigidly formatted but the characters will be introduced as they fall into place in the documentary. Aside from the interviews included in our film it will primarily remain in the observational category of documentary film making.

By taking a third-party neutral approach to the film the audience will get a realistic and personal view into the lives of the residents of Rio. Our documentary will target a large demographic due to the emotional and sports aspects as well as the excitement generated from the FIFA World Cup overall. We hope to target ages eighteen to fifty by placing this sixty minute documentary on a major network such as ABC. We initially contemplated airing the documentary on ESPN because of its sports focus, but eventually agreed that ABC would be the best choice.

Not only is it a well-respected major network, but our aim is to capture the World Cup viewers for our documentary. By airing Joga Bonito on the network that is already broadcasting all of the World Cup games, we will grab the attention of the avid soccer fans who will hopefully already be watching ABC (the World Cup games will be used as somewhat of a lead-in for our documentary). In order to generate even more viewers, we will air advertisements throughout the month of the World Cup tournament to create buzz and excitement. Throughout this month, the public will have plenty of time to hear and read about our documentary.

The documentary “Joga Bonito” will air as a prime-time special a few days before the World Cup finals. The title of our documentary, Joga Bonito, is meant to evoke the spirit and essence of soccer and of Brazil. This term is Portuguese for “The Beautiful Game” which is commonly used to describe Association football, also known as futebol or soccer. When soccer was originally created and rules were formally established, it was referred to as “The Simplest Game”. This eventually evolved into The Beautiful Game, or Joga Bonito, when a famous Brazilian player named Pele named his biography The Beautiful Game.

Because this term is now widely used when referring to the sport of soccer, and because of its roots and foundations in the country of Brazil, we saw Joga Bonito as a fitting title for our documentary. Joga Bonito will, as previously stated, offer to its viewers a discourse of national identity and the impact of the World Cup on the citizens of Brazil within the context of an emotional adventure through the streets of Rio. The juxtaposition of a personal look at the four characters and the mainstream international media event known as the World Cup will create a unique and powerful documentary.

This concept appeals to the masses because it addresses a worldwide event. Within this discourse, however, we visit the personal implications of such an event and the role of nationalism and pride within an international context. By contrasting life before the World Cup with life during one of the first games, the drastic cultural and societal changes that occur in preparation of such an event will be highlighted. The emotional appeal of this documentary will intrigue viewers while informing them of international life and the results of an event that thrusts a nation into the international spotlight.

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United States Men’s National Soccer Team

While rival drug cartels warred in the streets and the country’s murder rate climbed to highest in the world, the Colombian national soccer team set out to blaze a new image for their country. What followed was a mysteriously rapid rise to glory, as the team catapulted out of decades of obscurity to become one of the best teams in the world. Central to this success were two men named Escobar: Andrés, the captain and poster child of the National Team, and Pablo, the infamous drug baron who pioneered the phenomenon known in the underworld as “Narco-soccer.” But just when Colombia was expected to win the 1994 World Cup and transform its international image, the shocking murder of Andres Escobar dashed the hopes of a nation.

Through the glory and the tragedy, The Two Escobars daringly investigates the secret marriage of crime and sport, and uncovers the surprising connections between the murders of Andres and Pablo. Personal Statement

Our films tend to focus on disenfranchised communities in the process of rising up and transforming their political and economic circumstances. We choose these stories due to the scale of their historic importance—this is where societies are shaped.

By comparison, sports have often felt like mere diversion, games limited to the playing field. At times, we have both drifted from the passion for sports we shared as young athletes and fans, engaging ourselves in other endeavors as seasons of professional competition passed by.

Then, invariably, definitive moments in sports history would grab our attention and turn our logic upside down. Like in 1994, when an athlete named Andres Escobar was murdered for accidentally scoring an own goal that cost the Colombian National Team a chance at winning the World Cup and transforming its negative image on the international stage. Here was a country with a national identity so integrally connected to the success of its soccer team that one mistake on a playing field dashed the pride of an entire nation and cost a man his life.

Looking into the incident, we learned that the dramatic rise and fall of Colombian soccer was inextricably tied to the rise and fall of Pablo Escobar’s Medellín Drug Cartel, considered by many the ‘ruling party’ of Colombia at the time. Sport in Colombia was not only mirroring the personality and politics of society, but also an inseparable part of that society – the playing field an extension of the streets and offices where influential decisions are made.

On our journey through diverse walks of Colombian society during production, it became clear that this was far from a classic “deal-with-the-devil” narrative. Rather, this was the story of the passions and dreams of a people intrinsically tied to the rise and fall of a team. Stories such as this revive our childhood fascination with sports and confirm the fundamental role they play in shaping our world.

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NCAA Sanctions and Paying Players: Should This Be Allowed

A customer walks into the local Pizza Hut, and sits down. A waiter approaches and asks what kind of pizza they want. The customer gives his order to him, and lays 200 dollars under the menu. The waiter notices, and takes the money. The customer’s pizza is 10 dollars, and he pays for it by a debit card. When he leaves, he puts 300 dollars under his own plate. The waiter grabs the money, places the money in his pocket, and goes back to working.

Now, if two new characters illustrated the names of the waiter and the customer for the football player, and an athletic booster, then everyone would be saying how rude it is, and how corrupt our society is. That is an exact reason why we shouldn’t pay players, and how the sanctions that the NCAA has put down to prevent the main sanction (paying players) from happening. Paying players to play an athletic sport in the NCAA should not be allowed, and that’s because colleges aren’t allowed/shouldn’t pay players and they don’t need to earn money.

There are many arguments against paying players The first argument, “Colleges aren’t allowed/shouldn’t pay players” has many opinionated answers, are biased, or have no clue of what’s going on. In some past research, there have been some points that have been made that they should be paid. Others, for instance, show that they shouldn’t be paid. There’s been that they’re getting free academics, free board, free meal, etc. and there’s also seen that full-ride scholars can’t have a full-time job, so they could use some money.

Both, I agree with, but in general, they shouldn’t be paid, but there should be some rule changes. What I’m saying is, is that you notice smaller schools getting hit with the sanctions. For instance, Southern Methodist University, in the 80’s, paid 21 football players over $61,000 to play for them over 3 years. If you notice, there is a rule that you can’t pay players to play NCAA Football. To pay college athletes to play football for you is illegal. They tried to get above the level playing field that the NCAA had set.

Their punishment was extremely serious, and called “The Death Penalty”. “They lost 55 scholarships, had their 1987 season cancelled, pulled from live television, and banned from postseason play until 1989. And obviously, since they are still in the Conference USA, they haven’t recovered since. “(Yahoo “Penalty 4”) The rules are made for a reason, and should always be followed. In another example, The University of Southern California, or known as USC, received a letter of investigation concerning Reggie Bush and his time at USC. He had knowingly received benefits from an outside source.

NBC reporter Greg Beachem stated, “A two-year bowl ban, four years’ probation, loss of scholarships and forfeits of an entire year’s games for improper benefits to Heisman Trophy winner Reggie Bush dating to the Trojans’ 2004 national championship. ” As you can tell, he received benefits from some sort of person who won’t be questioned for who he is, because he doesn’t have a name like Reggie Bush does. There were also had noticed that the rule changes that were mentioned earlier were a major part in fixing the rules for players to make money.

For instance, Title IX states that all men and women must have an equal amount of scholarships. That may sound just fine, but the truth is, there is no “Women’s Football”. So that’s 85 scholarships that have to be evened out to women. If Title IX disregarded football, then that rule would be completely fine. Plus, there are 2 sports that generate revenue for an athletic program. That would be men’s football, and men’s basketball. So it’s up to those teams to pay for the entire athletic department. This also shows how players shouldn’t be paid.

If only two different sports make money for an entire team, what are the reasons that they should be paying players, when that team may want to use the money for other additions to the campus? Plus, if you left the rich schools to pay for players to come, then a smaller school like Texas Christian University, or Boise State University, wouldn’t ever earn any big time players. Teams like Texas University, Ohio State University, Michigan University, (other rich D1 schools), would buy out all the players, and leave everyone in the dust. The 2nd argument, that players don’t need to be paid, is also a biased argument.

Finding information on this rule is very tough, because all search engines bring up many blogs about people’s opinions and those aren’t credible. I’ve noticed that some people think that rule changes are needed, and some say that the whole rule should be abolished, and all athletes should be paid. With my personal knowledge of secrecy and how people can secretly hide items of interest, some students would possibly work at Pizza Hut, have a boosters guy order a $10 dollar pizza and leave a $500 dollar tip. We all know that that’s not right to do, but some regulations need to be lifted.

If you let college athlete’s work within the school, such as in the cafeteria, or the library, the NCAA could possibly monitor the earnings they make. It’s possible that if they worked at a Pizza Hut, or a Taco Bell, they could make sure that the NCAA has some sort of access to see the paycheck they earn and make sure it makes it to the bank account. Depending on how big the college is, depends on how the school will be corrupted more. For example, at Capital University, the cost for a year is $33,210 for a full-time undergraduate year, including room, board, etc.

Now, if that is compared to the University of Southern California, their tuition is $56,813 per year, including room, board, etc. (USC 2011 estimations) The difference here is, Capital is a Division III school, and has an extremely lower school population than a school like USC. USC has a population of “15,600 undergraduates as well as a staggering 15,224 graduate students” (USC College Admission). At Capital, you get a smaller amount of TV Time, if not any, while USC is making a large amount of money and getting TV Time every week.

If you have to pay players that play for a college that can’t afford to do it, like Capital University, many small colleges will be taken out of athletics, and will be losing scholarships. To add on, it’s not like these athletes have to spend their built-up savings account to go play football. They get to use all the money they saved up to go earn an education in college, to buy what they want. They may not get any more money to spend, but the rough $30,000 that would be in their bank account should be enough if they’re not paying a penny for the classes they have, the meals, their dorm, and their textbooks.

Plus, if they’re at a big-time school, like Ohio State, or Texas University, then they especially wouldn’t have to pay the $35,000 that a semester of college costs. But my point isn’t completely set in stone because colleges shouldn’t pay players, but some rule changes need to be made, as I will talk about later. NCAA rules state that if you’re an athlete, you can’t work. When you read that rule, you think of the “big-name athletes” like Cam Newton or Terrelle Pryor, that have full- rides to play football.

But, there’s always the people who have half-year scholarships, or are considered walk-ons, that also can’t work. To add on, I believe that if you aren’t being paid in that season/year, you should be allowed to work. The full-ride scholars are being paid to play football, and getting a free education, while half-scholarship athletes and walk-on athletes are not allowed to work, and are being forced to pay their education. When you go on to any college website, you will find a link to go to something about financial aid, so it’s not like nobody is out to help.

To talk about rules are a different story, and it needs to be addressed. To define what the NCAA calls a Professional Team, “is if it declares itself to be professional or provides any player more than actual and necessary expenses for participation on the team. ” (NCAA Guide 10) The NCAA-made pamphlet answers all questions to the rules that I’ve mentioned. It states rules for students who are in Division I or Division II schools, such as Division 1 student-athletes aren’t allowed to accept a salary, while Division II student-athletes are permitted to do so.

Division II teams can enter a contract with a professional team, while Division I teams can’t. Do these rules sound fair? I have to say yes, because Division II teams don’t get any TV Time. If a team has some TV Time, it increases their stock value to play in the NFL. There are also some rules that apply to both Division I and Division II teams. For example, Division I and II teams can’t receive benefits from an agent, or enter an agreement with an agent.

The reason that this rule is made is because agents would have the most contact with an athlete, and would be able to obtain money from a boosters guy and the athlete would illegally receive the money. If the rule was changed so that sanctions would be softer on the crime, or players being paid was made legal, the rich schools would become the ultimate powerhouses, and the other schools would become obsolete, like what was discussed earlier. These big schools, like Texas or USC would take over college football and leave teams like TCU or Boise State behind.

When you decide to pay players on a two-sport revenue generator, you have to decide who you’re going to pay, how much you’ll pay them, when you’ll pay them, and decide about which players don’t get paid. An offensive lineman may not get paid, and he makes the running back or the quarterback look like he carries the team. Does he deserve to get paid over the quarterback? The final thought that goes with this paper is, if we paid student-athletes, should we pay every sport, and if we do, do we give an equal amount to each player? You find your own opinion on the matter.

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Labor and American Football

The development of labor relations in American football has been marked by two periods in its century of existence.  During its beginning labor organizations were weakened by the fractured nature of the football league itself.  Various upstart leagues consistently threatened and weakened the original league, the National Football League (NFL) and at times put in danger the growth of the sport in the America.

Yet, since the league consolidated in the second half of the century we have seen a new period in labor relations come to the forefront.  And while it was once held that players would probably never unionize, the player strikes in 1982 and 1987 and their results have proven past analysts predictions to be wrong.  The football of the 1980s and 90s was fraught with player/manager blowouts and the increasingly assertive nature of player’s organizations or player’s unions as they are now referred to came to the forefront.

A Brief History of Football

The big money problems facing the American football league today find its roots in the development of the sport and its growth in popularity as a notable aspect of American culture.  The incredible money making potential of professional football developed on principles of “rugby football´´ being played at universities in Eastern Canada and the United States.

Professional American football can be said to have its starting point when William “Pudge´´ Heffelfinger was paid $500 by a club in Pittsburgh to play for them in a game.[1]  Towards the twentieth century the game would begin to accumulate loyal spectators across the country, though college football was the most popular form of spectator football.  Along with football’s growing popularity would come entrepreneurs eager to cash-in on the sport’s growth.

The most significant signal of the sports growth was the forming of the National Football League (NFL) in 1920.  The NFL’s first official name was the American Professional Football Association and it was made up of five professional teams who’s main goal in uniting was to stop the stealing of team members from within their ranks.[2]  The cost of franchise was $25 and the teams met whenever it was determined that they could make money.[3]  In 1921 the group formally changed its name to the National Football league.

It wasn’t long before the league was outshining college football and attendance at games went up radically.  Small-town teams got swallowed up by big-city teams and football and annual championships began in 1933.  The 1930s were extremely important in the development of the league.

Gould and Staudohar state that, “Significant rules changes were introduced, most notably legalizing the forward pass from anywhere behind the line of scrimmage. Goal posts were put on the goal lines. And the league was divided into two divisions, leading to a championship playoff under regularized conditions at the end of the season.”[4]

By the 1950s professional football was beating out college teams in the fight for spectators.  In addition, a new element had been added to the sport, television.  Television participation and attendance levels at games were constantly on the rise.  Fans turned on the tube and poured into stadiums to catch a glimpse of rising football stars such as Bobby Layne and Johnny Unitas.  In 1955 NBC paid $100,000, a 40 percent increase over the previous year, to televise the title game.[5]

Since then football’s growth has been unstoppable and largely predominated by the NFL.  Currently the league is made up of thirty-two teams, which are divided into two conferences and then four sub-divisions.  At the nd of each year the league holds a twelve team tournament that eliminates the teams down to two teams which will play in the league’s most anticipated game of the year, the Super Bowl.

Currently the NFL is “one of the most popular sports leagues in the United States, and has the highest per-game attendance of any domestic professional sports league in the world, drawing over 67,000 spectators per game for its most recently completed season in 2006.”[6]

The Era of League Splits

The rise of professional football and the revenues that came along with it would be accompanied by numerous attempts of upstart leagues to wrestle viewership from NFL games.  The first attempts were made under the auspice of a parallel group of teams titled the American Football Leagues (AFL).  Before 1941 there were three such attempts made by the AFL to upstage the NFL, none of which were successful.

The last of these attempts was particularly unsuccessful and Gould and Staudohar claim that, “The new league was woefully undercapitalized and almost from its first games exhibited dire financial trouble. Missed payrolls became routine. Not surprisingly, the league folded early in its second season.”[7]  The most successful of these leagues was the All-American Football Conference which appeared at the close of the Second World War, when there was an influx of interest in spectator sports.  The league lasted for four years and at its close three of its teams joined the NFL and were moderately successful within that league.

Continued growth in televised games and stadium attendance would result in the most significant attempts by alternate leagues to break in on the action in the mid-60s and later in the 80s.  Lamar Hunt created another version of the AFL, after his attempt to purchase an NFL franchise to bring to Texas backfired.  Hunt set out on an aggressive campaign to win spectator interest by introducing gimmicks such as “wider-open passing offenses, players’ names on their jerseys, and an official clock visible to fans so that they knew the time remaining in a period (the NFL kept time by a game referee’s watch, and only periodically announced the actual time).”[8]

But it was the bidding war for players that almost brought the whole of American football on its knees.  Fortunately, and as a result of the expansion and costly players, the leagues merged in 1966.  By 1970 the teams from both leagues had formed to make up the NFL’s American Football Conference.  The AFL-NFL championship game became the Super Bowl.  The only other league to be created after that was the United States Football League that, despite heavy financing, important players and a television contract, went under within three years due to low revenues.

Meanwhile the NFL, along with the Super Bowl and Monday Night Football became an important aspect of American life.  It was thought that a new era of co-operation between labor and football was on the rise but there were more problems to come.

Part 2  The Era of the Player/Management Split

For most of football’s beginning years the idea that sports professionals would form into unions was inconceivable to many.  Today it is clear that Unions are highly important to professional football and baseball players alike.  The forming of unions in so many walks of American life and their increasing power in society brought football players to the same conclusion millions of other working Americans came to: unions strengthened a worker’s rights and provided a buffer against the rampant financial interests of owners, whether they be factories or baseball franchises.

Currently NFL players are members of the National Football League Players Association (NFLPA).  The main duty of this organization is to help construct the Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA), which sets the minimum contract for NFL players.  The association also helps to negotiate individual player contracts.  The association has been up and working since 1993 and has been integral in the player’s negotiations with team management.  It is also important to note that since its creation there has not been a full-out strike since the 1987 season, “which is much longer than Major League Baseball, the NBA or the NHL.”[9]

With such a track record it is safe to say that unions are here to stay although it did not always look as though that would be the case.  Despite the positive outlook, after the NFL’s consolidation, some analysts predicted that there would be growing trouble between the franchises and their players.  Their predictions largely proved to be correct.  Gould and Staudohar claim that “This view was myopic”, and that in fact, “The mid- 1970s saw the emergence of arm’s-length bargaining and the resulting collective bargaining agreements in the major sports.  []  Despite progress toward resolving some long-standing disputes, the true character of player/ management splits was just being revealed.”[10]

Before the seventies there had been little leeway made in player negotiations on issues such as pension funds and insurance coverage.  The first league wide strike would occur in 1968 and would be formed on these very issues.  As the situation reached never-before-seen levels of intensity, the players refused to show up for pre-season practices.  Managers responded with a lockout.  Eventually the players came back to the field after having gained almost nothing.  Yet this strike would set the stage for those to come in 1974, 1982 and 1987.

For the last forty years changes in areas such as free agency rules and salary levels have largely been fought using anti-trust law.  Some analysts claim that, in fact, there are more anti-trust issues within professional sports cases than in many other industries.[11]  Scremin claims that, “As a result of antitrust litigation, professional sport leagues and teams had to abandon or at least modify rules and policies governing their businesses. This is a trend with no signs of slowing down.”[12]  Yet, despite headway made in various cases involving anti-trust measures, the 1977 and 1982 NFL collective bargaining agreements are “two of the least effective agreements in professional sports on the issue of player mobility.”[13]

It was during the 1982 strike that players gained the greatest ground in their battle with owners.  After a 57 day strike and a nine game season the Players Association won big concessions including a considerable raise in pay and the right to copies of individual contracts.[14]  Yet, issues such as free agency, pensions and severance pay remained on the bargaining table.

The 1987 strike was a continuation of the demands of 1982 but this time around the player’s union was badly organized and many were reluctant to go on strike in the first place.[15]  The end result was that the players lost their check off privelege, in addition to be replaced by aspiring NFL players for a time.  Staudohar claims that, “By striking when so many players preferred not to, the union may have harmed itself.”[16]

The strike of 1987 would be the beginning of a bitter relationship between the NFL Players Association and the NFL Commission.  The end result was that playing went on for six years without a labor deal and with considerable distrust between Gene Upshaw, head of the Players Association and Paul Tagliabue, Commissioner for the NFL.[17]

By 1993 both sides were ready to talk and the end result was the granting of unrestricted free-agency rights for the players and a salary cap for the owners.  Fisher claims that, “The trade gave each side a key concession it had sought for years, but also tied them together at the hip. Veteran players finally could take full charge of their careers and maximize their incomes, but only within the overall limits set by the salary cap, which in turn reflects league revenues.”[18]

Since then the contract has been re-signed with ease four times since 1993.  Currently the CBA covers areas such as the minimum salary for the league, the salary cap, the annual collegiate draft, and free agency rules.[19]  In May of 2006 the CBA was negotiated again with a salary cap of 94.5 million, 56.5% of football revenue to the players association and free agency for the players.  The talks were complicated by the talks around revenue-sharing policies of the owners.[20]

Conclusion

Labor relations within American football was largely put on hold for the first half of the century.  Struggles between the NFL and various aspiring football leagues such as the AFL took precedence over the creation of player’s unions.  It wasn’t until the second half of the century that the NFL would have to come face to face with player demands backed by an ever-strong NFLPA.  While the union suffered a set back in the 1987 strike by 1993 it had negotiated an essential issue for its players, free-agency.  Throughout the past forty years player’s unions have consistently fought against anti-trust measures and have to a great extent come out on top.  We can only wait to see what the future holds for them.

Works Cited

“Collective Bargaining Agreement Between the NFL Management Council and the NFL Player’s Association.”  March 8. 2006,  nflpa.org

Fisher, Eric.  “MLB Can Learn from the NFL: The Game Would Benefit If Owners/players Emulated Their Football Counterparts.”  Insight on the News  January 7. 2002,  32-34.

Forbes, Gordon.  “82 strike changed salary dealings forever.”  USA Today  August 6. 2001,  http://www.usatoday.com/sports/comment/forbes/2001-06-08-forbes.htm

Gould, William, B and Staudohar, Paul, D.  Labor Relations in Professional Sports.  Dover: Auburn House,  1986.

“NFL sets paid attendance record.”  NFL News  April 13. 2007,  http://www.nfl.com/news/story/9908132

Scremin, Glaucio.  “Impact of Antitrust Laws on American Professional Team Sports.”

United States Sports Academy: The Sports Journal  2005, http://www.thesportjournal.org/2005Journal/Vol8-No1/SCJ_04_antitrust.asp

Staudohar, Paul, D.  “The Football Strike of 1987: A Question of Free Agency.”  Monthly Labor Review  111 (1988):  26-35.

Weisman, Larry.  “NFL labor talks stall, free agency postponed again.”  USA TODAY  May 3.  2006,    http://www.usatoday.com/sports/football/nfl/2006-03-05-labor-talks_x.htm

[1] Gould, William, B and Staudohar, Paul, D.  Labor Relations in Professional Sports.  Dover: Auburn House,  1986: 88.

[2] Gould and Staudohar, 89
[3] Gould and Staudohar, 89
[4] 91
[5] Gould and Staudohar, 92
[6] “NFL sets paid attendance record.”  NFL News  April 13. 2007,  http://www.nfl.com/news/story/9908132
[7] Gould and Staudohar, 93
[8] Gould and Staudohar, 94.
[9] “NFL sets paid attendance record.”  NFL News  April 13. 2007,  http://www.nfl.com/news/story/9908132
[10] Gould and Staudahar, 2.
[11] Scremin, Glaucio.  “Impact of Antitrust Laws on American Professional Team Sports.”

United States Sports Academy: The Sports Journal  2005
[12] Scremin.
[13] Gould and Staudohar, 109.
[14] Forbes, Gordon.  “82 strike changed salary dealings forever.”  USA Today  Aug 6. 2001,  http://www.usatoday.com/sports/comment/forbes/2001-06-08-forbes.htm
[15] Staudohar, Paul, D.  “The Football Strike of 1987: A Question of Free Agency.”  Monthly Labor Review  111 (1988): 26
[16] Staudohar, 26
[17] Fisher, Eric.  “MLB Can Learn from the NFL: The Game Would Benefit If Owners/players Emulated Their Football Counterparts.”  Insight on the News  Jan 7. 2002: 33
[18] Fisher, 34
[19] “Collective Bargaining Agreement Between the NFL Management Council and the NFL Player’s Association.”  March 8. 2006,  nflpa.org
[20] Weisman, Larry.  “NFL labor talks stall, free agency postponed again.”  USA TODAY  May 3.  2006,    http://www.usatoday.com/sports/football/nfl/2006-03-05-labor-talks_x.htm

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Association Football and Soccer

In this soccer essay we will discuss soccer. Soccer (also called football) is the most popular kind of sports in the world. It is more than 2000 years old. Other sources say it is more than 3000 years old. The earliest forms of soccer existed in 1004 B. C. in Japan and in 50 B. C. in China. Japanese kicked a small round ball. Chinese filled heir leather ball with hair. It is known that Romans played a game that was similar to soccer. However, English Kings and Queens did not favor the game. In the UK, it was forbidden for many centuries until the beginning of the 19th century.

Soccer essayIn such articles as this one, you must offer all basic information about the subject, explain the rules if it is a game and look back into history of the subject. However, it is not enough to write a good paper. You need to know the rules of writing such papers. Our online service can help you with your writing and provide you with essays of the highest quality. Like every game, soccer has rules. Now, in the soccer essay, we will discuss the rules. The game is played by two teams in a big field covered with grass. Each team consists of eleven players.

Their object is to score the ball into the opponent’s goal. The rules are not difficult. The main rule states that it is forbidden to touch the ball with hands or arms (only the goalie can do it, he defends the goal). Also, players of different teams must not push or hit each other. The game is judged by the referee. There are goals at the opposite ends of the soccer field. The field has a goal box and a penalty box. Soccer players’ uniform consists of team jersey, shorts, socks, cleats, and shin guards. Every team has uniforms of different colors.

Usually, the colors represent the country they play for. The World Cup is the most famous soccer championship. It is held every four years. Teams from many countries of the world compete with each other, and millions of people around the world watch the game on television at that time. It is a very competitive kind of sports that is why it is interesting to watch it. Soccer is popular with children as well. Boys around the world play soccer at their free time. This game is healthy because it involves much running. Nonetheless, it causes traumas sometimes.

Soccer has simple rules; however, it is a difficult game. It is a highly strategic game that requires logical thinking, quick reaction and endurance as it is necessary to run without a rest for a long time. Players have different roles in the team. There are forwards who attack and score goals. There are defenders who help to defend the goal. The goalkeeper can touch the ball inside the goalie’s box. In this soccer essay, we discussed the game of soccer, presented basic information about it and explained its rules. Also, we considered the history of this most popular game in the world.

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What Is the Best Way of Explaining Football Hooliganism?

What is the best way of explaining football hooliganism? “Serious sport has nothing to do with fair play. It is bound up with hatred, jealousy, boastfulness, disregard of all rules and sadistic pleasure in witnessing violence. In other words: it is war minus the shooting. ” (Oswell, 1945) The best way to explain football hooliganism is to perceive it in the same context as war. Like war, football hooliganism has different factors that all contribute to the overall goal.

Although the goal of each is initially considered as overtly different – war, to some, is demonstrated as a positive thing, especially within the social movement of futurism, while football hooliganism is, as a whole, a negative as portrayed mostly by the media – there are however, similarities among the two that have yet to be further explored. To demonstrate this I will gain further insight into, what I believe are, the similarities of war and football hooliganism. I will do this by studying and explaining the three main attributes of each, which are; Territory, masculinity, and the moral codes each social group follows.

With territory I will compare how the two groups defend and protect their ‘homelands’ and how they achieve a sense of pride by claiming someone else’s land. Although they conduct this in different ways, I will hopefully be able to present how similar their process of achieving this are. Through the study of masculinity, I will explore the symbolic meaning that each present, in order to achieve a high status of being a ‘real man’. How they vilify their rivals is also studied, in order to make them feel less worthy or ‘manly’, including how fashion and uniform play an important role.

Before concluding my findings, I will explore how moral codes set internal ‘laws’ within each social group, to which each must abide in their realms of fighting, focusing specifically on the rule that non-combatants or ‘civilians’ are not to be harmed during combat, and how each group distinguishes combatants and civilians from one another. I will support my claims by using my own methodological research – in which I interviewed an anonymous football hooligan, who we will name as ‘Darren’ – I will also use Anthony Kings’ The post-modernity of football hooliganism (1997) journal article, T. W.

Reesers Masculinities in theory: An introduction, and Michael Byers’ Understanding international law and armed conflict – War Law (2005). By using the various sources, as said above, I hope to be able to support my claim that football hooliganism can be explained in the same context as war, through three important components – Territory, masculinity and moral codes – in which I have identified similarities among the two social groups. “… Hooliganism’s central confrontation involved the ‘taking of the ends’, where fans would seek to infiltrate the opponent’s terrace and assert their claim to the space.

This ritualistic combat was hyperbolically described as war (between nations) by many fans, but rarely involved the conquest of a complete terrace. ” (King, 1997) The above quote – taken from Anthony Kings’ article on the post-modernity of football hooliganism – shows us that the idea of hooliganism has similarities with the concept of war. This is not only shown through my own evidence, but also by football hooligans themselves. During colonisation, the British army would claim other territories in different countries and claim them as part of Britain.

They would do this by capturing towns and cities, and forcing the surrender of the national people. The ultimate aim was to protect Britain and also show the world that we were a strong, independent country, with a powerful army, that could take over other nations with ease. Today, war is conducted differently. Colonisation is a thing of the past, instead of taking over and claiming other nations, the British army demonstrate their presence in other countries, and set up base camps within foreign towns as their own to claim these as part of their territory.

Football hooligans use a technique similar to that of the colonisation period. On a match day, hooligans will show their strength and power by attempting to claim something of the oppositions. This varies from terraces to pubs, and sometimes to streets. During my interview with ‘Darren’, he supported this claim by stating, when asked for an explanation of football hooliganism, “… Just taking liberties, going to other people’s manors, in their pubs, taking over, calling them out, defending our territory, and taking over theirs… ”(Darren, personal interview, Jan 2012).

Most hooligans will confirm that the method of taking ‘enemy’ territory is trashing the place they have ‘captured’. This is significant to the process of claiming territory as it places a mark on the oppositions name, letting them and other ‘firms’ know that they the ability to control, sometimes with the use of specialised stickers with the perpetrators signature (which is usually the clubs emblem and a short message). In terms of similarities with war, when the British army would claim a territory for their own, they would mark it with the union jack flag, showing that they were now ‘in charge’ so to speak.

As shown above, in terms of territory, we can see the similarities between war and football hooliganism through the way in which they both mark their territory and set about claiming oppositions territory. Within both social groups, soldiers and hooligans both have the belief that they are fighting for something, a higher being than themselves: for soldiers it is for Queen and country; for hooligans it is for their team and local area. They both organise, plan and prepare for the execution of their actions, both knowing the risks of their actions, and are willing to take the risks to fight for what they believe is the ultimate cause.

According to T. W. Reeser (2010), one way in which to view masculinity is to look at it as an ideology, instead of an individualised creation. Observing masculinity within this context allows us to see various concepts of masculinity within different institutions and groups. This theory can work on many levels and can be associated with many institutions such as the army, sports and the business world. If we view the ideology of masculinity within the army, it shows us that the state needs the army to present themselves as the best they can be, an example being the army’s slogan – ‘army, be the best’.

The way in which soldiers are disciplined and taught how to present themselves is all part of their training in masculinity. As a soldier, the uniform is what sets you apart from the public. It is the symbolic meaning of the uniform and weapon that a soldier possesses that is important in showing others their ideology of masculinity. When we, as the public, see a male soldier, in camouflage uniform holding a gun, we instantly see what is meant to be a ‘real man’. The uniform, particularly honorary medals, shows us that the person has served his country and fought against others in battle.

The uniform represents the country that the soldier is fighting for and the gun is his weapon that he uses against the opposition, to disarm and hurt them. They affirm their masculinity through organised and planned attacks, when they succeed in disarming the opposition, or a bullet that reaches its target, is a soldiers way of removing the oppositions masculinity and building on their own. Football hooligans follow the same ideology of masculinity that soldiers do. They learn from their peers how to behave and act, and have a ‘uniform’ to abide by, which, like soldiers, is a symbol of their masculinity.

The uniform football hooligans wear is not as much a statement of authority, but a statement of fashion. The uniform is known as the ‘casual look’, which involves wearing top brand names of polo t-shirts, jumpers, jeans and trainers, and in some cases what is known as the goggle coat, a coat which disguises your face but allows the hooligan to see through a pair of inbuilt goggles. They use this uniform to tell each other apart, a way of knowing who is there to fight and who is not. “The casual look, its a way of telling people apart, you know who is who. (Darren, personal interview, Jan 2012) Darren supports this in the above quote. The casual look is a uniform which symbolises their masculinity to others around them. As soldiers will use their guns as another sign of masculinity and to vilify their opponents, hooligans instead will use their chants and songs. The chants and songs are specifically created to vilify their rivals, and mostly speak of the opposition as being sexually perverse, diminutive phallic references and mocking their sexual performance.

This is supported by Anthony King in his article on the post-modernity of football hooliganism. “Through the support of a football team, the male fan affirms his status as a man (in the eyes of his peers and himself) and also articulates the nature of that manhood. A central practice in the re- constitution of manhood in football is the communal chanting in which fans participate. Through these songs, male fans re-affirm and re-negotiate the partially sub-conscious idea of their masculinity. ” (King, 1997)

In terms of masculinity within the army and football hooliganism, we can see that the similarities are, the way each uses a uniform and weapon as a symbol of their masculinity. Although the uniform and weapons are different, the way each presents themselves within their uniform and the way they use their weapon to vilify and remove their rivals masculinity is similar. It is a way in which each know who their rivals are. Which also links in with the moral codes that each social group abides by. Any armed conflict involves two broad categories of individuals: Combatants and non-combatants (who are also referred to as civilians). International humanitarian law protects both categories of person, though non-combatants are shield more than those who take up arms” (Byers, 2005) In the above quote, Michael Byers explains the humanitarian law that armies around the world are expected to follow. The British army abide by these and use them as a moral code as well as a law. The harming of civilians is prohibited, and only other combatants can be return fired at.

As said in terms of masculinity, the army uses uniforms and weapons as a means of telling combatants and non-combatants apart. The harming of an innocent civilian can prompt an official prosecution of the soldier who open fired, unless there is reasonable evidence to claim that they believed the individual was in fact a combatant. Football hooligans also follow a strict moral code similar to that of the army. Football hooligans distinguish each other through the clothes they wear and the chants they use.

It is an unspoken rule that if someone is not part of the hooligan culture then they cannot be harmed or made to participate in the battles that take place. This is shown in a quote from Darren’s interview “The casual look, its a way of telling people apart, you know who is who – We don’t just kick the f**k out of a random person, only people who want to have a row back. ”(Darren, personal interview, Jan 2012) This sets football hooliganism apart from just random street fights. With the presence of moral codes, we can see that football hooliganism is more developed and strategically balanced then first thought.

It is not simply about fighting like primitive men in the streets, but about the preparation and planning that surround it, the certainty that where you are going will not be surrounded by civilians who do not want to be part of this culture. The consequences of a civilian being harmed is most likely the shame that will be burdened upon you by your peers, and in some cases, ‘taught a lesson’ in that you will be expected to receive punishment through violence by your peers who are ranked more superior then you.

Continuing on the theme of similarities, the humanitarian laws and moral codes that both social groups follow is similar in the way that each are expected to abide by rules that prevent them from harming civilians who are not involved in their particular conflict. The consequences of their actions, should they breach this, is the prosecution of themselves through court marshals and/or violent punishment from their superiors. As presented above, we can see that war and football hooliganism have various similarities.

This shows us that we can explain football hooliganism in terms of war using three attributes; Territory, masculinity and the humanitarian law/ moral codes that both must abide by. Although the ultimate goal can be seen as directly different, it is the way in which both of these social groups plan and participate in their battles. The taking of territory and confirming their presence is similar in that both mark the territory claimed with the use of a flag or sticker.

The uniform and weapon is symbolic for both, in the way it presents and confirms their masculinity, whilst causing a negative impact on their oppositions masculinity. When fighting, both will abide by the same rules that civilians are not to be harmed in any way, or face the consequences of going against these rules, which involves being persecuted by others superior than themselves. Although soldiers fighting in wars are labeled as passionate heroes, whilst football hooligans are vilified as thugs, we can notice the similarities of the two social groups when placed in the context of war.

The addictive adrenaline buzz associated with each group during battle is what spurs them on, gives them the power to keep fighting, and is what keeps them going back for more. ‘Darren’ describes this buzz as “Better than sex. ” (Darren, personal interview, Jan 2012) Throughout this essay, masculinity has made a continuous appearance, in some cases it is more disguised, but still apparent. This shows us that masculinity, and proving they have an adequately sized manhood, is the real connection behind war and football hooliganism.

Overall, the best way to explain football hooliganism is in the same context as war through territory, humanitarian law/ moral codes and of course, masculinity. BIBLIOGRAPHY Byers, M (2005). War Law: Understanding international law and armed conflict. London: Atlantic books. p. 9. King, A. (Dec 1997). The Postmodernity of Football Hooliganism. The British Journal of Sociology. 48 (4), p. 576-593. Orwell, G (1945). The Sporting Spirit. London: Tribune. Reeser, T. W (2010). Masculinities in theory: An introduction. London: Blackwell Publishing. Chapter 1.

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Is Money Ruining Football Essay

Is money ruining football? One of the most talked about topics in football. Some fans think that it is a wonderful thing, a dream come true however others seem to disagree. Is all of this money in modern day football ruining it? From all this money football seems to become a victim of its own success. One main part of this money being in football is due to a lot of clubs having foreign ownership.

It all came about in 2003 when Roman Abramovich bought Chelsea FC and since then he has put in hundreds-upon-hundreds of millions of his own money into the club Chelsea have since won nine major trophies including three Premier League titles and most recently the UEFA Champions League. Proof that wealth can indeed buy honours in the world of football. Since then half of the 20 Premier League clubs are now owned by foreigner investors. Those clubs are: Arsenal, Aston Villa, Chelsea, Fulham, Liverpool, Manchester City, Manchester United, QPR, Reading, Southampton and Sunderland.

Perhaps the most spectacular of them all is politician and member of the ruling family of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan of Manchester City. Since he has bought the club in 2008 he has spent over ? 425 of his own money to buy first team players for the club. The highest fee that has ever been paid for a footballer is ? 80 million for Cristiano Ronaldo from Manchester United to Real Madrid, this is a major difference to what the highest fee in 1928 the highest amount paid for a player was ? 10,000.

The maximum wage has was also only ? 12 a week and players got a ? 650 bonus if they stayed at the club for 5 years whereas nowadays the most paid players is on ? 250,000 pound a week. This colossal money being spent to attract a footballer to a club doesn’t necessarily mean that the player is any better than another; it purely is just saying that the club has more money than the others. This is having a negative effect on football as now players are playing for the money and now not the club that they are playing for.

It is also very unfair on competition in the same league meaning the richer team has an advantage as they can pay crazy amounts to get a player but a lower team can spend very little meaning the competition on less competitive. So if your club has more money it then attracts players who are better known where less known clubs have to settle on lower wages meaning that the players that they buy will be on a much less wage than those of a higher team. One big problem hat money has is the risk of the football club going bust. The most recognisable of those clubs currently in major financial trouble is former Premier League club Portsmouth, now of League One. The club is currently in administration and runs the risk of being non existant. This has come from the club overspending on players and the wages the players been given far too much than what they realistically should be on. Last season Premier League clubs shared a staggering ? 68 million in television revenue, if the Premier League were to introduce a ‘safety pot’ of money (? 9. 68 million) for football league and Conference clubs so that in severe cases clubs can apply for grants to stop them going into administration/save clubs from going bust. Having an owner with millions to spend isn’t always as good as it sounds since it runs the risk of your club vanishing forever. One of the major things though is the rise in ticket prices.

Football used to be called the working class sport but now it is an expensive pastime and something that the average working class man struggles to afford. This is shown at St. James’ Park when in 1992/9 3 you were able to get an adult season ticket for around ? 122 but nowadays the average season ticket is around ? 500 which shows how expensive football is now getting and that in 20 years there has been a 150 percent rise in prices.

It seems that football is now slowly changing from a working class sport to a sport for those who are wealthier. The only solution to stop money from continuing to ruin football is by Uefa the governing body of football to try and do something about it by introducing salary caps or by putting in place transfer caps so only certain amounts of money can be spent in the transfer market and this would have an effect on agent fees, sponsorship and TV deals which would then ticket prices could be lowered and that clubs could still turn a profit.

Another thing is putting a limit on how many foreign players you can have in your team which would mean more home-grown players would be in the team and then less wages would be spent and transfer prices to attract players from overseas and this would mean teams would need to spend more money on youth academies rather than looking all over the world for players to spend ridiculous amounts of money on. Football is no longer turning into a sport, it is a business that is now worth millions and millions of pounds and this is taking the game to its knees. By Reece Paterson.

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Two Professional Athletes of Nfl Football

Two Professional Athletes Emmitt Smith and Jerry Rice both played College and NFL football, but for different Teams and they played different positions. They were the greatest football players in there Time when they were playing. Emmitt Smith also played football in high school and shined on the field there as well. He played football for Escambia High School in Pensacola, Florida. Escambia won the state Football championship, and Emmitt rushed for 106 touchdowns and 8,804 yards, which was the Second most yardage in the history of American high school football at the time.

Emmitt rushed For over 100 yards in 45 of the 49 games he started for Escambia (including the last 28 in a row) Where he finished with a 7. 8 yards per carry average. Twice, he broke the 2,000 yard rushing mark in a Season. Emmitt was named the USA Today and Parade magazine high school player of the year For 1986. In 2007 twenty years after Emmitt had graduated from high school, the Florida High School Athletic Association named Emmitt to its “All-Century Team,” recognizing him as one of the 33 greatest Florida high school football players of the last 100 years.

As part of its “100 Years of Florida High School Football” awards ceremony, Florida High School Athletic Association Named Emmitt as its “Player of the Century. ” Emmitt Smith played College football for the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida Where he played for the Florida Gators from 1987 to 1989. He was picked by the Dallas Cowboys In the NFL Draft in 1990 round 1 pick 17. He retired from playing football in 2004. His position on The field when he played was running back. He played with Dallas Cowboys from (1990 to 2002), Then he went to play for the Arizona Cardinals from (2003 to 2004).

He played NFL football for Fifteen seasons. Was considered the greatest running back in the NFL. With other team members Led his team to three Super Bowl Championships during the 1990s. While he played college football he shined on the field there as well. In his first full game, Emmitt promptly broke Florida’s 40-year- old all time single game rushing record, carrying 39 times For 224 yards and 2 touchdowns as the Gators upset the Crimson Tide. Emmitt went on to break The 1,000-yard barrier in the seventh game of his freshman season, the fastest any running back had Ever broken the barrier to begin his college career.

He finished the 1987 season with 1,341 yards and Was named Southeastern Conference and National Freshman of the Year. He also finished 9th in that Year’s Heisman voting. In 1989 he finished his junior season with Florida records for rushing yards in A season with (1,599), rushing yards in a single game (316 versus New Mexico in 1989) longest rushing Play (96 yards against Mississippi State in 1988), career rushing yards (3,928), and career rushing Touchdowns of (36) among many others.

In all Emmitt owned 58 school records at the conclusion of His Florida career. At the conclusion of his junior season in 1989 Emmitt was named a first-team SEC Selection for the third year and SEC Player of the Year, was a unanimous first-team All-American, and Finished seventh in the Heisman Trophy balloting. His senior year Emmitt decided to forego his senior Year at Florida and entered the NFL draft.

Emmitt was inducted into the University of Florida Athletic Hall of Fame as a “Gator Great” in 1999, the Gator Football Ring of Honor in 2006. Was inducted in the Pro-Football Hall of Fame in (2010). He holds many NFL records for rushing. NFL record for career rushing yards (18,355), NFL record for career rushing touchdowns (164), NFL Record for career 100- yard rushing games (78). He attempted (4,409), had receiving yards of (3,224), Touchdown receptions of (11), he had (515) receptions in his career.

He played in 8 pro bowls from (1990 to 1999), 6 all pro games (1991 to 1995), 4 times NFL rushing leader (1991 to 1995), 3 time Super Bowl Champion (XXVII, XXVIII, XXX ), NFL 1990s all-decade team, ap NFL MVP (1993), NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year (1990), Super Bowl MVP (XXVIII), NEA NFL MVP (1991, 1992), PFWA NFL MVP (1993), Dallas Cowboys Ring of Honor, Bert Bell Award (1993), Gator Football Ring of Honor University of Florida Athletic Hall of Fame, Unanimous first-team All-American (1989). Jerry also played football for the high school football team of Starkville, Mississippi.

He Outshined on the high school football field as well. Jerry Rice played college football for Mississippi Valley State University from 1980 to 1984. While on the football field playing college football his statistics from his college years are sparse. The College Football Hall of Fame website claims that Jerry, as a sophomore in 1982, caught (66) Passes for (1,133) yards and (7) touchdowns. That was all achieved in his first season. He also had a Record-setting 1983 campaign including NCAA marks for receptions (102) and receiving yards(1,450) He was named first-team Division I-AA All-America.

He also set a single-game NCAA record for Catching 24 passes against Southern University. In 1985 the San Francisco 49er’s drafted Jerry in the 1985 NFL Draft round 1 pick 16. He retired in 2005. His position when he played on the field was wide receiver. He played with the San Francisco 49er’s from (1985 to 2000), he then went and played for the Oakland Raiders from (2001 to 2004), Then he went to play for the Seattle Seahawks for 1 season in (2004), after that season he went To the Denver Broncos and was on the team rooster for the season of (2005). *offseason and he was a practice squad member only. He played NFL football for a career spanning two decades. Was considered the greatest wide Receiver in the NFL. With other team members led his team to 2 super bowls for the San Francisco 49er’s, and then 1 super bowl for the Oakland Raiders. Was inducted in the Pro-Football Hall of Fame in (2010). Received many awards while playing For the NFL. Rated #1 NFL player of all-time by NFL. com, 2 times AP NFL Offensive player of the year (1987, 1993), 3 time NFC Offensive player of the Year (1986, 1987).

Played in 13 Pro bowls from (1986 to 2002). 12 times all-pro selection (1986 to 2002), 3 times Super Bowl Champion (XXIII, XXIV, XXIX). Pro Bowl MVP (1996), Super Bowl MVP (XXIII), PFWA MVP (1988), UPI NFC Player of the Year (1988), UPI NFI-NFC Rookie of the Year (1985), Bert Bell Award (1987), NFL 75th Anniversary All-Time Team, NFL 1980s All-Decade Team, NFL 1990s All Decade Team, He also holds many NFL records. He had a total Receptions of (1,549), Receiving yards of (22,895) he has total touchdowns of (208), and has total points Scored of (1,256).

As you can see these two football players where the greatest players of all time when they got On the football field to play. They out-shined many other football players on the same team as they Played for. They were exceptional players when they were at there prime. They were both inducted In the Pro-Football Hall of Fame in (2010). They were both inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in (2006). The difference between the two is that one was a running back, and the other was a Wide receiver.

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Football Factory Blog

Not Just A Sport In the novel “Football Factory” written by John King, we follow a group of Chelsea hooligans in the present England. I think of this novel as an extremely realistic and kind of frightening novel. Together, we follow the main character’s life as a football hooligan. The life of the main character is filled with violence, alcohol and sex, in which his lovely friends accompany him. Through the novel we are bound to listen to his friends’ nasty thoughts and actions. At some point in the novel the main character and the boys watches the film Clockwork Orange, as they have done so many times before.

The Clockwork Orange is basically just a couple of guys giving beatings and rapes women for the fun of it. This makes me think of Football Factory of an updated version of Clockwork orange, just not to the same extent. In the novel we don’t have the “normal” narrative-style. We don’t see a real plot in the novel as such. It’s more like a story going on and on about his life without a greater meaning. One thing in particular I liked about this novel was the fight scenes. At these points in the novel, I would enjoy reading it.

I would suddenly become interested and I would read at a fast pace due to the great and realistic writing. When there were no fighting I would keep losing track and get distracted. Our main character starts questioning himself and his own actions while he is being formed into a somewhat reasonable man. He starts believing he isn’t on the right path. Personally I wouldn’t recommend this novel to any of my friends, as I don’t think they would be interested, since the narrative style is far from usual. Otherwise, an interesting novel.

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Wembley vs Emirates Football Stadiums

Construction of Wembley stadium was supposed to be completed by May 2006, but completed in March 2007. There were several controversial between client, contractor, sub contractor, designer etc. and some cases end up in the court. The causes for these controversial were identified mainly due to adversarial contracts, unreasonable risk allocation, cash-flow problems, design changes, poor performance, poor site management and litigations.

Several reasons were adduced for the successful delivery of the Emirates football stadium but the most overarching and notable of the reasons was the effective and selective supply chain created by the main contractor (Exceptional Performer, 2007). In both case studies one can clearly see good and bad practices demonstrated. While both cased had the same procurement routes, with only slight modifications to allow client to have greater input in design, they both had different outcomes. In all respects the Emirates Stadium is surely the winner as the most successfully executed project of the two.

In both cases there were many challenges as well but it is how they were met with that determined their fate. The Wembley Stadium case was clearly a disaster in planning, financing and execution. This may be attributed to the lack of knowledge and experience on the part of the contractor, Mutliplex about the UK construction industry, which is why they possibly formed a consortium with Bovis in the beginning. Due to lack of a firm establishment in the UK industry, Multiplex was faced with much distrust from locally well established firms.

The fact that so many disputes arose in terms of payments and court proceedings did not help much either. The Emirates Stadium on the other hand was a perfect example of best practice. They incorporated sustainability, collaborative working, and effective and selective supply chain management. The supply chain was a crucial ingredient that Sir Robert McAlpine had established through experience in the UK industry while working with various subcontractors and forming strong ties with them. This strong ties and trust between contractor and subcontractors was lacking in the Wembley case.

However, contractors alone are not to bare the blame the construction clients have a role in the success of a project as well. In the Wembley case the construction client mismanaged money by expending too much in investigations and reviews. They also pointlessly hired management consultants and did not heed their advice. Therefore, the client’s attitude towards contractor selection is imperative and can lead to project failure if not done properly. This was the case in the Wembley Stadium where the Australian contractor was rushed into agreement.

In the end collaborative working and an effective supply chain coupled with a proper decision making client are vital ingredients for a project to be executed effectively and efficiently. From the literature review found that, projects suited to GMP had the following characteristics; • Cost certainty was a primary objective • Time was a primary objective • The scope was fully defined • The project was simple • It was a development project • The parties had previous experience in GMP contracts • There was a good team based relationship between the parties • The personalities were appropriate (fair, reasonable and empathetic)

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Essay Football vs Rugby

Ricardo Pardey ID 596397911 Second Essay February 15, 2013 Football Vs. Rugby When I was a senior in high school, I played on my school’s rugby team. It was really excite and funny while I played almost all weekend even though it is not popular in Colombia. But then when I came to the United States, it catch my attention that everybody likes and watches Football and it made me contrast these two aggressive sports Rugby and Football. These two sports are almost the same, for example the object of both games is score points by carrying the ball beyond the possessive touchline and the ball has a prolonged spheroid shape.

Even though they are similar in some aspects, the first big difference is related with the source. Rugby proceeds from England and Football from the USA. Because of their foundation, many small differences have been created that show the importance of the characteristics of the society and their impact on sports. First started with Football, this sport was created in the United State, which impacted the characteristics of the game. The major league of this sport is called the National Football League (NFL), and the major tournament is the Super Bowl.

The rules of the game are; the game is formed by four 15-minute quarters with a half-time intermission, which shows that in the American mindset, it is better a lot of short times than a few very long halves. The field must had 120 yards long by 53. 3 yards wide, based on the measuring system used there. The ball is a prolonged spheroid, which is about 11 inches long and 22 inches in circumference and it, weight around 0. 875 lbs, to make the balloon aerodynamic so that it can travel longs distances. Each competitor must use helmets and padding during the game.

The name of the things change, for example when you made a goal in Rugby it is called Try and in Football, touch down. Showing that the team can make unlimited substitution in each game but always having 11 players on the field, showing that in America the people believe that when anything stop working a hundred percent, it must be replaced by new ones One of the huge differences between Rugby and Football is that the number of substitutions that can be done by the coach in each game thanks to English cultural influence is 7.

The other high-contact sport is Rugby, which was created in England. The major Tournament is the World Cup (Rugby Union) and the most known League is the Super 15; but there are a lot of leagues all over the world, among them are Aviva Prem, top 14, and in an international level NSW suburb rugby; Showing that the people play this sport all over the world not like Football, which is played only in a part of North America. The rules of this sport state that the ball must have the international 5 size, that means 27 cm long and 60 cm in circumference with a weigh around 1lb.

The fields have 120 meters long by 70 meters wide according to the metric system. On the field there must be situated only 15 players. They play two halves of 40 minutes with a ten-minute half time. The additional difference is the size of the player, as they don’t use helmets or any other equipment except a mouth guard. They have wider backs, being the thinnest player just 81kg and the heaviest 201. 7kg. The name of a goal is Trying and after made a point one player kicks the ball between the goal posts to win more points.

After seeing the specific characteristic of both sport and the reason why they have these differences, to summarize, Rugby and American Football are two sports with intense physical aggression and the same goal: carrying the ball beyond the opponents touch line and kicking the ball between the goal post after they make the point. Even though they are parallel in some aspects; there are differences based on the source, such as the size of the ball, the field and the players, the length of the game and the number of substitutions permitted per team.

In my personal experience, the place where the sport is created has a huge relation with the characteristics of the game. Because for example as football was created in the US the people over there like it because it is according to their characteristics; however, in the opposite side if a sport was created in a different country and the people want to play it, they will face some things can be consider whether not loved and strange, since recreation with Rugby in Colombia is not popular.

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Football Accident

Period 5 11/1/12 Unthinkable When I look at my life, and I think about the hardest things for me to overcome, I would have to say, the ultimate being, telling my mother and father that I would be sitting out of football my senior year of high school. Most would say how could this possibly be something that you would find challenging, but then you don’t know my mother and father. I started playing sports, football, in particular, at the age of 7. I was kind of a chunky little kid, even had a funny gait when I ran, but you couldn’t tell that if you talked to my parents. To my mom and dad, I was a superstar.

I started playing flag football through the YMCA program, and then moved up to Pop Warner. Here’s the crazy part. My mom or dad came to every practice, and every game, rain or shine. I think I was the only kid that knew one of my parents would be on the sidelines, whether at practice or a game. Now to be honest, those were tough years for me, as most times, my parents would be watching me sitting on the bench, because I did not get to play very often. During those years, I put on a brave face and never let my parents know how embarrassed I was and how I felt I let them down.

The crazy part was, when my parents met with other player’s parents, they talked about me like I was the star of the team, never made me feel bad for not playing in a game. Again, come rain or shine, they were always there for me. Those were tough years for me. Every coach found a reason why I just wasn’t ready to be a starting player. Then something really incredible happened during my 7th grade year. This didn’t start off incredible, in fact, it was quite humiliating. Everyone that wanted to try out for the 7th grade football team met after school one day.

Here were all the players and parents that I had been playing with for the last six years, and as the kid that sat on the bench most of the time, you can imagine, I was the odd man out. All these parents bragging about their own kids, the great plays, the touchdowns, but there stood my mom and dad, proud as ever. They were with their superstar. As the three of us stood there together, my father later told me that it was one of the most intimidating days he’d had in a long time, looking at the parents of the kids that got to play. My mother told me to do the best I could do, and my day would come.

My dad always said because he wasn’t a coach or assistant coach on these teams, I didn’t get a fair chance, but in my heart, I just didn’t think I was a great player. Good, yes, but not great. Tryouts came and went, and once again, I assumed I would be a bench warmer. As I said earlier, this turned out to be an incredible year, and something happened that I never expected. Now that I look back, I still have to ask myself, “Did that really happen? ”    All of the kids I played football with throughout the years were, of course, picked for the starting positions.

Some of these very kids have made headlines in the last couple of years, but let’s get back to me. One cold dark evening, my Hedrick team was playing the Talent Bulldogs and one of the kids that normally played the wide receiver position was sick that day. The coach asked me to step in and give it a try. I can’t describe the butterflies in my stomach. My hands and knees shook and my heart began to race. I finally was given a chance and I was terrified. Well, guess what? Not only did I catch the ball and run it in for an 80 touchdown yard touchdown, but I did this game and game again.

After gaining the starting wide receiver position, I gained the starting linebacker position and proved my dominance once again on the field. At the end of the season, I was voted Most Valuable Player for both offense and defense for not only junior varsity but for varsity as well. Now, with that said, you can only imagine my parents. Their son going from a bench player to the number one player on both teams. My parents would run down the sidelines, whooping it up as I ran the ball. They finally had the superstar they’d been waiting for. Over the next few years, my playing improved, and I had moved to high school ball.

Playing varsity for north as a freshman, and just like before, my parents did not miss a practice or game, even if it meant driving a few hundred miles. My parents and especially my dad kept waiting for my next big break, my time to shine. Then in my junior year, I found myself transferred to a new school, tried out and actually made the Varsity football team. My parents were so proud of me, and I was proud of myself. I don’t know who was more excited, me or my parents. My parents were on Cloud Nine, talking about nothing but football and Friday Night Lights.

It was an exciting time of my life. The coach tried me out at Outside Linebacker, because of my speed, strength, and my ability to get around the offensive line. Then the unthinkable happened at practice. I was sent in on a blitz, and hit the offensive lineman with my shoulder. It felt like my arm had been ripped from its socket as I writhed on the ground in pain. The trainers ran over and rushed me to the hospital. I never would have guessed in a million years what a fateful day that would be. My shoulder was completely out of its socket, the tendons and ligaments torn.

The most important year of my life had just been stripped away from me. Not only was surgery required, but months of physical therapy. My orthopedic doctor told me I could no longer play football without risking irreparable damage. I never told my parents this, and the doctor never told them. I kept that dream of Friday night lights in my parent’s hearts until I should have been signing up for football camp. This is when I had to tell them what the doctor said, and there would be no football in my life, no letter, no photos, and no glory. To me, this was the hardest day of my life.

On this day, I knew I was breaking my parent’s hearts. Everything they had looked forward to for my senior year of football was gone. I played the game, but they had lived the sport. Something died this day, maybe just a dream of mine, but it seemed so much more. Like a part of me was left on the field that sad day that I suffered my injury. To this day I day dream of the achievements I could have over came if I had no suffered that injury. Maybe one day when I have kids I will be able to live my football career through my future son… but until that day comes I’m stuck watching in the stands

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Informative Speech About Football

Informative Speeches Informative. jpg An informative speech provides interesting and useful information to the audience. The information is unique and usually not something that the audience would be acquainted with. Objects, processes, events or concepts: Informative speeches can be about objects, processes, events or concepts. This is not a limited list, but a general topic format that most informative speeches tend towards.

The important thing to realize is that no matter which topic format the speech takes on, it can only be an informative speech if it conveys information that is factual, useful, instructive and/or enlightening to the audience. Introduction, body and conclusion: Most informative speeches are formatted with a defined introduction, a body of information and a conclusive ending. Clear, attention grabbing intro: The introduction to informative speeches should always be clear and catch the attention of the listeners.

The introduction should lead up to the body of the speech in such a way that it is immediately grabs the interest of the audience. It should create a clear relation between the speaker and the topic as well as relating the topic or subject to the audience to pull them in and get them excited or interested in what is to come. It should create a clear outline of what is to be covered in the body of the speech and should do so in a clear and concise way to be effective and ensure that the audience is not bored from the start.

Seamless transitions: When delivering informative speeches, the body should provide a smooth transition between the main points, ideas or concepts to convey all of the information effectively. This means that the speaker should, firstly, adhere strictly to the time limits imposed by planning ahead to present all of the information in a coherent manner and in a way that is easy for the audience to absorb and comprehend. The delivery should be natural and conversational; if it isn’t it will allow the audience to lose interest quickly and easily become distracted by the slightest diversion.

The speaker should at all times demonstrate a vibrant enthusiasm or passion for the topic – if he is not enthused by it then there is no way he can expect his audience to be. The speaker should maintain eye contact stringently and progress from one point to another in a way that does not seem forced in any way, but seems to progress naturally without any breaks in momentum. Summarize at the end: When concluding an informative speech, the aim is to try and summarize the key points of the speech to reinforce the information in the minds of the audience.

The conclusion of informative speeches should always be the means by which the speaker informs the audience that the speech is coming to an end, without actually saying so. It should review and repeat the most prominent concepts, ideas or aspects of the speech and should end the speech in the same seamless and natural way that is used throughout the speech. The important thing to note is that the conclusion is a vital part of the speech, and as such it should maintain the attention and interest of the audience until the very end.

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Favorite Sport Football

CONSUMER PREFERENCE AND SATISFACTION TOWARDS VARIOUS CELLPHONE SERVICE PROVIDES CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION CONSUMER A consumer is an individual who purchase or has the capacity to purchase goods and services offered for sale by marketing institutions in order to satisfy personal or household needs,wants or desires. According to a statement made by Mahatma Gandhi, ‘consumer refers to the following, “A consumer is the most important visitor on our premises. He is not dependent on us. We are dependent on him. He is not an outsider to our  business.

He is part of it. We are not doing him a favour by serving him. He is doing us a favour by giving us an opportunity to do so”. So consumer is like the blood of our business and also a satisfedcustomer is a word of mouth advertisement of a product / services. The consumer is the one who pays to consume the goods and services produced. As such, consumers play a vital role in the economic system of a nation. In the absence of effective consumer demand, producers would lack one of the key motivations to produce to sell to consumers.

Typically, when business people and economists talk of consumers, they are talking about the person as consumer, an aggregated commodity item with little individuality other than that expressed in the decision to buy or not to buy. However, there is a trend in marketing to individualize the concept. Instead of generating broad demographic profiles and psycho-graphic profiles of market segments, marketers have started to engage in personalized marketing, permission marketing, and mass customization.

There is increasing backlash from the public over use of the label “consumer” rather than “customer”, with many finding it offensive and derogatory. Consumer choice is a theory of microeconomics that relates preferences for consumption goods and services to consumption expenditures and ultimately to  consumer demand curves. The link between personal preferences, consumption, and the demand curve is one of the most closely studied relations in economics. Consumer choice theory is a way of analyzing how consumers may achieve  equilibrium between preferences and expenditures by maximizing utility as subject to consumer  budget constraints.

Preferences are the desires by each individual for the consumption of goods and services that translate into choices based on income or wealth for purchases of goods and services to be combined with the consumer’s time to define consumption activities. Consumption is separated from production, logically, because two different consumers are involved. In the first case consumption is by the primary individual; in the second case, a producer might make something that he would not consume himself. Therefore, different motivations and abilities are involved.

The  models that make up consumer theory are used to represent prospectively observable demand patterns for an individual buyer on the hypothesis of constrained optimization. Prominent variables used to explain the rate at which the good is purchased (demanded) are the price per unit of that good, prices of related goods, and wealth of the consumer. The fundamental theorem of demand states that the rate of consumption falls as the price of the good rises. This is called the substitution effect.

Clearly if one does not have enough money to pay the price then they cannot buy any of that item. As prices rise, consumers will substitute away from higher priced goods and services, choosing less costly alternatives. Subsequently, as the wealth of the individual rises, demand increases, shifting the demand curve higher at all rates of consumption. This is called the income effect. As wealth rises, consumers will substitute away from less costly inferior goods and services, choosing higher priced alternatives. CONSUMER SATISFACTION

Every human being is a consumer of different produces. If there is no consumer, there is no business. Therefore, consumer satisfaction is  very important to every business person. According to Philip Kotler consumer satisfaction is defined on, “personal feeling of pleasure resulting from comparing a product’s pursued performance in relation to his /her expectations”. Consumer attitude measurements are taken on either potential buries or existing client’s buries in order to identify their characteristics. Why should the competent market engineer conduct consumer research?

Consumer’s surverys can provide the researcher with a wealth of information, valuable of the marketing funchion. Detailed information regarding the customer in a market will provide the basic platform for all marketing decisions. Marketing decision maker needs descriptive information about the total potential unit and dollar sales in each segment. Perhaps the most important one is that a seller need to be aware of the relevant objective and need of consumer and how their objectives might best reserved by the products.

Customer satisfaction, a term frequently used in marketing, is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. Customer satisfaction is defined as “the number of customers, or percentage of total customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services (ratings) exceeds specified satisfaction goals. ” In a survey of nearly 200 senior marketing managers, 71 percent responded that they found a customer satisfaction metric very useful in managing and monitoring their businesses.

It is seen as a key performance indicator within business and is often part of a balanced scorecard. In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers, customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become a key element of business strategy. “Within organizations, customer satisfaction ratings can have powerful effects. They focus employees on the importance of fulfilling customers’ expectations. Furthermore, when these ratings dip, they warn of problems that can affect sales and profitability. . . These metrics quantify an important dynamic. When a brand has loyal customers, it gains positive word-of-mouth marketing, which is both free and highly effective. ” Therefore, it is essential for businesses to effectively manage customer satisfaction. To be able do this, firms need reliable and representative measures of satisfaction. “In researching satisfaction, firms generally ask customers whether their product or service has met or exceeded expectations. Thus, expectations are a key factor behind satisfaction.

When customers have high expectations and the reality falls short, they will be disappointed and will likely rate their experience as less than satisfying. For this reason, a luxury resort, for example, might receive a lower satisfaction rating than a budget motel even though its facilities and service would be deemed superior in ‘absolute’ terms. ” The importance of customer satisfaction diminishes when a firm has increased bargaining power. For example,  cell phone plan providers, such as AT;T and Verizon, participate in an industry that is an oligopoly , where only a few suppliers of a certain product or service exist.

As such, many cell phone plan contracts have a lot of fine print with provisions that they would never get away if there were, say, a hundred cell phone plan providers, because customer satisfaction would be way too low, and customers would easily have the option of leaving for a better contract offer. There is a substantial body of empirical literature that establishes the benefits of customer satisfaction for firms. PURPOSE “Customer satisfaction provides a leading indicator of consumer purchase intentions and loyalty.  “Customer satisfaction data are among the most frequently collected indicators of market perceptions. Their principal use is two fold. ” 1. “Within organizations, the collection, analysis and dissemination of these data send a message about the importance of tending to customers and ensuring that they have a positive experience with the company’s goods and services. ” 2. “Although sales or market share can indicate how well a firm is performing currently, satisfaction is perhaps the best indicator of how likely it is that the firm’s customers will make further purchases in the future.

Much research has focused on the relationship between customer satisfaction and retention. Studies indicate that the ramifications of satisfaction are most strongly realized at the extremes. ” On a five-point scale, “individuals who rate their satisfaction level as ‘5’ are likely to become return customers and might even evangelize for the firm. (A second important metric related to satisfaction is willingness to recommend. This metric is defined as “The percentage of surveyed customers who indicate that they would recommend a brand to friends. When a customer is satisfied with a product, he or she might recommend it to friends, relatives and colleagues. This can be a powerful marketing advantage. ) “Individuals who rate their satisfaction level as ‘1,’ by contrast, are unlikely to return. Further, they can hurt the firm by making negative comments about it to prospective customers. Willingness to recommend is a key metric relating to customer satisfaction. ” MARKET The term market is derived from Latin Word ‘Mercatus’, which means ‘totrade’ that is purchasing and selling of goods.

It also means merchandise truthic  place of business. According to Pyle, “Market includes both place and region in which buyers and sellers or in free competition with one another”. A market is one of many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter, most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services (including labor) in exchange for money from buyers. It can be said that a market is the process by which the prices of goods and services are established.

For a market to be competitive, there must be more than a single buyer or seller. It has been suggested that two people may trade, but it takes at least three persons to have a market, so that there is competition on at least one of its two sides. However,competitive markets, as understood in formal economic theory, rely on much larger numbers of both buyers and sellers. A market with single seller and multiple buyers is amonopoly. A market with a single buyer and multiple sellers is a monopsony. These are the extremes of imperfect competition.

MARKETING Marketing includes all the impacts involved in the exchange process of  transferring the possession and ownership of goods or services from  the producer to the ultimate consumer’s. Marketing is the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers. Marketing might sometimes be interpreted as the art of selling products, but selling is only a small fraction of marketing. As the term “Marketing” may replace “Advertising” it is the overall strategy and function of promoting a product or service to the customer.

The American Marketing Association defines marketing as “the activity ,set of institutions,and processes for creating, communication, delivering,and exchanging offerings that have value for customers,clients,partners,and society at large. ” From a societal point of view, marketing is the link between a society’s material requirements and its economic patterns of response. Marketing satisfies these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long term relationships. The process of communicating the value of a product or service through positioning to customers.

Marketing can be looked at as an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, delivering and communicating value to customers, and managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its shareholders. Marketing is the science of choosing target markets through market analysis and market segmentation, as well as understanding consumer buying behavior and providing superior customer value. MARKETING FORMULA A)The foremost step is business aims at profit. B)For profit making he can sell the products. C)For selling the product he should create customers.

D)For creating the customer’s, customer’s needs of preferences to beidentified and satisfied. E). To satisfy the customer’s new product to be produced. Marketing is trying to learn, * Who buy the products or services? * How do they buy? * When do they buy? * Where do they buy? * Why do they buy? * How often they buy? It is otherwise called understand and predict human actions in their   buying role. A marketer is act as consumers while them purchasing any goods/services, and try to market that product to an ultimate consumer. So, marketingis starts with consumer and ends with consumer. So, today’s market is called on consumer market.

It can be defined on,“All the individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption. SKILLS OF MARKETERS Marketers have 4 main skill sets that they bring to an enterprise: 1)Opportunity Identification: Marketing begins before there is a product to sell. Many people think marketing is just selling whatever comes out of the manufacturing plant. It’s the job of marketing to decide WHAT comes out of the manufacturing plant in the first place. Before a business can make money there must be opportunities for money to be made and it’s marketing’s job to define what those opportunities are.

Marketers analyze markets, market gaps, trends, products,competition, and distribution channels to come up with opportunities to make money. 2) Competitive strategy/positioning: Markets consist of groups of competitors competing for a customer’s business. The job of marketing is to decide how to create a defensible sustainable competitive advantage against competitors. Marketers conceive strategies, tactics, and business models to make it hard if not impossible for competition to take away customers from their business. 3) Demand generation/management It’s the job of marketing to create and sustain demand for a company’s products.

Marketers manage demand for a company’s products by influencing the probability and frequency of their customer’s purchase behavior. 4)Sales: The ultimate goal of marketing is to make money for a business. In most company’s sales is a different discipline and department from marketing. But in order for sales people to have any long term success in a company they must be led by marketing. The better job a company does of identifying opportunities, creating a differential sustainable competitive advantage, and generating demand for their products the easier it will be for sales people to make sales.

MARKET SHARE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INDUSTRY The fixed line and mobile segments serve the basic needs of local calls, long distance callsand the international calls, with the provision of broadband services in the fixed line segment and GPRS in the mobile arena. Traditional telephones have been replaced by the codeless and the wireless instruments. Mobile phone providers have also come up with GPRS-enabled multimedia messaging, Internet surfing, and mobile-commerce. The much-awaited 3G mobile technology is soon going to enter the Indian telecom market. TheGSM,CDMA,WLLservice providers are all upgrading them to provide 3G mobile services.

Along with improvement in telecom services, there is also an improvement in manufacturing. In the beginning, there were only the Siemens handsets in India but now a whole series of newhandsets, such as Nokia’s latest N-series, Sony Ericsson’s W-series, Motorola’s PDA phones,etc. have come up. Touch screen and advanced technological handsets are gaining popularity. Radio services have also been incorporated in the mobile handsets, along with other applications like high storage memory, multimedia applications, multimedia games, MP3 Players, video generators,Camera’s, etc.

The value added services provided by the mobile service operators contribute more than 10% of the total revenue. THE GLOBAL CELLULAR MOBILE INDUSTRY Global telecom sector Earnings visibility Earnings growth is being driven by improving pricing conditions, stabilizing operating trends, aggressive cost cutting initiatives, a positive regulatory environment, strong wireless growth, and new market opportunities. This has translated into greater visibility of forward earnings as evidenced by recent increased analyst upgrades within the sector. Merger synergies

Given the substantial amount of excess capital available in the sector and in private equity we expect to see additional merger and acquisition activity, albeit at a slower pace than recently witnessed. Global telecom M;A deals over the past two years have reflected market expansion but have also had a positive effect on the buyers’ balance sheets. Partnering companies have begun realizing their synergies through cost reductions and economies of scale. In the US, the largest three companies now account for over 70% of the sector market cap; this compares to 34% in 1990.

Trends in bundled services are also paving the way for additional M;A activity. Sector consolidation will further increase the importance of stock selection. METHODS TO CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Companies use the following methods to measure customer satisfaction. 1 ) Complaints and suggestion system: Companies obtaining complaints through their customer service centres, and further suggestions were given by customers to satisfy their desires. 2) Customer satisfaction surveys: Responsive companies obtain a direct measure of customer satisfaction by periodic surveys.

They send questionnaires to random sample of their customers to find out how they feel about various aspects of the company’s performance and also solicit views on their competitor’s performance. It is useful to measure the customer’s willingness to recommend the company and brand to other persons. 3 )Lost Customer Analysis: Companies should contact customers who have stopped buying or who have switched to another supplier to learn why this happened. 4 )Consumer Behavior Vs Consumption Behavior:

Consumer behavior refers to the manner in which an individual reaches decision related to the selection, purchases and use of goods and services. Walters and Paul says that,consumer behavior is the process where by the individuals decides what, when, how and from whom to purchase goods ; services. Consumer behavior relates to an individual person (Micro behavior) where asconsumption behavior relates to and to the mass or aggregate of individuals. (Macro behaviour) consumers  behavior  as a study focuses on the decision process of the individual consumer or consuming unit such as the family.

In contrast the consumption behavior as a study is to do with the explanation of the behavior of the aggregate of consumers or the consuming unit. Consumer is a pivot,around which the entire system of marketing revolves. The study of buyer behavior is one of the most important keys to successful mark. 1. 2. IMPORTANCE OF CONSUMER SATISFACTION The needs to satisfy customer for success in any commercial enterprise is very obvious. The income of all commercial enterprise is derived from the payments received for the products and services supplied to its customers.

If there is no customer there is no income and there is no business. Then the coreactivity of any company is to attract and retain customers. It is therefore no surprise that Peter Drucker the renowned management Guru, has said “to satisfy the customers is the mission and purpose of every business”. Satisfaction of customer is essential for retention of customer’s and for continuous sales of the products and services of the company to customers. This establishes the needa for and the importance of customer satisfaction. The satisfaction of consumers is different from onto another.

Became, each consumer has the different behaviour in their life. So, the marketer satisfy the consumer, he must very well know the behaviour of consumer. 1. 4. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR The term consumer behaviour may be defined as the behaviour  that consumer displays in searching for purchasing, using, evaluating, producing,services and ideas which they expect will satisfy their needs. In other words, “It is a study of physiological, social, physical, behaviours of all potential customer as they become aware of evaluation, purchase and consumption and ell other about products and services” 1. 5. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: * To study the evaluation of cell phones with particular reference to India. * To ascertain the attributer which influenced the customer’s in selecting a particular cell phone services provider. * To study the consumer’s satisfaction towards different cell phone service providers. * To assess the problems faced by the cell phone users in services. * To offer valuable suggestions to improve the services of cell phones in each companies. INRODUCTION TO TELECOM INDUSTRY The Indian Telecommunications network with 110. 1 million connections is the fifth largest in the world and the second largest among the emerging economies of Asia. Today, it is the fastest growing market in the world and represents unique opportunities for U. S. companies in the stagnant global scenario. The total subscriber base, which has grown by 40% in 2005,is expected to reach 250 million in 2007. According to Broadband Policy 2004, Government of India aims at 9 million broadband connections and 18 million internet connections by2007. The wireless subscriber base has jumped from 33. 69 million in 2004 to 62. 57 million in FY2004- 2005.

In the last 3 years, two out of every three new telephone subscribers were wireless subscribers. Consequently, wireless now accounts for 54. 6% of the total telephone subscriber base, as compared to only 40% in 2003. Wireless subscriber growth is expected to bypass 2. 5 million new subscribers per month by 2007. The wireless technologies currently in use are Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). There are primarily 9 GSM and 5 CDMA operators providing mobile services in 19 telecom circles and 4 metro cities, covering 2000 towns across the country. . 6. NEED OF THE STUDY Exchange of information becomes the necessity of life to a common man. In the modern world an individual tends to communicate anything to everything right from the place where he/she stands. Even while riding vehicle he / she wants communicate within a fraction of second at quick speed with clear voice,without any disturbance. Like line crossing, out of order, etc. most of which lack in the connection given by the department of tele-communictions. Cell phones emerges as a boon quench such a thirst, the by providing facilities,which a common man cannot imagine.

Though cell phone industry has its originin the recent past and the growth has been excellent Day by day many new competitors enter the market with new attractive schemes, provide additional facilities, add new features to existing ones, reduce the charges her incoming and outgoing calls, introduce varieties of handsets,models a healthy competition that benefits the subscribers. Hence in this context, it is important to study the functioning of cellular phone services and the utilization of their services by the telephonesation. 1. 8. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In our country the growth of service marketing especially mobile phone industry is still in its infancy stage, as compared to the industrially advanced countries. It is for the fact that the economy of our country has been in the developing stage. There are various mobile phones services provider’s in our country and they are playing an essential role in fulfilling the needs of the customers. Now-a-days, the customers are more dynamic. Their taste, needs and preference can the changing as per current scenario. Hence the development of cellular industry mainly depends on the customer satisfaction.

However the following questions may arise regarding customer satisfaction. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE India is the world’s fastest growing industry in the world in terms of number of wireless connections after China, with 811. 59 million mobile phone subscribers. According to the world telecommunications industry, India will have 1. 200 billion mobile subscribers by 2013. Furthermore, projections by several leading global consultancies indicate that the total number of subscribers in India will exceed the total subscriber count in the China by 2013.

In 1850 experimental electric telegraph started for first time in India between Calcutta (Kolkata) and Diamond Harbor (southern suburbs of Kolkata, on the banks of the Hooghly River). In 1851, it was opened for the use of the British East India Company. Subsequently construction of telegraph started through out India. A separate department was opened to the public in 1854. Dr. William O’Shaughnessy, who pioneered the telegraph and telephone in India, belonged to the Public Works Department, and worked towards the development of telecom.

Calcutta or the-then Kolkata was chosen as it was the capital of British India. In early1881, Oriental Telephone Company Limited of England opened telephone exchanges at Calcutta (Kolkata), Bombay (Mumbai), Madras (Chennai) and Ahmedabad. On the 28th January 1882 the first formal telephone service was established with a total of 93 subscribers. From the year 1902 India drastically changes from cable telegraph to wireless telegraph, radio telegraph, radio telephone, trunk dialing. Trunk dialing used in India for more than a decade, were system allowed subscribers to dial calls with operator assistance.

Later moved to digital microwave, optical fiber, satellite earth station. During British period all major cities and towns in India were linked with telephones. In the year 1975 Department of Telecom (DoT) was responsible for telecom services in entire country after separation from Indian Post ; Telecommunication. Decade later Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) was chipped out of DoT to run the telecom services of Delhi and Mumbai. In 1990s the telecom sector was opened up by the Government for private investment.

In1995 TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) was setup. This reduced the interference of Government in deciding tariffs and policy making. The Government of India corporatized the operations wing of DoT in 2000 and renamed Department of Telecom as Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL). In last 10 years many private operator’s especially foreign investors successfully entered the high potential Indian telecom market. Globally acclaimed operators like Telenor, NTT Docomo, Vodafone, Sistema, SingTel, Maxis, Etisalat invested in India mobile operators. Wireless Communication

Pager Services Pager communication successful launched in India in the year 1995. Pagers were looked upon as devices that offered the much needed mobility in communication, especially for businesses. Motorola was a major player with nearly 80 per cent of the market share. The other companies included Mobilink, Pagelink, BPL, Usha Martin telecom and Easy call. Pagers were generally worn on the belt or carried in the pocket. The business peaked in 1998 with the subscriber base reaching nearly 2 million. However, the number dropped to less than 500,000 in 2002.

The pager companies in India were soon struggling to maintain their business. While 2-way pagers could have buffered the fall, the pager companies were not in a position to upgrade their infrastructure to improve the ailing market. The Indian Paging Services Association was unable to support the industry. Pager companies in India also offered their services in regional languages also. However, the end had begun already. By 2002, Motorola stops making or servicing pagers. When mobile phones were commercially launched in India, the pager had many advantages to boast.

Pagers were smaller, had a longer battery life and were considerably cheaper. However, the mobile phones got better with time and continuously upgraded themselves. Mobile Communication First mobile telephone service on non-commercial basis started in India on 48th Independence Day at country’s capital Delhi. The first cellular call was made in India on July 31st, 1995 over Modi Telstra’s MobileNet GSM network of Kolkata. Later mobile telephone services are divided into multiple zones known as circles. Competition has caused prices to drop and calls across India are one of the cheapest in the world.

Most of operator follows GSM mobile system operate under 900MHz bandwidth few recent players started operating under 1800MHz bandwidth. CDMA operators operate under 800Mhz band, they are first to introduce EVDO based high speed wireless data services via USB dongle. In spite of this huge growth Indian telecom sector is hit by severe spectrum crunch, corruption by India Govt. officials and financial troubles. In 2008, India entered the 3G arena with the launch of 3G enabled Mobile and Data services by Government owned MTNL and BSNL. Later from November 2010 private operator’s started to launch their services.

Broadband communication After US, Japan, India stands in third largest Internet users of which 40% of Internet used via mobile phones. India ranks one of the lowest provider of broadband speed as compared countries such as Japan, India and Norway. Minimum broadband speed of 256kbit/s but speed above 2Mbits is still in a nascent stage. Year 2007 had been declared as “Year of Broadband” in India. Telco’s based on ADSL/VDSL in India generally have speeds up to 24Mbit max while those based on newer Optical Fiber technology offer up to 100Mbits in some plans Fiber-optic communication (FTTx).

Broadband growth has been plagued by many problems. Complicated tariff structure, metered billing, High charges for right of way, Lack of domestic content, non implementation of Local-loop unbundling have all resulted in hindrance to the growth of broadband. Many experts think future of broadband is on the hands of  wireless factor. BWA auction winners are expected to roll out LTE and WiMAX in India in 2012. Next Generation Network (NGN) Next Generation Networks, multiple access networks can connect customers to a core network based on IP technology. These access

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Sexism in Football

Gender Discrimination (The Sian Massey Story) On the 22nd of January 2011 female linesman Sian Massey was going to officiate as a linesman in a premier league clash between Liverpool and Wolves. Sky Sports were broadcasting the match on live television,Presenters Andy Gray and Richard Keys were preparing to cover the pre game coverage, when the two named above began to talk about the female linesman Sian Massey and what they thought about her in a very discriminating fashion

The commentators, who apparently believed their microphones were switched off, were recorded. Commenting on Ms Massey, Mr Keys said: ‘Somebody better get down there and explain offside to her. ’ Mr Gray, a former Scottish international footballer, replied: ‘Can you believe that? A female linesman. Women don’t know the offside rule. ’ Mr Keys replied: ‘Course they don’t. I can guarantee you there will be a big one today. Kenny (Liverpool manager Kenny Dalglish) will go potty. This isn’t the first time, is it?

Didn’t we have one before? ’ Later in the exchange, Mr Keys said: ‘The game’s gone mad. Did you hear charming Karren Brady this morning complaining about sexism? Do me a favour, love. ’ During the game, which Liverpool won 3-0, Ms Massey angered Wolves by refusing to rule Raul Meireles offside before he set up Liverpool’s first goal. The replay showed that she made the correct decision. When The Mail on Sunday put the transcript to Mr Keys, he said: ‘I have no recollection of that.

I have no idea what you are talking about. ‘My recollection is that I wished the young lady all the best. ’ When told a recording existed of the conversation, he said: ‘If you have a tape then you don’t need me to talk to you. It almost makes it worse that they’re speaking when the microphones are not on as opposed to when they are on, because [they have] never really had the brass neck to say it publicly, they would only say it privately. I have heard it and I don’t believe it is just banter. Former referee Graham Poll added: “It must be very difficult for female match officials to progress in men’s football and any who do, do so on merit and should be held up as role models, not subjected to outdated, sexist attitudes … (Sian Massey) is already on the FIFA assistant referees’ list in women’s football and at just 25 that is a magnificent achievement. ” Michaela Tabb, a snooker referee who has officiated the World Championship final, said: : “What they have done there is completely unacceptable because they have not given her her place at all as an official.

They are basically doubting her ability. She has obviously passed every exam and whatever qualifications she’s had to go through. ” England captain Rio Ferdinand said on Twitter: “I’m all for women refereeing in football, discrimination should not happen in our game at all … prehistoric views if u think otherwise. ” Hugh Robertson, the sports minister, commented: “It is very disappointing to hear these comments at a time when we are trying to get more women participating and officiating in sport, particularly football. The FA released a statement saying: “The FA has made real strides in encouraging both male and female match officials to enter the game at every level, and will continue to offer every encouragement to all officials within the football family to progress to the highest levels possible. We are proud to have some of the world’s best match officials, both male and female Overall the number of female referees in England (Levels 1-8) stands at 853 and climbing, and all of our female match officials act as fantastic ambassadors for the game. They have our wholehearted and continuing support. “