Acid DepositionSulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere– where they mix with oxygen and woter to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid– and return to Earth’s surface.
Acid PrecipitationConversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain snow or fog Acitve Solar Energy SystemsSolar energy system that collects energy through the use of of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors AgribusinessCommercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-proccessing industry, usually through the ownership by large corporations.
Agricultural DensityThe ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture Agricultural RevoluionThe time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering. AgricultureThe deliberate effort to modify a portion of the Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenence or economic gain. Air PollutionConcentration of trace substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air.
Animate PowerPower supplied by people or animals. AnimismBelief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, such as thunderstorms and earthquakes, have discrete spirit and concious life. AnnexationLegally adding land area to a city in the United States ApartheidLaws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physicall separated different races into different geographic areas. Arithmic DensityThe total number of people divided by the total land area. Autonomous ReligionA religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Balance of PowerCondition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries. Balkanizationprocess by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities. BalkanizedA small geographic area that could not be successfully organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other. Base LineAn east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Basic IndustriesIndustries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement Biochemical Oxygen DemandAmount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution. BiodiversityThe number of species within a specific habitat. Biomass FuelFuel that derives from plant material and animal waste. BlockbustingA process by which real estate agents convinced white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families would soon be moving into the neighborhood.
BoundaryInvisible line that marks the extent of a state territory. Brain DrainLarge-scale emigration by talented people. Branch (of a religion)A large and fundamental division within a religion. Break-of-Bulk PointA location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another. Breeder reactorA nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium. British Received PronunciationThe dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.
Bulk-gaining IndustryAn industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs. Bulk-reducing IndustryAn industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs. Business ServicesServices that primarily meet the needs of other businesses. CartographyThe science of making maps. CasteThe class or distinct hereditary order into which a hindu is assigned according to religious law. Census TractAn area delineated by the U. S, Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized ares, they correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
CensusA compete enumeration of a population. Central Business DistrictThe area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered. Central Place TheoryA theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel further. Central PlaceA market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Centripetal ForceAn attitude that tends to unify people and enhance a state. Cereal GrainA grass yielding grain for food. ChaffHusks of grain separated from the seed by threshing. Chain MigrationMigration of paople to a specific location because of relatives or people of the same nationality previously migrated there. ChlorofluorocarbonA gas used as a solvent, a propelant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastics foams and fire extinguishers. CirculationShort-term, repetative, or cyclical movemens that recur on a regular basis. City-stateA sovreign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.
Clustered Rural SettlementA rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlements. ColonialismAttempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory. ColonyA territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent. CombineA machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field. Commercial AgricultureAgriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Compact StateA state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly. ConcentrationThe spread of something over a given area. Concentric Zone ModelA model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings. ConnectionsRelationships among people and objects across the barrier of space. ConservationThe sustainable use and management of a natural resource, through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced. Consumer ServicesBusinesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
Contagious DiffusionThe rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population. CosmogonyA set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe. Cottage IndustryManufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution. Council of GovernmentA cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the United States. CounterurbanizationNet migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
CreoleA language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated Crop RotationThe practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil. CropGrain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season. Crude Birth RateThe total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. Crude Death RateThe total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. Cultural EcologyGeographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Cultural LandscapeFashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group. CultureThe body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct tradition. CustomThe frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act. Demographic TransitionThe process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Demographythe scientific study of population characteristics DensityThe frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area. Density Gradientthe change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery Dependency RatioThe number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force. DesertificationDegradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. DenominationA division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
DevelopmentA process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology. DialectA regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation. Diffusionthe process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time. DioceseThe basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church Dispersed Rural SettlementA rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages. Distance DecayThe diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a henomenon with increasing distance from its origin. DistributionThe arrangement of something across Earth’s surface. Double CroppingHarvesting twice a year from the same field. Doubling TimeThe number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. EbonicsDialect spoken by some African-Americans. Economic BaseA community’s collection of basic industries. EcumeneThe portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement. Edge Citya large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area Elongated StateA state with a long, narrow shape.
EmigrationMigration from a location. Enclosure MovementThe process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century. Environmental DeterminismA nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities. EpidemiologyBranch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Epidemiological Transitiondistinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition Ethnic CleansingProcess in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region. Ethnic ReligionA religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated. EthnicityIdentity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Expansion DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process. Extinct languageA language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used. Federal StateAn internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government. FerrousMetals, including iron ore, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel. Filteringa process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment FissionThe splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy.
FloodplainThe area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends. Folk CultureCulture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups. Forced MigrationPermanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors. Fordist ProductionForm of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly. Formal RegionAn area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics. Fossil FuelEnergy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
Fragmented StateA state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory. FranglaisA term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of franfais and anglai. ” the French words for “French” and “English,” respectively. FrontierA zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control. Functional RegionAn area organized around a node or focal point FundamentalismLiteral interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect). FusionCreation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium.
Gender Empowerment MeasureCompares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making. Gender-Related Development IndexCompares the level of development with that of both sexes. Gentrificationa process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area Geothermal EnergyEnergy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks. GerrymanderingProcess of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
GhettoDuring the Middle Aes, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure. GISA computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data. GlobalizationActions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope. Global Positioning SystemA system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and eceivers. GrainSeed of cereal grass. Gravity ModelA model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service. Green RevolutionRapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers. GreenbeltA ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Greenhouse EffectAnticipated increase in Earth’s temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface. Greenwhich Mean Timethe time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian or 0 longitude Gross Domestic ProductThe value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year). Guest WorkersWorkers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
HabitA repetative act by a particular individual. HearthThe region from which innovative ideas originate. Hierarchical DiffusionThe spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places Hierarchical ReligionA religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control. HorticultureThe growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. HullThe outer covering of steel. Human Development IndexIndicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy Hydroelectric PowerPower generated from moving water.
IdeogramsThe system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English. ImmigrationMigration to a new location. ImperialismControl of a territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society. Inanimate PowerPower supplied by machines. Industrial RevolutionA series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. Infant Mortality RateThe total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Intensive Subsistence AgricultureA form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land. Internal MigrationPermanent Movement within a particular country. International Date LineAn arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
International MigrationPermanent movement from one country to another. Interregional MigrationPermanent movement from one region of a country to another. Intervening ObstacleAn environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration. Intraregional MigrationPermanent movement within one region of a country. IsoglossA boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate. Isolated LanguageA language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
Labor-intensive IndustryAn industry for which labor costs comprises a high percentage of total expenses Landlocked StateA state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea. Land ordinance of 1785A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers. LanguageA system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning. Language BranchA collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago.
Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family. Language FamilyA collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history. Language GroupA collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary. LatitudeThe numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.
Less Developed CountryAlso known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic developement. Life ExpectancyThe average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live. Lingua FrancaA language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages. Literacy Ratepercentage of people who can read and write.
Literary TraditionA language that is written as well as spoken. LocationThe position of anything on Earth’s surface. LongitudeThe numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°). MapA two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth’s surface or a portion of it. MaquiladoraFactories built by U. S. companies in Mexico near the U. S. border, to take advantage of much cheaper labor costs in Mexico. Market AreaThe area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and services.
Medical RevolutionMedical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. Mental MapAn internal representation of a portion of Earth’s surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located. MeridianAn arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.
Metropolitan Statisical AreaIn the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city. Micropolitan Statistical AreaAn urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city. MicrostateA state that encompasses a very small land area. MigrationForm of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
Migration TransitionChange in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition. MilkshedThe area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied. MissionaryAn individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion. MobilityAll types of movement from one location to another. Monotheismthe doctrine or belief that there is only one God More Developed CountryAlso known as a relatively developed county or a developed country, a country that has progressed in relativety far along a continuum of development.
Multi-ethnic StateA state that contains more than one ethnicity. Multinational StateState that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities. NationalismLoyalty and devotion to a particular nationality. NationalityIdentity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there. Nation-stateA state who’s territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
Natural Increase RateThe percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate. Net MigrationThe difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration. New International Division of LaborTransfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries. Nonbasic IndustriesIndustries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community. Nonferrousmetals utilized to make products other than iron and steel.
Nonrenewable EnergyA source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted. Official LanguageThe language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents. OverpopulationThe number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living. Ozonegas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 kilometers (9 to 30 miles) above Earth’s surface. PaddyMalay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah. aganA follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times. PandemicDisease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population. ParallelA circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians. Passive Solar Energy SystemsSolar energy that collects energy without the use of mechanical devices. Pastoral NomadismA form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals. PastureGrass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing. PatternThe geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area.
Perforated Statea state that completely surrounds another one Peripheral ModelA model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road. Personal ServicesServices that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers. Photochemical SmogAn atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions. Photovoltaic CellSolar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity.
Physiological DensityThe number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. Pigdin LanguageA form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages. PilgrimageA journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes. Placea specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character. PlantationA large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Polderland created by the Dutch by draining water from an area. PollutionAddition of more waste than a resource can accommodate. PolytheismBelief in or worship of more than one god. Popular CultureCulture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics. Population PyramidA bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex. PossibilismThe theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Post-Fordist ProductionAdoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks. Potential ReserveThe amount of energy in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist. PreservationMaintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible. Primary SectorThe portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth’s surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
Primate CityThe largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. Primate City RuleA pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. Prime Agricultural LandMost productive farmland. Prime MeridianThe meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England. Principal MeridianA north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Producer ServicesServices that primarily help people conduct business. ProductivityThe value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it. ProjectionThe system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map. Prorupted Statean otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension. Proven ReserveThe amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits. Public HousingHousing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families’ incomes.
Public ServicesServices offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses. Pull FactorsFactors that induce people to move to a new location. Push FactorsFactors that induce people to leave old residences. QuotaIn reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year. RaceIdentity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor. RacismBelief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
RacistA person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism. Radioactive WasteParticles from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethat to people and must therefore be safely stored for thousonds of years. RanchingA form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area. RangeThe maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service. Rank-size RuleA pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement. ReaperAmachine that cuts grain standing in the feild.
Recyclingthe separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material RedliningA process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries. RefugeesPeople who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion. RegionAn area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features. Regional StudiesAn approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phemona in a particular area study.
Relocation DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another. Remote SensingThe acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods. Renewable EnergyA resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans. ResourceA substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use. Retail ServicesServices that provide goods for sale to consumers.
Ridge TillageSystem of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation. Right-to-work StateA U. S. state that has passed a law preventing union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of e3mployment. Rush Hourfour consecutive 15 minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic. Sanitary LandfillA place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin.
SawahA flooded feild for growing rice. ScaleGenerally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s surface. Secondary SectorThe portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials. SectA relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination. SectionA square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections.
Sector ModelA model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD). Seed AgricultureReproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization. Self-determinismConcept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves. Serviceany activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it. SettlementA permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants. Sex RatioThe number of males per 100 females in a population.
SharecropperA person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops. Shifting CultivationA form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period. SiteThe physical character of a place. Site FactorsLocation factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital. SituationThe location of a place relative to other places.
Situation FactorsLocation factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory. Slash-and-burn AgricultureAnother name for shifting cultivation, so named because feilds are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris. SolsticeTime when the Sun is farthest from the equator. SovreigntyAbility of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states. SpaceThe physical gap or interval between two objects. Space-time CompressionThe reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distinct place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
SpanglishCombination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic-Americans. SprawlDevelopment of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area. Spring WheatWheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer. Squatter SettlementAn area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures. Standard LanguageThe form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
StateAn area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs. Stimulus DiffusionThe spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected. Structural Adjustment ProgramEconomic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services.
Subsistence AgricultureAgriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer’s family Sustainable AgricultureFarming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides. Sustainable DevelopmentThe level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development. SwiddenApatch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
TabooA restriction on behavior imposed by social custom. Tertiary SectorThe portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment. TextileA fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing TreshTo beat out grain from stalks by trampling it. ThresholdThe minimum number of people needed to support the service ToponymThe name given to a portion of Earth’s surface. Total Fertility RateThe average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.
TownshipA square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships. Trading BlocA group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs TranshumanceThe seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures. Transitional CorporationA company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located Transportation and Information ServicesServices that diffuse and distribut services.
Triangular Slave TradeA practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa. Truck FarmingCommercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities. UnderclassA group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics. Undocumented ImmigrantsPeople who enter a country without proper documents.
Uneven DevelopmentThe increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy. Unitary StateAn internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials Universalizing ReligionA religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location. Urban RenewalProgram in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
UrbanizationAn increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements. Urbanized AreaIn the United States, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs. Value Addedthe gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy. Vegetative Plantingreproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants Vernacular RegionA place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity. Voluntary MigrationPermanent movement undertaken by choice.
Vulgar LatinA form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents. Wet RiceRice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth. WinnowTo remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind. Winter Wheatwheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer Zero Population GrowthA decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero. Zoning OrdinanceA law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.