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Vocab for Ap Human Geography

Acid DepositionSulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere– where they mix with oxygen and woter to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid– and return to Earth’s surface.

Acid PrecipitationConversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain snow or fog Acitve Solar Energy SystemsSolar energy system that collects energy through the use of of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors AgribusinessCommercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-proccessing industry, usually through the ownership by large corporations.

Agricultural DensityThe ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture Agricultural RevoluionThe time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering. AgricultureThe deliberate effort to modify a portion of the Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenence or economic gain. Air PollutionConcentration of trace substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air.

Animate PowerPower supplied by people or animals. AnimismBelief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, such as thunderstorms and earthquakes, have discrete spirit and concious life. AnnexationLegally adding land area to a city in the United States ApartheidLaws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physicall separated different races into different geographic areas. Arithmic DensityThe total number of people divided by the total land area. Autonomous ReligionA religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.

Balance of PowerCondition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries. Balkanizationprocess by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities. BalkanizedA small geographic area that could not be successfully organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other. Base LineAn east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.

Basic IndustriesIndustries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement Biochemical Oxygen DemandAmount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution. BiodiversityThe number of species within a specific habitat. Biomass FuelFuel that derives from plant material and animal waste. BlockbustingA process by which real estate agents convinced white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families would soon be moving into the neighborhood.

BoundaryInvisible line that marks the extent of a state territory. Brain DrainLarge-scale emigration by talented people. Branch (of a religion)A large and fundamental division within a religion. Break-of-Bulk PointA location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another. Breeder reactorA nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium. British Received PronunciationThe dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.

Bulk-gaining IndustryAn industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs. Bulk-reducing IndustryAn industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs. Business ServicesServices that primarily meet the needs of other businesses. CartographyThe science of making maps. CasteThe class or distinct hereditary order into which a hindu is assigned according to religious law. Census TractAn area delineated by the U. S, Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized ares, they correspond roughly to neighborhoods.

CensusA compete enumeration of a population. Central Business DistrictThe area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered. Central Place TheoryA theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel further. Central PlaceA market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.

Centripetal ForceAn attitude that tends to unify people and enhance a state. Cereal GrainA grass yielding grain for food. ChaffHusks of grain separated from the seed by threshing. Chain MigrationMigration of paople to a specific location because of relatives or people of the same nationality previously migrated there. ChlorofluorocarbonA gas used as a solvent, a propelant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastics foams and fire extinguishers. CirculationShort-term, repetative, or cyclical movemens that recur on a regular basis. City-stateA sovreign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.

Clustered Rural SettlementA rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlements. ColonialismAttempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory. ColonyA territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent. CombineA machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field. Commercial AgricultureAgriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.

Compact StateA state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly. ConcentrationThe spread of something over a given area. Concentric Zone ModelA model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings. ConnectionsRelationships among people and objects across the barrier of space. ConservationThe sustainable use and management of a natural resource, through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced. Consumer ServicesBusinesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.

Contagious DiffusionThe rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population. CosmogonyA set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe. Cottage IndustryManufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution. Council of GovernmentA cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the United States. CounterurbanizationNet migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.

CreoleA language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated Crop RotationThe practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil. CropGrain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season. Crude Birth RateThe total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. Crude Death RateThe total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. Cultural EcologyGeographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.

Cultural LandscapeFashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group. CultureThe body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct tradition. CustomThe frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act. Demographic TransitionThe process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.

Demographythe scientific study of population characteristics DensityThe frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area. Density Gradientthe change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery Dependency RatioThe number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force. DesertificationDegradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. DenominationA division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.

DevelopmentA process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology. DialectA regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation. Diffusionthe process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time. DioceseThe basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church Dispersed Rural SettlementA rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages. Distance DecayThe diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a henomenon with increasing distance from its origin. DistributionThe arrangement of something across Earth’s surface. Double CroppingHarvesting twice a year from the same field. Doubling TimeThe number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. EbonicsDialect spoken by some African-Americans. Economic BaseA community’s collection of basic industries. EcumeneThe portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement. Edge Citya large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area Elongated StateA state with a long, narrow shape.

EmigrationMigration from a location. Enclosure MovementThe process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century. Environmental DeterminismA nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities. EpidemiologyBranch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.

Epidemiological Transitiondistinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition Ethnic CleansingProcess in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region. Ethnic ReligionA religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated. EthnicityIdentity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

Expansion DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process. Extinct languageA language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used. Federal StateAn internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government. FerrousMetals, including iron ore, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel. Filteringa process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment FissionThe splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy.

FloodplainThe area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends. Folk CultureCulture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups. Forced MigrationPermanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors. Fordist ProductionForm of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly. Formal RegionAn area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics. Fossil FuelEnergy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.

Fragmented StateA state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory. FranglaisA term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of franfais and anglai. ” the French words for “French” and “English,” respectively. FrontierA zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control. Functional RegionAn area organized around a node or focal point FundamentalismLiteral interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect). FusionCreation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium.

Gender Empowerment MeasureCompares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making. Gender-Related Development IndexCompares the level of development with that of both sexes. Gentrificationa process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area Geothermal EnergyEnergy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks. GerrymanderingProcess of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.

GhettoDuring the Middle Aes, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure. GISA computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data. GlobalizationActions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope. Global Positioning SystemA system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and eceivers. GrainSeed of cereal grass. Gravity ModelA model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service. Green RevolutionRapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers. GreenbeltA ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.

Greenhouse EffectAnticipated increase in Earth’s temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface. Greenwhich Mean Timethe time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian or 0 longitude Gross Domestic ProductThe value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year). Guest WorkersWorkers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.

HabitA repetative act by a particular individual. HearthThe region from which innovative ideas originate. Hierarchical DiffusionThe spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places Hierarchical ReligionA religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control. HorticultureThe growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. HullThe outer covering of steel. Human Development IndexIndicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy Hydroelectric PowerPower generated from moving water.

IdeogramsThe system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English. ImmigrationMigration to a new location. ImperialismControl of a territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society. Inanimate PowerPower supplied by machines. Industrial RevolutionA series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. Infant Mortality RateThe total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.

Intensive Subsistence AgricultureA form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land. Internal MigrationPermanent Movement within a particular country. International Date LineAn arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.

International MigrationPermanent movement from one country to another. Interregional MigrationPermanent movement from one region of a country to another. Intervening ObstacleAn environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration. Intraregional MigrationPermanent movement within one region of a country. IsoglossA boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate. Isolated LanguageA language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.

Labor-intensive IndustryAn industry for which labor costs comprises a high percentage of total expenses Landlocked StateA state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea. Land ordinance of 1785A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers. LanguageA system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning. Language BranchA collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago.

Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family. Language FamilyA collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history. Language GroupA collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary. LatitudeThe numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.

Less Developed CountryAlso known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic developement. Life ExpectancyThe average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live. Lingua FrancaA language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages. Literacy Ratepercentage of people who can read and write.

Literary TraditionA language that is written as well as spoken. LocationThe position of anything on Earth’s surface. LongitudeThe numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°). MapA two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth’s surface or a portion of it. MaquiladoraFactories built by U. S. companies in Mexico near the U. S. border, to take advantage of much cheaper labor costs in Mexico. Market AreaThe area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and services.

Medical RevolutionMedical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. Mental MapAn internal representation of a portion of Earth’s surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located. MeridianAn arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.

Metropolitan Statisical AreaIn the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city. Micropolitan Statistical AreaAn urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city. MicrostateA state that encompasses a very small land area. MigrationForm of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.

Migration TransitionChange in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition. MilkshedThe area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied. MissionaryAn individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion. MobilityAll types of movement from one location to another. Monotheismthe doctrine or belief that there is only one God More Developed CountryAlso known as a relatively developed county or a developed country, a country that has progressed in relativety far along a continuum of development.

Multi-ethnic StateA state that contains more than one ethnicity. Multinational StateState that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities. NationalismLoyalty and devotion to a particular nationality. NationalityIdentity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there. Nation-stateA state who’s territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.

Natural Increase RateThe percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate. Net MigrationThe difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration. New International Division of LaborTransfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries. Nonbasic IndustriesIndustries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community. Nonferrousmetals utilized to make products other than iron and steel.

Nonrenewable EnergyA source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted. Official LanguageThe language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents. OverpopulationThe number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living. Ozonegas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 kilometers (9 to 30 miles) above Earth’s surface. PaddyMalay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah. aganA follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times. PandemicDisease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population. ParallelA circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians. Passive Solar Energy SystemsSolar energy that collects energy without the use of mechanical devices. Pastoral NomadismA form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals. PastureGrass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing. PatternThe geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area.

Perforated Statea state that completely surrounds another one Peripheral ModelA model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road. Personal ServicesServices that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers. Photochemical SmogAn atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions. Photovoltaic CellSolar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity.

Physiological DensityThe number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. Pigdin LanguageA form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages. PilgrimageA journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes. Placea specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character. PlantationA large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.

Polderland created by the Dutch by draining water from an area. PollutionAddition of more waste than a resource can accommodate. PolytheismBelief in or worship of more than one god. Popular CultureCulture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics. Population PyramidA bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex. PossibilismThe theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.

Post-Fordist ProductionAdoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks. Potential ReserveThe amount of energy in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist. PreservationMaintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible. Primary SectorThe portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth’s surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.

Primate CityThe largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. Primate City RuleA pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. Prime Agricultural LandMost productive farmland. Prime MeridianThe meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England. Principal MeridianA north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.

Producer ServicesServices that primarily help people conduct business. ProductivityThe value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it. ProjectionThe system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map. Prorupted Statean otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension. Proven ReserveThe amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits. Public HousingHousing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families’ incomes.

Public ServicesServices offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses. Pull FactorsFactors that induce people to move to a new location. Push FactorsFactors that induce people to leave old residences. QuotaIn reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year. RaceIdentity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor. RacismBelief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.

RacistA person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism. Radioactive WasteParticles from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethat to people and must therefore be safely stored for thousonds of years. RanchingA form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area. RangeThe maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service. Rank-size RuleA pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement. ReaperAmachine that cuts grain standing in the feild.

Recyclingthe separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material RedliningA process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries. RefugeesPeople who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion. RegionAn area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features. Regional StudiesAn approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phemona in a particular area study.

Relocation DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another. Remote SensingThe acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods. Renewable EnergyA resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans. ResourceA substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use. Retail ServicesServices that provide goods for sale to consumers.

Ridge TillageSystem of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation. Right-to-work StateA U. S. state that has passed a law preventing union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of e3mployment. Rush Hourfour consecutive 15 minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic. Sanitary LandfillA place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin.

SawahA flooded feild for growing rice. ScaleGenerally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s surface. Secondary SectorThe portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials. SectA relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination. SectionA square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections.

Sector ModelA model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD). Seed AgricultureReproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization. Self-determinismConcept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves. Serviceany activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it. SettlementA permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants. Sex RatioThe number of males per 100 females in a population.

SharecropperA person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops. Shifting CultivationA form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period. SiteThe physical character of a place. Site FactorsLocation factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital. SituationThe location of a place relative to other places.

Situation FactorsLocation factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory. Slash-and-burn AgricultureAnother name for shifting cultivation, so named because feilds are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris. SolsticeTime when the Sun is farthest from the equator. SovreigntyAbility of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states. SpaceThe physical gap or interval between two objects. Space-time CompressionThe reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distinct place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.

SpanglishCombination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic-Americans. SprawlDevelopment of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area. Spring WheatWheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer. Squatter SettlementAn area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures. Standard LanguageThe form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.

StateAn area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs. Stimulus DiffusionThe spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected. Structural Adjustment ProgramEconomic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services.

Subsistence AgricultureAgriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer’s family Sustainable AgricultureFarming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides. Sustainable DevelopmentThe level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development. SwiddenApatch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.

TabooA restriction on behavior imposed by social custom. Tertiary SectorThe portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment. TextileA fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing TreshTo beat out grain from stalks by trampling it. ThresholdThe minimum number of people needed to support the service ToponymThe name given to a portion of Earth’s surface. Total Fertility RateThe average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.

TownshipA square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships. Trading BlocA group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs TranshumanceThe seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures. Transitional CorporationA company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located Transportation and Information ServicesServices that diffuse and distribut services.

Triangular Slave TradeA practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa. Truck FarmingCommercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities. UnderclassA group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics. Undocumented ImmigrantsPeople who enter a country without proper documents.

Uneven DevelopmentThe increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy. Unitary StateAn internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials Universalizing ReligionA religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location. Urban RenewalProgram in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.

UrbanizationAn increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements. Urbanized AreaIn the United States, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs. Value Addedthe gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy. Vegetative Plantingreproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants Vernacular RegionA place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity. Voluntary MigrationPermanent movement undertaken by choice.

Vulgar LatinA form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents. Wet RiceRice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth. WinnowTo remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind. Winter Wheatwheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer Zero Population GrowthA decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero. Zoning OrdinanceA law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.

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How Did Geography Affect Where Colonists Settled

Beginning in 1607, when ambitious English colonists settled in Jamestown, and continuing until the last of the thirteen colonies was established; geography was a substantial factor in the development of colonial America. The crops that essentially saved the colonists lives, such as tobacco, rice, and indigo, wouldn’t have grown without a certain type and amount of soil to grow properly. Also, the Appalachian Mountains and the dense forests provided a barrier for the colonists, preventing them from going too far west right away, and causing the colonies to form in the arrangement they did.

Finally, the population was the most dense in middle colonies, such as New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania partly because of the mild landscape and fertile soil. Early in the 1600’s, John Rolfe and his wife Pocahontas discovered tobacco. It was soon heavily sought after in Europe, and quickly became a cash crop for Virginia. After establishing the tobacco industry in Virginia, many of the other colonies soon followed suit. Unfortunately, tobacco quickly drains the nutrients of the soil that it is planted on.

Without the plentiful and fertile soil that these settlers were using, it would have been very difficult for the colonists to survive much longer. Tobacco wasn’t the only crop that the colonists discovered early on, however. In South Carolina, many rice and indigo plantations began to emerge. In order for rice to grow, it needs to be planted in a swamp, or some other sort of low-watered area. The swamps of South Carolina were a perfect place to grow rice, and was considered a rich man’s crop because of the labor it took to harvest and grow it.

Without certain soil and growing conditions, it would have been very difficult for the colonists to sustain themselves in the early years of America. The natural landscape of what is now known as the United States also was a big part of how the original thirteen colonies developed. The Appalachian Mountains stretch from Maine all the way to Georgia. This mountain range prevented the first colonists from going too far west. This, in turn, made it so that the population were more dense, and there was a higher concentration of people. The dense forests of the eastern seaboard disallowed for large cities to be created right away.

This geological factor forced colonists to spread out within the perimeters of the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean, without being too close together. Both of these factors could be overlooked easily enough, but did have a reasonable impact of the development of colonial America. Finally, the geography of the middle colonies, such as New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania played a big role on the development and population of this area. In the sixteen and seventeen hundreds, the above colonies were the most populated of the thirteen establishments.

There was plentiful and fertile soil, in which tobacco was heavily grown. The Susquehanna River also flowed through this region, opening the possibility of fur trade. Other minor rivers that were found in the middle colonies were gentle, which provided for easy transportation and fishing. The land in the middle colonies was broad and expansive, making it easy for even the middle class residents to create an enjoyable and profitable lifestyle. In conclusion, there were many factors that contributed to the development of the colonial America, but geography was clearly a sizable influence.

If the geography of America wasn’t the way it was, the colonists who settled here may have not survived as well as they did. By the time the tobacco industry was established, and small cities began to rise, American came to realize that not only were they surviving, but they were thriving. This realization had to do with more than the fact that they had separated themselves according to religion, or put aside the issue of the Native Americans. There is no question that the lay of the land had a substantial impact on the development of not only colonial, but also current America.

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Human Geography

Bright lights, colorful signs, and delicious smells, all are things that may be found in an ethnic neighborhood. An ethnic neighborhood is a neighborhood, where the majority, if not all the population is of the same belief, and follows the same religion. One of the most well-known neighborhoods in Chicago is Chinatown. Chinatown has many cultural traits that set it apart from neighboring areas; however there is always a looming threat of internal and external threats to its culture. China town possess many cultural traditions and customs. One major cultural trait is the color red.

In Chinese culture, red signifies happiness, prosperity, and luck. Many buildings have a very generous use of red. Doorways, walls, and even windows covers have been painted red. Another cultural style was having curved roofs. Buddhists in China believed in having ghosts, spirits, and demons. Evil spirits and demons bring bad luck to households, and were believed to try to torment the people in the dwellings. To counteract this, Buddhists believed curved roofs warded evil spirits. Because of this belief in china, it was also migrated into Chinatown.

Many roofs in china town had curves on the edges. One last trait is the Chinese festival of lights. On Chinese New Year’s, during the festival, paper lanterns were lit. In addition to this, the elderly were considered to be the most wise, so on New Year’s they were addressed to first. Chinatown has many different cultural traits, and because of an intercity location, it is always under constant threat. One way it can be affected is via external threats. External threats can impact many ethnic neighborhoods. They can disrupt the established customs residents are used to.

One such example is the migration of new people with different cultural heritages. Because Chinatown is in a mid-city location, people are constantly moving and entering the area. In the future, it is possible that a new group of people will move into what is now china town. Western business like Walgreens, target, and Wal-Mart disrupt the local culture. They introduce modern conveniences that the neighborhood may not have had before. Although many of those stores had signs in Chinese, it doesn’t change the effect the stores had on the neighborhoods.

While external threats are a looming danger, they are not the only threat. Internal threats also can compromise the established local structure. There are many internal threats prevalent as well. As people live life in the U. S, or experience other culture, they may want to integrate the new culture into their own. One such example is with kids. When kids go to school, they meet people of other cultures, and beliefs. Over time, they may think that an aspect of their beliefs is better than their own. This can cause a recession in the local culture of an area. Another internal threat is that of movement.

As kids grow older they may get bored of their surroundings and decide to move out. When people move, buildings generally become open for sale, and often for low prices. These vacancies are enticing to many people who are seeking a home. This can greatly disrupt a neighborhood, as suddenly what was previously a Chinese neighborhood, is now half polish. One last example is with oriental Chinese food. Asian dishes are generally spicy, with many herbs. People often change recipe to fit the American palette. Over time Chinese-American may come to enjoy the new Americanized flavor more.

Chinatown has many cultural traits that set it apart from neighboring areas; however there is always a looming threat of internal and external threats to its culture. People can move in, American businesses can set shop and disrupt the traditions, but people can also move out, or take aspects of other cultures and integrate them into their own. The local culture of an ethnic neighborhood is always under threat, in the modern world. Placelessness s used to describe areas with no distinctive features. Many areas are combating this by building houses with older, less modern styles, to differentiate them from all the new houses.

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What Is Geography

What is Geography Week 2 Geographic Thought and History I have always thought that geography was the study of land, how it was formed and where it will be in years to come. I have realized that there is more to geography than this. A literal translation of geography would be “to describe or write about the Earth” (“What is Geography: 2012). The first person to use the word “geography” was Eratosthenes, who was an ancient Greek. Geography has been called “the world discipline” and “the bridge between the human and the physical science”(Sullivan 2000).

There is human geography, physical geography, Marxist geography and also feminist geography. Human geography is a branch of the social sciences that studies the world, its people, communities, and cultures and has an emphasis on relations of space and place. Human geography differs from physical geography mainly in that it has a greater focus on studying human activities and is more open to qualitative research methodologies (“What is Geography “ 2012).

Physical geography is that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like heatmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography (“What is Geography “ 2012). This is the geography that most people think of. There is also is a type of critical geography that uses the theories and philosophy of Marxism to examine the spatial relations of human geography.

In Marxist geography, the relations that geography has traditionally analyze such as natural environment and spatial relations are reviewed as outcomes of the mode of material production (“What is Geography “ 2012). As I mentioned previously there is also feminist geography which is an approach in human geography which applies the theories, methods and critiques of feminism to the study of the human environment, society and geographical space (What is Geography” 2012).

What I find most interesting is the discipline of cartography, which is the mapping of the world. I find it interesting on how they could design a map in the ancient era and actually use it for exploration. Maps started out as two dimensional charts to what we use now, Google earth. In the late 20th century, advances in electronic technology have led to further revolution in cartography.

Specifically computer devices such as computer screens, plotters, printers, scanners (remote and document) and analytic stereo plotters along with visualization, image processing, spatial analysis and database software, have democratized and greatly expanded the making of maps, particularly with their ability to produce maps that show slightly different features, without engraving a new printing plate (Sullivan 2000).

Websites such as Google Earth use Google Earth which is simply based on 3D maps, with the capability to show 3D buildings and structures (such as bridges), which consist of users’ submissions using SketchUp, a 3D modeling program software. The technology that is used is pretty amazing even to the point that these types of features are used in the military to pinpoint certain targets. Works Cited

Department of Geography and Environmental Resources, “What is Geography. ” Last modified 2012. Accessed October 3, 2012. National Geographic, “What is Geography. ” Last modified 2012. Accessed October 4, 2012. http://education. nationalgeographic. com/education/media/what- Sullivan, Dan (2000). “Mapmaking and its History”. Rutgers University. Retrieved 10/3/2012 from http://www. math. rutgers. edu/~cherlin/History/Papers2000/sullivan. html.

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Brazil Geography and Culture

Brazil: Geography and Culture Geography Brazil with a background of Portuguese colonialism back in 1500 is the largest nation in Latin America, nearly half (47%) of the South American continent, comprises slightly under half of the land mass in South America continent and share border with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador. Brazil size is almost the size of United States excluding Alaska. Brazil has 13 cities with over one million residents.

The main capital is Brasilia, Brazil has 13 cities with over one million residents. Three important cities in Brazil including Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Salvador. Brazil is a diverse country with ethnic groups including: 54% European, 39% mixed European-African, 6% Africa, 1% other. The physical environment in each region determined the types of crops grown or the resources extracted and this, in turn, influenced the populations that settled there and the social and economic systems that developed.

Brazil’s economic history, in fact, has been marked by a succession of cycles, each one based on the exploitation of a single export commodity: timber (brazilwood) in the first years of colonization; sugarcane in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; precious metals (gold) and gems (diamonds) in the eighteenth century; and finally, coffee in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Northeast Region has about 53. 6 million people, which represents 28% of the total number in the whole country.

Most of the population lives in the urban area, althourgh, about 15 million people lives in the sertao. Its famous in Brazil by its hot wheather, beautiful beaches, rich culture, the sertao and to be the birthplace of the country. The biggest cities are Salvador, Fortaleza and Recife, which are the regional metropolitan areas of the Nordeste, all with a population above a million inhabitants. The Central-West Region is composed of the states of Goias, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; along with Distrito Federal (Federal District), where

Brazil’s national capital, Brasilia, is situated. This Region is right in the heart of Brazil, representing 18. 86% of the national territory. The Southeast Region of Brazil is composed by the states of Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. It is the richest region of the country, responsible for approximately 60% of the Brazilian GDP. The Southern Region of Brazil is one of the five administrative regions of Brazil. It includes the states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576,300. km ? , being the smallest portion of the country. It is a great tourist, economic and cultural pole. It borders Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay as well as the Center-West Region, the Southeast Region and the Atlantic Ocean. The region received large numbers of people European immigrants during the 19th century, who have had a large influence on its demography and culture. The main ethnic groups of Southern Brazil are Brazilians of Italian, Portuguese and German descent.

Today Brazil is justifiably famous for the Amazon River; Carnival in Rio; the beaches of Copacabana and Ipanema; its many champion soccer teams, and of course, for the amazing collection of organized diversity that makes it one of the most significant and important countries on the face of the planet. Brazil Culture The population of Brazil was about 194 million, the sixth largest in the world after China, India, the United States, Indonesia, and the Russian Federation. Despite its large population, Brazil’s demographic density is relatively low.

Although there has been significant population movement into the interior in recent decades, about 80 percent of all Brazilians still live within two hundred miles of the Atlantic coast. Unlike many other Latin American countries where there is a distinct Indian population, Brazilians have intermarried to the point that it sometimes seems that almost everyone has a combination of o European, African and indigenous ancestry. Many original Portuguese settlers married native women, which created a new race, called ‘mestizos’.

Mulattoes’ are descendants of the Portuguese and African slaves. Despite the mixing of ethnicities, there is a class system in Brazil. Class is determined by economic status and skin colour. Few Brazilians could be described as racist, although social discrimination based on skin colour is a daily occurrence. People with darker brown skin are economically and socially disadvantaged. Many senior and middle ranking Brazilian business executives speak excellent English and in fact, many of them may have studied abroad in the USA or Europe.

However, English is not spoken when dealing with people outside the major commercial centres, an ability to speak Brazilian Portuguese is extremely useful. The official language of Brazil is Portuguese; however, there are more than 180 native languages spoken in the country. It is also important to note that Brazil is the only country in South America whose dominant language and culture comes from Portugal. Aside from a small number of recently contacted indigenous peoples, all Brazilians speak Portuguese. Brazilian Portuguese differs somewhat in grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation from the language of Portugal.

Brazilian Portuguese contains a large number of indigenous terms, particularly words for native plants, animals, and place-names are not found in continental Portuguese. While regional accents exist in Brazil, they are not very pronounced and native Portuguese speakers from one region have no difficulty understanding those from other regions. The vast majority of Brazilians are monolingual in Portuguese, although many middle-class and elite Brazilians study English and to a lesser extent Spanish, French, and German.

Brazilians are very proud of their linguistic heritage and resent that many foreigners, particularly North Americans, think Brazilians speak Spanish. However, anybody wishing to do business with Brazil and the Brazilians should be aware of the various cultural and structural barriers, which might confront them. Probably the most pervasive barrier encountered by the unwary traveller would be the ‘Custo Basil’ or the ‘Brazil Cost’. This term refers to the very real extra costs of doing business in Brazil — corruption, governmental inefficiency, legal and bureaucratic complications, excessive taxation, poor infrastructure, inflation etc.

Although this ‘costa’ is difficult to define and has lessened in recent years, it remains real and the cause of great frustration for international business people. Due to this ‘Custo Brasil’, it is important to work closely with local lawyers and accountants. Many people have found the services of local intermediaries (despachante) extremely useful in overcoming many of the unfathomable local complexities. The official religion in Brazil is Roman Catholic; there are more Catholics in Brazil than in any other country in the world. As with any other country in the world, Brazil is a melting pot of different religions.

In fact, due to the diversity of its cultures and its heritage, this country boasts an array of religious ideals and affiliations. Interestingly, recent censuses have revealed that around 90% of the Brazilian population subscribe to some religious ideal, making it more religiously inclined than any other South American country. Only around 1% of its population do not believe in a God, or a supreme being in some form or another. Catholicism was introduced to Brazil when the European settlers arrived with the aim of ‘civilising’ the local native people.

They built churches and brought religious leaders into the country to teach young and old alike the doctrines of Catholicism. During the 19th century, Catholicism was made the official religion of Brazil. This meant that Catholic priests were paid a salary by the government, including them in the political affairs of the country. As such, Catholicism became an integral part of the management and administration of Brazil and its people. Many of the Brazilian festivals are based on the Catholic religion.

Other religions (non-Christian origin) includes Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, Jehovah’s Witnessm Shinto, Rastafarian, Candomble, Umbanda and 1% of its population do not believe in God or supreme being in some form or another. Why Brazil? With a population of 194 million, Brazil represents the fifth largest market opportunity in the world after China, India, Indonesia and United States of America. It is also the fifth largest country in the world by geographic size. Not only that, Brazil is a land of rich in natural resources such as iron ore, bauxite, manganese, nickel, uranium, gold, gemstones, oil and timber.

Combine these facts with the stabilising economic and political landscape, this is why Brazil attracts a higher percentage of total global foreign direct investment every year. So, as with many countries, the opportunities are there and they are real but, it is essential to understand the local business landscape if want to do business in Brazil. Regardless in what sector banking, computing or pharmaceuticals, local knowledge is important. Today, Brazil has one of the largest economies in the Americas and is the largest in South America. References: 1. http://geography. bout. com/od/specificplacesofinterest/a/geographyofbraz. htm 2. http://www. justbrazil. com/site/index. php? option=com_content&view=article&id=94&Itemid=119 3. http://geography. about. com/od/brazilmaps/a/brazilfacts. htm 4. http://www. brazil. org. za/brazil-culture. html 5. http://www. everyculture. com/Bo-Co/Brazil. html#b 6. http://www. mapsofworld. com/south-america/culture/brazil. html 7. http://www. worldbusinessculture. com/Brazilian-Business-Communication-Style. html 8. http://www. brazil. org. za/religion. html

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An Analysis of the Geography of Witchcraft

Benjamin C. Ray wrote “The Geography of Witchcraft Accusation in 1692 Salam Village” in order to imply that geographic analysis of the witchcraft accusation, economic, religious as well as social status shows there was no significant east-west division within Salam Village. In the article, Ray points out that the map included in Salam Possessed is not only interpretive but also incomplete.

He states that there was an inconsistency in giving a numerical count of accusers and accused in the village. Moreover, he questions about the setting of the demarcation line at the center of the map. Ray also offers a revised map of the accusation due to incorrect number of accuser and accused and intended exclusion of eight afflicted girls and the five villagers. From the revised map, Ray reveals that there is no significant division.

Conversely, Boyer and Nissenbaum stated that inclusion of the eight afflicted girls would not significantly change the geographic pattern because they were not “decisive shapers” and also six of eight were not living in the parents’ house during the witchcraft outbreak. Although Boyer and Nissenbaum provided a wide range of information related to the accusation, they failed to present data as given in sources and convincing explanations. Apparently, they intended to show the division in the Village by looking at the map.

However, Ray not only indicates errors contained in the map but also reveals the different possible interpretation which can be drawn conclusion from the revised map. I believe the use of the map for illustrating the east-west division of the witchcraft accusation in inappropriate. for omission of accusers and location of the demarcation line, and Boyer and Nissenbaum introduced idea of geographic distribution in the patterns of witchcraft accusation in the first chapter of Salem Possessed.

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Geography Study Guide

Terms| Definitions| Pacific island groups:| Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia| (Pacific) Micronesia means-| small islands| (Pacific) Melanesia means-| black islands| (Pacific) Polynesia means-| many islands| (Pacific) Divided into high islands and low islands based on-| physical characteristics| High Islands-| mountains created by tectonic forces, volcanoes and earth quakes| Low Islands-| coral reef| Coral Reef-| formed from living coral polyps accumulating over time| (Pacific) Natives| aren’t sure how they got there| WW11 caused-| not much attention| U. S. sed marshal islands for-| nuclear testing- Bikini Atoll| Trust Territories (Pacific)| territories supervised by another nation| Pacific have low or high standard of living? | low| Pacific cash crops| rubber, coffee, sugarcane in high islands of Melanesia and Polynesia| (P) what is growing rapidly? | tourism| Antarctica is larger than… | Australia| (A) Discovered-| last 1820s| (A) Is the highest or lowest continent? | highest| (A) land is feet below sea level| 280 ft| Park ice of icebergs and| ice surrounds the continent and ice shelves| Ross ice shelf reached in| 1840s| A) 1st explorer set foot in-| 1895| 1961 what was signed? | Antarctic treaty by 12 countries| (A) Treaty was renewed in-| 1989 with 28 more countries adding to treaty| (Au) is the blank largest country-| 6th| (AU) is about the size of-| U. S. | Block rain-| great dividing range| Longest river in the east-| Murray river| Outback-| central and western plains and plateaus| (AU) population-| about 19 million| (AU) where does most of the population live? | Eastern and southeastern coast| (AU) Low or high standard of living| high| 1st Australians| Aborigines|

Who killed, infected, and drove of Aborigines? | Europeans| Claimed AUS for UK| Captain James cook| (AU) most immigrants come from-| pacific islands and southeast Asia| (AU) climate-| hot and dry| (AU) has more rain-| coastal areas| (NZ) 1,000 miles away from-| Australia| (NZ) has two islands-| North and South islands| (NZ) North Island-| narrow, hilly, central plateau| (NZ) South island-| longer and more mountainous with glaciers lakes and fjords| (NZ) has what type of roots? | Polynesian and European roots| Captain cook landed in NZ in-| 1769|

Maoris-| natives, that have violent contact| (NZ) 1840 was treaty between-| Maoris and UK| Who cut down the forests in the 1800s? | Europeans| half the land of NZ is used for-| pasture| NZ major exports-| wool and kiwi| NZ 75% live on the| north island| NZ Less than 15% live on the| countryside| NZ 85% live on the| urban areas| NZ government is based on-| UK model| NZ 88% of population is of descent? | European descent| NZ significant influence of culture? | Maori| NZ has high or low standard of living? | high|

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Geography – Problem Solving: Flooding

Problem-solving: Flooding I think that the best solution from the Environment Agency is the Upstream Flood Storage. I think this would be the best option because it will stop the town from getting flooded but also, it would be better downstream. The water will be temporarily stored on fields upstream of the town, on farm land. There may be animals on the fields but they can easily be moved out of the way. This could also lead to new wildlife in the area, although also disrupt the wildlife already there. The flood storage reservoir upstream of the town can hold back floodwater’s, and so reduce the maximum flood flow through the town.

A flood storage reservoir remains effective so long as it does not become full of water. Although, if a larger flood occurs, the reservoir fills up and the extra water will flow over the top. One other point is that this will be costly, but could save many businesses and homes from being flooded. I think that the Floodplain Reinstatement (move the town off the flood plain so if the river floods, it won’t matter) is a bad idea because it would be extremely costly and very difficult to persuade the people living in the town to move away. It would be bad for the economy and people would also lose their jobs and businesses in the town.

Although, by moving the town out the way of floods, this would mean that the town will no longer get flooded. By doing this, it will also disrupt the wildlife where the town could be moved. The Bypass channels (building an extra channel to take some of the flood water) also would not be such a good idea because they would just make the flood worse downstream. The water would move very quickly through the town, causing the channel to meet the river where the flood will be at the same time. As a result, this saves the town from being flooded but the flood downstream will be worse.

Also, the channel may not have a lot of water in it all year round so could affect the wildlife in the area. The additional channel capacity (making the channel deeper and wider so it will hold more water) is a good idea as it could stop small floods from taking place. But, if there was to be a big flood then the water could rise over the top leading the town to flood. The secondary defenses (build flood walls to hold the extra water) could also work well for preventing the small floods, but not for a big flood. As a result, the water could still rise over the top of the walls.

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Ap Human Geography Chapter 4 Study Guide

1. Boundary Types (Antecedent, Subsequent, etc. ) a. This concept is important because it shows the relationship between different regions, as well as colonized countries and their colonizers. The different boundary types either create more difficult ways of transportation/trade, or ease transportation/trade, etc. 2. Federal/Unitary/Confederate Governments b. The different types of government are important because they show how a country is being ruled.

It also hints at the type of culture; unitary governments tend to lead more homogenous states than federal, while confederate governments usually break up into several different states, like with Yugoslavia. 3. Supranationalism c. This is important because it is a method of decision making in a multi-national community. Supranationalist groups tie together countries or regions to make trade and money transference easier. (ex: EU) 4. State Shapes (Compact, Elongated, Prorupt, Fragmented, Perforated) d. The different shapes of states are important because each shape has certain benefits and disabilities, some more severe than others.

For example, elongated states, like Chile, have a harder time distributing services that are easy to cover in compact states like Poland. 5. Organic Theory e. This theory is important because it shows that a country is in a state of nature or in a relationship between it and an individual. It is the basis for most colonizing states, such as Great Britain or France, as a means of expanding territory and rule. 6. McKinder’s Heartland Theory f. Basis for Nazi takeover of Europe; stormed throughout other European countries in an attempt to control everyone. 7.

Spykman’s Rimland Theory g. Basis for NATO and CENTO, both organizations aimed at making sure Nazi Germany never got control of the rimland of Eurasia. It is presumed that by preventing this takeover, Nazis would not be able to extend their power any further. 8. Centripetal/Centrifugal h. Forces that pull a nation together (centripetal), or pull it apart (centrifugal); important because it describes either the large homogeneity or unity in a state and how it benefits it, or mass corruption/disagreement. 9. Nation-State, State/Nation, Stateless Nation i.

A Stateless Nation is important because it is a political organization for homogenous people in a sovereign state. When either the state of homogenous nation is taken out, problems tend to arise, often involving conflict over land, government and international recognition. (ex: Kurds) 10. Boundary Disputes j. Important because it shows the relationship between countries; their past may include already-fought wars on boundary placement, and now produces problems concerning labor and money, religion, and politics, etc. (ex: US-Mexico, China-Nepal, Pakistan-India)

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Geography Prelim Notes

Geography Preliminary Exam Outline 20 multiple choice – skills Short Answer Questions – Biophysical Interactions (some or all or how they integrate), population and culture integration. Extended response – Natural resources – one or a combination of the four points Geography Preliminary Notes The Biophysical Environment * The Biophysical Environment is the interaction of all abiotic and biotic elements found on the planet. * Expressed another way the BPE is made up of all the features of the physical and the built environment and how these features interrelate. The BPE is then the interactions, which occur between the Atmosphere, Lithosphere, Biosphere and Hydrosphere. ATMOSPHERE * Atmosphere, mixture of gases surrounding any celestial object that has a gravitational field strong enough to prevent the gases from escaping; especially the gaseous envelope of the earth. The principal constituents of the atmosphere of the earth are nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (21 percent). The atmospheric gases in the remaining 1 percent are argon (0. 9 percent), carbon dioxide (0. 3 percent), varying amounts of water vapour, and trace amounts of hydrogen, ozone, methane, carbon monoxide, helium, neon, krypton, and xenon. * The water-vapour content of the air varies considerably, depending on the temperature and relative humidity. With 100 percent relative humidity the water-vapour content of air varies from 190 parts per million (ppm) at -40° C to 42,000 ppm at 30° C. Minute quantities of other gases, such as ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, are temporary constituents of the atmosphere in the vicinity of volcanoes and are washed out of the air by rain or snow.

Divisions of the Atmosphere: Without our atmosphere, there would be no life on earth. A relatively thin envelope, the atmosphere consists of layers of gases that support life can provide protection from harmful radiation. Issues related to the Atmosphere * Daily weather conditions, climatic conditions (seasonal/short-term/long-term/cyclical) * Global warming, Greenhouse Effect (GHE) * Ozone depletion * Acid rain * Smog, photochemical smog, brown haze * Radioactive fallout Atmosphere Impacts Oxides and other pollutants added to the atmosphere by factories and automobiles have become a major concern, however, because of their damaging effects in the form of acid rain. In addition, the strong possibility exists that the steady increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, mainly as the result of fossil-fuel combustion over the past century, may affect the earth’s climate (for example enhanced Greenhouse Effect). * Similar concerns are posed by the sharp increase in atmospheric methane.

Methane levels have risen 11 per cent since 1978. About 80 per cent of the gas is produced by decomposition in rice paddies, swamps, and the intestines of grazing animals, and by tropical termites. Human activities that tend to accelerate these processes include raising more livestock and growing more rice. Besides adding to the greenhouse effect, methane reduces the volume of atmospheric hydroxyl ions, thereby curtailing the atmosphere’s ability to cleanse itself of pollutants. (for example photochemical smog) Atmosphere – Ozone Depletion

The ozone layer became a subject of concern in the early 1970s when it was found that chemicals known as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), were rising into the atmosphere in large quantities because of their use as refrigerants and as propellants in aerosol dispensers. The concern centred on the possibility that these compounds, through the action of sunlight, could chemically attack and destroy stratospheric ozone, which protects the earth’s surface from excessive ultraviolet radiation. HYDROSPHERE * The hydrosphere refers to all liquid and frozen surface waters, groundwater held in soil and rock, and atmospheric water vapour. Water is the most abundant substance at the surface of the Earth. About 1. 4 billion cubic kilometres of water in liquid and frozen form make up the oceans, lakes, streams, glaciers, and groundwater. * Central to any discussion of the hydrosphere is the concept of the hydrologic cycle. This cycle consists of a group of reservoirs containing water, the processes by which water is transferred from one reservoir to another (or transformed from one state to another), and the rates of transfer associated with such processes.

These transfer paths penetrate the entire hydrosphere, extending upward to about 15 kilometres in the Earth’s atmosphere and downward to depths in the order of five kilometres into the crust. * Although water storage in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere is small, the rate of water circulation through the rain–river–ocean–atmosphere system is relatively rapid. The amount of water discharged each year into the oceans from the land is approximately equal to the total mass of water stored at any instant in rivers and lakes. The biosphere, though primarily H2O in composition, contains very little of the total water at the terrestrial surface, only about 0. 00004 per cent. Yet, the biosphere plays a major role in the transport of water vapour back into the atmosphere by the process of transpiration. Impact of Human Activities on the Hydrosphere * The activities of modern society are having a severe impact on the hydrologic cycle. * Humans alter the natural functioning of the water cycle through quantitative or qualitative changes to the cycle. For example the dynamic steady state is being disturbed by the discharge of toxic chemicals, radioactive substances, and other industrial wastes and by the seepage of mineral fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides into surface and subsurface aquatic systems. Inadvertent and deliberate discharge of petroleum, improper sewage disposal, and thermal pollution also are seriously affecting the quality of the hydrosphere. * Humans alter the quantity of water available through by a range of activities such as the construction of Dams.

Weirs, irrigation schemes, aqueducts, reservoirs, dyke & levee schemes and land reclamation projects. * In more subtle ways humans through enhancing the Greenhouse Effect may be changing regional climates and therefore rainfall patterns within regions. * While large scale dams can mitigate flood damage, provide Hydro-electric energy and reliable water supply they also present significant environmental and ecological costs. * People alter the quality of water in many ways such as through domestic, agricultural, commercial and industrial pollution. The pollution of waterways is classified according to point or non-point pollution. * Pollution in waterways can mean the quality of water is unfit for human consumption (toxic to humans) or of a low enough quality to seriously impact on the ecology of the water system. LITHOSPHERE * The Earth’s outermost rigid, rocky layer is called the lithosphere. It is broken, like a slightly cracked eggshell, into about a dozen separate rigid blocks, or plates. There are two types of plates, oceanic and continental.

An example of an oceanic plate is the Pacific Plate, which extends from the East Pacific Rise to the deep-ocean trenches bordering the western part of the Pacific basin. The North American Plate exemplifies a continental plate. * The upper layer of the lithosphere is termed the crust. * The earth’s crust is comprised of bedrock material in various situ * Rocks are commonly divided into three major classes according to the processes that resulted in their formation.

These classes are (1) igneous rocks, which have solidified from molten material called magma; (2) sedimentary rocks, those consisting of fragments derived from pre-existing rocks or of materials precipitated from solutions; and (3) metamorphic rocks, which have been derived from either igneous or sedimentary rocks under conditions that caused changes in mineralogical composition, texture, and internal structure. * Elements of weathering, erosion and gradational forces over time then shape these rock components into landform.

This is known as the geomorphological process. * Such forces as tectonic plate movement, fluvial action, gradational forces and the action of the wind and sun shape landform features. * Tectonic plates move in three main ways relative to each other. Translation, seduction and convergence (Spreading). The results of this plate movement is often seen as volcanic activity (eruptions, geysers, hot springs) as earthquakes or tremors and in subsidence, land slips and slumping. * Fluvial action is the process of water eroding, transporting and depositing rock material. Wind can erode rock material by blasting, while the sun heating up rock and the rock cooling can break it down in a process call exfoliation. The top three soil issues confronting Australia are; 1. Loss of valuable topsoil due to over-clearing and subsequent erosion 2. Soils salinity – as result of over-clearing and or irrigation rasing the water table and bringing salt to the surface. 3. Acid Sulfate soil exposure – as a result of construction and mining exposing acid sulfates locked up in soil and these sulfates leaching into local waterways. BIOSPHERE The Biosphere is defined as the relatively thin life-supporting stratum of the Earth’s surface, extending from a few kilometres into the atmosphere to the deep-sea vents of the oceans. * The biosphere is a global ecosystem composed of living organisms (biota) and the abiotic (nonliving) factors from which they derive energy and nutrients. * The biosphere can be broken down into segments of abiotic and biotic components, called ecosystems. Oceans, lakes, and wetlands are examples of aquatic ecosystems, while forests, deserts, and tundra are examples of terrestrial ecosystems.

Through these systems, energy flows and chemicals essential to life are cycled in what is known as biogeochemical cycles. * The biosphere itself can be studied as a worldwide ecosystem through which the interconnectedness of all life and life-supporting systems on the Earth can be understood. * The earth’s biodiversity (total known stock of varying species of fauna and flora on the planet) is classified into several major Biomes. Each Biome is made up of a multitude of interconnected and interrelating ecosystems. An ecosystem is defined as the complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and all their interrelationships in a particular unit of space. * An ecosystem can be categorized into its abiotic constituents, including minerals, climate, soil, water, sunlight, and all other nonliving elements, and its biotic constituents, consisting of all its living members. Linking these constituents together are two major forces: the flow of energy through the ecosystem, and the cycling of nutrients within the ecosystem. Cycles within ecosystems which transfer / transform energy and matter are known as the Biogeochemical cycles (eg. Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous etc.. ) * The biosphere supports between 3 and 30 million species of plants, animals, fungi, single-celled prokaryotes such as bacteria, and single-celled eukaryotes such as protozoans. Of this total, only about 1. 4 million species have been named so far, and fewer than 1 percent have been studied for their ecological relationships and their role in ecosystems. * A little more than half the named species are insects, which dominate errestrial and freshwater communities worldwide; the laboratories of systematises are filled with insect species yet to be named and described. Hence, the relationships of organisms to their environments and the roles that species play in the biosphere are only beginning to be understood. BIOPYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Impacts of Humans on the Biophysical Environment * The biosphere supports between 3 and 30 million species of plants, animals, fungi, single-celled prokaryotes such as bacteria, and single-celled eukaryotes such as protozoans. Of this total, only about 1. million species have been named so far, and fewer than 1 percent have been studied for their ecological relationships and their role in ecosystems. * A little more than half the named species are insects, which dominate terrestrial and freshwater communities worldwide; the laboratories of systematises are filled with insect species yet to be named and described. Hence, the relationships of organisms to their environments and the roles that species play in the biosphere are only beginning to be understood. Management Strategies for human impacts on BPE Management strategies can be based on a number of approaches such as reactionary, precautionary or proactive management. * As many issues have multiple causal factors at a variety of scales any successful management strategies must be designed with this in mind. Often the real measure of success of a management strategy is a direct reflection of effectiveness or otherwise of a co-ordinating authority. * An example of this need for a co-ordinated response to management can be seen through reviewing the Murray Darling Basin Commission (MDBC).

This authority must oversee management strategies in literally hundreds of sub-catchments of the Murray Darling river and across local, state and federal levels of jurisdiction. Natural Resources Definition of a Natural Resource A natural resource is any part of the biophysical environment that can be used in some way to satisfy human needs. For example; air, water, forests, minerals. They can either be either RENEWABLE or NON-RENEWABLE. RENEWABLE RESOURCES Renewable resources are those that are naturally renewed within a sufficiently short time span to be useful to human beings.

There are two categories of renewable resources: * Non-critical zone resources * Critical zone resources Non-critical zone renewable resources: * These types of natural resources remain renewable irrespective of how much and how often humans use them * Some examples include solar energy, tides, wing, waves, water and air. Critical zone renewable resources: * These are resources that naturally renew within short periods of time but can be affected by how much and how often humans use them, That is humans use them before they can be renewed. * Examples include fish, forests, animals, soil, underground water (aquifers)

NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES * These are resources that have taken millions of years to form’ * These are resources that are deemed to be in fixed supply that is once they are used they can never be replaced. There are two categories of non renewable resources; * CONSUMED BY USE and * RECYCLABLE OR THEORETICALLY RECOVERABLE Consumed by use Non-renewable * These are resources that once used they can not be replaced. These are basically the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. There are called fossil fuels because they were once living organisms million years ago. * Because of the rate of use in recent times these resources could ace exhaustion. It is predicted that after 2008 that oil will reduce as we have used it up. Recyclable or Theoretically Recoverable Non-renewable * These are the metallic minerals that are mined such as iron ore, aluminum copper, gold, silver etc. These also take millions of years to be created and once used they too cannot be replaced; the significant difference is that these resources can be reused or recycled. Think of aluminum cans or metal scrap yards. What constitutes a resource? For these resources defined earlier several conditions must exist before it can actually become a resource. 1.

It must be recognized as being a resource indirectly or directly. 2. There must be the skills, equipment and social organization present to transform the resource into something useful. 3. The transformation must be achieved at a cost and convenience that make it more appropriate than an alternative. 4. The adverse impacts generated by the activity must be acceptable to society. What a natural resource is, depends on a number of factors; 1. Economic – what is the cost of extraction e. g. , extracting petroleum out of deep-sea deposits is expensive and risky – the deep sea well in the golf of Mexico. 2.

Cultural – What is a resource for one culture might not be for another e. g. Kangaroo meat. 3. Technology – the resource might not be technologically possible at the moment e. g. fusion power 4. Political – governments might promote exploitation of natural resources for strategic, economic & political reasons e. g. the cotton industry in Australia is a result of government policy in the 1960s that wanted to reduce our reliance on imported cotton. 5. Environment and health factors – concerns about the impact on the environment and the health of people and ecosystems may effect the nature and rater if resources exploitation.

Environment + Impact Statements (EIS) are often used to assess the impact on ecosystems of the exploitation of a resource. Economic & political issues related to the use of natural resource, their ownership and management 1. Rate of use: Supply and Demand * Economically, natural resources will be used at a higher rate while that resource is in demand. * If demand is reduced over time it could have economic repercussions for the country that relied on its sale – relevant to the economic well being of many developing countries. They take out large loans to help develop their country based on the performance of selling their natural resources * Once demand decreases their ability to pay back the loan is reduced which then makes the country more in debt. * Money made from selling the resources is used to pay off interest on the loans and little is put back into the country to make it better off. 2. Continued demand for a resource * Can jeopardise economic prosperity due to economically unsustainable practices * Uncontrolled exploitation may jeopardise long term production levels.

A good example of this is fishing. * May cause stocks to be reduced * Threat to the preservation of the fish species * Industry and jobs would be lost * Boat owners would incur increasing debts * Food supplies would be threatened by high prices and limited availability Political Issues 1. Opposing views * Political issues of resource use can arise when competing groups wish to use the same resources. * Countries who dispute ownership of a major resource e. g. the waters of a river that flows through more than one country. * Subgroups within a society

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Empiricism in Geography

For the purpose of this essay I will critically discuss aspects of empiricism and the empirical method and their use in geography. I will discuss these aspects with close reference to a recommended reading for our course by Ward et al (2007). Empiricism is a philosophical idea that experience, which is based on observation and experimentation, is the only source of knowledge. Empiricism believes that the mind is a blank canvas and all knowledge arrives in the mind through the portals that are the 5 senses. It believes that all that we as a race know about the world is what the world wishes to tell us.

Empiricism states that only information garnered using ones senses should be decreed as credible when making a decision An essential characteristic of it is its commitment to the position that all knowledge is dependent on experience.. It is directly in opposition with the fundamental ideas and attitudes associated with another philosophical doctrine, Rationalism. Rationalism champions all knowledge which is gathered through reason as opposed to through the senses. Essentially Rationalism vs Empiricism is a battle of reason vs. experience.

Empiricism has been largely discredited as a discipline in an academic Geographical context but is still widely used in both human and physical geography. The Empirical Method is defined as a method of using a collection of data to form the basis of a theory and essentially form a scientific conclusion. The word empirical means information gained by experience, observation, or experiment. The central theme in scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical which means it is based on evidence. There are two prominent men who are credited with the development of modern empiricism.

Francis Bacon was termed the ‘father’ of empiricism. He deemed that the human mind gained their knowledge only through the senses and that the development of the ability to free the mind of all biases and consciences that could inhibit the truth about certain things. This method was called inductive reasoning. Following Bacon’s death in 1626 other philosophers were free to elaborate on the groundwork he had laid down. One such influential figure was John Locke. Locke believed that from birth human beings are ignorant and all that we know is derived from experience.

It was lock who coined the term synonymous with empiricism, ‘tabula rasa’ which basically means blank slate. The reading from Ward et al (2007) is entitled ‘Living and Working in Urban Class Communities’. It was compiled by Kevin Ward, Collete Fagan, Linda McDowell, Diane Perrins and Kath Ray. All the authors hold esteemed positions in prestigious third level institutes in the United Kingdom, among them the University of Manchester, the University of Oxford and the London School of Economics. This fact alone leads the reader to automatically assume that the reading is a credible piece of work.

All but one author are in the geographical field. Collete Fagan is part of a school of Sociology and therefore she brings a social viewpoint to the table. The reading was completed fully in May 2006 making it 6 years old at present. It focuses on an area of Manchester, England called Sharston. Sharston is a smaller district of the larger Manchester region called Wythenshawe. Sharston is predominately what the reading terms a ‘disadvantaged’ area which suffers from social and economic deprivation. Most of the residents are involved in semi or unskilled work in the local area with low rates of pay.

There are also low levels of home ownership in Wythenshawe and the levels of people who are on permanent sick leave and disability are above average. Also to add onto all of this four in ten people there have no formal qualification. The reading focuses on the way that low income mothers cope in Sharston as they perform paid and unpaid work while at the same time juggling to maintain the social reproduction of the household. Manchester is the 2nd most deprived local authority district according to the 2004 index.

Wythenshawe, where Sharston is located is the most deprived region of Manchester. Therefore, it makes perfect sense that the authors would choose Wythenshawe as the basis for their study. The reading discusses the mass emergence of a working class in Sharston and how most families have to rely on either one and a half or 2 incomes to support themselves financially. A high proportion of women choose to maintain part time hours in employment so that they can be there for their children when they come home from school and begin their caring and nurturing duties within their home.

In the study, it became clear that the majority of women are employed in one of the 5 c’s of employment: cashiering, caring, cleaning, clerical and catering. The researchers gathered their information through the process of 20 interviews with women from the area. These interviews took place in the women’s homes. The interviews were recorded transcribed and analysed. They asked the women to think of their past, present and future and most women were frustrated when they thought of their situation. Questions like here they lived and why they made the decisions they made were asked. The results of the interviews were all recorded in tables. There are six tables present in the paper. The tables were on the following: socio economic indicators of Sharston in comparison with the city region and nation, work performed by participants, summary of statistics of households in Wythenshawe, intergenerational mobility, paid work and the mix of unpaid and paid childcare. The results were illustrated on the paper in said tables. The tables were clear and easily legible, even to the untrained eye.

Upon a quick scan of the figures presented on the tables it was easy to ascertain the direction in which the trend of the women’s answers and other numerical data was going. There were clear links to what the authors outlined they were intending to research in the abstract at the beginning of the paper and to the data contained in the tables. They had spoken about how low income families who were mostly women had to live and depended on their jobs in order to just get by, along with being the primary carers of the children as well.

The authors of this paper clearly use the empirical method throughout their research. Seeing as they all were college educated, their own personal experience of the problems faced by the women in Wythenshawe as regards low income struggles would be low. They would not have had any previous experience of the women in Wythenshawe’s lifestyle. They also collected data from the women and used this to back up their findings which were outlined in the text and represented in table format on the paper.

However, that being said there is an area where this paper would not be on par with the empirical methods approach. As all of the compilers of this paper reside in the United Kingdom, they would have been aware of some of the answers they were going to receive from the women before they received them. In geography it is practically impossible to have completely empirical approach as they would have went in to this paper with some idea of what they were going to meet.

The authors of this article had set out to examine and use statistics to illustrate the area of Wythenshawe in the context of it’s deprived state and the effect its underdeveloped facilities had on the female residents and their families. It set out to investigate the women’s attitudes to Wythenshawe, their home. So it is true to say that they authors had an idea of the response they were going to get and just used the material gathered as a means to statistically illustrate it through empirical methods.

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Geography Synoptic Essay

With reference to examples, assess the degree to which the level of economic development of a country affects planning and management in urban areas. The economic development of a country can be defined as the growth of industry, wealth, employment and the level of urbanisation. The planning and management issues that are linked to economic development, are those associated with processes such as urbanisation, suburbanisation and counter-urbanisation of cities. These may include pollution of water, air and noise.

Other issues may be the increase in transport and waste, created by people living, travelling through and working in urban areas. These problems need solutions, which often leads to planning and carrying out redevelopment of urban areas. The effects of urbanisation on a city can be seen in Sao Paolo, a newly industrialised country in Brazil where housing improvement schemes are evident. Furthermore we can see issues of planning and management in the UK, a more economically developed country, due to increasing re-urbanisation and suburbanisation.

Using these 2 counties of different levels of development, I will be able to eventually assess to what extent the level of economic development will affect planning and management of cities. Urbanisation (the movement of people from rural to built-up areas) in Sao Paolo is increasing rapidly. Being the largest city in the southern-hemisphere, with a population density of 21,000km2, it is constantly growing in size. However the rate of increase is slowing, along with the reduced rural-urban migration and natural increase rates.

The population of central areas is also decreasing; a pattern that mirrors that of cities in more affluent parts of the world. The city was initially increasing in size because it was a ‘centre of agriculture’, with exports including coffee and cotton. The city continues to develop today as an industrial centre with manufacturing and services. These industries offer reliable employment to people living in rural areas where the main industry of agriculture is unreliable. Another pull factor is its temperate climate in comparison to the tropical low-lands surrounding it.

The huge population means that social provisions are of a much higher quality, including education and healthcare. However this movement of people into the city brings its problems, mostly in the variation of quality of life. Although a prosperous city, it does have the highest unemployment rate in Brazil at 5. 3% in August 2012. The contrast between rich and poor is very extreme. A survey of living standards carried out in 2002 revealed that HDI indexes for Sao Paulo varied from the Portuguese national average to Sierra Leone’s (the world’s poorest country. This is reflected by the housing available in the city, from condominiums (luxury housing blocks), to corticos (inner-city dilapidated accommodation) and favelas (illegal slums. ) It was estimated that the sub-standard housing occupies 705? of Sao Paolo, and that 605? of population growth in recent years, has gone straight to the favelas. Not only are these areas unsightly and extremely over-populated at 100,000? , absolute poverty is present. The services and infrastructure are inadequate, with little running water, drainage or rubbish collection and many open sewers causing diseases like cholera and dysentery.

Many are unemployed and try to find work in the informal section of the economy. The pollution in the city is high, with 255? of Brazil’s vehicles circulating Sao Paolo. However, improvements are being made: air quality is improving with the reduction of sulphur dioxide and lead levels, although ozone and carbon monoxide are still of concern. $1 million is spent each day on rubbish collection and with only 2 landfill sites in 2001, there isn’t enough space for all the rubbish created. However, urbanisation is decreasing and urban regeneration is taking place to improve living conditions for those already living there.

Housing improvement schemes are aiding the regeneration of the city. Favelas have been the main target since 1990, when the city- funded community groups allowed families to renovate their existing homes to include electricity. Despite great publicity only 8000 houses were built, which would on average house 40,000 people (in comparison to the 100,000 living in the favelas. ) Improvements have been attempted since, for example in 2000, when investment was put into Santo Andre. The aim was to alleviate poverty by providing work for entrepreneurs, community healthcare workers and literacy programmes.

So although this is an LEDC/RIC, it still faces overpopulation problems; it does seem that the planning and management changes are aiding the over-population problem and improving the overall quality of life. In contrast Notting Hill is in the UK, an economically developed country with an average GDP (ppp) per capita of $35,494 in comparison to $11,719 in Brazil (World Bank 2011). Notting Hil is an area of London, an example of re-urbanisation; when people move into the city centre or inner city due to regeneration.

Gentrification is what has happened in Notting Hill, as individuals moved into old housing that was formerly in a state of despair and refurbished and improved it. This changed the composition of the whole neighbourhood, because the affluent newcomers displaced the low-income groups that formerly lived there. Often the new comers work in professional or managerial jobs. A positive outcome of this is that more affluent people have been attracted to the area and therefore their purchasing power is much greater.

This means that some house prices now rival those of upmarket Mayfair, but it has meant that the area has become more prosperous. The demand for services to meet the needs of these new-comers has meant new bars and restaurants and services of a higher status. In turn this brings employment to the area for those in design, building, decoration etc. Not only is this a hotspot for people such as Stella McCartney, but it is also a popular area for families. There are parks and communal gardens making the area extremely desirable to those who can afford it.

The film ‘Notting Hill’ gave the area huge amounts of publicity, despite the fact that gentrification was well established by this time. There are lots of well known and expensive restaurants that line the streets to accommodate the affluent people coming to the area. These include The Westbourne Pub, the Lazy Daisy Cafe and the Goulbourne Road Area. However, there are negative impacts; unfortunately those who lived here before the gentrification are finding it increasingly difficult to either buy houses or afford the living costs of the ones they already own/ rent – the average house price is ? ,320,599. This also means that private rentals are starting to decline, as more and more properties are purchased. Furthermore the friction between residents and newcomers can cause crime to increase (seen during the 1976 riots. ) An article in the Daily Telegraph by Ross Clark revealed, “Parts of Notting Hill are still run-down and prone to crime. ’ However in general it is clear the Notting Hill is a very desirable area for the people who have sufficient income to live there.

Transport has also been managed in Notting Hill, and this year (2012) the Metropolitan Police would like to restrict the use of roads in specified ‘safety zones’ by both vehicles and pedestrians which in turn would reduce pollution from cars and overcrowding of people. Also London has the famous congestion charge which has recently been extended to Notting Hill at ? 8 on the day or ? 10 on the day, once again reducing pollution and congestion. Equally this area has a tube station and many bus routes, facilitating travel during the ban of cars, and reducing carbon emissions per person.

Waste is also heavily managed in this area with ‘Monash Waste Transfer and Recycling’ which is managed by the City Council. Not only can people dispose of waste and stop it littering and polluting the water and streets, but it also gives residents a chance to recycle, reducing the amount put into landfill, and reducing the amount of unrenewable resources we use. Equally in the U. K. the opposite is also happening with counter-urbanisation, where people migrate to rural areas, often ‘leap-frogging’ the green belt to get away from the pollution and crime that cities are famous for.

This is often families who increase the affluence of an area but unfortunately this means they work in professional or managerial jobs which requires transport links to the city, and services for the whole family within the rural area. For example Crosby in the Isle of Man. The ‘A1’ commuter route has been extended, which although facilitating travel, may also increase congestion and pollution towards the rural area, which almost defeats the point of ‘clean and peaceful living. In addition modern facilities are in demand from the families; extentions, garages etc. A perfect example being the Eyreton Barn Conversions. However, this would provide work for the construction industry within the village, benefiting the local economy. However, the addiction of all these services, including a refurbished play park and BMX track, although necessary for recreation of young people within the village, are arguably expanding what should be a centre of agriculture.

Expansion can also be seen in Ballawattleworth Estate, Peel in the Isle of Man where people are moving from the centre of the city to the outskirts (suburbanisation. ) Once again this has meant the increase in the building of schools. At the Queen Elizabeth II high school a new dining room, classrooms and KS5 learning Centre have been necessary to cater for the increased intake of pupils as more people move to the area. When comparing LEDCs and MDCs it is vital to take into account other, wider issues.

For example LEDCs may have more natural disasters and less revenue to deal with them. In Brazil between 1980 and 2010 there were 146 natural disasters and over 4000 people killed; in the UK there have been 67 with only 751 killed. Therefore planning and managing an urban area which is more prone to natural disaster is going to pose far more problems socially, economically, environmentally and politically. Not only is it more difficult, but the country as a whole can’t afford the damage so has to seek aid from other countries.

A lot of natural disasters are also weather related, for example the floods in Brazil, due to the tropical climate. Located right next to the equator, it is a perfect target for tropical down-pours as the rising condensation comes straight down again as precipitation. Furthermore pollution is a much larger issue in Sao Paolo due to the favelas with open sewers; in the UK clean drinking water and plumbing mean that pollution isn’t an issue. Finally, the health issues created in the favelas mean that healthcare is needed for more people than in the U. K.

This is economically counter-productive for the city as paying more health-care for residents also means less money available for improvement of the areas that need it. Whereas in the U. K. the NHS means healthcare is free, although diseases such as cholera don’t need treatment as working sewers are something we already have. In conclusion, I think it is true that the level of economic development has an impact on planning and management issues. If a country such as Brazil had more money then they would be able to combat poverty and sanitation by demolishing the favelas.

As an MDC we do have the funding to lessen the issues, but in 200 years time Sao Paolo will have developed demographically and moved to stage 4 of the DTM. With a slower increase or stable population they may find regenerating much easier, as there will be less people to cater for. Notting Hill expanded during the 19th and 20th Centuries due to rural to urban migration and by the 1950s slum conditions affected the area and poverty took hold – much like the current state of Sao Paolo. Gentrification and re- urbanisation may occur here too when and if the economy can support it.

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Ap Human Geography Chapter 2 Study Guide

AP Human Geography Chapter 2 Study Guide Terms: population density – a measurement of the number of people per given unit of land ·arithmetic population density – the population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area ·physiologic population density – the number of people per unit area of arable land ·population distribution – description of locations on the Earth’s surface where populations live ·dot maps – maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as population ·megalopolis – term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world ·census – a periodic and official count of a country’s population ·doubling time – time required for a population do double population explosion – rapid growth of worlds human population during the last century ·natural increase – population growth measured as excess of live births over live deaths ·crude birth rate (CBR) – number of live births yearly per thousand people ·crude death rate (CDR) – number of live deaths yearly per thousand people ·demographic transition – multi stage model of changes in population growth in countries undergoing industrialization ·stationary population level (SPL) – level at which national population ceases to grow ·population composition – structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties ·population pyramids – visual representation of age and sex composition of a population ·infant mortality rate (IMR) – describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives ·child mortality rate (CMR) – number of children that die between the first and fifth year of their lives ·life expectancy – how long, on average, a person may be expected to live ·AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ·chronic diseases – long lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies ·expansive population policies – government policies that encourage large families ·eugenic population policies – government policies to favor one racial sector ·restrictive population olicies- government policies to reduce the rate of natural increase Notes ·Change in population is calculated using the following: Global Population Formula – p1 = p0 + b(irths) – d(eaths) Sub-Global Population Formula – p1 = p0 + b – d + i(mports) – e(xports) Net Migration Formula – p1 – p0 + RNI + nm ·Types of population density: arithmetic density, agricultural density, physiological density, urban density, residential density ·Major World Population Centers – China, India, Russia, Central Europe, Asia, Northeast Africa, Northeast U. S. ·Overpopulation – a generally undesirable condition where an organism’s numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat

Malthus’s Theory, though incorrect, states population rate increases geometrically and the rate of food increase grows arithmetically. ·Demographic Transition Model (http://www. main-vision. com/richard/demographic. htm) Stage 1: Stage one of the demographic transition model is the most primitive of the stages where there is a high fluctuating birth and death rate. Because of this there is no great population growth. These countries or even tribes have very basic living standards such as those in the Amazon rainforest where they hardly have any education, medicaments or birth rates such that population is based on food supply, health of tribe members etc.

Other factors involved are no family planning therefore many children or because of the faith of the people which may look at large families as a sign of verility etc. Stage 2: In this stage of the demographic transition model there are a lot of births, however the death rate has gone down to about 20/1000 infants who die. This results in a rise in population due to the fact that more infants are surviving. Reasons for which more people may be surviving may be better health care, improved sanitation such as water etc, more transport and medical care as well as inventions relating to this. In other words this stage involves a slight modernisation in health care raising people’s living standards as well as there life expectancy.

Stage 3: Stage three is the stage at which there is already a low death rate as well as a declining birth rate therefore leading to a slight increase in population. The reason for the fall in births may be due to family planning, better education, lower infant mortality rate, a more industrialised way of life and the want for more material possesions as well as women being able to go out to work. In other words these countries are in the final stages of becoming like the western countries such as the states and those in Europe. Stage 4: Stage four is the one at which Switzerland is. There is a stable population whithout much change because both the death and birth rate are low and in some cases there are more deaths than births therefore leading to a possible stage five. Possibly a stage five? A country such as Sweden is currently entering into the negative growth rate meaning that there are less births than deaths so that the country’s population size is decreasing leading to problems which will be discussed later on this page. ·A population pyramid, also called an age structure diagram, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing. ·There is a predicted stage 5 of population growth that will level off at 10 billion people. The world’s population will progressively increase until it ultimately reaches this point. ·Geography of health is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care. Epidemiological transition is a phase of development witnessed by a sudden and stark increase in population growth rates brought about by medical innovation in disease or sickness therapy and treatment, followed by a re-leveling of population growth from subsequent declines in fertility rates. The epidemiological transition model represents the developments resulting from epidemiological transition (disease and treatment). ·The People’s Republic of China has pursued anti-natalist policies, notably the ‘one-child’ strategy, for over a decade. While anti-natalist government policies may be instrumental in lowering birth rate, state coercion may have unexpected and damaging results; reports in 1995 suggested that abortion of female children had become common in China, so that male : female sex ratios at birth had become grotesquely imbalanced.

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Gcse Geography Paper

GCSE Geography Assessment: ————————————————- Investigate the extent to which Meadowhall could be described as “environmentally friendly”. By Emma Fitzpatrick 10R Introduction “Investigate the extent to which Meadowhall can be described as environmentally friendly” The centre was first opened on the 4th September 1990. The 80 acre site was and still is a Brownfield site which means you can build on this land. With a floor area of 1,500,000sq ft, it is the seventh largest shopping centre in the U. K. With over 280 stores, the centre attracted 19. million visitors in its first year of opening, and now attracts about 30 million visitors a year. It took two years to clear the land of waste, and there was 100,000 tonnes of waste from the toxic site by the River Don. The main reason the centre is so successful is because of its location. The centre id located at junction 34 off the motorway-“The M1 is the lifeline to Meadowhall. ” Meadowhall can be extremely busy in the run up to Christmas, and the January sales. There can be up to 140,000 visitors at Christmas just the day after Boxing Day. The reason I have chosen to investigate Meadowhall is because it is local.

Analysis-positives Meadowhall is one of the largest out of town shopping centres in the U. K, and it could be described as “environmentally friendly” because it was the first U. K shopping centre to develop an on-site recycling facility. The recycling centre was opened in 2006 and has been ongoing for the past 6 years. The centre recycles 97% of waste from retailers and customers, with the remaining 3% going to incineration; no waste goes to landfill. The waste is sorted into paper, plastic, cardboard, cans etc. by a conveyor belt system to separate out the different types of waste.

Also they have set up lots of initiatives and measures to give people other sustainable transport to get to and from Meadowhall, for example: * Cycling initiatives- including bike-safe training, biker user group for Meadowhall employees (BUG ME) and Dr. Bike; * Free fuel for electric cars; * Personalised travel information for busses, trams and trains; * Adult and family cycle training launched march 2008- offering free training for employees; * The Passenger Transport Interchange. Primary benefits for the staff: * Last year on average 5 employees per month switched to sustainable travel modes.

In terms of staff only 20% use a car to drive to work; * 55% of employees use public transport, 16% car share, while 7% cycle, walk or use motorcycles; * In terms of visitors, public transport has increased by over one percentage point while the number of visitors driving indicates a significant level of car sharing at 16%; * 400 staff last year requested a personal travel plan. Secondary benefits: * Helps to aid the reduction of local traffic congestion; * Improves access for staff and visitors- more time working and shopping and less time queuing in traffic; * Reduces carbon footprint for staff and visitors.

Also Meadowhall has its own public transport interchange, making it the only shopping centre in the U. K that combines a bus, rail and tram interchange as well as making it the centre easily accessible to both the local region and the rest if the country. The “catchment” area is a one hour drive which covers an area as far as north as Harrogate, south as Leicester, east as Hull and Grimsby and as far west as Manchester. There are approximately 25 million visitors each year. And since the PTI has been added to the centre, it has the best public transport services of any shopping centre in the U. K. lso because most people use the M1 to travel to Meadowhall, it actually saves fuel than going on the back roads through the country side, because if you travel at a constant speed on the M1, you won’t use as much petrol and it won’t take as long, because on the country roads there usually is a lot of turns and corners which might take longer than just going on a straight road whit very little corners. Also it’s not good for small towns because of the congestion charge. Another positive is that they spent ? 50 million pounds on improvements, bins and air-con. However this is also a negative impact as well.

One of the most recognisable positive impacts is the large windows which let’s in a lot of natural light in so in the summer they don’t have thousands of lights on but, they let in a lot of heat as well so they have to use air-con (which can be seen as a negative impact). And in the winter they are helpful because they let heat in so they don’t have to turn on the heaters. Although, when it’s dark/night they turn the lights on the outside of the building on even when Meadowhall isn’t open, so that can be seen as a negative impact too. Also there is a bore-hole that they use to collect water from beneath the Earth.

The water from the bore-hole is collected into a giant master tank. All the storage tanks are connected onto a “network” which ensures 90-95% of all water used by customers and retailers for flushing toilets is derived from rainwater harvesting or bore-hole water. Meadowhall began harvesting rainwater in 2006. Four giant water storage tanks collect rainwater and condensation from air conditioning. This is then used throughout the shopping centre for cleaning, flushing toilets and watering the external landscape areas. Also the cost of water to Meadowhall has decreased since this movement has been put in place.

One of the other positives about the transportation is that they have a free electric car charging port so people can charge their cars. In addition to the cycling initiatives, Meadowhall is encouraging people from Winkobank and Tinsley to either walk or cycle to Meadowhall with the network of paths that have been placed. Also, they encourage more people to use public transport by having cheap deals sold exclusively within the centre for bus, tram and train. Plus only 20% of the staff at Meadowhall uses their car to travel to the centre, and the remaining 80% use other forms of public transport (refer to figure 5. ). Also, more than half of the bags I have collected for my survey about whether shops use bags that can be recycled or could not be recycled(refer to figure 4). Analysis-negatives Furthermore, there are some negative impacts to Meadowhall. For example: * 87% of shoppers travel by car and only 13% by public transport; * They don’t advertise how environmentally friendly Meadowhall is; * They have over 12,000 free car parking spaces which means more people will chose to travel by car; * Although they do have Electric car charging ports, there sn’t any sign posts to tell/show people where they are; * They turn the lights on at night even when it’s not open,(however they do use low energy light bulbs). Transport Although Meadowhall has plenty of initiatives to try and persuade people to use public transport to go to Meadowhall, only 13% are using it to get to and from Meadowhall. And I think this is because of all the free car parking spaces, so if they charged people to use the car parking spaces, more people might use the bus, train, tram etc to travel to Meadowhall.

Also if there were sign posts to show where the electric car charging ports it might encourage more people to use/have an electric car because if every shopping centre had a car charging port they might be able to make more money to make that centre more environmentally friendly. Also the M1 is a negative because most people are using their cars to travel to Meadowhall, than using public transport, which causes more pollution. Refer to figure 6. 3. Windows Even though the windows are very environmentally friendly they do let a lot of heat in which means they turn on the air-con which uses a lot of energy.

Environment Even though Meadowhall has put many initiatives together to make the centre more environmentally friendly they don’t advertise the environmentally friendly it is –internet, TV, and the website. I think that if they did decide to advertise the eco friendly side of Meadowhall, they might encourage other shopping centre’s to do the same thing. And compared to the Trafford centre, Meadowhall doesn’t seem very environmentally friendly. Refer to figure 6. 2. Water Butt

Although they harvest a lot of rain water and water from the bore-hole, they only use 35% of it, so 65% is wasted. The Trafford Centre The Trafford centre is also environmentally friendly like Meadowhall because they also have many initiatives in place, and hoping to put in place. For example: * They want to divert 100% of the waste from the centre to not got to landfill sites; * To install sensor lights in the corridors, to cut down on wasted energy; * Switching to LED lighting systems which use a fraction of the power to the older system; * Halving the length of time heir automatic taps run, from 10 seconds to 5 seconds, saving 350,000 litres per year; * Limiting the length of time their Christmas decorations are switched on; * Cutting the amount of time their escalators, plasma screens and lightings are switched on; * Following a greener office policy which encourages all staff to switch off lights and computers that are not needed. Also compared to Meadowhall, the Trafford centre is more environmentally friendly because they advertise how eco friendly they are, and they have put more initiatives in place than Meadowhall to cut down the amount of energy they are using.

The Trafford Centre – Recycling Since 2009, the Trafford centre declared its ambition to be the greenest shopping centre in the UK. The environmental services department comprises more than 34% of the Trafford centre’s staff, and each processes more than 100 tonnes of waste each week – since October 2010 100% of the overall waste has been diverted from landfill. Currently they recycle a host of materials; these include: * Cardboard; * Scrap metal; * Glass; * Paper; * Magazines; * Food waste; * Plastic bottles; * Coat hangers;

Since 2006 they have continuously improved the percentage of waste that has been diverted from landfill. For 2009 hey diverted 58%. For 2010 they diverted 70% and for 2011 they hope to have achieved 85%. The centre was awarded the environmental award at the Trafford Business awards, the centre achieved gold standard in the “Business Tidy Awards”, and the Sceptre award for Environmental Best Practise. Conclusion In conclusion I would say that Meadowhall can be described as “environmentally friendly” because since 2006, they have put 6 travel initiatives in place so visitors can use a more sustainable use of transport o get to and from Meadowhall they have their own recycling plant, bore-hole, four giant water storage tanks, and they have large bay windows that let in light instead of using thousand of lights. However, there are more things that can be done to make Meadowhall more environmentally friendly is by advertising hoe eco friendly they are, turning the outdoor lights off at night and encouraging more people to use public transport. My Consumer Choices

Usually I would rather go to Meadowhall than go to my local area (i. e. Town) partly because Meadowhall has a more range of shops like H&M and River Island which my local area doesn’t. I typically buy clothes and bags from Meadowhall because there are more shops which are larger than the ones in my local area, where I typically get school things like school clothes and equipment because there are more school shops in my local area and more stationary shops as well.

Normally I either get my parents to take me and bring me back home if I’m only going with one or two friends but if I’m meeting a group of friends I find it easier to get there by going on the train with them but I think I should try and use the train more because its less pollution than getting one of my parents to take me. I very rarely take my own carrier bags because I most of the time I don’t buy very much. I think by asking my parents to take me has a knock on affect because every time I ask them to take me to Meadowhall I’m increasing the amount of pollution in the air even though I’m not even driving.

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Geography Teaching Methods: Why Should Geography

The  term  geography  refers  to  the  study  of  the  location  and  distribution  of  living  things  and  the  earth features  among  which  they  (The  World  Book,  2001).

It  describes  its  physical  features,  resources, climate,  soils,  plants,  animals,  and   peoples  and  their  distribution. Geography,  in  general,  has  several objectives. The  main  objective  of  the  geography  subject  is  to  develop  awareness  of  the  relation between  nature  and  the  man­made  environment. It  provides  the  basis  for  understanding  population development  and  the  distribution  of  resources,  explaining  similarities  and  differences  and  discussing change  processes.

It  shall  also  contribute  to  understanding  and  mastering  the  great  amount  of information  in  our  time. Therefore,  this  paper  discuses  the  view  that  geography  as  a subject should be made a core subject. To  begin  with,  geography  provides  the  basis  for  understanding  population  development  and  the distribution  of  resources,  explaining  similarities  and  differences  and  discussing  change  processes. The subject  also  gives  insight  into  how  natural  resources,  weather  and  climate  have  provided  the  basis  for the  settlement  and  development  of  communities.

Furthermore, Geography also creates understanding of why  resources  are   important  for  global  production,  division  of  labour and  settlement. Population development  and  global  economic  processes  influence  economic  development  and  the  global distribution  of  goods. The  Geography  subject  provides  an  overview  and  explains  the  localisation  of cities  and  the  scope  of  natural  and man­made conditions on earth (Tunney, 1976). Therefore, it is wise enough  that  the  government  should  design   a  curriculum  that  considers  geography  as  a core subject just like English as it is in Malawi.

The  other  thing  is  that,  looking  at  its  objectives? Geography  subject  is  contributing to the understanding and  mastering  the  great  amount of information in these days. More knowledge motivates and stimulates the  ability  to analyse critically and understand comprehensively. This can give  the pupils a good basis for participating  in  the  development  of  society  in  a  constructive  way. An  important  objective  of  the geography  subject  is  also  to  develop  the  pupils’  ability  to  be  tolerant  and  understand  their  global co­responsibilities.

This  only  shows  that  Geography  has a wider range in the sense that it draws largely from  the  natural  sciences  and  social  sciences,  such  as,  geology,  meteorology,  botany,  zoology, economics, and history. In  addition,  in  order  to  improve  geographic  understanding  to  the  general  public:  Increased  research attention  is  given  to  certain  core  methodological  and  conceptual  issues  in  geography  that  are especially relevant  to  society’s  concerns. More  emphasis  should  be  placed  on  priority­driven,  cross­cutting projects.

Increased emphasis  should be given to research that improves the understanding of geographic literacy,  learning,  and  problem  solving  and the roles of geographic information in education and decision making,  including  interactive  learning  strategies  and  spatial  decision  support  systems. This  helps  the government  to  manage  and  run  its affairs  with  the  intention  of  developing  them. Therefore,  through geographical  knowledge, one is able to operate in several departments of the government hence meeting the full utilization of limited resources a country could have.

What  is  more,  the  government  and/or  the  non­governmental  organization  should  take  part  in  the improvement  of  geographic  literacy. Geography education standards and  other guidelines for improved geography  education  in  the  schools  should  be  examined  to  identify  subjects  where  geography’s current knowledge  base  needs  strengthening. A  significant  national  program  should  be  established  to  improve the  geographic  competence  of  the  republic  of  Malawi’s  general  population  as  well  as  of  leaders  in business,  government,  and  non­governmental interest groups at all levels.

In addition, linkages should be strengthened  between  academic  geography  and  users  of  its  research. Also  concerned  and  non concerned  parties  need  to  strengthen  geographic  institutions. Since  geography  has  a  wider  range  in its operation,  a  high  priority  should  be  placed  on  increasing professional interactions between geographers and  colleagues  in  other  sciences. A  specific  effort  too,  should  be  made  to  identify  and  address disparities  between  the  growing  demands  on  geography  as  a  subject  and  the  current  capabilities  of eography  to  respond  as  a  scientific  discipline. A specific effort should be made in order to identify and examine  needs  and  opportunities  for  professional  geography  to  focus  its  research  and  teaching  on certain  specific  problems  or  niches,  given  limitations  on  the  human  and  financial  resources  of  the discipline. University  and  college  administrators  should  alter  reward  structures  for  academic geographers  to  encourage,  recognize,  and  reinforce  certain  categories  of  professional  activity  that  are sometimes  underrated.

To  encourage  implementation  of  these  recommendations:  Geographic  and related  organisations  should   work  together  to  develop  and  execute  a  plan   to  implement  the recommendations in this department. Lastly,  it  should  be  mentioned,  however,  that  geography  being  a  multi­dimensional  subject  that  is,  it encompasses  several  subjects or disciplines. The case of History, History and History Teaching  play an important  role  in  developing  national  identity.

Against  the  background  of  ethnic,  cultural  and  national conflicts  in  South  Eastern  Europe  history   teaching  was  often  used  as  a  tool  for  promoting  nationalistic ideologies. History  textbooks  have,  in  many  cases,  been  dominated  by biased historical interpretations. Sensitive  historical  issues  and  groups,  such  as  the  history  of  social  and  ethnic  minorities,  the  history  of neighbouring  countries  have  often  been  excluded  from  the  textbooks.

Therefore,  history  education  in South  Eastern  Europe  has  been  identified  as  a  key  issue  for  the  reconciliation  and  democratisation process  and  thus  for  long­term   stability in  the region by many key actors at expert and political level(De Blij, 1993). In  conclusion,  it  is  a  matter  of   concern  that  the  majority  of  students  in  the  school  complete  their geographical  education  at  a young age. They are normally given the chance to choose the subjects to be studied  in  order  to  acquire  their  certificate  at  the  end  of  their  first  year  of  post­primary  education.

It  is usually  5­8 subjects inclusive of English. It is reported by school management that appropriate guidance and  consultation  with  parents  informs  this  choice  process,  it  is  of  concern  that  subject  choices made at such  an  early  stage in post­primary education could have a significant impact  on  subject choice at senior cycle  and  on  career  paths  or  access  to  third­level education. It is, therefore, recommended that school management  consider  restructuring  the  curriculum  at  junior  cycle  to  widen  the range of core subjects to include  Geography.

In   the  case  of  Malawi,  English  is  a  compulsory  subject  of  all  students  to  Junior Certificate level. REFERENCES De Blij, H. J. (1993). Human Geography: Culture, Society, and Space. (4th Ed. ). Singapore:                       John Willey . The World book Encyclopedia(2001) “The_History_of_Geography_&_its_importance. ” 123HelpMe. com. 11 Apr 2012 . Sheila  L. C. (2004). Globalization  and  Belonging:  The  Politics  of  Identity  in  a  Changing World. Boston: Rowman .