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Why You Want to Join

Welcome parents and guardians. My name isaosfh. I am a student in Ib. Ib is an intense academic program that prepares students for success in university and life in general. Every one of us has goals that they want to accomplish and succeed; Ib helps push our limits and inspires us to reach those goals. Being in high school is different compared to middle school. It has it’s ups and downs. At times the homework load is heavy, and at times it’s not. However, with the right time management and organization skills your child will be just fine.

Organization is an important skill you need not only in school but through out life. During middle school you only had one or two assignments you needed to complete, but high school is very different. If you don’t organize your time well, you will be stressed out from the homework load. During the first three weeks when school began, it was a big shock. It felt as if I had lost my social life, and was spending hours staying up late trying to complete projects.

This was because I had bad work habits and left everything to the last minute. Because of my disorganization, my marks weren’t as high as they could be, and I wasn’t living up to my full potential. Then one day my teacher explained to us of things we could do to create more time for ourselves. The main thing she kept saying over and over was organization. So slowly, I started to improve my work habits. My first step was using my agenda.

It is now my best friend, with it I know exactly what homework we have and I can record the time periods for how long I want to work on the assignment. Instead of doing the assignment all at the last minute, I’ve started breaking it up into little pieces. I am now not as overwhelmed, and I know I’m working harder then ever. By organizing my time I have eliminated any distractions I had in the past, and complete my homework it on time and with care. I now work more efficiently and am able to accomplish tasks. I also have regained my social life!

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Senior Privileges

In the past, my high school gave more privileges to the seniors, although they have taken the privileges away from the seniors every year one by one. Currently, the only privileges seniors have over the underclassmen are leaving five minutes early for lunch and having the senior courtyard for lunch. We believe seniors should have more privileges or benefits than the school gives to us. After EHS took away senior privileges like going off-campus for lunch and leaving class five minutes early, students rebelled and started to sneak out for lunch saying they have Career Center or GHS third block.

Although the administration started to notice the students coming back after thirty minutes, the students started to be dismissed to continue going off-campus for lunch. The problem with not leaving class early is that students began sneaking out of class and detention numbers increased because sneaking out is not allowed. The senior class can relate to this issue and would like to go off-campus for lunch and leave class five minutes early. The future upcoming seniors would also like the same privileges. The current seniors have looked forward to senior benefits since being a freshman.

By the time the freshmen class finally reached senior status all of the privileges the previous seniors had gained were taken away due to misjudgment and carelessness. The administration’s defense is that the seniors’ of previous classes disregarded safety concerns. Although high school students normally disregard the administration’s safety concerns one of the purpose of being a senior is to understand safety before they enter the real world. Although safety is a current issue we believe seniors are capable of being careful and influencing the underclassmen of being cautious.

EHS may be responsible for the students during the day; we believe that students and parents can sign a permission slip where if the student gets in a wreck while out for lunch then EHS will not be responsible for any injuries. We believe seniors understand that going out for lunch is a privilege and if there are any complaints or problems the student’s privileges can will revoked at any point of time. We believe senior privileges can be taken away if senior abuses their privileges then they will have their privileges taken.

Although previous classes have acted in a way that they would have been revoked eventually the administration should consider giving privileges back to seniors. We believe having senior benefits will cut down on the discipline issues EHS may have to deal with. EHS should offer more senior privileges than mentioned above. We think administration could add a few more benefits for seniors such as having a free period during the day, if the senior has A’s and B’s they could leave campus for the period.

Although it would be mandatory for students to receive permission by parents and for the students to sign out when they leave campus and back in when they come back on campus for the rest of the day. For students that do not have the required grades and permission they can use the period to study and bring up their grades to earn the right to go off campus for the period. Our idea is right because it helps rebelling out of the schools and it will slim down the discipline issues of the seniors. It will also help the seniors prepare for college or the working world next year.

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High School and Personal Hero

“A hero is someone who has given his or her life to something bigger than oneself”. Heroes are usually superhero, celebrities and historians but the hero in my life is my mother. My mother is my personal hero because she overcame all the struggles in her youth; she has a caring heart and a hard worker. My mom is my personal hero because of how she overcame struggles in her youth. My mom has a strong sense of leadership even as a young child, due to the fact that she practically raised her 10 brothers and 9 sisters.

When my mother was very young, her father had an illness that ended up killing him. Her mother tends to care about her man more than her kids. My mother threw away her dream to become a professional soccer player to help provide for her siblings. Also, my mom overcomes her struggles in school when she was younger. Partially junior high and early high school, my mother didn’t think or care about school and how important it was and she decided that providing for her siblings was the number one priority.

As the school years had gone by her attitude toward school changes, she is more dedicated and determines to get her high school diploma. All in all overcoming struggles in her youth has made mom my personal hero. Secondly, my mother is my personal hero because she is a caring person. My mom is part of the minority who make it a part of everyday life to help others. She’s passionate about teaching profoundly mentally handicap children, a job which may be considered undesirable, yet she wouldn’t trade it for the world.

She is also the first to offer a helping hand to anybody any time. She has given people a home, a shoulder to cry on, advice, all the help she can give, and most importantly given someone in need the feeling of knowing that there is someone out there who cares. Also, she constantly encouraged me to further my education. She doesn’t want me to go through the same struggles as she went through numerous times. My mother knew growing up she was not given the same opportunities as I am today.

My mother reminds me that she foresees a future in me and will not let me give up on my education. Therefore being a caring person is one of many reasons why my mom is a hero to me. Lastly, my mom is my personal hero because she is a hard worker. My mother would sacrifice anything she had to, to ensure our happiness and success. She works two jobs, her full time teaching career and her part time job working fast food just so she can afford to have a roof over our heads, food on the table, and some of the luxuries we may desire even though they aren’t ecessities. She sacrifices her time and energy to please us. There aren’t many people out there who are so giving, without asking for anything in return. Also my mom has think of quitting her job many of time because the hours she worked didn’t allow her to spend any time with her kids and husband. She started getting back pain, eat disorder and sleeping less. But that didn’t stop my mother from quitting her job. In conclusion being a hard worker is one of the most important reasons why my mother is my hero.

With all the curves and obstacles life throws at us, somehow my mom manages to keep herself together and still manage to be the best mother I know out there by overcoming all the tough struggle she went through as a young child, have a caring personality and working hard. She always strives to do her best for us, and loves us unconditionally. My mom is the most compassionate person that I know. She cares much more for others than she cares for herself and put in time and energy to please us. My mother is my mom, my best friend, but most importantly she is my everyday hero.

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Eliminating the 12th Grade

Would eliminating the twelfth grade in Utah affect seniors? Currently Senator Buttars says it will save money for schools if senior year was to be eliminated. I believe that the Utah state legislation should not eliminate the twelfth grade because there are classes that you have to take senior year, catch up, and preparation for college.

Firstly, I think the Utah legislation should not eliminate the twelfth grade because there are classes that you can only take your senior year. These days we have four years of english and science. It would be a bummer if we as students have to take those classes again in college. Also some students need the credits to graduate. Without those two or three credits then how will they graduate? Then the rest of the year could be enjoyable.

Secondly it gives them time to catch up on classes they may have failed in previous years. I know it would be terrible, but retaking those classes would really help, especially when you failed the past years. Other than just making up the class up with packets, it would be easier for you. Also it would give others a second chance to be someone.

Thirdly, seniors won’t be as prepared for college as they should be. If this is so, then we coming up seniors won’t be able to have the knowledge for what is in store in college. If we go to college without all the knowledge that we have from high school, then what is the use of going? It would also drop motivation for the upcoming, knowing that the twelfth grade won’t be able to be taken anymore. Also bringing down students dreams of being what they want to be when they grow up. It would be a disappointment to see that students won’t be able to fulfill their dreams.

However some students think the twelfth grade should be eliminated because some students don’t go to their classes. On the contrary they are wrong because there are some students that come to class and care about their grades.

In conclusion, I still believe the twelfth grade should not be eliminated because some classes have to be taken senior year, they won’t have to play catch up and they will be prepared for college. Now ask yourself, ‘Am I ready for college?’

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Cause and Effects of Drug Use in High Schools

Cause and Effects of Drug use in High schools The use of drug is becoming prevalence in today’s society. Drug abuse is referred to as intake of drugs by over does of the prescribed drug given by medical personnel or taking drugs on an individual’s personal interest or influence by some groups of people. Indeed, the term drug abuse is used to indicate excessiveness and frequent consumption of drugs regardless of whether an individual is depending on it or not. Drug abuse is chemical substances that exert mood-altering effects on the brain and which are capable of producing addiction.

They are abused for the feelings they produce. Drug use commonly begins in high school, usually with nicotine from cigarettes. The first cause is simple curiosity. Many teens have heard about drugs can be fun, can make a person feel and act different, and they are curious to experience them for themselves. Peer group influence is also one of the causes. The type of friend individual associate and relate with could lead one to partake in drug abuse. Young people take drugs to feel cool and impress their friends. Some teens will do whatever their friends do, just to fit in and follow the crowd.

They don’t want to be the only one not doing something; even it is something dangerous. Another reason young people take drugs is to escape their reality. Maybe their home life is not happy, maybe they have a boring job, or under lots of pressure in high school. In this case, they take drugs to get away that unhappy reality. They can feel a little braver, stronger, smarter, more beautiful or more important. Of course this doesn’t last long, but that doesn’t matter. For the brief time that the drugs are taking affect, the user can forget about the problems, responsibilities and limitations of everyday life, and escape to a fantasy world.

This is why they are so attractive to young people and despite their dangers. However, drug abuse can lead to drug dependence. It can damage the systems in the body, lead to nervous problem, and causes other health hazards. Internal organs could be equally affected by drug and substance abuse. The symptoms are increase heart and breathing rates and blood pressure, and decrease appetite. Side-effects can include sweating, dry mouth, blurred vision, insomnia, and dizziness. In addition users can feel restless, anxious and moody, become excitable and have a false sense of power and security.

Moreover, complaints of indiscipline in the school are mostly because of drug abuse. Drug abuse could also causes mental illness with the consequence of drop-out of school. It could cause decline in the societal moral and cultural values. The violent tendencies are also associated with drug abuse. According to those, abuse of drugs affects a person’s physical or emotional conditions, even both. Drug abuse can lead to poor performance of the students in the schools. Since majority of drug abuse among youths start in high schools, the facilities can have early detection and prevention by teach students the effect of drug use. Word count: 504

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How Organized Sports Affect Academics

Most countries in the world have facilitated sports for extra-curricular activities in schools. Sports provide an opportunity for which students can develop their physical fitness, mental stability, leadership qualities and teamwork skills. Sports play an integral part in the development of children. It teaches them how to compete fairly and how to handle pressure. Balancing sports and academics properly also teaches children proper time-management skills and balance of their activities. Organized sports can, however, also have negative effects relating to students’ academic load. Purpose of the research

The assignment is a mandatory component of the Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE) Caribbean Studies course, in which a research project that addresses social issues must be carried out. This research is intended to explore the effects that organized sports have on students’ academic performance. The results from this research can prove useful in informing students that participating in organized sports can aid in their academic performance. Significance of the research Previous studies have shown that organized sports do indeed affect academic performance in schools.

This study differs from others as it intends to outline the positive effects of participation in sports, and to show how they significantly outweigh the drawbacks of such activities. Research questions This research intends to find out: * What percentage of students do involve in sports as an extra-curricular activity? * What sports do students generally participate in? Definition of Technical Terms Cognitive Skills and Attitudes – Attention, concentration, memory, verbal ability. Academic Behaviors – Conduct, attendance, time on task, homework completion.

Academic Achievement – Standardized test scores, grades. Literature Review This review will bring further clarity on what is being researched, and show the effectiveness of the sources in providing timely, relevant and reliable information. Some say the impact of the involvement of students in extra-curricular activities of a sporting nature on their academic performance is quite positive, others disagree. This issue has been debated by researchers, students and parents for many years. Extracurricular Activities and Academic Performance

Numerous studies have been conducted concerning the relationship between extracurricular activities and academic performance. Total extracurricular activity participation (TEAP), or participation in extracurricular activities in general, is associated with an improved grade point average, higher educational aspirations, increased college attendance, and reduced absenteeism” (Broh, 2002). Many extracurricular activities have proven to be beneficial in building and strengthening academic achievement, even if the activities are not obviously related to academic subjects.

Guest and Schneider (2003), in looking at the previous research on this subject said, “Researchers have found positive associations between extracurricular participation and academic achievement”. Although researchers agree that extracurricular activities do, in fact, influence academic performance, the specific effect that various activities produce is debated. One study, conducted by the National Educational Longitudinal Study, found that “participation in some activities improves achievement, while participation in others diminishes achievement” (Broh, 2002). Formal versus Informal Extracurricular Activities

Some researchers have divided extracurricular activities into informal and formal activities. The formal activities include activities which are relatively structured, such as participating in athletics or learning to play a musical instrument. Informal activities, on the other hand, also known as leisure activities, include less structured activities, such as watching television. The Relationship between Athletics and Academic Performance Some research indicates that physical activity not only improves academic performance, but has an actual physical benefit for the mind.

Shepard, a world renowned neurologist said, “Regular physical activity might influence cognitive development by increasing cerebral blood flow, altering arousal and associate neruohormonal balance, changing nutritional status, or promoting the growth of interneuronal connections”. * U. S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Division of Adolescent and School Health www. cdc. gov/HealthyYouth Revised Version — July 2010 (Replaces April 2010 Early Release) Results:

Nineteen studies (reported in 14 articles) focused specifically on the relationship between academic performance and activities organized through school that occur outside of the regular school day. These activities included participation in school sports (interscholastic sports and other team or individual sports) as well as other after-school physical activity programs. All 19 studies examining the relationships between participation in extracurricular physical activities and academic performance found one or more positive associations.

The evidence suggests that superintendents, principals, and athletic directors can develop or continue school-based sports programs without concern that these activities have a detrimental impact on students’ academic performance. School administrators and teachers also can encourage after-school organizations, clubs, student groups, and parent groups to incorporate physical activities into their programs and events. Children and adolescents engage in different types of physical activity, depending on age and access to programs and equipment in their schools and communities.

Elementary school-aged children typically engage in free play, running and chasing games, jumping rope, and age-appropriate activities that are aligned with the development of fundamental motor skills. The development of complex motor skills enables adolescents to engage in active recreation (e. g. , canoeing, skiing, rollerblading), resistance exercises with weights or weight machines, individual sports (e. g. , running, cycling), and team sports (e. g. , basketball, baseball).

Most youth, however, do not engage in the recommended level of physical activity. For example, only 17. 1% of U. S. igh school students meet current recommendations for physical activity (CDC, unpublished data, 2009). In addition to school-day opportunities, youth also have opportunities to participate in physical activity through extracurricular physical activities (e. g. , school sports, organized sports, recreation, other teams), which may be available through schools, communities, and/or after-school programs. Seventy-six percent of 6- to 12-year-olds reported participating in some sports in 1997, and in 2007, 56% of high school students reported playing on one or more sports teams organized by their school or community in the previous 12 months.

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High School Reflective Essay

First Time Stepping out under the bright lights, Crowd roaring with cheer and shouting our names. The feel of adrenaline going through my body is almost ecstasy like. Knowing that this doesn’t represent you, it’s for your school and even more your community. This is the kind of things that were going through my mind when I first stepped out onto the field as a Varsity Football Player. All the years of playing the game since I was a little kid had paid off, and now it would be time for the big show and the highlights of my career.

All the hills and the Two-Twenty’s we put in day in and day out, end up being worth it. The summer days spent in the blazing sun and not at the beach take a lot out of me but the cravings for big games drive you through it. Even though we condition for almost five months in the end the two month season is all we live for. Football begins to be all you can think about, whether it is training hard at the gym or just eating better at home it drives you to be a better person.

It pushes you to do things that will improve your skills and talent, usually things you wouldn’t normally do. This is why I love the game; it’s become a part of me. The lessons of hard-work, dedication and brotherhood have been drilled into me for years already. These things are going to forever be with me, as well as the people that I got to play alongside with. Our coaches sometimes sit us down and talk to us about life and how football will teach us things, we might sit there and just nod our heads. But we all do know that it really does.

They tell us that when we walk around we don’t represent just us, not just our households anymore. But that we are our school, our community and that we have to be exemplary people and lead in a positive way. These are things that I’ll never forget due to the vast amount of times I’ve heard these speeches before, but also because I believe them. The rush that I feel when I get onto that field is like nothing else; when you hear the crowd go wild after you make a big play is just a feeling that you can ever get enough of.

It’s like an addiction to be the best and do great. Football has become more than just a sport to me but somewhat of a lifestyle. On and off the field everybody knows who you are because you play. But it affects me outside of school too, I’ve meet some of my best friends through football. When you hear people asking “Is that so and so from the Mililani Football team? ” You get a feeling like no other. These are just some of the things football has taught me, done for me and gotten for me.

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High School Experience

When you start a new school or start a new grade you have all these emotions that run threw your head that may stress you out. When I started high school I had some problems along the way one of the problems I had was getting to school and class on time. Another thing that I had a problem with was all the homework and projects. The last thing that I worried about was making friends. After my first year at Brien McMahon high school I moved across town and went to another school called Norwalk High School.

My first year of high school it was really fun and stressful at some points. One of my problems were getting to school and class on time. It was really stressful because the bus would come very early and I would have trouble waking up in the morning. Every first period I was late or missed class it was hurting my grade really bad so I asked my mom if she could bring me to school in the morning. With her bringing me to school it was easier to wake up and get ready for school.

My attendance had improved by doing that as well. During the school year I had big problems keeping up with my homework and bringing projects on time. One day I really was tired of getting bad grades so I decided to stay after school and get some extra help for my homework and it help me understand the work a lot better it also help me do better on test and quizzes. When I had a project I would stay after school and get an idea or advice for my project. Staying after school gave me a boost of cofidence in me and my work.

After my first year at Brien McMahon I had moved to another school called Norwalk High school. The first week was terrible I didn’t know anybody there which made class very boring. The next week I was in gym class when a group of kids that used to play on my basketball team saw me and made me feel welcomed to the school. I started to sit with them at lunch as the year went by sitting with them I made lots of friends my first year and it ended up being very fun.

I graduated at Norwalk high knowing so much people and having a lot of friends when I look back to it im glad I went there and I wouldn’t change it for nothing. When you start a new school or start a new grade you have all these emotions that run threw your head that may stress you out. If you just think about the positive In school you will have a lot of fun and learn a lot. One good reason you should stay in school is because you need a education it will help you in the long run.

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Generally, Laggard High School is a safe place for students.

The buildings and classrooms are well-structured and convenient for both teachers and students. I feel safe inside these classrooms since they are complete with the facilities and materials we need for teaching and learning.

Moreover, I also feel safe in school because of the presence of the fire service. Probable fire incidents, as well as other untoward emergencies that may happen in the building, can be easily prevented because of an efficient and effective fire service just across the street.

Being bounded by an ivy-league university like the Baylor University creates a positive influence on the part of the students as well as the community. Since high school students see what university students do, they pretty much have an idea of what life in the university is, which could lead them to pursue their own education, if not in Baylor, then in other colleges or universities in the city or in another state.

It is a good thing that Baylor is there because as early as freshman in high school, a student can already be influenced to think about what course or study to pursue. Furthermore, since Baylor is a Christian school, particularly the largest Baptist university in the world in terms of enrollment, it fosters a caring and sensitive atmosphere not just for the students in Baylor but also for the whole of the community. Baylor University’s presence generates a sense of safety and security on my part, because I do not have to worry much about Laggard High School’s students’ future.

However, not all areas in and around Laggard High School foster a friendly and safe ambiance. Since numerous cars enter through the main entrance and students need to stay behind the main door until 8:30 in the morning, possible accidents may happen. Students flock near the main entrance to wait for time as cars come and go. This could be a trouble area especially for students entering the school and those closest to the car park, who are consumed with their conversations that they do not notice the cars coming in and out of the school premises. This somehow unsafe and trouble area can be fixed by having someone monitor or guard the students coming in as well as the cars that enter and leave the school premises.

Also, a conducive and comfortable waiting area, where students who come in early can stay, should also be designated. Another possible solution is letting the students enter 10 minutes before the time so that they can settle and be safe inside their classrooms. In addition, some cars entering the main entrance can use the entrance near Central Avenue so that the number of cars entering along with the students via the main entrance will be lessened, thus less accidents are avoided.

Another area I do not feel safe in is the cafeteria. This could be another possible trouble spot because the area lacks adequate monitoring. There should be someone designated to monitor the hall. Monitoring would include watching over the behavior of the students to avoid any untoward trouble among them, as well as restricting the students to go from the cafeteria to the playground. Some students use the cafeteria to sneak out and play in the playground.

And since the school lacks sufficient monitoring on some areas and on students’ behavior, we do not know if they could be safe in their playing. Moreover, since they have easy access to the playground, they are influenced to stay there longer than they are supposed to. We do not want this because our real focus is their learning inside the classroom. Students should be advised to know their time for study and their time for play.

The Laggard High School is generally a very conducive and safe place for students, but then it also faces monitoring problems that need to be studied so that students, teachers, and parents would feel much safer.

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Commerce as the optional subject

When I was in the 9th grade, I took up commerce as the optional subject for the sheer reason of exploring it anticipating a career in a non-science field. My High School results card declared my excellence of commerce over science and I took that as a clue to take up commerce in Junior college & to later pursue it in my undergraduate degree. I secured a First Class with a specialization in Financial & Management Accounting.

During my days as commerce undergraduate, I came across various options for a choice of career and perceived Management to be a challenging, versatile, innovative & evolving preference of many. Though it attracts a multitude, only a handful are able to make a mark and I want to be amongst those few.

Having finished undergraduate studies, unlike many of my batch-mates, I did not opt for a job that would train me in either back office support or bare minimum accounting practices; only to end up doing a clerical job for the sole purpose for earning money. I decided to continue my studies to shape up my career and choose Healthcare Management. I joined the Symbiosis International University to initiate my professional studies.

The Healthcare Industry is one, which affects peoples’ lives & contributes towards the building of any nation in a holistic manner. Also, globally one can categorize the Healthcare Industry as one with a high a potential for growth, development and innovation for a better living in times to come. The Business Week Magazine cites that “since 2001, the health-care industry has added 1.7 million jobs”, which is quite a high number when compared to other industries., a leading finance & investment oriented website says that “A latest study by global management consultants McKinsey predicts that India’s healthcare industry will reach a staggering USD 190 billion mark in less than two decades”.

Job opportunities in the Indian Healthcare Industry are like diamond mines in an unclaimed terrain. Early claimants get the maximum benefits. In this industry, I have discovered various opportunities that can be take me places. To blend my knowledge of finance with healthcare I studied Health Insurance at Bajaj Allianz, India’s leading insurance providers. Further, I worked with a healthcare consultancy & a cardiac care set-up as a part of Project handling teams. Presently, I’m associated with a Super speciality Ophthalmology Institute as Manager (Administration & HR).

But, I have come to a conclusion that to succeed in this super specialized industry, I need additional education to build a better career. This is the reason why I look ahead at new horizons for enriching experiences to polish my know-how on Finance. I believe I have the dedication, resilience and resolve required to do justice to my aspirations. I am confident that these traits would help me to contribute to the challenging and intellectually stimulating environment of (NAME) University.

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High School Drop Out Rates

High School Drop Out Rates Essay The nation’s dropout crises have become severe over the past ten years. Big city high schools have less than 50% of freshmen graduate. (8) The problem has taken a back seat to a national focus on early childhood and elementary programs. Recent studies have found the dropout rate rising in large cities. Among minority groups, the dropout rate is the highest. The causes of the growing problem range from teen pregnancy to depression. The effect of the drop out rate is financially devastating on the individuals who dropout. Programs are being used to help decrease the tendencies for student to dropout.

The national dropout rate has become common for teenagers. Dropout intervention programs have little effect from keeping teens from dropping out. According to the Boston herald website: But combating dropout rates requires new approaches since one group of researcher found that the 20 primary dropout prevention programs administered by the U. S. department of education made little difference in keeping teens in school. The city’ has gradually increase during the past four years, with roughly 900 student-mostly black and Hispanic- leaving the system each year. (1) This problem has been gradually increasing because schools have focused on basis math, literally skills and early childhood education for raising overall test scores. The dropout problem has been virtually forgotten. According to Jay Smink, Director of the National Dropout Prevention Center at Clemson University: “The sad part is, no one is seriously looking at the issue, and the sadder part is they’re not putting the resources needed to improve the graduation rate,”(2) Largest Group of Drop-outs Hispanics are the largest group of dropout rates at 30-35%.

This is 2. 5 times higher than the Africans-Americans dropout rate and 3. 5 % time the rate of whites. The study show the reason for the higher rate among Hispanics is poor teacher preparation, lower expectations, and overcrowded facilities. Another reason is a language barrier. Few teachers know enough Spanish to teach Hispanics. Other reasons are cultural related. Many Hispanic youth cite reasons for dropping out that are common to all youth who drop out. These reasons are they are failing, bored and/or having to work to support a family.

Most Hispanics tend to believe that the public schools disrespect Hispanic culture, neglect the language problem, and set academic standards below the national norm. Poverty is wide spread among Hispanics. (6) Many children do not get an early start at school by attending pre-school; therefore, these children are at a disadvantage from the start. Their parents cannot read so these children miss being read to which is a necessary part of early development. In addition, peer pressure is an extremely strong influence on Hispanic youth. According to the Augusta Chronicle.

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High School Drop Out

Rates Are Increasing Many young adults view high school as a new territory with more advanced classes, more students, but other students only view the negative side of high school , rather than the positive. What most young adults do not understand is that when they choose to dropout of their high school, it is only stealing valuable knowledge from them. It is obvious that the high school drop out rate is increasing rapidly. Why might the rate of high school students be increasing, and why do students make such a dramatic change on their life?

Also read: Should Boarding Schools Be Abolished

Some of this may result from the lack of parental guidance, bullying in our high schools, or teen pregnancy? First of all, parental guidance can be the most important element in a student’s education. Students who lack parental guidance have a greater chance of tossing his or her education away compared to those students who receive the help, support and positive guidance from their parents. Many high school students who lack a positive parental guidance to support his or her education, causing the rate of high school dropouts to increase.

Not having a parental guidance causes student, to not take an education important and seriously, because they see their parents not showing any interest in their schooling as well. Parents can take action in their child’s education by keeping track of their grades, attending parent teacher conferences, or participating in more school activities. When students have parents who participate in their child’s education that child is more likely to graduate from his or her high school. Another reason our high school dropout rates are increasing rapidly, is do to the fact of school bullying.

School bullying is a type of bullying that occurs in connection with education, either inside or outside of the school. Bullying can be verbal, physical, or emotional and is usually repeated over a period of time. Bullying causes students to have a low self-esteem about themselves and may feel as if no one cares about them. School bullying can also occur in any part of a school building including, on buses, classrooms, even in sports. School bullying has become to be a serious problem in our schools system. The number one effect that bullying has on high school students, is students dropping out. Last,

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Cheating in High School

Cheating in School Cheating is an issue nowadays that has affected many students at one time or another throughout their education. It’s a serious issue that can be dealt with in a lot of different ways. Some examples of cheating are copying homework, looking at someone else’s test, plagiarizing, and a new way to cheat based on recent technology, which allows another student to now buy or steal papers from the Internet, and passing them off as their own. Being lazy and freaking out if you’re not passing is not a good reason to cheat.

Nothing good will ever come from cheating, no matter how good you are at it. In high school, there are serious consequences for cheating. Students who get caught cheating by a teacher will have their paper taken up and get an automatic zero, or they will rip up the paper, and the teacher will contact the student’s parents and tell them what happened. If the student perhaps was taking their final, and was caught cheating, he or she basically will fail the class and will have to take the class all over again.

Another cause of students cheating is that some people out there are just lazy and want a quick A in the class and to make sure they pass. If students actually cared about their education, they wouldn’t be cheating, and they would want to do their own work on their own. Most students who cheat in high school just want to graduate, and finish up with their high school years. The last reason why students cheat is that people are freaking out if they are failing a class. Failing a class and doing bad in the class makes students cheat.

If students are failing, they will end up cheating on the upcoming test by using someone who is smart in the class, so they can boost their grade up, so they will be able to pass the class. If students are failing the class, they should be going in after school, before school, or during their lunch time on getting help from the teacher to understand the subject more in order to pass the class. The effect of getting caught cheating is there’s a lot of consequences that will happen to you, and having to take the class all over again, and the ffect of how people are lazy and just want a quick A is that students are going to become less responsible for their work, and if students are getting these good grades by cheating, and end up graduating high school, but they don’t know what they want to do with their future, or they do we just let them come in, and do the job they want, but at the same time they could of learned how to do that subject in high school, and if they would of done their own work they would know how to do it.

Freaking out if the student isn’t passing the class they should be going in for tutorials, and studying hard instead of thinking to themselves that they don’t need to study, or anything while they need to. Over all, the consequences of cheating will hurt you in your life, and no one should be proud of cheating. Nothing good will ever come from cheating. While some people say cheating isn’t wrong unless they get caught they are wrong and that cheating is stealing, and stealing is wrong no matter.

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School and Work Tardiness in High School Students

SCHOOL AND WORK TARDINESS IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RURAL WISCONSIN by Barbara Lee Weade A Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Training and Development Approved: 4 Semester Credits ________________________________________________ Dr. Joseph A. Benkowski, Research Advisor The Graduate College University of Wisconsin – Stout May, 2004 ii The Graduate College University of Wisconsin Stout Menomonie, WI 54751

ABSTRACT Weade Barbara L. (Writer)(Last Name) (First) (Middle Initial) SCHOOL AND WORK TARDINESS IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RURAL WISCONSIN T itle Training & Development Dev Dr. Joseph Benkowski May 2004 80 (Graduate Program) (Research Advisor) (Month/Year) (#Pgs) American Psychological Association, 5th edition Manual Style Businesses expect employees to arrive at the workplace with basic Asoft [email protected] which include personal attributes like punctuality.

The purpose of this research study was to examine the relationship between school and work tardiness in high school students in rural central Wisconsin. The literature review covered tardiness and absences in the work and school environment, school failure and its relationship to school tardiness and absenteeism, school interventions to change deviant behavior, students= insights about deviant school behavior, the home influence on school tardiness and absences, and the effect of work on school behavior and iii erformance. The research showed that working students are significantly different than their fellow students. Working students are more punctual at school classes, have fewer unexcused school absences, and have higher Grade Point Averages (GPA). The hypothesis that working students will exhibit the same tardiness pattern at work as well as at school was strongly supported. That is, students who were punctual at school were also punctual at work while students who were tardy at school were also tardy at work.

Ancillary findings included a correlation between students tardiness and unexcused absences at school, a negative correlation between unexcused school absences and GPA, no significant differences between genders on tardiness and unexcused absences in school, a significantly higher GPA for females than for males, and a significant difference between high school grade levels and their tardiness and unexcused absence behavior. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Page ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………….. ii LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………………………………………………… vii LIST OF CHARTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ix CHAPTER I: RESEARCH PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVES……………………………………………….. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Problem Statement………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Research Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Limitations of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 Assumptions………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 Definitions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE………………………………………………………………………. Problem Statement………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 Tardiness and Absences in the Work Environment……………………………………………………. 7 Tardiness and Absences in the School Environment………………………………………………… 10 School Interventions to Deviant Behavior………………………………………………………………. 11 Students= Insights on Deviant School Behaviors…………………………………………………….. 4 Home Influence on School Tardiness and Absences………………………………………………… 15 Effect of Work on School Behavior………………………………………………………………………… 16 CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODS…………………………………………………………………………. 19 v Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19 Research Design…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 Population…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20 Sample ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21 Employer and Student Worker Recruitment……………………………………………………………. 21 Data Collection Process………………………………………………………………………………………. 22 Intervention Instrument………………………………………………………………………………………… 3 Data Validity and Reliability………………………………………………………………………………… 24 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26 Findings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26 CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………. 3 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53 Problem Statement …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53 Summary of Study Procedures………………………………………………………………………………. 53 Conclusions and Implications……………………………………………………………………………….. 56 Recommendations for Further Analysis…………………………………………………………………. 0 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62 REFERENCES:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 67 APPENDIX A: Start-Up Letter to Employers……………………………………………………………………. 73 APPENDIX B: Working Student Recruitment Letter…………………………………………………………. 74 APPENDIX C: Information Slip to Students About Study………………………………………………….. 5 vi APPENDIX D: Student Consent Form……………………………………………………………………………… 76 APPENDIX E: Explanation Memo to Parents of Working Students About Project………………… 77 APPENDIX F: Cash Receipt Verification Form………………………………………………………………… 78 APPENDIX G: Approved Students Memo to Employers……………………………………………………. 79 APPENDIX H: Sample Employer Letter to Experimental Group – Excellent ……………………….. 0 APPENDIX I: Sample Employer Letter to Experimental Group – Improvement……………………. 81 APPENDIX J: Sample Employer Letter to Experimental Group – Mixed Record…………………… 82 APPENDIX K: Sample Employer Letter to Experimental Group – Disappointment……………….. 83 IRB Approval Letter………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 84 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 – Classes Tardy of Working & Non-Working Students………………………………………… 7 TABLE 1A – T-test for Classes Tardy of Working & Non-Working Students……………………….. 27 TABLE 2 – School Unexcused Absences of Working & Non-Working Students…………………… 28 TABLE 2A – T-test for Unexcused Absences of Working & Non-Working Students…………….. 28 TABLE 3 – GPA of Working & Non-Working Students…………………………………………………….. 28 TABLE 3A – T-test for GPA of Working & Non-Working Students…………………………………….. 28 TABLE 4 – Working Students Days Tardy at Work……………………………………………………………. 0 TABLE 4A – Working Students Minutes Tardy at Work…………………………………………………….. 31 TABLE 5 – Correlation Between Class Tardies and Unexcused Absences……………………………. 32 TABLE 6 – Correlation Between School Unexcused Absences and GPA……………………………… 32 TABLE 7 – Correlation Between Class Tardies and GPA……………………………………………………. 33 TABLE 8 – Tardiness of Students for 4th Quarter of the School Year……………………………………. 4 TABLE 8A – T-test for Tardiness of Students for 4th Quarter of the School Year…………………… 34 TABLE 9 – Absences of Students for 4th Quarter of the School Year……………………………………. 35 TABLE 9A – T-test for Absences of Students for 4th Quarter of the School Year…………………… 35 TABLE 10 – Class Tardies and Gender…………………………………………………………………………….. 35 TABLE 10A – T-test for Class Tardies and Gender……………………………………………………………. 6 TABLE 11 – School Absences and Gender……………………………………………………………………….. 36 TABLE 11A – T-test for School Absences and Gender………………………………………………………. 36 TABLE 12 – GPA and Gender…………………………………………………………….. ………………………….. 37 TABLE 12A – T-test for GPA and Gender………………………………………………………………………… 37 TABLE 13 – Class Tardies and Grade Level……………………………………………………………………… 8 viii TABLE 13A – ANOVA for Class Tardies and Grade Level………………………………………………… 38 TABLE 14 – School Unexcused Absences and Grade Level……………………………………………….. 40 TABLE 14A – ANOVA for School unexcused Absences and Grade Level…………………………… 40 TABLE 15 – GPA and Grade Level………………………………………………………………………………….. 42 TABLE 15A – ANOVA for GPA and Grade Level…………………………………………………………….. 2 TABLE 16 – GPA of Working Students by Employer………………………………………………………… 43 TABLE 16A – ANOVA for GPA of Working Students by Employer…………………………………… 43 TABLE 17 – School Tardiness of Working Students by Employer……………………………………….. 44 TABLE 17A – ANOVA for School Tardiness of Working Students by Employer………………….. 44 TABLE 18 – School Unexcused Absences of Working Students by Employer………………………. 45 TABLE 18A – ANOVA for School Unexcused Absences of Working Students by Employer…. 6 TABLE 19 – Work Tardiness of Working Students by Employer…………………………………………. 47 TABLE 19A – ANOVA for Work Tardiness of Working Students by Employer……………………. 47 TABLE 20 – 4th Quarter School Tardies for Experimental and Control Students……………………. 48 TABLE 20A – T-Test for 4th Quarter School Tardies for Experimental and Control Students….. 48 TABLE 21 – Days Tardy from Work for Experimental and Control Students ……………………….. 49 TABLE 21A – T-Test for Days Tardy from Work for Experimental and Control Students……… 0 TABLE 22 – Minutes Tardy from Work for Experimental and Control Students …………………… 51 TABLE 22A – T-Test for Minutes Tardy from Work for Experimental and Control Students….. 51 TABLE 23 – GPA for Experimental and Control Students………………………………………………….. 52 TABLE 23A – T-test for GPA for Experimental and Control Students…………………………………. 52 ix LIST OF CHARTS CHART 1 – School Tardiness and Grade Level…………………………………………………………………. 9 CHART 2 – School Unexcused Absences and Grade Level…………………………………………………. 41 1 CHAPTER 1: RESEARCH PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVE Introduction During the economic boom times of the late 1990s and early 2000s unemployment rates were low and many businesses were either unable to fill all of their job openings or were hiring more people than ever before with marginal skills and work experience. These entry-level workers did not readily fit into the traditional job orientation and training regimes employers had used in the past.

As employer frustration mounted, Job Center staff, private employment agencies, Workforce Development Boards, and the U. S. Department of Labor began to hear a common theme which ran, “Just send us people who show up on time every day ready to work and then we’ll take care of their training. ” These businesses expected employees to arrive at the workplace with basic “soft skills” which include punctuality and reliability. These personal attributes are not specifically taught in primary, secondary or post-secondary schools.

Rather, as children mature into adults, society assumes that they will gradually acquire the habits which lead to job and life success. However, some employers would characterize this assumption as “wishful thinking” – at least for a segment of the American population. Individuals who are late or absent for work are at great risk of being fired. They develop a poor work history which further inhibits their ability to get a good job. They may well retain the basic personal habits of tardiness and unreliability, making long-term success at any job improbable.

People lacking stable, good-paying jobs are unable to support themselves and their families and become increasingly dependent upon public assistance programs or involved with the criminal justice systems. Given the importance of “soft skills” to life success, further study into the development of these habits seems warranted. 2 The remainder of this chapter will cover the problem statement, objectives, significance and limitations of the study, assumptions, and definitions. Problem Statement This research explores the relationship between school and work tardiness in high school students.

School personnel, school boards, parents, and employers who examine this data will have a better understanding of school tardiness, related school deviant behaviors, and punctuality in a work setting. The study population was limited to students attending one rural, central Wisconsin high school over a two month period in 2002. Research Objectives The objectives for this study of tardiness Central Sands High School* students are to determine: 1. If working students, compared to other high school students, a. Are more or less likely to be tardy at school, b. Are more or less likely to have unexcused absences at school, and c.

Have higher or lower Grade Point Averages (GPAs). 2. If high school students working at local employers are similar to each other in terms of: a. Tardiness at work, b. Tardiness at school, c. Unexcused absences at school, and d. GPA. 3. The relationship of school tardiness to work tardiness. 4. If an employer intervention can change the school or work tardiness of its high school employees. 3 5. If school tardiness and unexcused absences are affected by: a. Gender, b. Grade level c. Time of year/term 6. The relationship between: a. School tardiness and unexcused absences, b.

School tardiness and GPA, and c. Unexcused absences and GPA. Significance of the Study In 1996 the United States federal government acted on welfare reform by passing Temporary Assistant to Needy Families – TANF (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 2003). This law replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Act which had provided economic help to low-income families since it was authorized in 1935 (Britannica, 2003). Unlike AFDC, which provided a monthly payment to parents until their youngest child turned eighteen years old, TANF set a time limit of sixty months for cash assistance.

The intent was to break inter-generational dependence on public assistance and provide short-term help to families in need. Parents now must quickly learn to take financial responsibility for their families, and for many the transition has been rough. Low-income adults and young single parents may lack marketable job skills. Nationally only 51% of the TANF recipients between 1999 and 2000 had completed twelve or more years of education, and 19% had gone to school nine years or less (U. S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2003).

Besides lower academic achievement, TANF recipients generally bring poverty class values to a work environment which 4 assumes/presupposes that people have a middle class work ethic (Payne, DeVol & Smith, 2001). In November of 1997 the national unemployment rate dropped to 4. 6%, and by April of 2000 it had fallen even lower to 3. 8% – a fortunate situation for the individuals affected by TANF (U. S. Department of Labor, 2003). Lacking a good work history and education, many were still able to enter the mainstream workforce because there was a worker shortage.

With the “best” workers already employed, businesses hired more job applicants with marginal skills. Post-secondary institutions, primarily technical colleges in Wisconsin, were positioned to deliver job skills training, but employers found that new employees needed “soft” skills, not technical skills, for these entry level jobs. They wanted workers who showed up on time every day ready to work. Unfortunately, no quick-fix course to teach these life skills is available. Are “soft” work skills – like punctuality and attendance – indeed habits which must be taught by the amily and reinforced in students’ educational settings? What responsibility do schools have for students who do not demonstrate these habits? If school tardiness is a predictor of work tardiness, schools can identify students at-risk for potential job failure and develop policies and interventions to reinforce good life and work habits. Limitations of the Study The limitations of this study are that: 1. The results are limited to the students in one rural central Wisconsin school district. 2. Not all local employers participated in the study. 3. Not all students working at participating employers chose to be in the study. . The student population is fairly homogenous. 5. The data collection period from employers was nine weeks. Assumptions 5 1. Participating employers have a precise and accurate system for tracking attendance. 2. Participating employers will provide attendance information for study subjects to the researcher on a regular basis. 3. Employers expect students to work on days they are scheduled. 4. Employers inform employees about and enforce their tardiness and absence policy. 5. School district staff inform students about and enforce their tardiness and unexcused absence policy. . Employers may alter who they hire in the future as a result of information collected during the study. 7. The school district staff, administration, and School Board may change the tardiness or unexcused absence policy or its enforcement and develop intervention strategies in the future as a result of information collected during the study. Definitions GPA – Grade Point Average. The cumulative summary of a student’s academic performance on a 4. 0 scale with 4 = “A” and 0 = “F”. Learning Disability (LD). Decreased functioning in school despite the fact that the student, “… s a) not mentally retarded, b) not emotionally disturbed, c) not impaired in his modalities (e. g. blind, deaf,), and d) has had an opportunity to learn not hindered by excessive absences, poor teaching, frequent family moves, etc. ” (Lavoie, 1990, p. Tardy/Tardiness. Being late for any measurable length of time past the stated or scheduled start time for work or school. At Central Sands High School, “Students will be considered tardy if they are not in the room when the bell starts to ring” (Central Sands High School Student Handbook, 2001, p. 3). 6 Truant.

In Wisconsin, “A habitual truant means a pupil who is absent from school without an acceptable excuse for part or all of 5 or more days on which school is held during a school semester” (Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2003). Unexcused absence. Not attending or showing up for class or work while also not having a valid reason as defined by the school or employer for the absence, such as illness, funeral, vacation, or approved school activity. At Central Sands High School a student receives an unexcused absence if he/she does not show up for class within ten minutes of the bell ringing. Unexcused absences include, but are not limited to: 1. shopping, 2. hair/nail appointments, 3. visiting friends, 4. concerts, and 5. vehicle repair” (Central Sands Student Handbook, 2001, p. 3). 7 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Problem Statement Good work habits – like punctuality and attendance – are important employability traits. This research explores the relationship between school and work tardiness in high school students to determine if school tardiness is a predictor of work tardiness. Tardiness and Absences in the Work Environment Getting and keeping a job are instrumental factors in determining a persons’s success in life.

Beside the obvious economic benefit to the individual, a job affects self-esteem, helps define social position, reduces the probability of involvement with the criminal justice system, and creates a taxpayer contributing to the local, state and national economy. Given the importance of employment, this study explores two behaviors which are present in a work and school setting. When hiring, human resources managers look for – among other characteristics – dependability in job applicants. Tardiness and absences are indicators of undesirable employee behaviors, and, “… mployers may wish to avoid hiring individuals who regularly engage in such behaviors… ” (Sackett & Wanek, 1996, p. 815). Once hired, satisfactory attendance on the job and acceptable levels of effort and loyalty become part of the old social contract between employees and employers (Weidenbaum, 1995). Abernathy (1989) cites studies which show that tardiness and absenteeism are two common reasons for employee terminations. Private business and government entities alike use these measures to discipline and fire employees (Michigan State Department of Civil Service, 2003).

The objectivity and relative ease in data collection of tardiness and absenteeism records appeal to human resources departments. 8 Thus work tardiness and absenteeism data is used by business for many reasons such as determining if training had an effect on work habits (Abernathy, 1999) and examining the dimensions of alienation from work (Cummings & Manning, 1977). Businesses track and analyze the tardiness and absentee rates of their employees to learn about their workforce, similar to taking the pulse to help assess the health of an organism. Employers also watch tardiness and absenteeism rates because they affect profitability.

Companies lose productivity if employees are late or missing. Businesses may need to maintain a substitute or “on-call” list or pay overtime to regular workers to fill gaps left by absent employees. These substitutes may not be as familiar or as skilled at a job, or they may be tired from working extra hours. Their output is less, the product quality lower, and accident rate higher. Yet employers may be reluctant to terminate unreliable workers because turnover affects profits (Hacker, 2003). Time is money to business, and it takes time to hire and train new employees.

When unemployment rates are low, employers have fewer applicants from which to choose and no guarantee that the individuals they hire will be “better” than the ones who were fired. Clearly businesses want to hire the best applicants. “The antecedents of discharges reside in the hiring and firing systems of an organization. An organization that selects employees carefully need not discharge as many employees… ” (Shaw, Delery, Jenkins, Douglas, & Gupta, 1998, p. 4). While tardiness and absenteeism are undesirable traits in the workforce, research is not clear on the relationship of work tardiness to absenteeism.

Leigh and Lust (1988) found no correlation between the two behaviors in employed people. Their findings contradict that of Rosse’s (1983) study of female hospital employees. Rosse tested five models of employee 9 tardiness, absence, and turnover. An analysis of the results, though failing to provide unequivocal support for any of the five models, did verify the interrelatedness of withdrawal behaviors…. The progression of withdrawal model was most strongly supported, demonstrating a progression from lateness to absence to turnover (p. 1).

As originally proposed this study sought to provide insight into the relationship of work tardiness and absenteeism in high school students in rural Wisconsin. If employers expect people to arrive at the workplace on time and on every scheduled day, then it follows that they expect people to have learned these skills before entering the workforce. Secondary education in the United States provides a universal environment where future workers – high school students – can demonstrate the same behaviors of punctuality and attendance. But are school tardiness and absenteeism predictors of these work behaviors?

Hotchkiss and Dorsten (1985) hypothesized that deviance in high school – as measured by truancy, tardiness, and cutting classes – would result in deviance on the job and subsequent lower wage and employment outcomes. They were not able to directly measure deviance on the job but found no reduction in hours, wages, or employment for young workers who as high school students had poor school behavior. Research on the direct relationship of school and work tardiness and absenteeism is limited, perhaps because it seems so intuitively logical that a person would exhibit similar behavior in both environments.

One anecdotal account speaks directly to this question. A local businessman who said he was having problems with workers arriving late and calling in sick asked to look at the high school attendance records for some of his current employees. After checking the attendance records, he found that – down to the person – 10 the students who had problems attending class were now the adults having problems attending work (St. Pierre, 2000, p. 50). The purpose of this study is to collect relevant data in order to quantitatively substantiate or refute the connection between work and school punctuality. Tardiness and Absences in the School Environment

Many researchers have developed checklists of “deviant” school behaviors which are associated with poor school performance. In 1963 a Background Paper on Dropouts and Youth Employment stated that potential dropouts could be described and identified at least five years before they dropped out. Irregular attendance and frequent tardiness were two of the five drop-out indicators. Mizell (1987) included tardiness and excessive absences as part of twenty-one criteria which predict the likelihood of dropping out of school. Stradford (1993) found that tardiness and absences are characteristics of potential 9th and 10th grade at-risk students.

Ligon and Jackson (1988) discovered that excessive absences and tardiness constituted the 3rd most common reason for student failure in school. Low attendance and habitual tardiness were among the common characteristics of low-achieving Hispanic high school students (Cuellar, 1992). Estcourt (1986) found that low achievement correlated with chronic absenteeism in high school students. Ediger (1987) included “cutting classes and frequent tardiness in school” among the indicators of at-risk students with drug and alcohol abuse problems (p. 3).

Like businesses, schools collect data on student tardiness and absences to learn about their populations. These behaviors are a barometer indicating the likelihood of student success. Many school interventions to improve student performance use tardiness and absences as indicators of success or failure of the intervention. However, the relationships among tardiness, absences, and grades and dropping-out or 11 school failure are complex. Hotchkiss and Dorsten (1985) conducted a large, longitudinal study which provided part of the data for the High School and Beyond data base.

In 1980 the answers of 58,000 sophomores and seniors generated data for the base year. The researchers did subsequent follow-up surveys in 1982 and 1984. After extensive analysis they found that, “Poor grades stimulate misbehavior and dropping out. Similarly, time spent with friends stimulates misbehavior and dropping out…. The predominant paths in these findings can be reduced to the following parsimonious model” (p. 80). Model of Deviance in High School Misbehavior in School: Tardiness, Cutting Class, Not Prepared Truancy Grades Peers Dropout

School Interventions to Change Deviant Behavior Perhaps not knowing about or trusting this model and underestimating the power of grades to predict school behavior, some schools try to tackle the problem of tardiness and absences head-on. Chronically tardy students might get “administrative detention” (Tomczyk, 2000). Schools create policies intended to reduce absences (Malbon & Nuttall, 1982) or create more accurate tracking systems (Hernan, 1991). After learning that one employer found a direct correlation between school and work tardiness (see page 9 of this paper), St.

Pierre (2002) instituted a strict policy for his high school classes in which being tardy directly affected the 12 student’s grade for the class. While well-intentioned, this approach seems particularly misguided if the model accurately predicts that lower grades increase deviant behavior, including tardiness. The model suggests that to reduce school deviant behavior educators must focus on their basic mission – to educate youth well. Based upon a National Educational Longitudinal Study in 1988 the U. S. Education Department (1990) issued a call for schools to be transformed into “communities for learning. This survey of 25,000 American eighth graders revealed that, … such learning communities are seldom found in our schools. Regarding school relationships, data show that by spring of the school year, 35 percent of the eighth grade students said they had not talked with their teacher about coursework during the school year and 65 percent had not discussed their course selections with a school counselor. Concerning learning readiness, teachers said that 20 percent of sampled eighth graders were inattentive; 47 percent of the students said they were bored at least half the time spent in school.

Over 10 percent of eighth graders were frequently absent, and a third had been sent to the office for misbehaving. School climate is far from engaging, with a significant percentage of students citing tardiness, absenteeism, cutting class, and class disruption as serious problems (p. 1). Schools which make changes in their delivery of academic instruction may find improvement in school deviant behavior. Cordogan (2001) reported that a suburban Chicago, Illinois high school administrator initiated an interdisciplinary curriculum.

A four-year study which tracked 161 discipline-based and 247 interdisciplinary students found that students in the interdisciplinary program demonstrated more positive behavior such as decreased absences and lower suspension rates. The interdisciplinary students also had higher grade point averages 13 (GPAs) and ACT test scores, and their scores on the Iowa Test of Educational Development were equal to or higher than the discipline-based group. Other schools have made smaller academic changes and have seen positive results.

Tardiness decreased when a rural secondary school went to block scheduling (McCoy, 1998). An urban Illinois school reduced tardiness and disruptive behavior in physical education classes by introducing, “… a series of co-operative learning activities to address interpersonal skill development, and creation of physical education portfolios to increase student goal setting and decision making skills” (Anderson & Windeatt, 1995, p. 88). Lazerson et al. (1988) reported a decrease in truancy by junior high learning-disabled (LD) students when they tutored younger LD students.

A self-contained dropout prevention class for middle school students with a behavior modification program to teach time management skills resulted in a decrease from an average of fifteen tardies per week to zero tardies for the last three weeks of the program (Johnson, 1995). A pilot project aimed at improving vocational education programs divided sixty 10th grade students with high drop out potential into experimental and control groups. The control group received the traditional vocational programming while the experimental group received intensive, competency-based skills utilizing a new instructional delivery system.

The experimental group had academic performance gains and, “… a reduction in truancy, suspensions, tardiness, class cutting, absenteeism and students dropping out of school” (Wilson, 1977, p. 100). School interventions incorporating work have been less successful at reducing deviant school behavior. Back in 1968 the Michigan Department of Research and Development reported on an in-school paid work experience project for fourteen and fifteen year old junior high students. There was no statistically significant change in absences or tardiness or changes in 14 cademic grades or citizen marks for the 140 student enrollees over a one year period of participation. Levinson and Felberbaum (1993) studied the Earn and Learn program, a, “… work-experience program initiated in 1972 as a school-based, goal-oriented program for at-risk middle school students… ” Using a pretest-posttest experimental-control group design they ran two evaluation studies and concluded there were no over differences, “… between Earn and Learn students and control groups for achievement test data, report card grades, tardies, suspensions, and graduation rates” (p. 1). Students’ Insights on Deviant School Behaviors

Only a few researchers directly question students about the reasons for student tardiness. Damico et al. (1990) found that student perceptions on why they were late for and cut classes included crowded halls, limited opportunities for social interaction, irrelevant course content, and teacher indifference. Having worked with at-risk high school students, Britt (1998) noted, “Students complained about the inconsistency of school rules, especially those related to tardiness and eating in school, and they noted the double standard that allowed teachers to do many things students were not allowed to do” (p. 1).

Supporting the latter students’ perceptions, Scott (1990) reviewed the literature on school tardiness and found that consistency in dealing with tardiness was the most important factor in reducing tardiness. Home Influence on School Tardiness and Absences Students are products not only of their school but also of their community, and most especially their home environment. Within one school the family circumstances of the student population can vary greatly. Family stability, economics, and values are all intertwined and have an effect on the children. 15 Family composition appears to have a substantial impact on student performance.

Featherstone et al. (1992) studied 530 middle school students and found that, “… students from intact, two-parent families had fewer absences and tardies, higher grade point averages, and fewer negative and more positive teacher behavioral ratings than did those from reconstituted and single-parent families” (p. 1). In the book Bridges Out of Poverty (2001) Payne, DeVol and Smith contend that children and adults come to school and the workplace with values they learned at home. The authors postulate that there are certain values associated with the poverty, middle and wealthy classes.

Schools and businesses operate with values from the middle class culture. Parents from the poverty class may sanction, condone, and reward attitudes and behaviors which may not reinforce school policies based upon middle class standards. Being poor also increases the likelihood that families are evicted from their homes or may need to move frequently. Single-parent households generally have lower incomes than two parent households. Of necessity, the custodial parent may be at work when the children are getting ready for or coming home from school.

All of these factors – values, instability and lack of supervision – can affect students’ school attendance and punctuality. The U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Educational Statistics (1995) has documented the relationship of family income and absenteeism. In central-city high schools twelve percent of the students were absent per day; in public high schools with forty percent or more of the student population receiving free or reduced lunch ten percent were absent; and in schools with a lower free and reduced lunch rate seven to eight percent were absent.

Lerman (2000) found that high school students from low-income and welfare families do less homework, have much higher rates of expulsion and suspension, and are absent from school more. 16 One intervention used by schools to create a link from the classroom directly to the family is a school-home contact program. Dating back to the early 1970s, these programs, “… send paraprofessional workers who are familiar with the community into the homes of students who show serious problems in attendance, adjustment, or achievement” (Erickson et al. 1972, p. 1). Payne et al. (2001) contend that people from the poverty class value personal relationships and that in order to effectively communicate with low-income parents, school staff need to make a personal connection with them. They stress the importance of listening. Indeed, communication is a major objective of school-home contact programs. Erickson et al. evaluated these programs in twenty schools involving one thousand student subjects, one hundred eighty parents, and forty-eight high school professional staff and ound a reduction in absenteeism, class cutting, tardiness, and school dropouts. Effect of Work on School Behavior The literature is unclear about whether working while in high school helps or hurts students academically and behaviorally. Lerman (2000) found that high school students from low-income families are less likely to work than their peers, that deviant school behaviors were only weakly linked to long work hours, and that working teens have fewer school absences and extensive behavioral or emotional problems.

Stern and Briggs (2001) reviewed the literature and found that, “Previous research shows that secondary students with moderate working hours perform better academically than those with no work or longer hours” (p. 355). After conducting a longitudinal study involving 714 high school students, Hotchkiss (1982) concluded that there was little evidence that the number of hours worked by high school students had a negative impact on tardiness, absenteeism, involvement in extracurricular activities, and grades. In contrast, Price and Phelps (1996) surveyed 229 rural Tennessee high school students 17 nd discovered that, “Working students were more likely to be tardy or absent and to be making poor grades” (p. 1). In this study over half of the employed students worked more than twenty hours per week. Shanahan and Flaherty (2001) indicated that some studies showed, “Contemporary adolescents spend more time in paid, nonfarm work, which has been linked to illicit drug use, problem behaviors, and reduced educational attainment” (p. 385) and “… high levels of involvement in the workplace increase the likelihood of school dropout” (p. 386).

However, they felt this was a simplistic picture of how work affected students and proceeded to do an extensive longitudinal study of 1,139 high school students on the use of their time. Shanahan and Flaherty found that students fell into different patterns of time use, such as “Active Workers,” “Active Nonworkers,” and “High Leisure,” among others. These patterns change from 9th to 12th grade. Students who work fall into various categories he created: “Active Workers,” “Work, No Extracurricular,” “Work/Friends, No Homework,” “Work/Extracurricular, No Homework” and “Work Full-Time, Chores. In addition to finding that students with future school plans and higher GPAs were more likely to have time-use patterns which included school extracurricular activities, they also discovered that students involved in only one or just a few domains of activity, like “Work, No Extracurricular” were already in ninth grade considered more at-risk. Students in the “Work/Friends, No Homework” and “Work Full-time, Chores” were also likely to disengage from school. The Work Full-Time, Chores class was strongly associated with poor grades: Students who did poorly in school were much more likely to have begun working full-time by the eleventh grade.

Indeed, full-time workers represented about one-third of all dropouts in the eleventh grade and one-half of all dropouts in the twelfth grade (p. 397). The time-use category which was most likely to predict dropping out was “No Work, No 18 Extracurricular. ” Sixty-five percent of the students who had dropped out of school by the eleventh grade were in this category. Shanahan and Flaherty concluded that students who were engaged in many activities were likely to be successful in school. They also found that, “… most students who worked were highly engaged in all of the domains of activity assessed” (p. 98). Work in itself is not a predictor of academic and behavior success in school – hence the discrepancies among studies. Rather the student’s degree of commitment to multiple activities, including work, is a better indicator of probable high school and post-secondary educational success. 19 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS Introduction While there is a large body of research on work and school tardiness and absenteeism, no study in the literature review examined the direct relationship between school and work tardiness in high school students.

The primary objective of this research is to collect quantitative information to see if school tardiness can predict work tardiness. Secondary objectives are to a) compare the tardiness, absenteeism and GPA records of working students to the general high school student population, b) determine if working students at different employers are similar to each other, c) see if selected demographics influence school tardiness and unexcused absences, d) examine the relationship of school tardiness and unexcused absences in the eneral high school population, and e) test whether an employer intervention can change the school or work tardiness of high school employees. This chapter will cover the research design, population studied, employer and student worker recruitment, data collection process, intervention instrument, and the data validity and reliability. Research Design This is an experimental study using control and experimental groups to test one of the objectives. Tardiness, unexcused absence and GPA data from working high school students are compared to the same variables for the remaining high school population.

The literature review provided several major longitudinal studies exploring tardiness, unexcused absences, grades and employment in high school students. However, none of them collected actual tardiness data on working high school students from their employers. This study will show the relationship of school tardiness to work tardiness by connecting individual 20 students’ punctuality records in their education and employment settings over the same period of time.

The control-experimental portion of the study will test whether a mild employer intervention can affect the tardiness behavior of employed students. Information collected on the general high school population and the subgroup of working students will be analyzed. Subsequent findings, summary, conclusions and recommendations will be shared with appropriate staff of the school in the study, the school board, the participating employers, and interested parents and students who took part in the study. Population

The population studied was high school students who attend a rural high school in south-central Wisconsin. The school district covers just over 500 square miles and serves slightly more than 2,000 students from four years old through high school. Central Sands County has a year around population of 18,643. The county’s two “twin cities” – Central (population 1,914) and Sands (population 698) are located in the heart of the school district which is also in the center of the county (U. S. Census Bureau, 2003). All of the participating business are located in Central Sands, as are most businesses in the county.

The 645 high school students are a fairly homogenous group who are 94% Caucasian. Around 36% of the 9th – 12th graders receive free or reduced lunches, and around 16% are in special education. The actual number of this high school’s students who were working during the study period is unknown. However, the geographical isolation of the majority of students and the concentration of employers in Central Sands results in a majority of working students being employed by only a few employers during the school year. Sample 21

The researcher contacted five businesses which had the highest concentrations of youth employees in the county and collectively employed the majority of the school students during the winter months. At the time the study started they had a total of forty-eight student employees. One business, which employed four students, decided not to participate because of the manager’s health problems which resulted in time constraints. All forty-four student workers from the remaining four employers received letters inviting them to participate in the study.

A total of thirty-one students returned signed consent forms resulting in a 70% participation rate. Employer and Student Worker Recruitment In November of 2001 the researcher made personal visits to each of the five selected employers to explain the purpose of the study, to determine if they had accurate methods for tracking “punch-in” time, and to ascertain their willingness to collect information and participate in the study if it were approved by the UW Stout Review Board for the Protection of Human Subjects in Research. At that time all five employers agreed to be part of the study.

Following the approval by the Review Board in March 2002 the researcher hand-delivered an instructional letter (Appendix A) to the employers and found that one business needed to remove itself from the study. The researcher gave each of the remaining employers the packet which contained a letter customized to their business which could be copied on company letterhead and signed by the owner or manager. That same week the employers gave this letter (Appendix B) to each student employee along with an information note titled, “???

Questions Youth Might Have About This Information ??? ” (Appendix C), a “Student Consent Form” (Appendix D), a letter to parents (Appendix E), and a self-addressed, stamped enveloped deliverable to the researcher. Each student would receive $10 for participating in the study and returning a completed Consent Form. The students would not be asked to do anything during the 22 course of the study beyond giving the researcher permission to collect punctuality and attendance from their workplace and school.

As students returned the Consent Forms, the clerical support staff person at the high school Guidance Office helped out by distributing the $10 in cash and obtaining a student sign-off on the “Cash Receipt Verification” (Appendix F). After two weeks the researcher took the list of students who had returned Consent Forms back to the employers and made one attempt to contact each of the remaining students by phone. By the beginning of April 2002 thirty-one of the forty-four students (70%) had signed the Consent Form and were part of the study. Data Collection Process

On April 6th the researcher delivered a letter to each employer with instructions and the names of the participating students from whom consent was obtained (Appendix G). The employers were asked to provide time records from March 30 – June 7, which was the last week of the school year. The researcher picked up the time records from the business on weekly or bi-weekly trips, depending upon the individual employer’s pay period. Each employer had a different process for “clocking in. ” One business had an electronic time keeper for which every employee had a code.

Another used a special feature of the cash register, and the others used a more traditional time clock for punching in. The human resource staff or managers gave the researcher either hand-written or an electronic print-outs of the students’ clocked-in time and also a copy of the students’ scheduled time. Time records were kept to the nearest minute. The researcher then converted the scheduled and actual times to military time (one hour = 100 rather than 60) for ease of data analysis and keyed the data into Excel.

Each student had an individual record which included the employer, date, scheduled “in” time, actual “in” time, and 23 the scheduled out time. To obtain the school information the researcher worked with the clerical support staff of the high school guidance office. After the last day of school and using the school database, Skyward, she ran several sets of reports which included the tardiness and unexcused absence records for each of the working students from April 3 – June 5th and also for the entire school year and their cumulative GPAs.

She also ran the same tardiness and absence reports for the entire high school student body. The researcher keyed all of this data into Excel, with the school tardiness, unexcused absence, and GPA data tied to the work tardiness data for all of the participating students. For analysis the data was then imported into SPSS. Minitab software was used for follow-up analysis on the results. Intervention Instrument One objective of the study was to determine if a mild employer intervention could change the punctuality of working students either at work or at school.

To test this hypothesis the thirty-one students who had signed consent forms were randomly divided into two groups with sixteen in the control group and fifteen in the experimental group. The serial number from a dollar bill was used to enter the random number table with a coin toss to determine horizontal or vertical selection of numbers. The names of the students from all employers were mixed together, arranged in alphabetic order by last name, and assigned a sequential number. The first fifteen numbers on the random number table determined which students were in the experimental group.

The intervention was a customized, short letter written by the researcher commenting on a student’s school tardiness and unexcused absence record for the previous two weeks. The letter was signed by the employer and given by the employer to the specific experimental group 24 student for whom the letter was written. The letter expressed either congratulations (excellent punctuality and attendance record – Appendix H), praise for improvement (Appendix I), questioning (Appendix J) or disappointment (Appendix K).

To create each letter the researcher obtained the student’s school tardiness and unexcused absence information from the school database. The letters were written and delivered every other week during the study period. Each experimental group student received a total of four letters dated April 17, April 28, May 10, and May 23. After the delivery of the first letter on April 17 high school clerical staff and an employer notified the researcher that they had received phone calls on April 19 from three parents who were upset by the customized letter their child had received.

All three had received “disappointment” letters. Two of these three students worked for the same employer. This employer did not want to lose these students as employees and their parents as customers and therefore wanted to withdraw from the study. This business employed the greatest number of students, and rather than lose 45% of the participants in the study, the researcher decided to stop sending letters to the experimental group participants employed at this business.

This reduced the experimental group to ten, all employed by the other three businesses. The control group therefore increased to twenty-one. Data Validity and Reliability All data for this study is taken from the actual time and attendance work records used for payroll purposes and from the school district’s official student database, Skyward, which has specific fields for tardiness and unexcused absences and which calculates GPA by a uniform formula for all students. The data is therefore highly valid.

The data from the employer work record is very reliable as all employers used an 25 electronic process initiated by the individual worker “clocking-in. ” Employees are very motivated to punch in on-time or ahead of schedule because their paychecks are dependent upon their clocked hours. The school data is less reliable. While school policy states that students must be counted as tardy if they arrive at class after the bell rings, some teachers implement this policy strictly and others in a lax manner.

If a student is absent from class and the school clerical staff has not received a valid reason for the absence – such as illness or funeral – the student will receive an unexcused absence. However, a parent may not yet have called in to explain the student’s absence or a teacher may not have given a list of students involved in an approved extracurricular activity to the office staff. These students would initially be coded as “unexcused” but might later be changed to “excused” if the student, parent, or teacher supplies the office staff with new information.

While GPAs are dependent upon the students’ academic performance, some teachers have rigid grading policies and others are more lenient, allowing extra credit and opportunities to make up missed or late work. Taken as a whole, however, the school data is very reliable. All tardiness, absence and GPA data are recorded on or calculated in an identical manner in the school database. The students’ records are a composite of behavior and performance exhibited in six to eight classes per term with a variety of teachers. 26 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS Introduction

Businesses expect employees to arrive at the workplace with basic Asoft [email protected] which include personal attributes like punctuality. The purpose of this research was to study the development of these Asoft [email protected] by examining a) the relationship between school and work tardiness in high school students and b) the differences and similarities between working and non-working students on school tardiness, unexcused absences and academic achievement – possible precursors of workplace habits and skills. Forty-four student workers were identified.

Thirty-one (70%) agreed to participate in the study which would link their records on school and work tardiness, school unexcused absences and academic performance, as measured by their GPA. In addition, the records of these working students were compared with the remaining high school population of 615 on measures of tardiness, unexcused absences and GPA. Throughout the rest of this chapter the various hypotheses to be tested will be listed. For each hypothesis a description of the finding will be followed by a table of the results. Findings

Hypothesis 1: Working students are less likely than other high school students to be tardy at school. The research supports the supposition that working students are less likely to be tardy at school than the general student population. On average working students were tardy for 17. 03 classes per year while the rest of the student body was tardy for 25. 30 classes (Table 1). The punctuality of working students was superior for the entire school year (t = -2. 085, p < . 05) and also for 4th Quarter (t = -2. 739, p < . 01). Levene=s Test of Equality of Variances was used 27

Free Essays

“What High School Is” and “Learning to Read”

Khuong Q Tran Professor Frauenholz English 100, Section NC03 October 15, 2009 “What High School Is” by Theodore Sizer and “Learning to Read” by Malcolm X Learning has an important role in human being society. By learning a person can gain more knowledge and understanding in order to contribute to the development of society. Learning can be performed in various ways. Specifically, there are two completely different types of learning that produce strength and weakness based on general educational experience. Mark, a Franklin high school student, is described in “What High School Is” by Theodore Sizer.

On the other hand, Malcolm X, who was convicted of robbery in 1946, came out of jail with the knowledge of Black history and the great questionable of Elijah Muhammad, who was the leader of the Nation of Islam (1935-1975). By analyzing the weakness and strength of the education of Mark and Malcolm, the educational experience of Malcolm is ascribed better, and it inspires those who really seek the benefit of learning. Mark, sixteen years old and a genial grader, has both strength and weakness in his educational experience. First, he has better opportunity for well-rounded education. As a high school junior, Mark has to study various subjects.

His obligation is to follow different classes such as English class, typing class, biology class, French class, history class and mathematics class. The approximate time spent for each class is around forty to fifty minutes. Moreover, Mark receives specific guidance and particular structure in every class in which he attends. For instance, Ms. Viola, the English teacher, has her students in turn take parts and read out loud (Sizer 20). In addition to the strong points, Mark has a chance to partake in social study group at his school. For example, at Biology class, Mr. Robbins, the teacher, requires his students to form a circle of three or so n order to study the specimen and to take notes about it (Sizer 22). However, there is also weakness in Mark’s educational experience. He mostly encounters a daily external distraction of walking from class to class. Therefore, his education is less profound effect since he has to do other things instead of focusing on studying. Constantly, he has little desire to learn and has no specific goal. As an illustration, Mark feels frustrated, uncomfortable and scared that he won’t be able to complete his letter (Sizer 21), and that “Tomorrow, and virtually every other tomorrow, will be the same for Mark” (Sizer 24).

In contrast, Malcolm, who was imprisoned for seven years in Charlestown Prison, had totally different strengths in his education. One of the strengths was that Malcolm had a great desire to learn new knowledge. In Charlestown prison, he started his desire of learning from a feeling envy of stock of knowledge of Bimbi (X 78). Moreover, Malcolm kept book-reading motions even though he “really ended up with little idea of what the book said” (X 78). Then he began copying into his tablet all words printed on the dictionary’s pages in order to understand books (X 78-79).

In addition to the strong points, Malcolm had few distractions during the time he studied in prison. The only distraction was from the night guards. At night (from 10pm to 4am), while Malcolm was reading and learning in the dim glow of a light, he often had to jump into his bed and feign sleep whenever he heard the approaching footsteps of the night guards (X 80). Therefore, studying had a profound effect on him because he spent almost fifteen hours studying without distraction. Malcolm’s education, known as homemade education, is a better form of educational experience.

He had specific goal for his reading and learning although he spent seven years in prison. His goal was to serve the black man in term of Black and White separatism in the 1950’s in United States. His meaningful goal led to great reading and learning of certain subjects, such as Black history, Genetics, slavery, Chinese world history and philosophy. Constantly, he says, “You will never catch me with a free fifteen minutes in which I’m not studying something I feel might be able to help the black man (X 85). Moreover, Malcolm’s education is really an educational experience.

Unlike Mark’s education, Malcolm had to begin his fundamental education by learning the vocabulary. Henceforth, he daily spent numerous hours on reading books to gain knowledge and understanding. He himself did that spectacular job without any specific guidance, except for his curiosity only. He said, “I could spend the rest of my life reading, just satisfying my curiosity-because you can hardly mention anything I’m not curious about” (X 85). On the other hand, reading for the sake of knowledge was a significant way to help Malcolm feel a sense of freedom in spite of being in prison.

Truly, the more he read, the freer he felt. He concludes that “I don’t think anybody ever got more out of going to prison than I did. In fact, prison enabled me to study far more intensely than I would have if my life had gone differently and I had attended some college. ” (X 85) In short, Mark represents students’ learning style. Meanwhile, Malcolm represents prisoners’ learning style. In fact, both Mark and Malcolm have strength and weakness in their educational experiences. Therefore, the best learning way is to eliminate the weakness and to develop strength in personal skill and talent.

A specific goal and a long-term purpose are successful keys of learning. Likewise, there is argument about studying unless it is applied to the contribution of the society. Sizer, Theodore. “What High School Is. ” Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing, 3rd ed. Eds. Gary Colombo, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle. Boston: Bedford – St. Martin, 1995. 20-29. X, Malcolm. “Learning to Read” Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing, 3rd ed. Eds. Gary Colombo, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle. Boston: Bedford – St. Martin, 1995. 78-85.

Free Essays

Factors Influencing Career Choice Among the Senior High School

A Thesis in the Department of Psychology and Education, Faculty of EDUCATIONAL STUDIES Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, University of Education, Winneba, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for award of the Master of Philosophy (M. Phil Guidance & Counselling) degree JULY, 2011 DECLARATION STUDENT’S DECLARATION I, DANIEL KWASI GAMELI AVUGLA declare that this Thesis, with the exception of quotations and references contained in published works which have all being identified and duly acknowledged, is entirely my own original work, and it has not been submitted, either in part or whole for another degree elsewhere

SIGNATURE: …………………………………………………………………..

DATE: ……………………………………………………………………………..


I hereby declare that the preparation and presentation of this work was supervised by me in accordance with the guidelines for the supervision of Thesis laid down by the University of Education, Winneba.

NAME OF SUPERVISOR: ……………………………………………………..

SIGNATURE: ………………………………………………………………………..

DATE: ………………………………………………………………………………….


I dedicate this work to my dearest wife Rose and children: Albert, Elikplim and Herbert. ABSTRACT The researcher set out to investigate factors that influence career choice among the senior high school students in the South Tongu District of Volta Region, Ghana, and the extent to which those factors influence students’ choice.

Survey design was used. The main instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. Simple random sample techniques was used to select 200 students, and convenient sampling techniques used to select three administrators and three guidance and counselling coordinators for the study from the three public second cycle institutions in the District. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analysing data. The construct validity was established using factor analysis and reliability using Cronbach’s alpha.

The results of the main hypothesis and the research questions postulated for the study revealed that Intrinsic factors reliably predicted career choice suggesting that Extrinsic factors and Interpersonal factors are not significant predictors when the effects of Extrinsic factors and Interpersonal factors are controlled for. This helps students learn about and explore careers that ultimately lead to career choice. This played a critical role in shaping students career choice.

It was recommended that Career Education and Guidance should be introduced in the primary school to enable children to explore the world of work as young people need to make a smooth transition from primary school to the initial years of senior high school and the Ministry of Education should allocate fund for a Guidance and Counselling activities in all basic and second cycle schools. This will enable the guidance coordinators to function effectively at their various levels of work.


I am most grateful to the Almighty God for His loving care and mercy which has made it possible for me to complete this work. I also wish to acknowledge with gratitude, the encouragement, corrections and guidance given to me by Mrs. Mary A. Ackummey and Professor M. F. Alonge, my supervisor and co-supervisor respectively for this work to be completed. I am also grateful to Professor J. K. Aboagye, the Head of Department and Dr. Richard Ofori, the Director for research at the National Centre for Research into Basic Education (NCRIBE) for their immerse assistance.

He also became my final supervisor to make this work complete. I wish to express my appreciation to Messrs K. T. Agor and C. F. K. Nyadudzi, the Headmasters of Sogakope Senior High School and Dabala Senior High Technical. And also Rev. Father Gbordzoe, the Principal of Comboni Technical Vocational Institute for their assistance in allowing me to administer my questionnaires in their schools. I am grateful to Mr. C. Y. Ablana who allowed me to use his office during the period.

Finally I wish to express my gratitude to all those who help in diverse ways throughout the entire work for their criticism, encouragement and corrections. Special thanks go to Dr. Asare Amoah of Department of Psychology and Education who takes his time to see to it that the necessary corrections were carried out.


Declaration i Dedication ii Abstract iii Acknowledgement iv Table of Content v List of Tables x List of Figures xi


1. 1 Background to the Study 1 1. 2 Statement of the Problem 4 1. 3 Purpose of the Study 5 1. 4 Hypotheses 6 1. 5 Research Questions 6 1. 6 The Significance of the Study 6 1. 7Delimitation 7 1. 8 Definition of Terms 7 1. Organisation of the Study 8


2. 1 Introduction 9 2. 2 Factors Influencing Vocational Choice 9 2. 3 Career Decision Making 17 2. 3. 1 Trait-and-Factor Theory/ Actuarial Theory of Career Development 20 2. 3. 2 Holland’s Personality Type Theory 23 2. . 3 Anne Roe’s Personality/Need Theory 28 2. 3. 4 The Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad and Herman Theory 31 2. 3. 5 Super’s Self-concept Theory 32 2. 3. 6 Four-Humors Theory 35 2. 3. 7 Social Cognitive Theory 39 2. 4 Types of Career 41 2. Barriers to career choice 43 2. 6 The Role of Guidance and Counselling Coordinator in Career Choice and Development 45 2. 7 The Implications of the Study 48 2. 8 Theoretical Framework of the Study 49 2. 8 Summary 57


3. 1Introduction59 3. Research Design 59 3. 3 Population 59 3. 4 Sample and Sampling Procedure 61 3. 5 Study Area 62 3. 6 Instrumentation 62 3. 6. 1 Assessment of Validity and Reliability of factors influencing students’ choice of career questionnaire 63 3. Method of Data Collection 66 3. 8Data Analysis 66


67 4. 1Analysis of Students’ Bio Data 67 4. 1. 1 Sex Distribution of Students 67 4. 1. Age Distribution of Students 68 4. 1. 3Programme Pursue by Students 69 4. 1. 4 Intended Careers of Students 70 4. 2 Testing of Main Hypothesis 71 4. 3 Testing of Auxiliary Hypotheses 73 4. 3. 1 Sex Differences in Extrinsic, Intrinsic and Interpersonal Factors 73 4. 3. Age Differences on Extrinsic, Intrinsic and Interpersonal Factors 74 4. 4Analysis of Qualitative Data 76 4. 4. 1 Analysis of Bio Data collected from Guidance and Counselling Coordinators and Administrators 76 4. 4. 2 Sex Distribution of Administrators and Guidance and Counselling Coordinators 77 4. 4. 3 Age Distribution of Administrators and Guidance and Counselling Coordinators 77 4. 4. Position of Respondents 78 4. 4. 5 Number of years served by the Administrators and Guidance and Counselling Coordinators in their various institutions 78 4. 5 Qualitative Analysis of Administrators and Guidance and Counselling Coordinators Data 79


88 5. 1 Discussion 88 5. . 1 The Extent to which Intrinsic Factors Influence Students’ Choice of Career 88 5. 1. 2 The Extent to which Extrinsic Factors Influence Students’ Choice of Career 90 5. 1. 3 The Extent to which Interpersonal Factors Influence Students’ Choice of Career91 5. 1. 4 Problems Students face in making their Career Choice 92 5. 2 Summary of the Findings 93 5. 3 Conclusion 95 5. 4Recommendations 95 5. Suggestions for Further Studies 97 References 98 Appendix “A”- Factors influencing students’ choice of career questionnaire 105 Appendix “B”- Validated version of factors influencing students’ choice of career questionnaire 109 Appendix “C”- Open ended questionnaire for Guidance and Counselling Coordinators and Administrators 113 Appendix “D”- Population of final year students in the three public second cycle institutions for 2010/2011 Academic Year. 117 Appendix “E”- Letter of Introduction 119


Table Page 2. Super’s Vocational Developmental Tasks 34 2. 2 Jobs suitable and jobs to be avoided by each personality type 39 3. 1 Population of Administrators and Guidance and Counselling Coordinators 60 3. 2Distribution of respondents by institutions 61 3. 3Item listings and factor loadings for the four-factor principal component solution 65 4. 1 Distribution of students by intended choice 71 4. Logistic regression model of career choice (white-collar job & blue-collar job) as a function of Extrinsic, Intrinsic and Interpersonal factors. 73 4. 3 Summary statistics and Independent-samples T-test on their influence on the two sex groups 74 4. 4


showing the effect of age on Extrinsic factors 75 4. 5ANOVA showing the effect of age on Intrinsic factors 75 4. 6 ANOVA showing the effect of age on Interpersonal factors 76


Figure Page 2. 1 Holland hexagonal model 27 2. 2 A diagram Reciprocal Causation 40 2. 3 Theoretical model of Career choice 57 4. 1 Sex Distribution of students. 68 4. 2 Age Distribution of students 69 4. 3 Distribution of the Respondents by Programme 70 4. 4 Age Distribution of Administrators and Guidance nd Counselling Coordinators 77 4. 5 Position of the Respondents 78 4. 6 Number of years served by the Administrators and Guidance and Counselling Coordinator in their various institutions 78


1. 1 Background to the Study The importance of career choice among senior high students cannot be over emphasized. Students at this level are mainly adolescents who are moving from this stage of development into adulthood. Pearson Education limited (2007) defines an adolescent as a young person, usually between the ages of twelve and eighteen, who is developing into an adult.

Encarta (2009) defines adolescent as, ‘somebody in the period preceding adulthood: somebody who has reached puberty but not yet adult’. At this stage the individual is said to be going through the period of adolescence. A comprehensive study conducted in America by Remmers and Raddler (1957) cited in Horrocks (1962) indicated that one-third of teenagers after finishing high school within six months expected to be at work, though know less about how to choose a job, train for it and establish in it. “A job is a kind of work and a career is time spent in one type of job area of interest” (Kelly-Plate and Volz-Patton, 1991, p. 13). Most students have very little help in developing a career direction while still in senior high school.

They are often influenced by the media, peers, and with very little knowledge of what they might primarily be interested in or motivated to do. Most of them may have a level of uncertainty of where to get help on how to choose a career. Since career is a lifelong plan, students at this level should be assisted to enable them have a clear cut plan as it will be difficult for them at their age to see things clearly about themselves. Thinking or making a decision about one’s career and making a choice is vital. Fry, Stoner and Hattwick (1998) opine that it is never too early to begin thinking about careers when in high school. Some students may have clear career direction in mind while many of them will have little clue as to which career is best for them.

Fry et al, further said “even if you are a freshman or sophomore, now is the time to begin thinking about your life beyond college” p. 561. Various people choose jobs for various reasons. A lot of people look for jobs that will pay well since everyone needs money for the basics such as food, clothes, accommodation, education, recreation and others. For many men and women, work helps define their identity and their sense of self-worth (Thio, 1989). They see themselves as people, who are responsible, who get things done and capable enough to be paid for the services they render. People take pride in the work they do. They also like the feeling that comes with doing their work well.

People enjoy using their skills, talents and working hard to improve those skills. People work to be useful, by working; people feel that they are contributing their quota to the development of the society. They may work to take care of themselves and their family or work to help other people in the society. Most people choose jobs that will enable them interact with others. For example, journalism, teaching, and selling enable one to interact with a whole lot of people. They do not like to be alone for a long period. Their job gives them the opportunity to be with others and talk to people. It is clear that work fulfils many important needs and even those who become rich overnight still work.

Since no one particular job satisfies all needs, the right job can be satisfying in a very special way, and that is why it is important to think carefully about one’s own wants, needs, interests and abilities before making a choice. One needs not to joke about his choice of career. Working should not be just occupying oneself. O’Toole (1973), cited in (Thio, 1989, p. 444) opines that People with satisfying jobs have better mental health than those with less satisfying work. Thus, people who are happy with their jobs also tend to have better physical health and to live longer. Although diet, exercise, medical care and genetics are all related to the incidence of heart disease, job dissatisfaction is more closely linked to the cause of death. Each individual is faced with choosing among the large areas of occupational cluster of work.

Such as agriculture, business and office, communication and media, health, hospitality and recreation, manufacturing, marine science, construction, arts, humanity and sciences, home economics, marketing and distribution, natural resources and environment, personal services, public service, and transportation. Rao (1992) cited in Kankam & Onivehu (2000) identified two factors that call for guidance and counselling services or activities in secondary schools one of which is the making of academic choice that in the end determines the vocational future. The origin of vocational guidance can be traced to the United States of America. Educational guidance originated from the development of vocational guidance services.

In 1908 the Vocational Bureau of Boston was formed under the auspices of an American lawyer and educator; Frank Parsons to assist young men make vocational choices based on their occupational aptitudes and interest (Fruehling, 2008). Guidance began to spread as a result of Parsons’ ideas. Brewer (1942) cited in Archer (1997) put across four conditions that work together to bring about the beginning and development of vocational guidance. These are: division of labour, the growth of technology, the extension of vocational education, and the spread of modern forms of democracy. The four elements listed above were however, intensified by the First World War which led to the shortage of skilled manpower.

Though in Ghana vocational/technical can be traced back to the 19th century when both the Basel and Wesleyan missionaries made a shift from the initial three R’s – reading, writing and arithmetic to agricultural and technical curriculum (Hama, 2003), guidance in Ghana started in 1955 when the Ministry of Labour, Education and Social Welfare came together and established Youth Employment Department. Its aim was to cater for the needs of the unemployed middle school leavers below the age of twenty years. By 1960, there were about thirty of such centres in the country (Ackummey, 2003). 1. 2 Statement of the Problem Searching for a job, career planning and deciding on what to choose play an important role in students career choices.

Many students often are faced with uncertainty and stress as they make career choices. Many of them do not make adequate research on their own career nor do they receive adequate directions from their school guidance coordinators. Most of them are not aware of what goes into career choice. Many youth go into unsuitable careers due to ignorance, inexperience, peer pressure, advice from friends, parents and teachers or as a result of the prestige attached to certain jobs without adequate vocational guidance and career counselling. Lawer (2007) researched on assessing the effectiveness of career guidance in senior secondary schools in Kumasi Metropolitan District.

He concluded that majority of students were not aware of major occupation groups in Ghana, knowledge of training and qualification necessary for employment in the various occupations, conditions of work, earning and other rewards of occupation, and did not have better understanding of their career interest, aptitudes and abilities. This clearly shows that majority of them were not concerned about their future career. This situation compels one to ask whether they are given the needed guidance on available careers relating to the programmes they are pursuing. Are they aware of what goes into career choice? And what specific factors influence their choice and how do those factors influence them? This study therefore seeks to find out the extent to which intrinsic, extrinsic, and interpersonal factors influence the choice of career of senior high students. 1. 3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to identify those factors that influence students’ decision concerning choice of career in the South Tongu District and the extent to which these factors influence their choices. In addition, the study seeks to examine the differences between intrinsic factors, extrinsic factors, and interpersonal factors in making career choice. It will also attempt to find out problems encountered by students in making their career choices. 4. Hypotheses The study sought to test a logistic regression model in which Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Interpersonal factors are assumed to influence students’ career (blue/white collar jobs) in the senior high schools.

The following supplementary hypotheses were also tested: 1. There will be significant sex differences in Extrinsic, Intrinsic, and Interpersonal factors. 2. There will be significant age differences in Extrinsic, Intrinsic, and Interpersonal factors. 1. 5 Research Questions The following research questions were also used to guide the researcher to carry out the study. 1. To what extent do Intrinsic factors influence students’ choice of career? 2. To what extent do Extrinsic factors influence students’ choice of career? 3. To what extent do Interpersonal factors influence students’ choice of career? 4. What problems do students face in making their career choices? 1. The Significance of the Study Many factors affect career choices of senior high school students. Identifying these factors would give parents, educators, and industry an idea as to where students place most of their trust in the career selection process. It will not only focus on factors influencing career choice among students in the South Tongu District, but also highlight career decision making tools that have implications for career counselling. In addition, it will equally provide an update study into how intrinsic, extrinsic and interpersonal factors influence career choice for others who wish to further research into this area of study. 1. 7 Delimitation

The study focuses on what goes on in the South Tongu District instead of looking at the country as a whole, hence its application to the country or larger population may not be reliable. 1. 8 Definition of Terms For the purpose of this study the following operational definitions will be used: Intrinsic factors: include interest in the job and personality that satisfies work. In the broader sense they are basic and essential features which form part of someone rather than because of his or her association. Extrinsic factors: include availability of jobs and how well an occupation pays or brings benefit. They also include those essential features as a result of the individual’s associations or consequences.

Interpersonal factors: include the influence of parents and significant others. It is concerned or involved relationships between people. Career: is a pattern of work related to preparations and experiences which is carried through a person’s life. Job: is a piece of work carried out for a pay. Work: physical and mental effort directed towards doing something. It is a job in the broader sense. Student: refers to a learner in a senior high school. | | 1. 9 Organisation of the Study The whole study was organized in five main chapters.

The first chapter deals with the background to the study, the statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, hypotheses, and the significance of the study, delimitations, and definition of terms. The second chapter reviewed related literatures that are relevant to the study. It considers the previous studies on the topic. It includes other areas like factors influencing career choice, career decision-making, types of career- blue/white collar jobs, barriers to career choice, the role of guidance co-ordinators in career choice, counselling implication of the study, theoretical framework of the study, and the summary of the literature review.

Chapter three focuses on the methodology, the research design, population, sample and sampling procedure, instrumentation- validity, reliability and method of collecting data and its analysis. Chapter four deals with data presentation and analysis, and finally, the fifth chapter covers discussion, summary of the major findings, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for future study. CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2. 1 Introduction This chapter deals with the review of related literature. It was organized under the following sub-headings: factors influencing vocational choice, career decision-making, Types of career- blue/white collar jobs, barriers to career choice, the role of guidance coordinators in vocational guidance, counselling implications of the study, and the theoretical framework of the study.

It ends with the summary of the literature review done. 2. 2 Factors Influencing Vocational Choice Adolescent occupational choice is influenced by many factors, including intrinsic, extrinsic and interpersonal factors. Kankam & Onivehu (2000) indicate intellectual ability, aptitudes, the school, family, personality, self-esteem, values, interest, and environmental influences as factors that influence people’s choice of career. In the same year, Bedu-Addo (2000) states the following as factors influencing career choice: intellectual ability, aptitudes, the school, family, personality, self concept and self esteem, values, interest, and environmental influences.

Similarly, Taylor and Buku (2006) also state abilities, needs and interests, stereotype/prestige, values, the school/educational attainment, family/parental, placement, and aspiration. Mankoe (2007) lists the following as factors that influence people’s choice of career: people’s interests, abilities and personalities, people’s occupational preferences, life and work satisfaction, and employment variables. Jones and Larke (2001) researched on factors influencing career choice of African American and Hispanic graduates of a Land-grant College of Agriculture. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the factors that were related to African American and Hispanic graduates’ decisions to choose (or not to choose) a career in agriculture or a related field prior to or after college.

The population for this study was all African American and Hispanic graduates who received a first degree in an agriculture-related field at Texas A & M University between May 1990 and December 1997. Five hundred and fifty-one questionnaires were mailed to respondents. The research design applied was Ex post facto and both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The findings revealed that, various commonalities and differences existed among the two groups. When respondents enrolled in their first agriculture-related course did not have a major effect on their probability that they will select an agriculture-related career. However, the role of significant others and specific job-related factors is validated in this study.

But having people who were not white to encourage respondents to consider an agriculture related career, increased respondents likelihood of pursuing an agriculture-related career. Respondents were more likely to pursue an agriculture-related career if their father’s occupation was agriculture-related. Parents’ level of education did not play a critical role in the respondents’ choosing an agriculture-related career. Salary was not considered to have an impact on respondents’ choice of their current career nor on their choice of agriculture as a career. But having limited job opportunities in agriculture led respondents’ to choose other careers. Likewise, retirement plan and job opportunities impacted respondents’ selection of a career.

Issa and Nwalo (2005) conducted a research on factors affecting the career choice of undergraduates in Nigerian Library and Information Science Schools. Data were analysed for frequency and percentage using the cross-tabs sub-programme of the SPSS. The study revealed that majority did not make the course as their first choice but ended up in the Library School as a last resort. However, those who did were influenced mostly by previous library work experience. Available sources of information on the course include parents/relations and peers. There are slightly more male librarianship students than females, indicating its popularity among both sexes. That 46. 9% of them were in the 22-26 age bracket showed that the younger undergraduates constitute the majority.

The study concludes that despite the evidence of improved popularity of the programme among the respondents, it remains largely unpopular among prospective undergraduates in Nigeria when compared with such other courses as Accountancy, Medicine and Law. It thus recommends that public awareness about the profession and the programme be intensified by all stakeholders if it must attract some of the best brains in the country who can meet the challenges of the 21st century librarianship in Nigeria. This work was similar to that of Jones and Larke (2001) in purpose, sample and method except that while Jones and Larke focused on African American and Hispanic graduates of college of agriculture, that of Issa and Nwalo concentrated on undergraduates in Nigerian Library and Information Science Schools. The research design applied and instrument used would be relevant to the present study.

Myburgh (2005) researched on an empirical analysis of career choice factors that influence first-year Accounting students at the University of Pretoria: a cross-racial study. This cross-cultural study examined the career choices of Asian, black and white students at the University of Pretoria to identify the factors motivating Accountancy students to become chartered accountants (CA) as only two and halve percent (609) of 24, 308 registered chartered accountants in South Africa in 2005 were black, and only six percent (1,573) were Indian. Understanding the attitudes and the perceptions of CA first-year students can help course administrators/curriculum designers to align marketing and recruiting strategies with specific personal ccupational preferences of different racial groups enrolled for local CA courses. Survey design was used. Questionnaires are used in collecting data with a sample population of 550 and descriptive statistics used in analysis data collected. The finding revealed that performance in Accounting at school and the advice of parent, relatives and school teachers greatly influenced the students’ decision to become chartered accountants. All the three racial groups ranked availability of employment as the most important benefit of CA career and the employment security as the second most important. The cost of education and the difficulty of qualifying as a chartered accountant were identified as a problem.

The purpose, sample and method used in data collection were similar to that of the above authors except that he focused on first year Accounting Students of the University of Pretoria. His finding on cost of education as a problem was similar to that of Amedzor (2003) and Borchert (2002). The methodology used here would be relevant to the current work. Trauth, Quesenberry & Huang (2008) researched into A Multicultural Analysis of Factors Influencing Career Choice for Women in the Information Technology (IT) Workforce. This article presents an analysis of cultural/actors influencing the career choices of women in the IT workforce. They employed the individual differences theory of gender and IT as a theoretical lens to analyze a qualitative data set of interviews with 200 women in different countries.

The themes that emerged from this analysis speak to the influence of cultural attitudes about maternity, childcare, parental care and working outside the home on a woman’s choice of an IT career. In addition, several additional socio-cultural factors served to add further variation to gendered cultural influences: gendered career norms, social class; economic opportunity, and gender stereotypes about aptitude. These results lend further empirical support to the emergent individual differences theory of gender and IT that endeavours to theorize within-gender variation with respect to issues related to gender and IT. They also point to areas where educational and workplace interventions can be enacted.

This work was similar to others as far as purpose is concerned; however, it focused just on women in the Information Technology Workforce. Borchert (2002) researched on career choice factors of high School Students. It aimed at finding out how influential were factors of personality, environment and opportunities in making career choice. The purpose of the study was to identify the most important factor within these three factors that 2002 Germantown High School senior students used in deciding upon career choices. A survey was the selected instrument device with a sample population of 325 and both descriptive statistics were used in analysing data collected. The finding revealed that, personality factors were identified as most important in choosing career.

Environmental factors were not significant in making their choice, though they did not show outright disregard for them. There are opportunities for educational facilities and industries where students find themselves intellectually qualified for certain areas but lacked money needed to complete their training. His finding on lack of money to complete their training was similar to that of Amedzor (2003) and Myburgh (2005). The research design used, data collection procedure, and areas of assessing students’ choice were related to the present work. Ferry (2006) researched into Factors Influencing Career Choices of Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural Pennsylvania.

The qualitative study reported here explored factors that play key roles in rural high school seniors and young adults career choice process. Interview was used in collecting data from 12 focus groups from 11-county rural areas in the central Pennsylvania using purposeful sampling. The cultural and social context of family and community were found to be instrumental in how youth learn about careers and influential in the choice process. The economic and social circumstances of the broader community coloured and influenced the youth perceptions of appropriate career choice. Extension strategies that target parents and community to increase their involvement in youth career selection can promote sound career decisions. This work was similar to that of Borchert (2002).

However, it used interview and concentrated on a focus group. The areas of assessing students’ choice were related to the present work. Adjin (2004) researched into career choice in senior secondary schools: a case study of Sogakope Secondary and Dabala Secondary Technical Schools in the Volta Region of Ghana and used descriptive research design. He focused on factors that influence career choice, how proficient are the counsellors in handling students’ vocational problems in making career choice and ways of improving career/vocational education. He made use of stratified sampling with a sample population of 200 respondents and descriptive statistics was used in analysis of data.

The result of the study showed that interest was the most motivating factor that influenced career choice among students in Sogakope Senior Secondary and Dabala Secondary Technical Schools considering: ability, interest, monetary reward, and prestige. Also majority of the students of Sogakope and Dabala second cycle schools received help from their parents/guardians in choosing career and some gave no reason for making their choices. Responses collected also indicated that there were guidance coordinators in the schools who organised talks on career choice, decision making and good study habits. However, other areas like problem solving, field trips/visit, group guidance/counselling, individual counselling were not all effective. His work was similar to that of Borchert (2002), Amedzor (2003), Annan (2006) and Edwards and Quinter (2011) in purpose, method and target group.

By contrast previous research by Amedzor (2003) and subsequent researches by Annan (2006) and Edwards & Quinter (2011) showed prestige, personality, and advancement opportunities and learning experiences respectively as the most important factors that influence choice. The research design, instrument used and the areas covered in this work were similar to the present study. Amedzor (2003) researched on career guidance needs of junior secondary two pupils in Ho Township basic schools and used descriptive survey design. It focused on career guidance needs of adolescents in the basic schools, factors that militate against effective guidance services and factors that facilitate the delivery of guidance services in schools. She used simple random sampling and sample population of 200 respondents and descriptive statistics used in analysis of data.

Her research showed that, prestige was the most important factor that influences career choice of students in Ho Township considering prestige, personal interest, and parental influence. And they also need financial support for training towards their chosen careers. Most of them shared the view that they need an expert to counsel them on how to choose, train, enter and be established in a career. Majority of the coordinators were not train, and guidance activities were below average and students were not willing to approach the coordinators. Her areas of assessment are covered in the current study. Though, the researcher looked at factors that influence choice like others, it mainly focused on identifying career guidance needs of junior secondary two pupils.

The sampling procedure, research design and instrument used were similar to the present study. Annan (2006) examined factors affecting career choice among senior secondary school students in Shama Ahanta East Metropolis and used descriptive survey design. He used simple random sampling and sample population of 200 respondents and also used descriptive statistics in analysis of data. This study revealed that personality was most influential factor that influenced career choice among senior secondary students in Ahanta East Metropolis and significant others as the least factor taking into consideration (ability, personality, material benefit, home background, gender factors, and significant others).

Adolescents have difficulties in how to choose a career and there was adolescent male gender biased in career choice as compared to female counterparts. It was similar to that of Borchert (2002), Amedzor (2003), Adjin (2004), Annan (2006) and Edwards and Quinter (2011) in purpose, method, and target group. The methodology used and the purpose of the study relate to the current work. Edwards and Quinter (2011) researched on Factors Influencing Students Career Choices among Secondary School students in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing career choice among form four secondary school students in Kisumu municipality, Kenya. The study was conducted using descriptive survey design with a population of 332 students.

The data for this study was collected using questionnaire and interview schedules. The findings of this study indicate that availability of advancement opportunities and learning experiences are the most influential factors affecting career choices among students. While males reported learning experiences and career flexibility as the most influential factors, females however reported availability of advancement opportunity and opportunity to apply skills as the most influential factors. However, no variance was reported for persons influencing career choice by gender. The methodology used and the purpose of the study relate to the current work.

Despite the fact that much has been written about the individual variables influencing career choice, the literature review however, revealed that very little empirical studies on this subject matter exist especially regarding the factors influencing career choice among senior high students in the South Tongu District of the Volta Region, Ghana and the differences that exist among these factors. This study will, therefore, serve to fill up the missing gap in this aspect of the literature. 2. 3 Career Decision Making Decision making can defined as “an act of choice by which an executive selects one particular course of action from among possible alternatives for the attainment of a desired end or as a solution to a specific problem” (Attieku, Dorkey, Marfo-Yiadom & Tekyi, 2006). It involves conscious or unconscious attempt at making a choice out of competing alternatives. It implies selecting from alternative policies, procedures, and programmes.

Career decision making is vital as the country is faced with the problem of unemployment which is the result of poverty and other social vices in the country. The previous Government introduced the Youth Employment Programme to address the situation. It aimed at facilitating job creation and placement of youth in the various economic ventures as well as social services in all districts throughout the country. The programme consists of ten modules out of the JHS/SHS graduates qualify to undertake: 1. Youth in Agri-Business 2. Community Protection System 3. Waste and Sanitation Management Corps 4. Auxiliary Health Care Workers’ Assistants (Micah, 2007). However was this able to eradicate the problem of unemployment? For the hild to make a better decision about choice of career he must be helped in the areas below: – Self awareness – Educational awareness – Career awareness – Career exploration, and – Career planning and decision making (Gibson & Mitchell, 1995). Self awareness: Each child must be aware of and respect his/her uniqueness at an early age as human beings. Knowledge about ones aptitude, interests, values, personality traits, abilities and others is very essential in the development of concepts related to self and the use of these concepts in career exploration (value clarification, group guidance films and video tapes written assignments and standardized test).

Puplampu (1998) posit that for one to make good choices, he needs career guidance or career counselling, needs to be aware of him/her self, and to have knowledge of occupations and options available. Educational awareness: It is very essential in career planning for one to be aware of the relationship between self, educational opportunities and the world of work (group guidance, games related to hobbies and recreation, guided activities). Career awareness: Students at all levels of education should be assisted to have a continuous expansion of knowledge and awareness about the world of work. At each level students’ should be assisted to develop recognition of the relationships between values, life styles and careers (through films, career days, interest inventory).

They are to be aware of relationships between desirable school habit– responsibility, punctuality, efforts, positive human relationships and good worker traits. Career exploration: This represents a well designed, planned inquiry and analysis of career that are of interest. Comparisons, reality testing, and standardised testing, and computerised programmes may be useful. Career planning and decision making: Students at this level are to be helped to take control of their life and become an active agent for shaping their own future. They need to narrow down their career possibility and then move on to examine and test these options as critically as possible.

Students need to be aware of the process of decision making and choosing between competitive alternatives, examining the consequences of specific choices, the value of compromise, and implementing a decision. Students are to recognise the impact of their current plan and decision making on their future. Knowledge about the above helps students to make informed decision and enable then to cope with career development tasks posed by the society during their school period. Students at this level are influenced by what they see around them- family, friends, neighbours, televisions or in movies. That is why experts suggest that students need to be aware of themselves, and the world around them in order to fully understand and make use of information about their individual interests and what exist beyond their immediate world.

It is helping them to explore their likes and dislikes, expand their understanding of the world at large, and enhance their knowledge of how business works. The whole aim is to provide students with the broadest opportunity to learn and grow. In addition to the above, the following theories will also help the individual to be equipped with personality factors, environmental factors and other factors that influences choice of career. 1. Trait-and-factor Theory 2. John Holland Career Choice Typology 3. Anne Roe Personality/Need Theory 4. The Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad and Herman Theory 5. Donald Super’s Developmental/self-concept Theory 6. Four- Humors Theory 7. Social-Cognitive Theory 2. 3. 1 Trait and Factor/Actuarial Theory of Career Development

It is also called matching or actuarial approach. It is referred to as the oldest theoretical approach to career development and Parsons as the originator (Kankam & Onivehu, 2000). It is based on the measurement of individual characteristics denoted as traits and factors. Traits refer to characteristics typical of the individual over time, relatively stable, consistent in situations and provide a basis for measuring, describing and predicting behaviour. Factor refers to a construct which represents a group of traits that correlate with each other. Williamson (1939, 1949) cited in Zunker (1990) was one of the prominent advocate of trait-and-factor counselling.

Utilization of Williamson’s counselling procedures maintained the early impetus of trait-and-factor approach evolving from the works of Parsons. Even when integrated into other theories of career guidance, the trait-and factor approach plays a very important role. Some of the basic assumptions that underlie the trait-and-factor theory are: 1) Every person has a unique pattern of traits made up of interests, values, abilities and personality characteristics, these traits can be objectively identified and profiled to represent an individual’s potential 2) Every occupation is made up of factors required for the successful performance of that occupation.

These factors can be objectively identified and represented as an occupational profile 3) It is possible to identify a fit or match between individual traits and job factors using a straight forward problem-solving/decision making process. 4) The closer the match between personal traits and job factors the greater the likelihood for successful job performance and satisfaction. Some assumptions of this theory by Miller, and Klein and Wiener are below: Miller a) Vocational development is a cognitive process b) Occupation is a single event; choice is greatly stressed over development c) There is a single ‘right’ occupation for everyone; there is no recognition that a worker might fit well into a number of occupations. ) Single person works in each job; one person- one job relationship e) Everyone has an occupational choice (http://faculty. tamu. commerce. educ/crrobinson/512/tandf. htm) Klein & Wiener a) Each individual has a unique set of traits that can be measured reliably and validly. b) Occupation require that workers possess certain traits for success c) Choice of occupation is straight forward process and matching is possible d) The closer the match between personal characteristics and job requirements, the greater the likelihood for success-productivity and satisfaction (http://faculty. tamu. commerce. educ/crrobinson/512/tandf. htm) It called for clear understanding of oneself.

Knowledge of job requirements, conditions of success, and true reasoning in relation to these two groups of facts. This theory is used by many career practitioners in one form or another. Many of the aptitude, personality and interest tests and information materials that emerged from this approach have involved and remain in use up to now e. g. General Aptitude Test Battery, occupational profiles and ever expanding computer-based career guidance programmes. Trait-and- factor theory is criticised as not able to produce a perfect match between people and jobs (Walsh, 1990) and became increasingly unpopular in the 1970s, describe as going into ‘incipient decline’ (Crites, 1981).

In essence, the trait-and-factor approach is far too narrow in scope to be considered as a major theory of career development. However, we should recognize that standardized assessment and occupational analysis procedures stressed in trait-and-factor approaches are useful in career counselling (Zunker, 1990). In addition to the above, trait-and-factor theory focuses on personality factors without considering the influence of environmental factor like availability of jobs to match the individuals’ trait and interpersonal factors in career choice. And can not provide enough bases for the current studies. 2. 3. 2 John Holland’s Vocational Personality

John Holland’s theory shows that there is a match between an individual’s career choice and his or her personality and numerous variables that form their background (Zunker, 1990). According to this theorist, once individuals find a career that fits their personality, they are more likely to enjoy that particular career and to stay in a job for a longer period of time than individuals whose work do not suit their personality. He groups individuals into six basic personality types. Holland’s theory rests on four assumptions: 1. In our culture, persons can be categorized as one of the following: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. 2.

There are six modal environments: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional. 3. People search for environments that will let them exercise their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles. 4. Behaviour is determined by an interaction between personality and environment (Bedu-Addo, 2000). According to Holland, realistic personality types are practical, stable, self-controlled, independent and down to earth. They enjoy working with their hands, especially in projects which allow one to be physically active, they may be a doer. These individuals are physically strong and have very little social know-how.

They are oriented towards practical careers such as labour, farmer, truck driver, mechanic, construction work, engineer or surveyor, landscape architect, aircraft mechanic, dental technician, electrician, athletic trainer, carpenter, licensed practical nurse, archaeologist, hairdresser, physical therapist, dressmaker, fire fighter, caterer, plumber, x-ray technician, etc. According to him, the investigative personality types are conceptually and theoretically oriented. Investigators are observant and curious about things around them. Typically they are inquisitive and intellectually self-confident as well as quite logical. They delight in situations that call for creative or analytical approach. They are thinkers rather than doers. They enjoy working on their own. They are best suited for careers that offer clearly defined procedures, research and the chance to explore a wide range of ideas are the best choices for investigating people, e. g. ractical nursing, medical lab assistant, pharmacist, ecologist, math teacher, medical technologist, research analyst, surgeon, dietician, physician, police detective, veterinarian, meteorologist, horticulturist, dentist, computer analyst, science teacher, technical writer, science lab technician, computer system analyst, military analyst, college professor, lawyer, consumer researcher, astronomer, computer security specialist, horticulture, emergency medical technology, respiratory therapy, surgical technology, dental assistant, water and waste technology, computer languages, computer sciences, economics, biochemistry, geology. According to Holland, artistic personality types are original, innovative, imaginative, and creative. They prefer situations that are relatively nstructured and interact with their world through artistic expression, avoiding conventional and interpersonal situations in many instances. They do well as painters, writers, or musicians, artist, English teacher, drama coach, music teacher, graphic designer, advertising manager, fashion illustrator, interior decorator, photographer, journalist, reporter, cosmetologist, librarian, museum curator, cartographer, dance instructor, entertainer, performer, architect, etc. According to theorist, social personality types are understandable, friendly and people oriented. These individuals often have good verbal skills and interpersonal relations. They are helpers and enjoy jobs that let them interact with people.

They are well equipped to enter professions such as teacher, social worker, counsellor, youth services worker, recreation director, physical therapist, occupational therapist, extension agent, therapist, teacher, personnel director, funeral director, minister, chamber of commerce executive, athletic coach, claims adjuster, parole officer, attorney, sales representative, fitness instructor, cosmetologist, paramedic, mental health specialist, social worker, nurse, dietician, information clerk, child care worker, travel agent, airline personnel, receptionist, waiter/waitress, office worker, home health aide, career counsellor, etc. According to him, enterprising personality types are gregarious, dominant and adventurous. They are generally extroverted and will often initiate projects involving many people and are good at convincing people to do things their way. They have strong interpersonal skills and enjoy work that brings them into contact with people.

They are best counselled to enter career such as real estate appraiser, florist, lawyer, TV/radio announcer, branch manager, lobbyist, insurance manager, personnel recruiter, office manager, travel agent, advertising agent, advertising executive, politician, business manager. According to Holland, conventional personality type refers to those individuals who show a dislike for unstructured activities. They enjoy collecting and organizing information in effective and practical way. They are often like being part of large companies though not necessarily in leadership positions. They enjoy steady routines and following clearly defined procedures.

They are best suited for jobs as subordinates, banker, file clerks, accountant, Business teacher, bookkeeper, actuary, librarian, proof reader, administrative assistant, credit manager, estimator, cad operator, reservations agent, bank manager, cartographer cost analyst, court reporter, medical secretary, auditor statistician, financial analyst, safety inspector, tax consultant, insurance underwriter , computer operator, medical lab technologist, cashier, hotel clerk, etc. It has been employed as popular assessment tools such as the Self-Directed Search, Vocational Preference Inventory and Strong Interest Inventory. Dictionary of Holland occupational Code came as a result of Holland’s work. John Holland created a hexagonal model that shows the relationship between the personality types and environments. [pic] Figure 2. 1: Holland Hexagonal Model It could be noticed that the personality types close to each other are more alike than those farther away.

We can see this most clearly when we compare the personalities opposite each other, on the hexagon. For example, read the description of the types for Realistic and Social. You will see that they are virtually the opposite of each other. On the other hand, Social and Artistic are not that far apart. Holland topology is based on the following key concepts: Congruence: it refers to the degree of fit between an individual’s personality orientations and actual or contemplated work environment. One is believed to be more satisfied with his career and can perform better if he is in a congruent work environment. Consistency: it refers to the degree of relationship between types or the various classifications.

Types that are adjacent on the hexagon have more in common than types that are opposite. For instance, the conventional type might be more realistic and enterprising than be artistic. Differentiation: it is the establishment of differences or a difference among two or more things. It refers to the degree to which a person or his environment is clearly defined. | | Vocational identity: extent to which a person has a clear self perception of his or her characteristics and goals, and to the degree of stability which an occupational environment provides.

Holland’s theory is criticised as basically descriptive with focus on explanation of casual basis of time period in development of hierarchies of the personal model styles. He was concerned with factors that influence career choice rather than development process that leads to career choice (Zunker, 1990). This theory focus mainly on how a personality can be matched with a career rather than how other factors like environmental and/or interpersonal factors influence the individual’s choice. It is therefore limited as far as the current research is concerned. 2. 3. 3 Anne Roe’s Personality/Need Theory Akinade, Sokan and Oserenren (1996) posit that this theory see one’s need as the main determinant of the nature of an individual’s interests including vocational interest.

This theorist was of the view that career choice is based on childhood orientation or experience at home to satisfy needs; and that people choose occupation that satisfies important needs. This theory attempts to understand, make meaning of, and utilize individual motives, purposes and drives to support career development. She believed work can satisfy needs in different ways hence classification of occupation into eight groups. According to Roe (1956) cited in Zunker (1990), the first five can be classified as person-oriented and the last three as non-person oriented. 1. Service (something for another person); 2. Business contact (selling and supplying services); 3. Organisation (management in business, industry and government); 4.

Technology (product maintenance, transportation of commodities ); 5. Outdoors (cultivating, preserving natural resources); 6. Science (scientific theory and its application); 7. General culture (preserving and transmitting cultural heritage) & 8. Arts and Entertainment (creative art and entertainment) Anne Roe’s theory was based on Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs stated in this order: 1. Physiological needs 2. Safety needs 3. Need for belongingness and love 4. Need for importance, respect, self-esteem and independence 5. Need for information 6. Need for understanding 7. Need for beauty and aesthetic 8. Need for self-actualization


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Some People Think High School Students

Some people think high school students should take a year to work or travel before going at university. Some people believe that students should work or travel for a year before going at university,in my opinion I totally agree. Experiencing the world of work expands the mind. The experience will help us to see how the various aspects of college education relate to each other and to life outside of college. The richness of experience will powerfully inform your academic work.

First I`ll talk about advantages and disadnvantages of one year working or travelling before going at university. There are a lot of advantages,but also there are some disadvantages. I think that we should work a certain period before going at university,because we`ll earn money to pay our education. Most of the student`s cant go at university because their parents are in bad financial situation. But If they work a certain period they`ll earn enough money for going at university also they`ll gain experience that will help them when they`ll decide to find a job.

On the other hand they will learn how to live independently without assistance from parents, and how to face the challenges of life. Furthermore students could find out what they want in life, they could become single-minded, focused and motivated enough to achieve their aims. When they would start studying, they would be motivated to learn in order to attain the goals they have set, thus they will benefit from their travel experience.

Another advantage of spending a year traveling between school and university is that students would be able to develop certain skills which will be very helpful for their further life. Students would learn to take responsibilities since they would be on their own in a foreign country where they would not be able to rely on others like they did at home. Whenever they would struggle with issues, they would have to solve the problems on their own; therefore the students would become more independent and aware of the fact that dealing with issues and solving them is a process of becoming an adult.

Thus, their traveling experience would have a positive impact on their personality since the teenagers would be able to develop further personal skills by experiencing a lot, dealing with problems that they would normally not have at home and becoming more aware of their own abilities. A year of traveling would not only benefit the students by helping them developing their personal skills but would also help them improving their language skills. Students that do not speak the anguage of the country they are traveling to so well, would practice it and expand their treasury of words since they would spend a lot of time there and they would have to communicate in order to handle the necessities of every day life like for example shopping. Therefore they would improve their language skills and this could be very expedient for their further studies. Spending a year abroad brings along a good opportunity to meet other people and make new friends.

Students would get to know people from different cultures, hence they would learn many interesting things about the culture of the country they have traveled to. If students traveled to a less developed country, they could be more aware of the differences between the respective country and their home country and would therefore appreciate what they have at home. Even though there are many positive aspects concerning spending a year in a foreign country after finishing school, there also are some negative points that I want to clarify.

Some students might decide for such an experience but they could soon find out that the decision they have taken was not an appropriate one. They could figure out that they have done the wrong choice since they would not be able to deal with all the issues they encounter there, so they would not only waste money in vain, but also precious time. Some teenagers would not be able to cope with such issues as responsibility and independence because they would need help and could not do it on their own, therefore they could not bear a whole year abroad if they traveled to a foreign country.

Another disadvantage of spending a year abroad is the possibility of losing contact with friends at home. Since the teenagers who decide to take a break from school and do not continue their studies are spending a year away from home and from their friends, they could easily neglect their friends by not calling or writing them often enough. When the students would return home, their friends might have moved on with their lives and could have found other friends since they would have already started their university life.

A year abroad could also be dangerous if students chose to travel to a less developed country where crime is the order of the day. The teenagers could betake themselves in dangerous situations and could, if the worst comes to the worst, get hurt. Another negative aspect concerning spending a year in a foreign country before going to university is the fact that the students could forget a lot of academic subjects such as mathematics and natural sciences.

This could be a disadvantage for the students who want to continue their studies in this direction. Furthermore students could come out of their learning rhythm and this would probably cause difficulties when they would go to university since they would have to do their best from the start and would have to compete with other students who did not take a break from school but continued studying.

All in all, one can draw the conclusion that spending a year traveling after finishing school, may have its positive sides, since students can develop their personal skills and experience a lot of helpful things that can shape up as very useful for their future. Nevertheless the decision to spend a year abroad should be elaborated since it may not fit to everybody and it may turn out to be a wrong idea. Therefore I hold the opinion that everyone who contemplates to make such an experience should really try to find out if it is the right thing for her/him to do.

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High School Life

Robert Revilla Mr. Osman English 35 #31127 March 17, 2013 The Past and Present of Teenagers Ask any teenager today and they will tell you that they are nothing like their parents, that their parents just don’t understand them. This may be true and this may be false, it just depends on how you look at it. Teenagers of the Rebel Without a Cause, meaning the parents of today’s teens, did face a lot of the same problems and issues that we now face. Yet I am left thinking did the past teens face all the same problems at the same time as we do and were some of their “problems” not as much of a problem as it is to us.

Teens from the past and present are faced with problems such as school, relationships, and friends. There were many teenage problems back then in “Rebel Without a Cause” and today’s teenagers. Most of these problems that Jim Stark and the other teens faced were similar, but my own belief is that these same problems were not as big of problem back when they were growing up. Let’s take school and homework for example, oh sure your parents had it too but I just don’t believe that there was as much pressure upon them to get good grades. Also, get into a good college as there is for us.

And of course with the knowledge that college is right around the corner most teens also need to work. They need to save money for college, or a car, or to make the girl/boy of their dreams happy by taking them out on dates once in a while. Plus, all this pressure and work can build up for a teen and to most of us it seems like we never have a chance to just relax and hang out with friends anymore. It relates to the movie because some of the teens do not care about homework or going to school. The reason is that was back then it was easy to get a job by only having a high school diploma with no college education.

But, now in our teen lives it is hard to get a job with a high school diploma. Another thing that is different from the past from the present is the fashion that students wear. In the past, boys wear plain regular clothes and the cool guys always wear black jackets or blazers. It is similar like what a gang member usually wears right now. Except the gangs have their baggy pants or shorts and show their boxers in black or white. It is weird how those kind of guys like to show-off their boxers or underwear. For the girls in the past, they all mostly put on dresses. Now girls mostly wear skirts or short shorts.

Plus, girls always try to put on the sexiest clothes to wear because to get all the attention and be popular. Like in the movie, Jim Stark wears different clothes from his classmates. The reason is that he moved to a lot of different high schools because he never made any friends and doesn’t fit in with the other teens. Also, in every high school he went to the teens called Jim, “Chicken”. Why he is called that because the teenagers see him acting like a chicken, when Jim does not want to get into trouble. I think back then music for teens like, “Rebel Without a Cause”, probably listened to rock and roll.

But now teens prefer rapping and hip hop music. It’s interesting how music has changed so much in the past because teens loved to get crazy on rock and roll. I wonder how teens will react if music never came to rock and roll. Probably teens will make their own music or have to try out their parent’s music, which were more hip hop and dance music. Now teens today have a mix of genres they like to listen. Most teens in the present relate their music to their emotions. The reason is because they must have some problems in their lives and music helps teens release stress.

Plus, I am sure that it happens to the teens in the past except not big problems compare to our teen years. I bet Jim Stark and his classmates love to listen to rock and roll. Even though it does not show in the movie that they played rock and roll, but back then there was a lot of rock and roll. The teens in the early years prefer rock and roll because it was something they can be themselves with their friends. Sometimes parents cannot stand their teen’s music and tells them to turn it off or take it away from them. It is weird how in the movie, it shows parents like Jim’s parents how they do not care about his school issues.

For instance, when Jim’s classmates call him chicken, he tells them to stop and be angry to his parents. Then Jim’s parents decide to move somewhere else again, which happen several times. Jim does not want that because he thinks it is going to happen all over again. So, basically Jim’s parents do not really help him and his life that much. But comparing to today’s teens, Jim’s parents and other parents show more concern for each of their son/daughter’s education to make them successful in life. I can see that every year new parents learn from their past seeing their mom and dad on how they take care of their son or daughter.

Then later on the new parents learn from their parent’s mistakes and become a better parent. There are things that are similar between our time and the movie, “Rebel Without a Cause”. One is that teens hate doing homework and waking up early for school. Teens in the past and present struggle with their emotions like in relationships or family issues. Jim shows his emotions to his parents in the movie. He tells them how he feels every time when he transfers to a new school and he is not good at making any relationships or friends.

The main reason is everyone calls him chicken because he is different from his classmates and they think he is afraid of them. I just want to say that I am not saying that teenagers of the past did not have their own problems, but of course they did, every single teen alive faces problems that they think is hard and that their whole world is crumbling down around them well at least once in a while. But now that they have grown up and turned into the parents of today’s teenagers I feel that they put more pressure upon their own teenage child in order for them to achieve more than they were able to.

A common expression is, “My parents are so strict, overprotective, or too involved in my life, because they don’t want me making the same mistakes they did when they were my age but they need to trust me and just leave me alone. ” And that expression can sometimes is kind of true. But all in all I feel that our parents do understand what we, as teenagers, are going through because they did face the same problems that we face today, but maybe with just a little less pressure.

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High School vs. University

Every September, high school graduates must prepare for the drastic transformation from high school to university. High school is a teaching environment which a student acquires facts and skills. University is a learning environment in which a student must take responsibility for thinking and applying what you have learned. This step in life students will either adjust to or struggle with. High school students are told university life is exciting, unpredictable, and entertaining.

Also, students are informed university life is costly, demanding, and stressful. In order to adapt to the transition, students must understand and recognize the different teaching styles, testing, and grading. Teaching styles change as class sizes vary. Teachers in High school cover course material in depth and over a long period of time. Professors cover textbook material quickly. High school teachers check homework, remind students of incomplete work, and approach students if assistance is needed.

Professors do not check completed homework and will assume students can complete the same tasks on tests. It is left up to the student to communicate with their professors in order to receive extensions ensuring the student will not be penalized. Professors do not approach students or notice students who are struggling. Therefore, students may approach professor in given office hours for one-on-one help. Finally, in university due to large class sizes and minimal lecture time keeping up with assignments and readings is critical.

Cramming the night before a test and receiving a good grade is more likely to occur in high school, where testing in subjects is very frequent. Preparation for testing becomes more crucial in university because tests are infrequent, covering large amounts of material. Also, students in high school may be awarded a make up test normally without an explanation. Whereas in university, in order to receive a make up test a reasonable explanation must be given.

Review classes are given in high school to help prepare students and give them a clear idea of the material that will be tested. Rarely, are review sessions provided for university students, if they are, professors expect participation from students who attend. Success on tests can be mastered by applying acquired knowledge to new situations or to solve new problems. The grading system becomes very important as students enter university. High school students are used to courses that are usually structured to a “good-faith effort”.

In high school grades are given for most assignments. Students are also given grades for consistently good homework, which may help boost marks when test grades are low. Students who may not have a good overall mark occasionally have the opportunity to complete extra credit projects. Comparing this to university grades on tests and major papers usually provide most of the course grade. Extra credit projects are not normally allowed to raise a grade in a university course.

Therefore, the “good-faith effort” is important in regard to the professor’s willingness to help students achieve good results; it will not substitute for results in the grading process. Adjustment is required for a high school graduate to be successful in university. Before entering university, high school students must be aware of these differences. Therefore, they must know how to adapt to new teaching styles, to successfully prepare themselves for testing, and the changes in grading systems. Recognizing these differences before entering a university can help prepare students for greater success.

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Censor Ship of a High School Newspaper

Censoreship of a High School Newspaper Students at Central High School have written an article called “Underage Drinking Rampant at Central High”. The article is in the High School newspaper called The Tiger’s Eye”. The article is about teenagers from the high school are underage drinking and it is out of control. The students want to distribute the news paper to the school. The School’s Administration is against the distribution of this article. The principal and superintendent believe the article should be censored from the school.

But the students believe that distributing the article will inform younger teenagers about underage drinking, and will prevent them from drinking. Although the Administration believes that the newspaper should be surpressed, it should still be distributed. The first reason the article should be distributed is because it’s the law. The Constitution contains all the laws of the United States. The First Amendment of the U. S. Constitution guarantees the right of freedom of speech and freedom of the press. According to the First Amendment “Congress shall make no law… abridging the freedom of speech or of the press…” (134).

Freedom of speech means that the students can write and publish whatever they want. In addition, the editor of “The Tiger’s Eye” pointed out that the principal and super intendent “want a community in which everyone obeys the law. Everyone but them” (134). In other words, the administration should also obey the law. However, the law does apply in some circumstances. For example, the U. S. Supreme Court decided that High School Administrations have the right to censor or forbid topics that can be sensitive to students.

The Administrators believe that underage drinking is a sensitive topic and that they should forbid the distribution of the article. But everyone knows about underage drinking, so it is not a sensitive topic. Therefore, the right of freedom of the press should be respected. The second reason the article should be distributed is so the students learn about the what happens when you drink. The consequences that underage drinking can affect you are serious. Almost everyone at the high school kows about drinking. An anonymous person stated “First you drink a little. Then you dance a little. Then you find a quiet bedroom somewhere or go out ang nto your car. Everybody knows this. ”(133). He or she clearly satets the a majority of the high school students knows what happens. Furthermore, Juanita C. says “Sure I drink. Not a lot. Everyone I know does. ”(132). She has friends that drink and she stated that everyone she knows does. However, Trisha M. was one of the many people who said “I’m not ready to drink yet. Maybe when I get a lot older. ”(133). She and the other teens that answered a similar way don’t really know what’s happening with the drinking. Nevertheless, informing people about the serious consequences can save lives.

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Cell Phone Should Be Banned in High School

Hussein Hmood ENG, 1101 Mrs. Myers Cell Phone should be banned in high school When I was in high school, I saw many students in school using cell phones. The students were supposed to come to school to learn, but instead they were texting. I was one of those students. I did not pay attention in class and my grades began to drop. Finally my parents took my cell phone away, and my grades started to go up; from personal experience, I know cell phones should be banned in high school. Cell phones distraction in class.

Student would be texting each other or playing with their cell phone instead of listening and paying attention to the teacher. Jesse Scccia English teacher from New York said “when I was teaching, all too often I turned around from writing something on the blackboard to find students text messaging or otherwise playing with their phones. ” When student playing with their cell phone and texting each other they are not listing or learning anything, which mean they wasting the teacher time by not paying attention to the teacher and playing with their cell phone.

Cell phone in classroom effect teachers teaching in class, when a teacher trying to teach in class and student be listing to music, texting, playing games or watching movies in the internet. Eventually, the teacher notices and warns them that their phones will be confiscated. The phones disappear with reluctant obedience until the next opportunity arises to surreptitiously pull them out again. By doing that the teacher going to be distracted from teach by having to tell students to stop playing with their phones.

When the teacher think about the student playing with their cellphone the quality of teaching going to go dawn because the teacher going to keep thinking some student playing with their phone the teacher going to keep to turn around trying to find the once that using their cellphone. cell phones can cause cheating by students by looking up answers during test and quizzes. For example, one of the students during class sends answers to his friends and it continued to other students cell phones are causing problem for others students because not cheating students work hard and those cheating ruin integrity of the class.

Although all parents do not agree about cell phone use hurts students. The New York time had an article that said, “If my children are not allowed to keep their phones during the school day off and in their backpack or lockers the school is governing my parenting and children’s behavior during non-school time the school has no such right. ” However, these parents are incorrect, and are somewhat helping the cheating continue.

These parents who feel their child should be allowed to keep his/ her phone clearly do not understand how it is hurting a child’s education. Mobile phones can cause a distraction. They can disturb teachers and students. For example, if I was working hard on a piece of work, trying to concentrating, and a student’s phone rings, it disrupts the whole class. I may become side-tracked or the teacher may be interrupted during speaking to the class. Teaching would be constantly disrupted if this kept happening.

Education standards would deteriorate. Looking then at long term effects, if this was happening every day, you would be wasting five minutes a day, so nearly half an hour a week, and so that would be over ten hours a year of disruption. Also, mobile phones provide a large temptation to cheat in tests. They can communicate to almost anywhere and anyone in the world. Because they are small, students can quietly and discreetly send a text and it can go unnoticed. You got to school to learn, not to waste time playing games or cheating in tests.

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Tardiness: High School and Copyright

A. Background of the Study Tardiness has already become a habit of the high school students of Manresa school. Most of them come to school, attend their classes and scheduled appointments not on time. They all have their own reasons; traffic, working slow, waking up late, etc. Most of the students in Manresa School, are even residents of BF Homes. Some are even residing in the Manresa Village, and still, they are arriving late. They are residents who have been probably living in the village, or subdivision all their lives, who should have already put into consideration the usual problems they would encounter when they go to school.

Many teachers get disappointed, but up to now, the students are still unaware of what they are doing. Tardiness is one of the most common causes that affect the lives of the high school students. But, how can tardiness really affect our lives as a student? Will it bring down our academic grades? This study will provide information about tardiness, what causes it, the probable consequences of being tardy, and possible solutions to overcome, or at least help the High School students of Manresa School regarding their problem of being late. B.

Statement of the Problem Prevention of tardiness among the high school students of Manresa School. C. Objectives of the Study At the end of the study, the group is expected to. . . 1. To find out why the high school students of Manresa school are tardy. 2. To prove that it is possible for the students to come to school and/or attend classes early. 3. To give solutions and prevent tardiness. D. Significance of the Study The study is very important because many people would be able to benefit from this study; namely, teachers and the tardy students themselves.

During the course of this study, the group will be able to find out what the causes and effects this might have on not only the students, but also the teachers and staff. The study can also help those who are experiencing tardiness over and over again without being consciously aware of the reason, and may also help those who wish to conduct this kind of study in the future. The group can use this information to help anyone looking for psychological, physiological and social aspects of tardiness. Anyone who wants to know more about preventing someone from being late can make use of the information retrieved from this study.

The professionals, not only the students can also experience being late. They will also be able to make use of the study, and this study can virtually benefit anyone who has to be somewhere at sometime. E. Scope and Limitation The study focuses on preventing tardiness among the high school students of Manresa school. It is a specific topic but still covers a lot of factors. The study covers ways and changes that Manresa School should follow in order to lessen the number of tardy students In order to prevent tardiness, the students must know its causes and effects in many ways.

The study covers the tardiness in coming to school, attending classes and other important appointments, activities, etc. these factors are all important because the students of Manresa School should know what tardiness could do to them if it becomes a habit. F. Definition of Terms 1. Attendance (n) – the act of attending; number of persons present. 2. Authority (n) – to have the power and right to control, judge or prohibit the actions of others; to be in charge. 3. Awareness (n) – realization of something; consciousness. 4. Behavior (n) – manner of behaving or acting the aggregate of responses to nternal or external stimuli. 5. Consequence (n) – outcome; unpleasant result of an action. 6. Counsel (n) – a professional guidance service for individuals, applying the techniques of psychological testing. 7. Discipline (n) – the training of the mind and character; a branch of learning; a mode of life in accordance with rules, self-control; control, order, obedience to rules. 8. Disturbance (n) – the act of disturbing, the state of being disturbed; commotion; something that disturbs. 9. Excessive (adj) – more than is acceptable : beyond what is considered acceptable, proper, usual or unnecessary 10.

Excuse (v) – to pardon or overlook (a fault, offense, etc. ); to offer a reason or apology for (an error, fault, etc. ); to serve as a reason for; justify. 11. Habit (n) – a tendency to repeat an act again and again; a behavior pattern that has a degree of automatism. 12. Late (adj) – occurring after usual or expected time. 13. Manner (n) – a method of doing something; behavior; type or kind; habit; social behavior. 14. Misconduct (n) – formal word for improper behavior, especially by a professional person; dishonest management; improper behavior. 5. Offense (n) – the act of offending; a fault, sin or crime; the act of injuring another’s feelings; the state of being offended; assault or attack in sports, the team members. 16. Policy (n) – any system of management based on self-interest as opposed to equity finesse in general; artifice. 17. Prevention (n) – act of intervening in order to prevent something; preventing or being prevented. 18. Procrastinate (v) – a formal word meaning to delay or put off to a later time. 19. Prolong (v) – to make longer in time; extend. 20.

Responsibility (n) – the state if being responsible; ability to meet obligation, or to act without superior authority or guidance. 21. Sanction (n) – permission, approval; a penalty for breaking a law, deterrent. 22. Suspend (v) – to attach to some elevated point without support from below; to hold floating on or in a fluid, or as it on or in a fluid; to debar, usually for a time, from the exercise of an office or function or the enjoyment of a privilege. 23. Tardiness (n) – late, dilatory, overdue, delayed; slow, sluggish, leisurely, torpid. 24. Tardy (adj. – not coming, happening etc. at the schedule or proper time; moving, acting at a slow pace. 25. Time management (n) – the concept of continuous existence; the past, present and the future ; a distinct moment or period. 26. Violation (n) – the act of violating or the state of being violated. Reference list – Anonymous. (2001). Absences, Tardiness, Excuses and Work Make-up. Retrieved August 8, 2009, from Madison city. Website: http://www. madisoncity. k12. al. us/Policies/Pages/J/JBD-Absences_Tardiness_Excuses_and_Work_Make-up. htm – Anonymous. (2009). Class tardiness.

Retrieved August 8, 2009, from University Laboratory High school. Website: http://www. uni. uiuc. edu/policies/tardiness – Anonymous. (2009). Excessive tardiness in school. Retrieved August 8, 2009, from Lots of Essays. com. Website: http://www. lotsofessays. com/viewpaper/168107. html – Anonymous. (2009) School Tardiness and Absences can make A Child Fall Behind. Retrieved August 10, 2009, from New York Schools. Website: http://www. newyorkschools. com/articles/school-tardiness-and-absences-can-make-a-child-fall-behind. html – Anonymous. (2008). School Tardiness.

Retrieved August 8, 2009, from Martinsville Bulletin. Website: http://www. martinsvillebulletin. com/article. cfm? ID=16932 – Anonymous. (2009). Student Tardiness and Absenteeism – A Cause for Concern. Retrieved August 9, 2009 from MTCutandPaste. com Website: http://www. mtcutandpaste. com/page. cfm? thispage=060810a2 – Anonymous. (2007) Tardiness hinders student and school success. Retrieved August 10, 2009, from Cowan Crier. Website: http://www. lausd. net/Cowan_EL/cowan%20crier/Nov%2007. pdf – Anonymous. (2002). Tardy Policy. Retrieved August 8, 2009, from the Paly Voice.

Wesbite: http://voice. paly. net/view_story. php? id=2189 – Anonymous. (2003). Research on School Attendance and Tardiness. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Google Answers. Website: http://answers. google. com/answers/threadview/id/214323. html – Anonymous. (2009). Tardiness. Retrieved August 8, 2009, from Agassi prep. Website: http://www. agassiprep. org/pdfs/tardy_policy. pdf – Anonymous. (1999). The New International Webster’s Dictionary and Thesaurus. Copyright: Trident Press International – Anonymous. (2007). Truancy and Tardiness. Retrieved August 8, 2009, from Fulton.

Website: http://www. fulton. cnyric. org/policies/5000/5161. 0%20Truancy%20and%20Tardiness. pdf – Austin, M. (2003). Late For School. Copyright: Peachtree Pub Ltd – Bishop, A. (2008) Tardiness. Retrieved August 10, 2009, from a teacher grows in Chicago. Website: http://ashleyltt. blogspot. com/2008/03/tardiness. html – Burningham, J. (2008). John Patrick Norman McHennessy – The Boy Who Was Always Late. Copyright: Alfred a Knopf Inc – Cayne, B. (1989). The New Lexicon Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language. Copyright: Lexicon Publications, Inc.

USA – Cosby, B. (1999). My Big Lie. Copyright: Scholastic – Friedrich, O. (2002). The Easter Bunny That Overslept. Copyright: Harpercollins Children’s Books – Geddes, Grosset. (2002). Universal Dictionary and Thesaurus. Copyright: Poland – Gray, P. (2006). Psychology. Copyright 41 Madison Ave. , New York: Worth Publishers – Gross, R. (2005). Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior. Copyright: Hachette Livre, UK: Hodder Arnold Publishers – Guthridge, B. Clark, M. (1999). Lucky Last Luke. Copyright: Sundance – Hargreaves, R. (2008). Little Miss Late.

Copyright: Publisher: Price Stern Sloan – King, J. L. (2007). CP Time: Why Some People are Always Late. Copyright: Strebor Books Intl – Kirschner, R. Brinkman, R. (2001). Life by Design. Copyright: MC Grawltill Book Co. – Lachtman, O. (2008). Icy Watermelon / Sandia Fria. Copyright: Pinata Books – Landau, S. (2006). Webster’s Dictionary Thesaurus and Atlas. Copyright: Typhoon International Corp. – Lindenfield, G. (2000). Self Motivation: Revised Edition. Copyright: Caledonian International Book Manufacturing ltd, Glasgow – Newman, L. Ferguson, P. (2007).

The Boy Who Cried Fabulous. Copyright: Tricycle Pr – Nichols, W. Stebbens, S. Bunning, C. (2001). Random House Wesbter’s Unabridged Dictionary. Copyright: USA – Nissman, B. (2008). Teacher-Tested Classroom Management Strategies. Copyright: Merril – Mayer, J. (1999). Time Management for Dummies: 2nd Edition. Copyright: Hungry Minds, Inc. – McDonald, C. (2009). Getting Students “In School, ON TIME, everyday. ” Retrieved August 8, 2009, from National Association of Elementary Principals. Website: http://www. naesp. org/resources/2/Leadership_Compass/2008/LC2009v6n3a3. pdf

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Students Go to University After Graduating from High School or Go to Work

It is probably true that students who go directly from high school to university or college do not get too many benefits. Consequently, some assert that students should take a job or go travelling before starting their university lives, which I fully agree with. First, those who go to university after one or two years work, get work experience and earn salaries. Consequently in some western countries, most undergraduate students pay their tuition fees by themselves. For example, for students who work in Starbucks, one of the benefits of having a job there is that they make lots of friends and get a wage at the same time.

This experience is valuable. Perhaps when they graduate from their respective universities, they have a much higher possibility of getting jobs. Similarly to go travelling in the real world is not a bad choice either. Some would like to travel abroad, so that they enjoy sharing experiences with local people. They can share with other people observations with foreigners from different cultural positions when they are travelling in a different city or a foreign country. They never get this real life experience in the university.

Nevertheless, most undergraduate students would still like to go directly from high school to university. It is a process of studying step by step. From primary school to university, they get knowledge only from the courses they take and many think,that just as the old saying goes that” Knowledge is power”, so they believe they still have some benefit. To sum up, both alternatives have their advantages, but I support the idea that students are better to take a job or to go travelling before going to university. (281words)

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Controversial Essay: High School Students

To order an article, please click this link www. thepensters. com/gimatria. Thank you. Most controversial essays are emotionally-packed, hot issues that are intensifying and debatable in nature, thus, sparking conflicts. They contain disputable topics of recurring interests. Simply put, any essay contents where strong contentions are typically presented for long periods build up into particular forms of controversy. Hence, they are generally considered highly polemical pieces of essay. The reason for this is that people have varied ideas and opinions regarding topics that are contentious, debatable or disputable.

Controversial essays polarize people to raise powerful arguments in favor of or against any issues. This results from concepts or ideas that have distinct viewpoints, which comprise any specific contexts. Most people are good in writing this type of essay mainly because they follow these basic ideas underlying any controversial essay topics, as follows: First, you will not find any comprehensive guidelines of composing controversial essay topics, but only opinionated views. Subjective topics and observations in crafting articles generally generate controversies but primarily entirely relative.

They ensure first if a particular article is a personal essay, opinion piece, news report, persuasive article or thingamajig. Anyway, you should usually come up with timely content articles in furnishing details for this type of essay. Second, identify your subject theme and be familiar with the argument. Remain centered on the theme. Have understanding of your subject matter by doing some research to write impartial content. Just take into account to keep yourself unbiased, except if it is your opinion or own piece.

Needless to say, if you would like to write a contentious topic, pick one out that will appropriately elicit your own understanding about the given issue. Even so, be ready to be disputed and/or corrected. Third, be sensitive to your readers. Keep this in mind when writing: Know whom you are addressing or target audience. Keep the readers’ interest and concentrate on the end results. Ask yourself some of these questions: What is your objective as an essayist? Is your essay a controversial article, news items, or persuasive in nature?

Provide only correct factual observations even when you are trying to be creative explaining some theories. Readers can be offended or even annoyed with a contentious topic; yet, this does not constitute injurious expressions or offensive practice in the slightest form. Remember, as a writer, you’ve the right to contradict or denounce unfair remarks. As such, obnoxious content should never be tolerated. On the other hand, your readers can consider forgoing your piece, talk about it, or disregard it altogether. That could be their decision. Nevertheless, no writer should be abused.

Excessive prejudicial opinions and hateful bashing need to be dealt with judiciously. Injurious activities are unacceptable and no readers or author owns a right to damage or harm another person. In summary, if you choose to create controversial essay topics, yours may result in serious debates requiring supporting evidences. Really, you need profoundly, sensitive understanding of proper argumentation to deal mainly with opinionated essays, which are simply and entirely subjective any way you view them. Eilvu Gimatria Essay Guide To order an article, please click this link www. thepensters. com/gimatria. Thank you.

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Drop Out Risk Factors in High School Students

Drop out risk factors in high school students Tyrone Galimore Parent, Child, and School Psychology 133A-AMEA Professor Melissa Harwin Tyrone Galimore Parent, Child, and School PSY 133A-MEA Professor Melissa Harwin Fall semester 2012 10/11/2011 Introduction The purpose of this Life Arts Project (L. A. P. )was to review the benefits of family involvement for children. For the purpose of this L. A. P. I am going to summarize some of the expectations that families and teachers have of each other, and what potential benefits of family involvement have on at risk high school dropout students.

Some of the questions I am attempting to address are: why are African American and Latino students dropping out of high school at an astounding rate? Is there any difference when students get greater attention from advocate- counselors, and smaller class room sizes? And what are the expectations that families and teacher have on each other? In this Life arts project I focused on the impact of families and teachers involvement in high school drop outs. Literature Review

What initiatives are in place to prevent high school students from dropping out of school? Researcher has found that three out of ten Latino students dropout of high school, and one out of five African American students has also dropout out of high school. Understanding and addressing the issues surrounding students who drop out of high school is a continuous concern and pressing issues in school districts around the country. Over the past 20 years, the high school dropout rate has declined. (Center for Labor Market Studies, 2009 Cited in Featherston, B.

Carl, 2010) Some of the research has been done through qualitative methods, while other research was conducted using questionnaires and more quantitative methods. High school drop out rate has decreased from 14. 1 in 1980 to 8. 0 in 2008 (US Department of Education, 2010) for example, this is the case for African American and Latino students. The amount of African American students dropping out of school between the age of 16-24 also decreased from 19. 1 percent rate from 1980 to a 9. 0 in 2008, and decreased have also been demonstrated by Latino students, 35. percent rate in 1980 to a 18. 2 in 2008, (US Department of Education, 2010) These alarming high school dropout rates have pushed researchers and practitioners alike to distinguish the contributing factors causing students to drop out of high school. (Featherston 2010) Reflective Analysis When I was a high school student, I myself (being of African American descent) was an at risk student on the verge of dropping out of school. If not for my Micro system support team, “Micro system- A concept associated with Bronfenbrenners’ ecological theory.

The micro system includes social systems closest to child’s daily life, such as the classroom teacher and home. ” (Coleman 2013), I might have not succeeded in obtaining a high school diploma. “Understanding and addressing issues surrounding students who drop out of high school is a continuous concern and pressing issue in districts around the country. Over the past 20 years, the high school dropout rate has declined, but African Americans and Latinos still have the highest dropout rates in the country……. ” (Center for labor Market Studies, 2009)

Contributing Factors Many of us are concerned with the fact that there are little job in our economy today, despite the fact that unemployment is at an all time high; today’s young people are having a difficult time finding jobs. The competition is rough, and for young people with out high school diplomas are even rougher. Why do students drop out of high schools? Here are some contributing factors, and preventive method addressing academic achievement. “Many issues surrounding the decision to dropping out of school stems beyond the students immediate grasp.

Among these factors are academic achievement, socio economic status, and student behavior. Student engagement is facilitated by all of these factors and gives a clear view as into why students drop out of high school. ”(Featherston, 2010) Another contributing factor was that my family was a vulnerable family. In this course we learned that Vulnerable Families are families, who, because of their life circumstances, experience financial, emotional, and physical stress that can impair their functioning and well-being.

The two examples used in our course books were, homeless families and working-poor families. At times we where both, along with no money to pay bills, we would find our self moving from home to home. Sometimes living with extended family members (by the way, you ever heard of the saying “theirs no place like home) well that saying is absolutely true!!!! So without adding the details, you could clearly see why I had to grow up so fast at an early age, and man up, which contributed to my failing grades. One of the major causes of students dropping out of high school is the accumulation of failing marks. Studies show that academic failure has the greatest impact on a student’s decision to drop out of school” (Suh, Suh, 2007) In my experience as a teacher assistant, at the alternative high school, for the City of New Rochelle’s Board of Education, I have seen many students dropout of school. If fact academic achievement is one of the leading reason student’s dropout at the institution I am affiliated with.

In my opinion, student behavior is affiliated with poor academic behavior, which I think is a result for students being put out of school, or dropping out of school. To illustrate, when I was in high school, I failed to do homework, or take notes in class, obviously I was lost when it came to the course martial. I said to myself, what’s the point of coming to class if I don’t understand the class work. I could blame my parents for not staying together for the benefit of their children, but my parents broke up a long time ago, and I was the man of the house, being the oldest of three siblings.

I toke this responsibility on, all by myself, and my mother who work long days, long nights, and occasionally on the weekend would be a weekend drunk, had vary little input when it came to making sure we went to school etc…….. “Shared factors associated with academic failure were the limited educational enrichment resources. ” (Suh, Suh, 2007) Being the oldest of three siblings meant I had to share the responsibility with my mom, on keeping the family together. This meant getting my two younger rother up and ready for school each day, bathing and feeding them, etc……….. Being the oldest meant, at an early age, I understood about the financial responsibilities that my mom was having a difficult time with. I learned how to be a man from men in my community (tie a tie, work for your money, etc….. ), and I understood only money could help my mom in her situation. So I began to look in my community for ways I could get money to help the family progress, and be healthy. As a youth I had plenty of jobs, which consisted of working long hour at night and on the weekend.

This definitely had an impact on my academic achievements, which resulted in me getting bad grades. Certainly I fell so far behind, that I felt, I was stupid. So I did everything under the sun (bullying, cutting class, not coming to school for academic’s, but showing up for football practice) to divert attention away from my academic’s issues. I already had a plan, if I was ever confronted with the fact that I was a troublemaker, I would quiet, and I just needed a reason. Benefit of family involvement

There is limited amount of research on the benefits of family involvement for families themselves. Nevertheless, Coleman has reasonably hypothesize at least five benefits that should result when teachers and families collaborate to honor each others’ expectations and share responsibility for educating, socializing, and protecting children. (Coleman 2013), Parents’ knowledge of child development, schools sometime publish flyers to educate families about the physical, mental, and social “readiness skills”. Coleman 2013), Example, family participation practice can boost parents’ knowledge of child development and in turn, provide them with better insight into their children’s classroom performance. Parenting skills, teachers support children’s development and education not only in the classroom but also by responding to parents’ questions and concerns about their children’s behavior. (Coleman 2013), example, parents sometimes ask for help in addressing what they perceive to be unusual childhood behavior or a behavior that is out of character for their child.

Parents may also ask for help in to such requests benefits children and families in the short and long term (knopf & Swick, 2008 cited in Coleman 2013). Parents’ Self-Confidence as Advocated for their Children, to form a truly collaborative family-teacher partnership, parents need the self-confidence to advocate for their children’s education and general welfare (Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler,& Brissie, 1992; Hoover- Dempsey & Sander, 1995, 1997, cited in Coleman 2013) Colman states that as a teacher, you can strengthen parents’ self-confidence by their children’s development and education.

Also teachers should remind parents of how they contribute to their children’s well being by listening to their concerns and answering their questions….. (Coleman 2013) Parents’ Creativity, Coleman talks about family strategies provides opportunities to keep parents engaged in their children’s learning experiences. They also stimulate parents’ creativity in promoting their children’s emerging skills at home and in the community.

Higher educational aspirations, with support, children are able to live up to their parents’ academic expectation (Fan & Chen, 2001, cited in Coleman 2013) Family involvement can contribute to positive outcome and decrease at risk student behavior by increasing parent’s self- confidence and creativity in helping their children develop the skills and motivation needed to stay in school. Benefits of family involvement for teachers As with families, relatively little attention has been devoted to studying the benefits of families involvement for teachers.

Nevertheless, Colman identifies at least five potential benefits. Understanding the “ecological child”, because of their training, teachers naturally tend to focus on the “classroom child”. Only by considering the “ecological child” can we truly understand how children’s classroom performance is grounded in family and community life. Reflect on this example, cultural macrosystems. One hallmark of socially competent children in high-context cultures (e. g. African American students or Latino students) is their mastery of subtle contextual communication signals (e. g. nonverbal facial and hand gestures) rather than explicit verbalizations(Han & Thomas, 2010, cited in Coleman 2013) children from low- context cultures ( e. g. , United State, Western Europe, Australia) are taught to value just the opposite. They are encouraged to be direct in their verbal communication rather than rely on subtle forms of nonverbal communication. QUESTIONNAIRE I am asking these questions in order to gather information about what happens to students as they move through high school and make decision about what they are going to do after high school.

Student at the New Rochelle Alternative High School, where I am employed, were told that their responses will be combined with those of other respondents, and the answers they give will never be identified as their own. Former students who drop out of school and participated in this questionnaire were also told that the answers they give will never be identified as their own. 1) Thinking back to yours in high school, do you remember when you frist thought about leaving school? (Circle one) yes no 2) Here are some reasons students might use for leaving school which one applies or might apply to you.

Circle which one you think applies to you. • I had a job. • I found a job. • I don’t like school. • I couldn’t get along with the teachers. • I couldn’t get along with the other students. • I wanted to have a family. • (FOR FEMALES ONLY) I was pregnant. • I became the father/mother of a baby. • I had to support my family. • I was suspended too often. • I did not feel safe at school. • I wanted to travel. • My friends had dropped out of school. • I had to care for a member of my family. • I was expelled from school. • I felt I didn’t belong at school. • I couldn’t keep up with my school work. • I was failing school. I got married or planned to get married. • I change school and didn’t like my new school. • I couldn’t work or go to school at the same time. 3) Do you plan to get a high school diploma or GED? YESNO References Coleman, M. (2013) Empowering Family – Teacher Partnerships, glossary Featherston, B. Carl, (2010) Review of higher education and self – learning, High School dropout prevention: a review of the literature, (7) 68-75 Robelen, W. Erik, (2006, November 15) Education week. Detailed Dropout Studies Guide Policy in City Schools, 26, 8-9 Suh, S. , & Suh J. (2007). Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts.

Professional School Counseling, 10(3), 297-306. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database. US Department of Education Institution of Education Science. (2010). Fast Fact. In The Condition of Education 2010 (NCES 20100-028). Retrieved 11/16/2012, from http://nces. ed. gov/fastfacts/display. asp? id=16. US Department of Education. (2009). Anniversary of Title VI Marks Progress and Reminds us that Every Child has the Right to an Education. In ED. gov. Retrieved 08/20/2010, from Http://www2. ed. gov/news/pressreleases/2009/07/0701200-a. html. Wallis, Claudia (2007, May 14) Stopping the Exodus. (169) 177-179

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High School Compared with Collge

A good education is an important part of life. To achieve a good education a person must graduate from high school and then college. High school prepares students for college, but each student must define his or herself to succeed in college. The many similarities and differences between high school and college can help and hinder each student in his or her goals to achieve a good education. Some of these similarities and differences between high school and college are the type of students, the difficulty of the classes, and the differences in class scheduling.

The differences of students in high school and college begin with high school being a world where a person attends school with most of the same classmates that he or she has grown up with. No one has a true identity except the reputation or image that a person has built for themselves over the years. Most of the people in each grade are around the same age and live in the same community and are friends inside and outside of class. College is usually a new world to students. Many students move to different parts of the country to attend college and move away from their friends and community.

This gives each person an opportunity to create a new identity for his or herself and make new friends. Also, students in college are various ages including some right out of high school and some being older adults continuing their education later in life. A common theme in high school and college is bringing a group of students together to learn. Students are all attending classes to achieve a piece of paper that will help them in their future. Most students attend classes in high school and college because they want to be there, but the difficulty of the classes determines each student’s success.

The difficulty of high school contrasted with college can be hard on students. Many high schools work to pass students through the various grade levels and onto graduation without the students having to work very hard to complete tasks and assignments. On the contrary, college is a place where students must work to achieve their grades and pass classes. Professors expect students to complete tasks, homework, and exams to achieve a grade and pass the college class. Classes in college are usually harder on students because they require more work, studying, and dedication.

Many students goof off and do not take high school classes seriously. Often students copy each other’s work and tests in high school, but college students must work hard to make sure that their work is individualized and not plagiarized. Some high schools do offer college level classes to students that are more difficult and prepare students for the difficulty of college courses. Each student determines how the difficult the class really is by taking the time to study and complete the work in both high school and college.

One of the biggest differences between high school and college is the schedule. Both high school and college offer schedules for students to sign up for. Students are able to take courses that interest them and will help them achieve a diploma or degree. In high school students become accustomed to a strict daily schedule. School begins and ends at the same time each day and classes are held during this time and each class is the same length. College classes are very different. Classes are spread throughout the week and each class can be a different length.

Students must learn to take advantage of down time in between classes to study and complete assignments. On the contrary, in high school, students are given time during class and study periods to do work. The transition between a strict high school schedule into a more lenient college schedule can be very hard on many students. Many times the scheduling difference between high school and college is the reason why students to do excel their first year of college. Students were not taught how to plan and make good use of their time with the too strict high school schedule.

Even though students in high school are given an opportunity to choose certain classes to take each semester, scheduling in the biggest difference there is between high school and college. In conclusion, high school and college are very different, but they do share a few similarities. High school prepares students for college, and college is a mature version of high school. The types of students, difficulty in classes, and differences in schedules can be very alike and very different in high school and college. Success in high school and college depends on the effort each student applies in accepting the similarities and differences.

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Why You Shouldn’t Drop Out of High School

Why Does High School Fail So Many? Majority of students decide to drop out because of not having the support they need from their parents or the fact that school is uninteresting to them. Once the students’ self-esteem goes down, the thought of them doing well in school is impossible. When their self-esteem drops the students may to think “why even attend school” or “what is the point of going to class”. Students find it hard to pay attention in class while learning when the material given out is boring.

If students start to lose interest in the subject or topic they are learning about, it may lead them falling asleep in class, staring at the clock waiting until class is over, or disturbing another person in class to communicate about something else. Once a student has lost interest in school its highly expected students will not start to show up for class. High school students drop out of school because the teachers don’t make the class more interesting.

Students would go in to class and ones it starts the students would start starring into space thinking and using their imagination. Teachers sometimes don’t have that ability to try and get the students more motivated in what the whole class is about. Mr. Brownlee class is a perfect example of why students don’t learn and achieve in school. For my 10th grade geometry class, he would go in class give us a minute to sit down have a seat and then he starts lecturing.

Students would go into class late because of how boring it would be, or not making it interesting. Math was a subject to teach students how to work the numbers and how to use them, but he never really made any sense to what he was saying or doing. For the rest of the semester it would just be ditching his class, playing around or slacking on his work because there was never homework. Mr. Bownlee ended up passing the kids without trying on their own and making their grade easier. In my opinion teachers should always make an attempt…

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High School Student

Karina Canas English 2323 2/15/12 Supernatural vs. Natural Ever been watching television and out of nowhere a picture frame or some other object fall without anyone moving it? Was it some supernatural power that caused it to fall like a ghost that is haunting a house or was the picture frame just placed wrong? The Castle of Otranto has many mysterious events that happen all throughout the novel, but not all of them are said to be supernatural. Some of the events can actually be explained, but others can’t therefore are said to be supernatural.

The very first thing that happens in the novel is the giant helmet “larger than any casque ever made for human beings” that had fallen randomly out of the sky and crushed Conrad. There is no reasonable explanation to how anyone could have dropped it on Conrad because it was that huge that no one could have lifted it. One of the events that can be explained is when Manfred is trying to chase after Isabella but stops when the “moon presented to his sight the plumes of the fatal helmet, which rose to the height of the windows, waving backwards and forwards in a tempestuous manner, and accompanied with a hollow and rustling sound”.

The reflection of the moon casted a shadow of the helmet and the wind caused the shadow to appear to be waving. The rustling sound was most likely made by the animals or the guards walking. This event appears to be natural though it does give the setting a scary atmosphere. Falling photograph frames are somewhat normal, but Horace Walpole took it a little farther and mentioned the portrait of Manfred’s “grandfather uttered a deep sigh, and heaved its breast”. Not only did his grandfather in the portrait sighed, but “it also quit its panel, and descended on the floor with a grave and melancholy air and then motion for Manfred to follow him”.

Just like in Harry Potter moving portraits that talk are fictions, but it is a very effective way to raise the climax and give the reader a feeling of mystery and raise the climax. Especially when he finally gets to the door of the chamber and it is “clapped to with violence by an invisible hand”. The door is not actually held by an invisible hand. It is most likely locked up that’s why Manfred has a hard time opening the door. Later while Manfred is searching for Isabella, his guards Diego and Jaquez manage to get the door open and find what they believe to be a “giant lying down, for the foot and leg were stretched at length on the floor”.

This giant could possibly be the owner of the giant helmet at the beginning of the novel, but there is still no explanation of how the giant got to the chamber without anyone noticing it. Even the guards mention how the giant is supernatural for they suggest for Manfred to “send for the chaplain, and have the castle exorcised because it appears to be enchanted”. Towards the end of the novel Frederic mentions that while he was in the forest he found a hermit who “St. Nicholas had appeared to and revealed a secret that he was to disclose to mortal man only on the day of his death-bed”.

The apparition of a dead saint is supernatural because the dead don’t come back to life. When Manfred offers Frederic to marry his daughter Matilda “three drops of blood fell from the nose of Alfonso’s statue meaning that the blood of Alfonso will never mix with that of Manfred”. There has been many cases where it is said that statues bleed or cry, and even though there are proofs there is no logically explanation to this events other than the fact that they are supernatural.

As mention there are many mysterious events which cannot be explained, but give a sense of scariness in the novel. The most effective in mystery are the giant helmet which gives intrigues the reader to keep on reading to try and solve the mystery of it and the grandfather coming out of his portrait and leading Manfred to the giant who could possibly the owner of the mysterious helmet. Supernatural and natural events are both great to create mystery that sometimes it is hard to tell them apart.

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High School Educational System in Contrast

Name: Lily High School Educational System in Contrast between Canada and China With the development of a progressive and civilized society, education becomes a greater priority. In separate countries, there are distinct differences in the systems and methods by which education is practiced. The Canadian secondary school educational system is different from the Chinese education system in four main areas: the subjects offered for study, requirements for graduation, the authority of the teachers and the physical aspects of the institutions.

The first obvious difference in the education system between Canada and China is in the subjects that are offered for study. In China, there are two systems for students to choose in high school: a departmental system consisting of liberal arts and science. The students who choose liberal arts will study Mandarin, English, History, Mathematics, Politics, and Geography. For those who choose science, the preferred courses will be Chinese, English, Mathematics, Biology, Physics and Chemistry. According to BC Ministry of Education (2008), in Canada, there are two ways for students to choose: required and elective courses. For instance, required courses are planning, language arts, mathematics, fine arts and applied skills, social studies, science and physical education and are offered as the students only choices. Furthermore, elective courses have more flexible options. Surely, choosing any courses that interest students is important, as long as their electives are over twenty eight credits.

The second difference between China and Canada is in the requirements for graduation. In China, students have to take college entrance examinations, which are the most important academic exams in China. In addition, students will receive placings that are arranged from the higher to the lower grades. The marks they get will influence whether they are able to graduate, to repeat the courses or to leave school and enter the workforce as only partially skilled. Conversely, in Canada, the requirements for graduation are easier than they are for students in China.

Students in Canada are required to obtain just forty eight credits from the required courses, twenty eight credits from the elective courses, as well as four credits from graduation transitions (BC Ministry of Education, 2008)2. Other noticeable differences between Canada and China involve issues of the authority possessed by teachers. In China, teachers are like parents, in contrast, teachers are more like friends or mentors in Canada. Chinese teachers always emphasize the importance of rote learning and the value of marks.

However, Canadian teachers give students more freedom and offer the opportunity to develop their interests. Furthermore, Chinese teachers are much stricter than Canadian teachers. Sometimes, a teacher in China can punish a student by assaulting them, which is due to the fact that teachers in China are held as being above question, while by law. Canadian teachers are not allowed to physically attack their students in any way. (Farran, S. , 2009)3 The final distinct area of difference between Canada and China is the physical aspects of the learning environments.

For instance, the sizes of the classes in China usually are composed of approximately sixty people, but classes in Canada normally are a maximum of about thirty people. Statutory holidays are different, too. Chinese students are free from January to February for one month to celebrate Spring Festival and in July and August for two months because of the extremely hot weather. Canadian students are free during a part of December to celebrate Christmas during Winter Break, and this holiday is usually about three weeks without school.

In China, students have to go to school in the evening to study; however, Canadian students have the choice of taking extra classes or tuition, but this is optional. In conclusion, the subjects offered for study, the requirements for graduation, the authority of the teachers and the physical aspects of the institutions are the main contrasts between the Canadian and the Chinese secondary school educational systems. Education is an essential component of a successful and potentially prosperous life, and a definitive part of the core competency of a nation.

Therefore, how to form a more innovative yet completely effective system of education requires constant exploration, development and implementation of methods that maintain high standards and improve to the highest quality for the students of the world’s future. Reference: 1 BC Ministry of Education (2008). At a Glance Requirements – What You Need to Graduate. Retrieved 2012, from BC Ministry of Education 2 BC Ministry of Education (2008). At a Glance Requirements – What You Need to Graduate. Retrieved 2012, from BC Ministry of Education 3Farran, S. (2009). CAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADES BE TRUSTED?. MacLean’s, 122(44), 92-96