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European Union Dissertation Topics: Integration, History, Framework & Law

1. Introduction

This guide is designed to give suggestions and insights about possible topics related to the study of the European Union (EU). In general, the study of the EU can be separated in several areas – history, theory, economic integration, enlargement, law, policies, institutional framework and foreign relations. This short guide has attempted to cover subjects of all of these areas, and to provide interesting and challenging titles for undergraduate as well as postgraduate students.

In general, dissertation for EU studies can combine a variety of research methods, and the format may vary according to the research aims of your paper. A combination of primary and secondary sources is possible as well, which depends on the choice of your topic and your methodology.

2. Categories and suggested topics

2. 1 History of European Integration

2.1.1The Maastricht Treaty and the new challenges for the third pillar of the EU

2.1.2EU scepticism in Britain and its impact on EU integration

2.1.3The completion of the Single European Market – Who Won and Who Lost(the student can choose a country, or a group of countries to use as case study throughout the dissertation).

2.1.4 The Treaty of Lisbon and the new dimensions of EU institutional reform

2.2 Theories of European Integration

2.2.2 Intergovernmentalism versus federalism: the future of the EU as a regional policy-maker

2.2.3 Europeanization, European identity and its parameters: a comparative study of Greece and Portugal (or any other two countries, does not have to be a comparative study necessarily)

2.3 EU institutional framework

2.3.1 Battling the EU democratic deficit: Parliamentarization of the EU institutional framework

2.3.2 Voting and decision-making reforms of the Council of Ministers: Implications for the European foreign policy (or any other policy, for example the CAP, CFP)

2.3.3 The European Commission: problems of accountability and legitimacy

2.4 EU Policy-making

2.4.1 EU and contemporary challenges to environmental sustainability (here you can choose nuclear weapons or global warming)

2.4.2 Italian Migration in the European Economic Community and its domestic impact

2.4.3 The Reform of the CAP and the Single Farmers Scheme: Neo-liberalism re-examined

2.4.4 Common Fisheries Policy and the Problem of Conservation

2.4.5 The role of women in EU politics – a closer look at the institutions (explore how the EU institutional framework allows or discourages the participation of women).

2.5 EU Enlargement

2.5.1 The EU enlargement and the prospects of EU economic future – the German perspective (or any other country’s perspective, France and the UK would be interesting)

2.5.2 The impact of Turkey’s membership on the EU institutions

2.5.3 The Eastern Enlargement and EU immigration policy – the case of Romania and Bulgaria

2.5.4 Croatia in the EU: the political implications

2.6 EC law

2.6.1 National legislation versus EEC legislation – the transformation of EU law after the Van Gend End Loos case (or Costa versus ENEL)

2.7.2 The Factorame case and the issue of UK sovereignty

2.7 EU economic integration

2.7.1 European economic integration and its implications for the modern welfare state

2.7.2 The Greek Challenge for European Economic integration

2.7.3 The Eurozone – politically or economically challenged?


2.8 EU in international relations

2.8.1 The European Union in the post Cold War era: a transition to Common Foreign and Security Policy

2.8.2 The EU as a peace-maker: the EU intervention in the Democratic Republic of Congo

2.8.3 The Lisbon Treaty and is implications for EU foreign policy

2.8.4 Divergent concepts of power: comparison between EU and NATO’s stance in foreign affairs (the student can choose a particular conflict or issue, where both organizations have been involved).

How to Structure an EU Dissertation

For details on how to structure an EU dissertation, kindly check out the following posts:

How to Structure a dissertation (chapters)
How to structure a dissertation (chapters and subchapters)
How to structure a dissertation research proposal

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Considering the history of OCCM theory, explain to what extent OCCM theory simply records management practice of the time that the theory was developed as opposed to being in advance of practice and therefore providing new thinking.

Introduction

The culture of the organization determines how effective a business is. Peter and Waterman emphasized the importance of organizational culture in 1982 when they gave their theory about how organizational culture affected a business organization. However, it was not the first time that writers and scholars had brought attention to organizational culture as many other philosophers before that time had brought the issue that there was a link between culture and effectiveness of a business. For example, Blake and Mouton had already argued about this issue in 1969 and had claimed that culture was a major factor in determining the organization’s success.

Organizational culture

The theory of organizational culture dates back to the 1960s and even earlier when different writers gave different theories of what is culture and how it affects the business. There is no dispute over the definition of culture but there is an on going argument as to how this culture affects the success of an organization.

Organizational culture is a set of beliefs, customs, values and behavior. Drennan, (as cited in Bernard Burnes, p 44) gives the easiest definition “culture is ‘how things are done around here’.” This definition explains culture in the easiest words. Basically, the organizational culture theory emphasizes that organizations are like normal societies which have their own beliefs, norms and customs.

However, the theory about how culture affects the business is not as simple as the definition. Different writers argue on varied areas of culture and link them to the success and performance of the business. After the Second World War, the rise of Japan was linked to its powerful organizational culture. Studies were carried out to see how, and what cultures led to the success of Japan.

Change in organizational culture

Organizational culture is the main obstacle in introducing a change in the business practices. People’s beliefs, their customs and set of values are very difficult to change. For example, a change was introduced to stop gender discrimination and to give equal opportunities to both the genders. Even if that change was justified and introduced on a large scale in almost all businesses, still people found it difficult to accept it. They continued to think of women as unable to take on the responsibilities at the higher managerial levels and so, they remained at the low hierarchy levels in many organizations where the culture was strong enough to make room for this change.

Many theories about change in organizational culture and how to manage that change have been developed. The need for such theories arose when many businesses failed because the people did not accept the change they introduced in the organization. It is not easy to change the set of beliefs and norms, which develop over a long time and people get used to following them. This is the reason many businesses failed when they tried to be more effective by changing the way things were done. The failure rate was 70% of businesses, which tried to change the culture of their organization.

The components on which a culture is based, like the cultural model made by Cummings and Worley (as cited in study guide, pg46), which shows that the culture comprises of basic assumptions, norms, values and artifacts, are very difficult to alter. The culture of the organization develops over the years with past leaderships and customs and so, changing that culture by introducing some new techniques and work methods lead to de-motivation and dissatisfaction of the employees. Even if the employees accept the change, it is difficult to implement it.

The organizational change management theory explained the different methods of introducing change and managing it so that the failure rate decreases and the firms succeeds in implementing a change and benefiting from it in terms of increased profits performance. The OCCM theory, therefore, was not something the businesses were practicing before. Although many businesses knew the importance of culture and its role in determining the effectiveness of the business, most of them were unable to change the culture successfully to increase effectiveness. OCCM theory helped those firms to introduce change and implement them. This theory explained the ways of adapting the work force to the change, which had to be introduced. Hence, this was a novel theory, which not just explained what organizations already believed but it also provided them an insight into implementing the change successfully.

Implementing OCCM theory in organizations

The main issue with organizational change is not why it is important and when it has to be implemented but the main issue is how to put the theory into practice. Many writers have written theories and developed models to help businesses implement that change and manage it so that it brings the results they want. However, many of these theories are too complex to actually use in businesses. These theories were of little use for the managers and the people who were responsible for initiating the change.

Different theories of implementing change

The eight-step model given by Kotter is the most famous and it highlights eight simple ways, which can lead to a successful change. With this model, not only it becomes easy to avoid disputes and insurgence in the organization when some sudden huge change in the culture is introduced, but it also makes that change successful. The major concern when introducing change is the work force and their reaction to it. It is highly important to initiate the change in such a way that the work force does not get de-motivated and dissatisfied.

The eight-step theory given by John Kotter says that the person who is initiating the change should do it in the following way:

Communicate the need for change: this says that the manager should explain the various problems the business is facing and the possible causes. When a sense of urgency is created, the people inhabiting the organization will make up their minds for accepting a change.
Coordinate and interact: the next step is to ask the people to suggest different ways in which those problems could be solved. This would give them the chance of suggesting changes in the culture.
Make a vision for the change: after discussion about several methods and changes in the culture, a vision can be created about the change the business has to introduce. This vision will determine what the business wants by introducing the change in the organization.
Communicate: it is crucial to communicate the benefits of the change, the vision and the problems if change is not initiated, so that the people at all levels are satisfied and the risk of resistance is decreased.
Tackle resistance: while you will make sure that all the staff is satisfied, there will be people who will resist the change. Some business processes and structures will also make the change difficult to implement. It is important to tackle them well.
Make short-term targets: instead of making a list of long-term targets, it is better to create short-term goals and reward the workforce on the achievement of those short term targets. The short-term goals are achieved earlier and the people will see the result of the change, which will reduce resistance and criticism.
Implement change and try to improve: do not just introduce the change. It is also important to continually look for methods of improvement, which will lead to increased productivity.
Lock the change into the organizational culture: the change you introduce and implement should become the core of the organization and should become a major part of its culture. This is what cultural change is called.

The OCCM theory given by Kotter explains the process of change management in the simplest way. This theory is widely used in businesses and is very useful since almost all people, not just change leaders, can understand and follow the simple steps.

The OCCM theory given by Cummings and Worley (2001) is too complicated to follow. Very few businesses found those complex ideas useful. On the contrary, many other theories of change management explain very simple methods, which are too general. Those theories are of no use to the organization. Moreover, many writers commented on change management that the culture problems may be exaggerated and blamed for poor performance. Those writers pointed out that many managers may blame the culture for the ineffectiveness of the organization while in truth, the problem may be because of other reasons like poor communication or lack of coordination.

Another famous and useful OCCM theory is the planned change approach theory by Kurt Lewis, which was given in 1940s. This theory gained a lot of popularity since it emphasized on planning the change and then implementing it. It was the best theory until the industrial revolution when people criticized that it is not suitable for those people who run businesses in unpredictable surroundings. They argued that in those surroundings, there was no room for planning and they had to introduce sudden changes in their organizational culture. This is because the planned approach theory took quite a lot of time to introduce and implement change, which many businesses could not tolerate. It was only useful for those changes, which were not urgent. However, the results and the success rate from his theory were high enough as the planning process led to fruitful benefits.

Hence, the OCCM theories were overall useful in reducing the failure rate of businesses, which tried to improve their business performance by changing the organizational culture. Not all the OCCM theories were useful in making the change initiative a success, but there were some like Kotter’s model, which proved to be very practical, and a simple theory to follow.

References

Bernard Burnes, organizational culture and change management, 2010, vol 1, united kingdom

www.mindtools.com, kotter’s 8 step change model, 2011

Catherine Itzin and Janet Newman, ‘gender, culture and organizational change’, Routledge, 2001

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The history of the Asian community in Britain

Introduction

The history of Britain is marked by a continued presence and increasing trends of Asian occupation. The history of the Asian community in Britain portrays a long-term presence and increasing migrations, an area that has caused great concern among the researchers, academicians, as well as scholars. History explains the trends in the evolution of an entity since its inception and up to the point of its review. The history of the Asian community in Britain dates back in the 18th century, in the period 1850s up to date. Britain has thus become one of the world’s multicultural centers, with rampant tribes from the four corners of the world. Migration and settlement of the Asians in Britain is attributed to the existence of emigration and migration policies, conflicts in the Asian lands, employment opportunities desire among the people and so on. Asians are also known to be very outgoing people in regard to invention, and their presence in the land has excellent rationales, though some are attributed to negativity.

The Asian community also consists of people from distinct origins, the earliest coming from Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri-Lanka. The presence of the Asians in British land is known to have influenced the culture, agricultural, industrial as well as the urban sectors of the economy. The political as well as the social have not been exceptions from the influence by the long presence of these aliens. The continued migration and settlements of Asians in the recent years has drastically raised Britain populations to high scores. Researchers and scholars in the recent decades have continued to develop enthusiasm and interest in this area, though no study has directly related the history (Addison and Jones, 2007.

Therefore, the discussion in this paper investigates into the history of the Asian community in Britain. The migration and settlement of the Asians in the land is also found ample to present in order to enhance the understanding of the history. An establishment of the Asian statistics in Britain is also found to provide a rationale in this discussion. Furthermore, the kind of influence on Britons as well as original settlers in Britain will also be duly presented.

The history of the Asian community in Britain

The history of Asian immigration to the Britain dates back in 1850’s. Different phases have been seen arrive the phases over the years, the first wave arriving in 1850 in the city of United Kingdom. The reason for the referral inform of phases is because of conformity with immigration laws that have Marjory controlled the immigration trends. The first and the second waves having arrived in 1850 an d 1882 respectively, laws were set regarding a stop of immigrants from Asia moving in to the United Kingdom. The 1970 again saw a restoration of the immigration laws that enabled other more waves moving into the United States, carrying heavy populations. The waves can be categorized into three basic groups. The first waves that were experienced in the period between 1850 and 1942, consisting mainly of Chinese and Japanese people. Most of them immigrated in search of labor due to the arising human needs. The second period occurred between 1943 and 1965, due to the evaluation and revision of the e migration laws in the Asian countries as well as those of immigration in the United Kingdom. The set laws were set in favor of immigrants, thus this period experiencing a vast number of people move from the Asian nations. The period from 1965 up to date is the most relevant, being the one in which rampant migrations take place. Today, not only do the Asians migrate to the Britain, but also to other countries around the globe. The causal factors for migration have also become modified, and the laws have been regulated to ease movement for all kinds of people (Addison and Jones, 2007.

The British citizens who have long emigrated from Asia from are a term that has been utilized to describe the Asians who are found living in Britain. The establishment of the East India Company is known to the beginning of southern Asian people immigration to Britain. This saw the movement of the Indian continent people to England. The independence attainment by Pakistan, India, as well as Sri-lanka was a rationale to the increased immigration and this was increased during the British Raj period. The history of the migration is also said to have emanated from economic and educational pursuits. The earliest settlements origin in Great Britain from Asia cannot be attributed, including the Romanis. The middle ages are the earliest estimated times which saw the Asians settle in the Briton land. The sinti are also inclusive of the earliest groups, originating from the regions of Pakistan and North India. The period 1000 saw the Asians begin to travel westwards, where they were mixed Southwest Asians and people from Europe. Sizeable numbers of Romanis started arriving at the Western Europe in the 16th century (Spencer, 1939).

The 1660 saw the enactment of the Navigation act that restricted the employment realms for sailors from Non-English regions. Records of baptism in the East-Greenwich indicate that Malarban coast people origins were seeking better areas to establish their religion. The phases of migration that were in migration and settlement are grouped into four categories. The first phase saw the immigration of people who were in need of better employments that included the substandard jobs, including those of cooks as well as farming in small-scale farms. The recent years have been characterized by rampant migrations of the Asians into Britain and other area (Spencer, 1939).

The migration and settlements of Asians to the Britain

The emigration policies that had set in each of the Asian countries, and their relationship with the immigration policies at work in the Britain has been a long term factor that contributing to the Asian immigration into the British countries. The second rationale entails the linkage between Britain and the South Asian countries in relation to economical, political, social, as well as military linkages. A third migration cause is the aspect of globalization, in the fact that the world has been modified recently to appear like a small city where people can move to and fro. This has also made the movement process easy, making the movement of the Asians into the United Kingdom year-by-year (Spencer, 1939).

Theories have long been put forward that provide broad literature concerning the immigration of the Asian people into the Britain as well as into other countries. The push and pull forces that are considered causal for migration are abundant, and contributing to the actions of the pull and push theory. The push action of the theory is manifested in the fact that major factors are considered to cause the Asians move out of their original homeland into an alien land. These factors include search for labor, spirit of adventure, in search for better business as well as conflicts occurrence in the emigration land. The pull action comes in when the target alien land has a ground for provision of the needed by the immigrants. The Asians consider the Britain to possess important soil, geographical and development addition to social and culturally ample features. These are push factors that make the Asians develop increased enthusiasm to travel abroad, constituting the push and pull theory (Visram, 2002).

Migration is a major contributor to population increase in Britain spheres. The earliest known Asian settlers in Britain were from the Bangladesh region, Pakistan as well as the Sri-Lankans. The recent years have seen the Chinese and Japanese continue to settle in Britain for agricultural, industrial as well as urban and technological reasons. Therefore, the change in the agricultural, industrial and urban sectors has experienced a boost as a result of increased migrations and settlement. The rampant migrations have seen increased interactions in terms of language influence. The Asians have influenced the Britons with their language and at the same time, the Britons impacted their language on the immigrating Asians. Migration has also a causal factor for the adoption of new farming, industrial as well as technological skills (Kalra and Sayyid, 2008).

Statistics of the population of South Asians in Britain

The southern Asians are the earliest people known to have settled in Britain, since the year 1850. The distinct types of the south Asians in the Britain region include those that came from Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri-lanka. The Chinese and the Japanese people are also present in Britain in large numbers. The current statistics indicate the Asians to consist of 15% of people from Pakistan, Bangladesh as well Sri-lanka. The Indians from southern Britain are also the largest part of the Asians in the British continents (35%). The trends of movement in the phases have shown a great increment according to the recent research. The recent years have seen many people from the four corners of the world desire to get their way into the Britain. The earlier waves are known to have trends that were rising in terms of the immigration population as well as movement and settlement reasons. Philosophical thinkers have tried to come up with explanations governing the recent immigrations into Britain. Most of the causal factors are because of political, social, as well as economic interests. Many scholars believe that the Britain has the best education system, therefore desiring to become part of the same. The economists have credited the country with excellent economic systems as well as financial management ones, thus making most people want an association with the powerful country. The Academicians have contributed to the recent developed immigration trends in Britain in their urge to compare the academic curriculum with other systems since the Britain systems are considered the best around the globe (Kalra and Sayyid, 2008).

Influence on Britain by the presence of Asian community

The style of life of the Britons has been greatly influenced by the immigration and settlement of the Asian community in the land. The culture of the Britons was ideally eroded as a result of rampant interactions with the Asians. The language was also ideally influenced by the mix of cultures where each culture had to learn the language of the other. A strong adaptation skill to the region was a demand for all people found in the British continent. The Asians are known to have a passion for music, arts and performances, theatre activities, factor which has long led to the establishment of experience economy centers. The establishment of the events industries including the tourism industry is a result of the increased interaction between distinct communities. The Britons were taught how to adopt the agricultural practices, which have long caused the increases experienced in the economic fields. The history and the present day immigration to the Britain has become an issue of concern in the recent years. The U.S is one of the countries where population rise has also been an issue in the research reams. This is attributed to the in movement of people from other continents, predominantly the Asians, and specifically the Chinese and Japanese. The Chinese were the original immigrants in the 1850’s. Following the enactment of distinct laws governing immigration by the different ruling regimes in the Britain, four waves have been seen come into the Britain, the first beginning in the 1850. The second was in operation in the 1943 up to 1965. The third was found to operate in the 1965 and up to 1980, while the last rate from 1980s to the present day, constitutes the current immigration trends (Brown, 2007).

Immigration emanates from the desire to boost the economic, social, as well as political status of a nation. It is also geared towards the achievement of better cultural conditions of the immigrants, for instance immigrant women in the Britain due to the alienation of culture, thus they are able to acquire life with freedom. Scholars are migrating to enhance their knowledge as academicians search for better curriculum. Industries like Japan and China move in search for industrial location and business contraction sites, as the traders seek ample trade partners across the globe. More over, the enactment of immigration laws in countries like the UK has made it possible for many immigrants to emerge. The impacts of immigrations include global technological advancements, urbanization, and industrial developments, in addition to the conflicts and culture linkages and alienations as in the current world. However, the Asians have left a mark in their rampant immigration trends to Britain (Brown, 2007).

The rationale of the presence of the Asian community in Britain

The presence of the Asians in Britain has had major positive and negative effects on the Britons, the immigrants as well as the entire country’s realms. The Asians are long known to possess a heart for development and making great industrial discoveries. Thus, the recent industrial advancements are known to have taken place partly because of the presence of the immigrants. The increment in the agrarian revolution and the agrarian shifts that have long taken place in Britain are attributed to the presence of the Asians in the region. Britain is today identified as one of the multicultural countries in the world due to continued presence of the Asians in Britain. Thus, alienation of cultures occurred to great extents such that mostly the existence of mixed cultures is prominent. The recent technological advancements have had their way due to the increased occupation of the Asians in Britain. The experience economy sector has been ideally improved due to the influence of Britain by the immigrant Asians. There has been development of arts, tourism, as well as the events industry (Brown, 2007).

The recent industrialization trends have made it possible for the formation of linkages between the Asian and American continents, facilitating the movement of people from one corner to the other in search for better industrial linkages. These have made the Japanese and the Chinese people become rampant in the Unites states industrial realms, owing to the fact that they are industrial-minded people. These have moved and settled in the United Kingdom fostering for the best development patterns. The recent academic trends have also enabled the immigration of people from the Asian to the American continent. Thus, the recent immigration trends are composure of all kinds of people, and the population of the Britain has solely increased (Brown, 2007).

Conclusion

The history of Britain is marked by a continued presence and increasing trends of Asian occupation. The history of the Asian community in Britain portrays a long-term presence and increasing migrations, an area that has caused great concern among the researchers, academicians, as well as scholars. The recent statistics indicate the presence of large numbers of Asians in Britain, up to almost 50%. The presence of Asians has ideally influenced the political, social and economic life of the Britons and other cultures though has a very great economic rationale. More research should be conducted to reveal correct statistical figures of Asian community in Britain.

Reference List

Addison, P. and Jones, H., 2007. A companion to contemporary Britain, 1939-2000. MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Brown, J., 2007. Global South Asians: introducing the modern Diaspora. NY: Cambridge University Press.

Kalra, N. and Sayyid, V., 2008. A Postcolonial People: South Asians in Britain. Columbia University Press.

Spencer, I., 1939. British immigration policy since 1939: the making of multi-racial Britain. NY: Routledge.

Visram, R., 2002. Asians in Britain: 400 Years of History, Pluto Press. (Online). Available from http://www.fathom.com/course/21701766/index.html (Accessed April 15, 2011)

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Slavery the most controversial themes in the history of the United States

Chapter 1 Introduction:

Slavery is one of the most controversial themes in the history of the United States; throughout much of the past century historians have debated, sometimes quite heatedly, various interpretations of this area. For the purpose of this dissertation, the personal relationships amongst the enslaved will be the subject being examined.

Early research into the area on slave relationship tended to focus on the instability of slave families, The controversial Moynihan report of 1965 argued that the harsh regime of slavery shattered family ties of all that had been bound by it, and as a result the future generations of the ‘Negro Family’ lacked in strength and stability, Moynihan claimed that the majority of slave families “…developed a fatherless matrifocal (mother-centred) pattern”[as men were absent husbands and fathers.

Elkins notorious study on Slavery in 1959 also negatively depicted slave relationships. Elkins compared slavery to the Nazi system of concentration camps, arguing that the enslaved were psychologically infantilized by the regime. Elkins’ argued that the totalitarian environment and “…absolute power…” held by the slave owners destroyed slaves capacity to resist the regime and form any sort of positive relationship with one another. Elkins asserted that the slave master was the only significant other in the life of a slave, and believed that significant bonds between slaves were unattainable.

However, these views of slavery tended to focus on the perception of the slave owners and neglected the views of the enslaved. In the 1970’s new revisionist historians shifted to examining perspectives of the slave rather than that of the master, moving towards investigating ‘history from below’. The works of Gutman, Blassingame and Levine were of the first historians to look at slavery from this angle[5]; their works focused on the cultural aspects of the lives of the enslaved, a view that had been previously neglected. Similarities between their studies showed that cultural autonomy allowed slaves to distance themselves from the psychological pressures of the slavery regime and made it possible to establish and maintain positive, loving relationships.

Gutman criticised the earlier orthodox views of slavery put forward by Elkins, Moynihan and Frazier, arguing that they did not appreciate the extraordinary “…adaptive capacities…” of the African American slaves in spite of the rigours imposed under slavery.

The revisionist historians tended to focus on what Engerman referred to as “…the positive accomplishments of slaves under slavery.” However more recently historians have criticised this approach, believing that the resilience and autonomy of the slaves have been overstated, shadowing the harsh truths of slavery, Kolchin’s studies claim that revisionist historians have created “…an exaggerated picture of strength and cohesion of the slave community.”

However one must note that by accentuating resilience and the desire for independence does not mean that historians are romanticising the whole regime of slavery and that the restrictions and exploitations imposed on slaves by their masters were not significant. Rather as West argues the fact that the enslaved strove for independence under the terrible hardships of the regime is of immense importance, since it “…highlights the desire for freedom within the context of the restraints imposed by slaveholders.” For slaves, spousal love and support was of vital importance in the fight for cultural autonomy and also to provide shelter and support from their bleak lives under bondage.

This research project will further this perspective, in the attempt to show that the relationships between enslaved spouses facilitated the desire for and the development of a social space between the lives of slaves and owners and a means of resistance against oppression. This dissertation will attempt to show the strength slave relationships under and in spite of the harsh restraints of bondage.

The chapters within this dissertation will look at enslaved courtship and marriage under the regime of slavery; each assessing the strength of these relationships in spite of the hardships and restrictions placed upon them.

Slavery in America was present for almost two decades; it would difficult to adequately cover these issues for this entire period, for this reason this dissertation will focus on the antebellum period (1820-1860) of slavery which took place before the civil war. The significance of this period is that slavery had already been established and legislated for a long time thus providing historians with numerous sources of evidence in which to study. The limit of this period for one looking at cultural issues, is the fact that by this time there would be very few African born slaves; so this dissertation will be unable to look directly at the role played by native African slaves, as Kolchin argues that Antebellum period lacked the “…large-scale infusions from Africa that might have served to foster separate black cultural forms by reinforcing a cultural continuity with the traditions of their ancestors”.[11] The majority of the slaves in the antebellum period would have been born and brought up under the regime of slavery, however, this smaller scope of study should not be looked at negatively, as Levine argues that the slave culture is one of oral tradition, where culture was passed on from generation to generation by stories, songs and folk tales therefore African culture would still be relevant in the lives of Antebellum slaves.[12]

As this dissertation is focusing on the antebellum period, it is limited to the Southern States of America as slavery had already been abolished in the Northern States. Although this may seem a broad geographical area, this dissertation will hope to prove that regardless of location the enslaved strove for the same autonomy to shape their own personal lives and relationships.

American Slavery has been an area where sources of evidence has been heatedly criticised, the majority of early research into this topic was based primarily on ‘white’ sources which tended to rationalise the exploitation of their black counterparts. Other revisionist historians have focused on ex-slave testimonies which too have been criticised as being unreliable which will be discussed in more detail further on. However this dissertation will draw from sources of oral testimony left behind by former slaves, as Frederick Douglass explains one

“…cannot see things in the same light with the slave, because he does not, and cannot, look from the same point from which the slave does…”[13]

The Works Progress Administration Narratives (which will be referred to as WPA throughout this dissertation) are a collection of other 2,300 interviews of former slaves from the southern states conducted from 1936-38. These interviews are of vital importance when investigating slavery from the perspective of the enslaved and gives historians insight into the personal lives of slaves which is neglected in the majority of ‘white’ sources.

There is however many arguments against the reliability of these narratives, the main one is that over two thirds of the respondents were more than eighty when they were interviewed, it has been suggested that their memories of bondage would affected over time, and that they were only young children during the regime of slavery. West explains that even though the respondent memory may have dimmed with age, they still remembered “…a great deal about life under the peculiar institution” Moreover even if slave narratives weren’t perfectly recollected, the nature of the unique source still holds immense value to that of a historian.

Another issue that has been noted is that many respondents would have been children at the time of slavery; this could be problematic when assessing courting and marital relationships as the former slaves could have possibly been too young to partake in these types of relationships themselves, however as previously mentioned Levine’s study shows American slave culture was one that rested on folk tales and the passing down of stories through the generations, therefore slave testimony on their parents and grandparents relationships will still be highly significant to this study.

To end with Woodward brilliantly sums up that even though the WPA narratives are sometimes confusing and contradictory “…they represent the voices of the normally voiceless, the inarticulate masses whose silence historians are forever lamenting”

Chapter Two “…Set Out to Play an’ Court all Dey Pleased…”: Courtship among the enslaved.

As detailed in the introduction this dissertation will examine the personal relationships in which slaves participated; in the attempt to show the strength of these relationships and also the degree in which slaves strove for the autonomy from their masters to develop and maintain these relations. This chapter will examine the role of courtship amongst the enslaved, although there has been much more recent research into the ‘romantic’ lives of slaves since the wave of revisionist historians in the 1970’s, courtship has been looked at as a ‘mere passage instead of its own social event’; historian’s have either overlooked this area completely or merged it into a broader study of marriage. This chapter will detail early historical views of enslaved courtship before discussing the variety of restrictions which were in place to hinder courtship before finally discussing the ways in which the enslaved managed to create meaningful relationships of their own.

By the antebellum period slavery had become institutionalised across the American South, slaveholders were increasingly concerned with controlling every aspect of their ‘properties’ lives, especially that of sexual unions. This is due to the abolition of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in 1808, which stopped any more African people being imported as slaves; hence the sexual unions that slaves created became increasingly important to slaveholders to insure that they would have future generations of slaves to perpetuate the southern social order. Oral testimony from the former slave, Hannah Jones showed that there were some plantations who “…just raised niggers…”. By examining other slave testimonies it can be seen that many slave owners decided who their slaves would be with, in order to produce the best offspring. Katie Darling, a slave born in Texas in 1849, argued that slaves didn’t court each other under the restraints of Slavery, merely that their masters would “…pick out a po’tly and a po’tly gal and jist put ‘em together…” to reproduce as he needed more “stock”.

This shows one of main reasons why historians have neglected the topic of enslaved courtship as they viewed the way in which slaves formed relationships to some extent as an insensitive and unemotional process, as the majority of masters’ chose partners for their slaves with little or no considerations of their personal feelings. Genovese acknowledged that in some cases; masters had a paternalistic attitudes towards their slaves and let them choose their own partner yet the process was still not regarded as a ‘romantic’ one as

“if a man saw a girl he liked he would ask his master’s permission to ask the master of the girl for her. If his master consented and her master consented then they came together“

As a result of forced breeding, coerced relationships, and the ‘unemotional’ joining of partner as detailed in ‘white’ sources and also in a few slave narratives, Fraser concluded that “…courtship and the normal relationships preliminary to marriage seldom existed”. By examining more of the WPA slave narratives, however, it can be seen that this negative image of courtship was not always the case; instead one can see the importance that the enslaved placed on the creation of their personal relationships, as they “…sought to define the nature and shape of their own courtship experiences.” By examining the ‘courtships’ of those who were bound by slavery, historians can gain insight into the cultural and social aspects of their rituals and how the enslaved strove to meet and choose their significant other, free from the influence of their master.

Within this dissertation numerous WPA slave narratives will be discussed to show the extent of personal relationships between the enslaved. However when looking into the area of courtship one must note that the majority of former slaves who partook in these testimonies were young children during the years of bondage, hence they may not have participated in courtships themselves until after slavery and historians must acknowledge this issue. However this does not mean that the testimonies are of no value as many recount the stories that have been passed on to them or those they witnessed personally, giving historians insight into how courtship was shaped within the slave community and also how the slaves strove for the autonomy to create strong relationship bonds. A perspective that many traditional historians neglected as can be seen in the previous chapter as they used primarily ‘white’ sources.

Many slave owners expected to decide the timing of courtship and coupling among slaves and to constrain their slaves’ choice of partner to suit their own needs; such as keeping their slaves on their plantations at all times and producing ‘quality’ offspring destined to be the master’s future slaves and/or income. To make sure this was the case slave holders placed numerous restrictions in the way of their slaves’ courtships; time was one of the largest constraints faced by the enslaved, as Smith explains “all time on the plantation, whether work or leisure, was ultimately the master’s to bestow, manipulate and define”. With slaves spending all their time working in the fields or domestically in the masters house, even when their long day at work was over, their master still controlled what they did and even when they had to go to sleep. For example, Ex-slave Matida Mckinney explained the concept of curfews on her plantation, pointing out that the

“…curfew horn was blown and no lights could be lighted after its warning not had sounded. There was very little visiting to or from the group which dwelt here, as the curfew hour was early”

This shows how relatively little freedom slaves had in their day to day lives to socialise or court one another.

As well as time, slave owners also restricted their slave’s mobility. The enslaved were restricted to the boundaries of their plantations. The Former slave Austin Steward points out that

“Slaves are never allowed to leave the plantation which they belong, without a written pass. Should anyone venture to disobey this law, he will most likely be caught by the patrol and given thirty-nine lashes.”

The enslaved had to gain their masters permission to leave their plantation, they were required to get a written pass, detailing their master’s name, the origin of their trip and their destination, and they were also required to produce this pass at the request of any white person.

Not only were their ‘patrollers’ hindering slaves geographical mobility but slave owners also placed physical boundaries, such as high fences, around the perimeter of their plantations to contain and restrict slaves mobility further. Former slave Louisa Adams argues that

“All de plantation wuz fenced in, dat is all de fields, wid rails; de rails wuz ten feet long”

It should be noted here that the restrictions imposed on the enslaved were inconsistent throughout the Antebellum South, not just in differing states but “between slaveholders themselves; urban and rural environments and different police measures in the county”Regardless of these restrictions the enslaved managed to control their personal relationships through working around the restrictions enforced upon them by the regime of slavery. Certain social events were organised by the slave owners and occurred as part of the work regime, for example ‘corn shucking’ and ‘candy pulling’ where numerous slaves from neighbouring plantations would come together to complete a large task. Even though the slaves were working on these occasions by reviewing many of the WPA slave testimonies it can be seen that the enslaved looked forward to these events and the majority described them as ‘fun’. As well as working the slaves had the chance to engage in socialising, flirtation and courtship at these events. For instance, they played numerous courtship games such as ‘kissing for a red ear of corn’ and ‘dropping the handkerchief’ which allowed them to possibly establish a meaningful personal relationships. The former slave Anna Wright explained how these organised events offered a good place for the enslaved to meet a potential partner but also for existing couples to continue their courtship, she explained that courting couples relished these days as they could “…set out to play an’ court all dey pleased”. Therefore the enslaved managed to manipulate some of the terms of their working lives to their own ends.

As well as these occasions, many slave owners also recognised different times of the year as holidays, during these times the usual time and mobility restrictions enforced on the enslaved were temporarily relaxed allowing slaves to move between different plantations and spend time socialising and courting. For instance for Christmas Holiday which could last anything from a couple of days to a couple of weeks, one former slave detailed that on his plantation from Christmas through to new year the slaves “…feast, an’ we dance, an’ we sing.” Another slave explained that at Christmas, slaves “…went up de riber to other plantations ter dances an’ all dem things…” However it must be noted that these opportunities were completely dependent on the slave owner, who could withdraw these privileges at any time or choose not to partake in them at all.

It can be seen so far that the enslaved had very little opportunity to partake in courtships, and the opportunities they had, if any, to escape being governed by their masters were seldom. Some slaves, however, resisted these restrictions which bound them and sought to have a social world separate to their plantation and thus developed ‘…alternative or illicit social spaces, where they socialised, flirted and courted without the presence or consent of the slave owner’.

The enslaved would go to unauthorised ‘frolics’ or their significant other’s plantations without obtaining the permission of their master in order to pursue or create a courtship. For example, ex-slave Penny Williams recounted that

“Dar was some nigger men what ud go courtin’ spite de debil, an’ master ain’t gibbin dem no passes dey go widout ‘em”

She also detailed how regardless of the punishment bestowed on them when they were caught, they would still continue this behaviour in pursuit of love. This point was furthered by former slave Hugh Berry, who described that he would risk severe punishment to “…go back over there to see that girl”. By doing this the enslaved defied and resisted the systems of control, such as time and geography.

In conclusion, the enslaved in the antebellum south strove to meet and court a significant other of their choosing. Slave utilised the time that their owners allowed them, such as work based event and holidays to extend the limits of their lives, but they also strove to establish romantic bonds with one another in spaces that was separate from their plantation and their master’s authority. This chapter shows the value and importance slaves placed on their courtships, so much so that they would risk a severe beating in order to pursue their love interest. Also by examining slave testimonies, one can see that courtship was a vital stage in the romantic relationships of the enslaved, despite being neglected by early academics.

Chapter 3 “Jumping the broom”: Weddings and Marriage amongst the enslaved
The last chapter analysed the opportunities the enslaved had to meet and court a partner of their own choosing, this chapter will look at the next stage in the romantic relationship; marriage. Slave marriages have been one of the most controversial areas of research within the topic of slavery, numerous orthodox historians viewed slave marriages as weak and unstable, Stampp believed that with all the constraints imposed on the enslaved, ‘no deep or enduring affection could develop between husband and wives’.This chapter will examine the extent to which this claim is true, focusing on the difficulties and restrictions that affected slave marriages and how the enslaved managed to overcome them.

The first question this chapter will examine is opportunities that the enslaved had to get married; the southern legal system never recognised slave marriages on the grounds that property could not enter into a legal contract, slave holders would not tolerate a legal contract that would interfere with their rights to dispose of their property as they pleased, therefore early scholars concluded that marital relationships could not have existed amongst slaves. However, throughout this chapter it can be seen that this was not the case; although slave marriages were not legislated they were culturally formed and respected by the slave community.

As in courtship, marriages between slaves were greatly influenced by the slaveholders; some slave owners forbade their slaves to enter in marriage at all. There were many different reasons for this, one of which being the threat to the master’s authority, for example Harriet Jacob’s master rejected her requests to wed a free black man as he thought that it would displace her loyalties to him, he asserted, “Well, I’ll soon convince you whether I am your master, or that nigger fellow you honour so highly”.

Another reason for master’s forbidding enslaved matrimony, which is suggested by reviewing slave testimonies, is the practice of forced breeding as discussed in the previous chapter. A former slave recalled the application of this in her plantation;

“As a rule negro men were not allowed to marry at all, any attempt to mate with the negro women brought swift, sure horrible punishment and the species were propagated by selected male Negros, who were kept for this purpose, the owners of this privileged negro, charged a fee of one out of every four of his offspring for his services”

A former Texas slave, also described a less explicit way of forced breeding, where the women on his plantation were paired and forced to cohabit with a mate that their master deemed as suitable, as effective reproduction was more important to the slave owner than his slave emotions. Franklin believed that this was the case for the majority of slave women, who were forced into ‘relationships’ and pregnancy by the venality of her master, Franklin asserted this made it unlikely that slaves would ever establish a loving and affectionate bond with their significant other.

Conversely, even though numerous slaves were coerced into relationships, some managed to manipulate their masters so they could be with the person of their choosing. An example of this can be seen in the testimony of former slave Virgina Yarbrough, who recalled once when her master forced two slaves together even though they were in love with others, they slept in separate beds “Twas’ bout three months aftah, de marster see thar am no chillums gwine to be bo’n, so he tuks her f’om dat fellow an’ ‘lows her to stay wid de one she laks.” However, it must be noted that this happened in the minority.

By examining numerous slave testimonies, however, one can determine that the majority of slave owners did allow slaves to marry the person of their choosing, as Genevese explains most owners understood that if slaves were denied their request to marry the one they loved, they would become sullen workers and would be more likely to run away. Slave owners also allowed informal ceremonies to mark marital unions amongst slaveseven if there were not legitimate.

This Chapter will now examine some of the various ceremonial rituals which took place at slave weddings; one of the most common of these rituals was jumping over the broomstick where slave couples literally jumped over a broomstick together and were then married. Historians take different views on the meaning of this ceremony; Blassingame and Gutman believed this ritual originated in Africa and was initiated by the slaves themselves. On the contrary, Stevenson argues that the broomstick ritual derived from pre-Christian Europe and was passed down generations as a quaint and amusing remnant of the past, Stevenson believes this ritual was imposed on slaves by their masters, which suggested the lack of respect and honour slave-owners held for their ‘…blacks attempt to create meaningful marital relationships’ By reviewing numerous slave testimonies that describe the broom stick ceremony, they tend to fit in with Stevenson’s analysis of the ceremony, this can be seen by the use of coercive language, that they were required to perform this ceremony. Again reaffirming the master’s control over slave marriages; for example Georgina Giwbs said that, ‘When yer married, yer had to jump over the broom three times. Dat wuz de licence. ’ Another instance of this can be seen by reviewing the testimony of George Womble, he describes that slaves ‘…were commanded to jump over the broom ’.

All slave ceremonies were not as basic as jumping over a broomstick, they ranged from extravagant weddings as described in several slave testimonies, for example Tempie Durham recalled her “…big weddin…”, where her master arranged for her to have a “…big weddin’ cake…”, a massive feast, a bible wedding ceremony with a “…nigger preacher…” and a grand white wedding dress. One may question why masters would arrange elaborate ceremonies for their slaves, Stampp suggests the reason is for the white masters to mock and belittle their black ‘property’, delighting in watching ‘…a bride and groom move awkwardly through the wedding ceremony’. Genovese, however, disagree with this notion; instead believing that masters indulged slaves on their wedding days expecting that in return slaves would become more loyal and work harder. Regardless of the ulterior motives of masters, Will’s research shows that slaves preferred the elaborate trappings of the white culture, this signifies how the enslaved wished to have the same opportunities as their white counterparts to celebrate their personal relationships

For the enslaved, wedding ceremonies legitimised their personal relationships to the extent possible during their time in bondage. The value and importance of these ceremonies held by slaves; whether extravagant events held in their masters house or the simple act of jumping over the broomstick, reflect the commitment slaves held in marriage and also the importance of the communal validation of their relationships.

As with so many issues vital to the enslaved, white laws and planter control inevitably limited the range of marriage options open to slaves, yet working within the range and persistently attempting to widen this range of possibilities as seen also in the previous chapter, slaves forged marriage rituals that they not their masters ultimately determined and guarded.

The importance of attaining marriage status alone is not sufficient evidence however to prove that slave marriages were not weak, unstable and unaffectionate as orthodox historians suggested.

Another factor which led early scholars to label slave marriages with negative connotations was the idea that slaves were sexually promiscuous, and could not remain faithful to one another, as one white slave mistress recounted “Not one in a thousand, I suppose, of these poor creatures have a conception whatever of the sanctity of marriage…”. This is reiterated in some slave narratives, for example an former slave from Alabama explained that he couldn’t stay with the same woman instead he “…jes tuck up wid one likely gal ater anoder…”

Gutman, however, argues that this was not the case and ‘…fidelity was expected from slave men and women after marriage’by reviewing numerous slave narratives one can see that the majority of married slaves were loyal to each other regardless of the adverse situations they found themselves in. For example, Susan Snow a former slave, recalled that she “…never hear’d tell o’ wives runnin’ round wid other men in dem days”

Another example of the enslaved devotion to their spouse is recalled by Bryant Huff, who father was sold far away yet his mother refused to be unfaithful to him, she “… grieved over his departure and refused, although urged, to marry again”.

A serious problem which affected slave marriages was not the loyalty between spouses but the sexual exploitation faced by female slaves at the hands of white men usually their master, former Slave Henry Bibb explained that

“slaves wives… cannot be true to their husbands… they dare not refuse to be reduced to a state of adultery at the will of her master”

This was extremely difficult for female slaves but also their significant others who were often powerless to stop the abuse; Henry Bibb further detailed his experience of when his wife Malinda was being sexually abused by their master,

“I was compelled to stand and see my wife shamefully scourged and abused by her master; and the manner in which it was done, was so violently and inhumanely committed upon the person of a female, that I despair in finding decent language to describe the bloody act of cruelty”

Some male slaves attempted to protect their wives from this abuse, former South Carolina slave Philip Evans recalled how his aunt was abused by a white overseer, her husband Dennis then attacked the overseer before fleeing into the woods, he was then caught and jailed before being stripped and flogged, the abuse on his wife still continued.

By assessing these two testimonies it shows historians that however difficult it must have been for slave couple to endure sexual exploitation, the fact that they did is further evidence of the strength of slave marriages and the support spouses provided to one another.

Another factor which would give a historian insight into determining the strength of slave marriages; is the length of time slaves were married. An example of this can be seen by reviewing the journal of a former slave holder Chaplin who noted that two of his female slaves had been married for over twenty seven years, he found that this was a strange phenomenon but by reviewing numerous slave testimonies one can draw the conclusion that it was common for slave marriages to be lifelong unions, unless broken by separation (which will discussed in more detail further on in this chapter). This is reiterated by the work of Gutman, his study showed that the majority of slaves remained married when possible, as only 9% of slaves in his study had separated due to mutual consent or by desertion

Franklin believed that the permanency of a slave marriage would depend on the extent to which the couple could live and work together, based on this he deemed that slave marriages would only work if the couple remained together on the same plantation. However, as aforementioned slave marriages could not be legitimised as it would interfere with the owner’s rights to sell or give away their ‘property’, this meant that slave marriages were under constant threat of separation either through long distance or local sales, being gifted between white family members and also when estates of deceased owners were divided up Crawford estimates that nearly a quarter of all slave families were broken by sale.

Slave owners understood the value slaves held in their marriage and used this knowledge as a way to control their slaves; the threat of being separated from their spouses was the most feared punishment, ‘…a haunting fear which made all of the slave’s days miserable…’ This overwhelming fear of being separated from their spouses shows further evidence of the importance of marital ties between the enslaved.

Gutman 1970 study highlighted the strength of marital and family ties, however it has been criticised as his work only focused on large plantations where marital and family bonds would have been stronger, however it must be noted that these large plantations, where hundreds of slave presided were the exception, not the norm, Crawford’s research showed less than 50% of slaves lived on the same plantation as their significant other. The Majority of the enslaved in South were from small plantations with only a few other slaves, this meant much to their master’s dismay that they had to form cross plantation unions. These Cross plantation marriages were said to have constituted for over 33% of slave marriages, whilst these arrangements have been denigrated, work from revisionist historians have used them to exemplify the strength of marital bonds between the enslaved. Another important detail to note is that even slaves from large plantations sometimes married slaves from other plantations; the existence of cross plantation marriages amongst these slaves shows historians another example of the enslaved striving for autonomy from their masters.

Cross Plantation Marriages were obviously harder than maintaining a relationship with a significant other on the same plantation; but despite the drawbacks, slaves went to incredible lengths to maintain their long distance relationships; for example A slave owner described how one of his slaves walked 40 miles to see his wife, only love explains his willingness to repeat this trip over and over again.

Cross plantation unions also took place between free blacks and slaves, in many of these cases the free slave would attempt to purchase their significant other to no avail, however an example of the devotion held in these unions can be seen in the case of Samuel Small, a free black, who became a slave for seven years to pay for his wives freedom.

Recently Russell has argued that local as well as long distance sales caused the high rates of family separations, however West believes that even though any type of separation would cause great anguish, the system of cross plantation unions coupled with the strength of relationships between spouses meant in the case of local separations the consequences may have not been so damaging.

This chapter will draw attention to one final area, slave marriages once they were free; Gutman emphasised that when slaves were emancipated they went to great efforts to reunite with their families which they had been separated from.

Molly Tillman recounted the anguish she felt when her master sold her husband to another state, “well ma’am, I grieved fo’ dat nigger so dat my heart wuz heavy in my breas’. I know I never would see him no more” after emancipation she still could not get over her husband until one day several years later she found him “I wuz so happy I shouted all over dat meetin’ house. We jes’ tuck up whar we lef’ off an’ ‘fo’ long us got married” they lived happily as man and wife until he died 20 years later.

The enthusiasm in which slaves registered to be legally married after the emancipation shows how much they valued their marriages.

In conclusion, with all the difficulties that affected matrimonial ties between slaves on can understand why many historians deemed slave marriages as weak and unstable. However, when assessing the issues faced by slaves; legitimacy, the control owners had over their slave, forced coupling, sexual exploitation and separation, the fact that the majority of slaves managed to work through these and still managed to create deep and enduring relationships show the truth strength, resilience and value of slave marriages.

By reviewing numerous slave testimonies, it is clear that through their words and behaviour slaves repeatedly strove to make their marriages last, the enslaved worked strenuously within and around the power structure which restricted their lives to maintain their marriages.

Chapter 4: Conclusion

In Conclusion this dissertation has shown that the enslaved of the antebellum South strove for autonomy from their masters and the harsh restraints of slavery; to do this they created strong and loving bonds with a significant other. By creating their own social space to create and maintain these unions, this illustrates that slaves were able to survive and resists the oppression they faced under bondage.

Slave owners constantly intruded on the lives of their slaves, believing it was their right to control every aspect of the lives of their slaves, they attempted to decide, sometimes successfully, the opportunities slaves had to meet a potential partner, the partner their slaves should be with, the type of wedding ceremony their slaves received if any, the amount of time they could spend with their significant other and finally to separate romantic unions for sales or if they saw fit. These constant impingements forced slaves to adopt what West depicted as an “underground” approach to their ‘romantic’ lives . This has been described throughout this research project, entailing secret frolics, socialising with slaves in different plantations, celebrating marriages with appropriate ceremonies, and finally risking severe punishing at the hands of their masters or the patrollers to be able to visit the one they loved.

The majority of slave testimonies that have been examined throughout this research project have shown that the majority of slaves strove to marry the person of their choosing and were also prepared to withstand great hardships to maintain their marriages. This is contradictory of the early academic views on slave relationships, especially that of Elkins as aforementioned, who believed that slavery destroyed slave’s capacity to resist the regime in any capacity, and form relationships with anyone other than their master. The research for this dissertation has shown the opposite, that in fact the majority of slaves managed to create and maintain loving and enduring marriages despite the regime of bondage, this strength is further highlighted when examining the sexual exploitation faced by female slaves and how in many cases their significant other either attempted to protect them or provided love and support to shelter them from such adversity. Another noteworthy factor when accessing the strengths of enslaved romantic bonds is that of cross plantation union, which as previously discussed shows the lengths slaves would go to be with the one they loved, including risking cruel violent punishments to see their loved ones as much as possible.

As mentioned in the introduction chapter Kolchin believes that this positive perspective on slavery dismissed the hardships of the regime, believing instead the slaves in fact flourished during their time in bondage, however this is not what this project is attempting to achieve, instead it is the fact that slaves strove for autonomy to form a connection with another, which gave them a separate identity than that of a slave, embodying roles such as companion, confidante and soulmate.

Indeed for the enslaved of the antebellum South, falling in love was burdened with extreme emotional and physical difficulties, even former slave Harriet Jacobs asked herself:

“Why does the slave ever loveWhy allow the tendrils of the heart to twine around objects which may at any moment be wrenched away by the hand of violence”

West explained that despite all the problems ‘romantic’ bonds entailed, the majority of marriages amongst the enslaved sheltered and supported them in face of adversity, these loving, affectionate, and supportive relationships created a mindset of cultural independence.

Finally to end with a quote from Rawick;

“While from sunup to sundown the American slave worked for another and was harshly exploited, from sundown to sunup he lived for himself and created the behavioural and institutional basis which prevented him from becoming the absolute victim”

Bibliography

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Free Essays

The History of International Business Taxation and the Effect of International Tax Competition

Abstract:

With the globalization of world economy, international business taxation plays a vital role in international trading. This essay introduces the history and the development of international business taxation in aspects of tax reform and the changes in corporate income tax briefly, meanwhile, analysis the negative and positive effect of international tax competition.

Key Words: history of international business taxation, international tax competition

Introduction:

This essay is aim to present the history of international business taxation and the tax reform in the past few decades and discuss the effect of international tax competition. In the first paragraph, we will introduce the history of international taxation from the World War I to recent years. The tax reform in the last two decades of EU and G7 countries also be indicate in this paragraph. As the development of international economy and business taxation, countries compete with each other in order to attract foreign investment. In paragraph two, we will introduce the international tax competition and present some empirical evidences of international tax competition. However, the effect of international tax competition has been debated fierce in recent years. In paragraph three, the negative effect of international tax competition will be discussed and the positive effect will be discussed in the following paragraph.

James (1998) states that taxation is “A compulsory levy made by public authorities for which nothing is received directly in return”. It is necessary to review the international trade before we discuss the international taxation. International trade can be date back to over two thousand years which stated by Liu (1998, p.xiii) traders from Mesopotamia, Greece and Phoenicia made themselves very rich by engaging in Mediterranean trade. The international trade grows with the development of international economy. The first Bilateral Tax Agreement was signed between Belgium and France in 1843 when the international business taxation is still in an embryonic stage. Nevertheless, the international taxation system has been actually recognized since the World War I which plays a significant role in international finance, trading, and investment. At the beginning, international trade has been taxed trough indirect ways. The international business tax has been derived from customs duties when the goods and services imported from abroad. After the World War ?, the international business taxation system has been increasingly liberalized which the basic principles of international tax agreements have been laid out and spread quickly. The means of international trade taxed have been changed with a related increasing in direct sources. The whole taxation system were developed around how business profit being taxed. With the rapid growth of international economy, issues arose from the conflicts between jurisdictional rights to tax. Jurisdictions care about where the cost and revenue were generated and will be expensed. The profits and returns were taxed in forms of direct tax in the country which permanent establishment can be found or simply in forms of withholding tax. Double taxation becomes the central problem of international taxation. Tax treaties have been emerged in order to reduce the bad effects of double taxation, enable tax neutrality, to avoid double tax and facilitate the international trade and investment. It provides the possibility to visit and invest overseas without paying large amount of tax. The OECD, USA and UN have produced model treaties after the World War ?. The commentary and OECD treaty being always updated which has been treated as a starting point for negotiation. The treaties defined and allocated the rights of countries to tax. Generally speaking, the returns on overseas investment should be taxed by residence principle whereas the business profits of companies are taxed by source principle. This compromise concealed the conflicts between countries which were mainly capital-exporters and capital-importers. While the international tax agreements are useful and practical tool to resolve the jurisdictional rights between countries to tax income created by multinational companies, it is necessary to require continual renegotiation between countries as a result of countries compete with each other to attract foreign investment. Tax reform especially the corporate income tax in industry countries has been considered from the 1980s. The average statutory rates have been decreased from 48% to 35% from the beginning of the 1980s to 2001. The corporate tax rate has been declined over this period except Spain and Italy. In 1992, the EU appointed that the minimum statutory corporation tax rate has been proposed to 30% which is at the bottom of that time except the Ireland. At the end of 1990s, nearly half of the EU countries’ statutory corporation tax rates were at or below 30%. For instance, the main corporate tax rate in the UK was below 30% all the time over the past few years. According to the tax reform in the EU and G7 countries, the tax reform movements are almost universal such as lower tax rate and broaden tax base in order to attract new foreign investment.

To some extent, the universal tax reform movement of reduce the tax rate may indicates the signal of a process of international tax competition. In this tax competition world, the tax rates are not set absolutely freedom as it is necessary for countries to pay attention to what their rivals have been doing. Different tax jurisdictions use their tax system to compete with each other thereby attracting foreign investments. There are two kinds of foreign investments in broadly; they are portfolio investment and foreign direct investments respectively. The portfolio investments do not involve running a business which including bank deposits, company shares holdings, government securities holdings, bond holdings and so on. On the other hand, the foreign direct investment involves found the business such as subsidiaries and branches in another countries. In this essay, we focus on the tax competition based on the foreign direct investment. There are a number of forms of tax competition which the most common one is the lower tax rate. In addition, the tax-free zones, tax holidays, reduction or elimination of withholding taxes, particular investment allowance, and accelerated depreciation deductions for foreign investors are common forms of tax competition as well. There are some empirical evidences of tax competition of the last two decades. The figures 1 demonstrate there is a steady decrease of corporate tax rates in the EU from 1995 to 2006 and the figure 2 indicates the evolution of corporate tax rates for OECD and EU from 1995 to 2007. If we confirm the international tax competition accompany with the corporate rates reduction, the evolution of the EU tax systems in the last two decades is a perfect instance of international tax competition between each tax jurisdictions. Tax rates have significantly decreased as a consequence of international tax competition. Specifically, the figure 2 shows the average tax rates have decreased by nearly 10% for EU15 from 1993 to 2007 and declined to less than 20% in 2007 for EU 10. The entry of new members of the EU in 2005 may take more pressure on the international tax competition of the old EU.

Figure 1: Statutory corporate tax rates in the EU from 1995 to 2006

Figure 2: The evolution of corporate tax rates in OECD and EU, 1995-2006

It is obvious that as the accelerating of the process of globalization, countries expand the tax competition for mobility of tax base and attract investment. But the issue arose from how does international tax competition works. On the one hand, from the literature review, there is no controversy about the harmful of international tax competition in the world. W. Oates (1972) states that “The result of tax competition may well be a tendency toward less than efficient levels of output of local services. In an attempt to keep taxes low to attract business investment, local officials may hold spending below those levels for which marginal benefits equal marginal costs, particularly for those programs that do not offer direct benefits to local business.” Consequently, the negative effect may obtain from the international tax competition on suboptimal level of public expenditure. Local governments may found themselves involved in a tax rate war which similar to the market price war so as to attract tax bases. There will be a loss of tax revenue and the earnings will be gone to multinational companies instead thus the government would be more difficult to supply public goods and service. Furthermore, the international tax competition might lead to an unfair tax system. In order to balance the financial resources, the shortfall in corporate tax as a result of tax rate reduction caused by international tax competition will be passed on to the property tax, consumption tax, income tax and other tax base with relatively weak mobility. In addition, the international tax competition provides the possibility for the transfer pricing and international tax avoidance. For instance, subsidiary A within a multinational company located in low tax regime supply goods and services to subsidiary B within a multinational company located in high tax regime for “high” price thus the profit of subsidiary A is higher and the opposite of subsidiary B. Therefore, the net profit after tax within the group will be increased as a result of transfer pricing. In economic literature, competition to some degree seems to be a special value and meaning. Competition is the key variable of the market mechanism which can lead to improve the efficient allocation in public sector. However, it is opposite in tax domain, an inefficient allocation might occur when there is an international tax competition between countries. Different tax jurisdictions tend to attract tax bases through the mobility of consumers and corporate. Tax bases will be reallocated among countries as a result of this mobility. Multinational companies will endeavor to exploit the possible tax arbitrage by transfer into the more beneficial regions. The gain of the tax base by one jurisdiction comes from the loss of another. Hence, tax externality between countries would be caused by the mobility.

On the other hand, there is another voice for support the tax competition. Other things being equal, the country who takes part in international tax competition will attract more cash flows thereby promoting the development of the country’s economy. The case of Ireland provides an excellent instance of benefit from international tax competition even if this particular regime expired at the end of 2005. There are a number of benefits can be obtained by shareholders through the using of Irish financial service centre companies such as 200% deduction for rental expenditure, 100% reduction for equipment or refurbishment in relation to buildings, 10% tax rate and exemption from stamp duty. Ireland has been highly successful in tax competition and attracts a large number of financial service companies to run business in Dublin which has overtaken Luxembourg as the EU’s leading jurisdiction for cross-border life assurance. Furthermore, the value of investment fund assets has been grown faster than other countries especially in hedge funds which facilitate the stock market to manage the funds established outside the EU. Ireland has become a significant cross-border services financial market.

Besides, in general, high tax rates, unfair taxation and non-standard tax system will affect the taxpayer’s decision-making behavior and resulting in unnecessary loss, damage the tax neutrality. However, international tax competition will lead countries to reduce their tax rates and broaden the tax base, thereby reducing the distorting effects of tax in economy and conducive to implementing the principle of tax neutrality.

Summary:

Since the World War I the international taxation system has been recognized and afterwards the tax competition has been emerge with the development of international economy and tax system. Countries compete with each other to attract foreign investment. Even though the limit harmful of international tax competition is undisputed, we cannot neglect its positive effect.

References:

Bernauer, T. and Styrsky, V. (2004) Adjustment or VoiceCorporate Responses to International Tax Competition. European Journal of International Relations, 10 (1): 61-94.

Devereux, M.P., Griffith, R. and Klemm, A. (2002) Corporate income tax reforms and international tax competition. Economic Policy, 17 (35): 450-495.

Edgar, T. (2003) Corporate Income Tax Coordination as a Response to International Tax Competition and International Tax Arbitrage. Canadian Tax Journal, 51 (3): 1079-1158.

Ferrett, B. and Wooton, I. (2010) Competing for a duopoly: international trade and tax competition. Canadian Journal of Economics, 43 (3): 776-794.

Gravelle, J.G. (1986) International Tax Competition: does it make a Difference for Tax PolicyNational Tax Journal, 39 (3): 375-384.

Ida, T. (2006) International Tax Competition and Double Taxation. Review of Urban & Regional Development Studies, 18 (3): 192-208.

Lymer, A. and Hasseldine, J. (2002) The international taxation system. Boston, Mass. ; London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Enrico Buglione (2010) Tax Competition and Fiscal Federalism in Italy. OECD Conference on Tax Competition Between Sun-central Governments Bern, 31 May- 1 June 2010 Available at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/46/17/45470565.pdf

Oates, Wallace E. (1972) Fiscal Federalism, New York, Harcourt Brace.

http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/33/0/1904176.pdf

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History of Medicine – What kind of social, intellectual, and technological developments allowed surgeons to venture routinely into the abdomen in the nineteenth century?

Introduction

Surgeons before the 19th Century had very little technological and intellectual knowledge compared to their counterparts at the end of the century. Surgery had to be done quickly and therefore only basic surgeries on broken bones and small growths could be done. Surgeons had to look after their reputation meaning that they would often only operate on patients who they thought had a good chance of surviving. Major developments in anaesthesia, hygiene, surgical techniques and public acknowledgement over the importance of doctors throughout the 19th century lead to a massive improvement in survival rates and increase in the abdominal surgeries that could be performed. Nearly all modern techniques used were developed by surgeons in the 19th century, showing us how important a role they played in modern medicine.

Before anaesthetics surgeons had to operate on patients as quickly as possible to reduce the amount of pain the patient was in, this meant only external operations and amputations could be performed as they didn’t require as much skill and time to carry out [1]. Many patients would die during the operation because of the amount of pain suffered. This meant complex surgery in the abdomen was virtually impossible as the patients would suffer too much. During operations many patients had to be held down by assistants because they couldn’t hold still [1]. This meant that something had to found that would reduce the pain felt by the patients during the operation. The discovery of anaesthetics was the first big step towards complex surgery of the abdomen. Humphrey Davies was the first person to discover a form of anaesthetic; he used Nitrous Oxide (laughing gas) on patients and discovered that it had anaesthetic properties that reduce the patients’ sensitivity to pain. However the gas didn’t work on all patients and doctors didn’t know how much of it to administer to patients, meaning it didn’t get a large following so was never widely used. This gas is mainly used in dentistry as it doesn’t put the patient to sleep. Because of this it has never been used in surgery of the abdomen as it isn’t a strong enough anaesthetic. Henry Hickman used Carbon Dioxide in the 1820s on animals, making them unable to feel pain. He would perform amputations on them to see how effective the anaesthetic was. His findings were published to the Royal Society. His work received a lot of criticism and therefore Carbon Dioxide was not used as an anaesthetic for surgery [7].

The use of ether in surgery was the first big step towards fully unconscious patients that could be operated on. Ether frolics were a form of public demonstration where volunteers would take ether in front of a large crowd in order to spread the knowledge and effectiveness of ether as an anaesthetic. Robert Liston used ether on a patient in 1846, sending the patient to sleep. The operation was successful, but the patient suffered irritations of the lungs as a side effect [2]. Quite a few patients died from the side effects of ether meaning another form of anaesthetic had to be found for use in operating theatres. In 1847 James Simpson discovered that chloroform had anaesthetic properties [3]. It would put patients fully to sleep without them having any ability to feel pain. Chloroform unlike previous anaesthetics had no obvious side effects making it more popular as an anaesthetic. The death of Hannah Green in 1848 lead to a large opposition to chloroform as people believed it to be unnatural and thought pain should be felt during operations. The reason for her death was because surgeons were not sure on the correct dose to administer before a surgery as chloroform had only been used for a year. The most important movement towards the wide acceptance of chloroform was Queen Victoria using it for the birth of her eighth child in 1853. These developments in anaesthetics allowed many new operations to be performed: surgeons could now easily operate on the kidneys and liver [3]; The removal of one of the kidneys was now possible; Organs could be attached in place if they had moved out of place [3]; parts of the small intestine could be cut away without causing any damage to the alimentary canal; intestinal wounds could be fixed quickly enough to prevent any leakage of waste matter; The veins and arteries of patients could be operated on; and tumours could be removed from anywhere within the body [3].

The improvements in hygiene levels within the operating theatre and the wards lead to a massive reduction in the death rate due to operations. Prior to this the surgeons would operate in dirty theatres and use unwashed operating tools that would have been used on other patients. The surgeons also did not wash themselves between operations; [1] in some instances surgeons would be working with corpses and then go straight into an operation without any form of sterilization. This meant that many patients would suffer from gangrene and other forms of infection that would often take the life of the person [3]. The first person to discover that this lack of hygiene was causing fatalities was the Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis. He noticed this after seeing that the doctors who were giving birth to babies after working with corpses lead to a higher mortality rate amongst the mothers. He concluded that the doctors must have been passing infected matter from the corpse to the mothers. All doctors and nurses working with him were ordered to thoroughly wash their hands with chlorinated lime between handling different patients. This lead to a massive drop in death rate from 30% to 1.5% within a 12 month period. His ideas were heavily opposed and he was forced back to his hometown in Bulgaria. The death rate increased again to 15%, whereas is was down to below 1% in his hometown where he now worked [8].

John Lister’s work in the 1860’s had a lot more success [9]; he discovered that spraying carbolic acid on bandages would reduce infection levels in the wound. He then sprayed carbolic acid in the theatres killing most of the bacteria. Death rate dropped from 46% in 1864 to 15% in 1870. The downside to carbolic acid was that it irritates the lungs, so there was still quite a lot of opposition to it. This was the first form of aseptic surgery that had a massive role in the movement towards abdominal surgery in the 19th century. Louis Pasteur discovered that bacteria in the air were causing the infection of wounds. His findings were published in 1867, causing the knowledge on infection to be more widely recognised [3]. These findings helped eliminate gangrene, erysipelas and septicaemia from patients who had been operated on [3]. In 1880, Charles Chamberland developed a device that would boil the surgeons instruments removing all forms of bacteria from them, making it relatively easy to sterilize the operating tools. Robert Koch later designed a non-pressurised steamer that was used to sterilize dressings. Neuber and Bergmann started to sterilize everything that would enter the operating theatre. In 1889 W.Halsted introduced the practice of wearing clean gloves for operations. All these developments in aseptic surgery lead to a massive decline in death rate by the end of the 19th century. They allowed the surgeons to operate with more confidence and allowed harder surgeries of the abdomen to be performed on a regular basis [3].

A lot of new surgical techniques were being discovered over in America during the first part of the 19th Century, mainly due to the fact that surgeons were more inclined to try out new surgical procedures on the coloured slaves: The first ovariotomy was done by Dr Thomas McDowell on a black slave in 1809. In 1883, Robert Lawson Tait successfully removed the fallopian tube from a woman who had suffered from an ectopic pregnancy. The operation was a success due to these new developments in surgery. His new technique had a success rate of 40 out of 42 cases in 1888 [4]. The French surgeon Jules-Emile Pean made ligatures popular in the late 19th Century. Ligatures allow blood vessels and arteries to be closed off during operation to reduce blood loss during operations. Because of this he was able to do quite hard operations without the patient losing too much blood, including the first surgery on a diverticulitis of the bladder [10].

The discovery of X-rays allowed surgeons to locate the area that requires surgery without having to cut open and look around the body. Wilhelm Rontgen discovered X-rays in 1895 when he was studying the effects of passing electric currents through gases [5]; he tried using these x-rays on human tissue and noticed that it left an image of the bones and metal within the human body. This meant that any abnormalities within the abdomen could be found using the x-rays before any surgery was done. His findings were widely accepted and X-rays were being used in clinics all over America for broken bones and gunshot wounds. In February 1896 an x-ray was used to successfully locate and diagnose sarcoma on the tibia of a young boy. The first military uses of x-rays were on two Italian soldiers in 1896 that had gunshot wounds from fighting in the Italian’s Ethiopian campaign [6].

The industrial revolution in the 19th Century played a major role in the improvements in surgery. The large growth of the chemical industry meant that doctors had a wider range of chemicals to experiment with, ultimately leading to the discovery of chloroform as a form of anaesthetic. This was also the time period where the microscope was developed. This piece of equipment allowed Pasteur to discover bacteria within the blood, which lead to his important findings on the germ theory [11].

The 19th Century was the major steppingstone between ancient surgery and modern day surgery, which has been fully influenced by the medical findings from this century. The new techniques and discoveries allowed the once impossible surgeries of the abdomen to be performed. The discovery of anaesthetics allowed the patient to feel no pain during surgery meaning all forms of surgeries could be performed. Before these anaesthetics only basic operations could be performed because the patient would usually die from the pain. Chloroform was the first widely accepted anaesthetic as it had no obvious side effects and Queen Victoria used it for her eighth birth and acknowledged its effects making it popular amongst the public. These anaesthetics allowed very complex abdominal surgeries to be performed as the surgeons had a lot more time and peace to perform the surgeries. Aseptic surgery followed anaesthetics and meant that infection rates, and therefore death rates amongst surgery patients was much lower. Ignaz Semmelweis in 1847 was the first person to make sure that his theatres and surgeons were washed before surgeries. He had noticed that the death rate amongst the mothers being handled by doctors who had previously handled corpses was higher than that of the women who had been looked after by doctors who hadn’t previously been in contact with corpses. Making his surgeons wash before surgeries lead to a very large decrease in death rate within his theatres. Medical developments around the world after this lead to a completely sterile operating theatre where carbolic acid would be sprayed around creating a sterile environment; all surgical instruments would be boiled; everything coming into the theatre would be disinfected; and the aftercare wards would be kept in much better condition. These combined lead to a massive drop in infection rate, meaning that surgeons could operate without the fear of their patients dyeing afterwards. The discovery of x-rays in 1895 meant that areas requiring operation could be located without any intrusive operations required. Areas requiring surgery could be located without the surgeon causing any internal damage trying to find the area manually.

References

[1] – http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/medicine,+19th-century

[2] – Fenster, JM (2001). ‘’Ether Day: The Strange Tale of America’s Greatest Medical Discovery and the Haunted Men Who Made It.’’ New York: HarperCollins. Accessed on 4th April 2011.

[3] – www.oldandsold.com/aticle35/19th-century-18.shtml . Accessed on 6th April 2011.

[4] – Tim Lambert. ‘www.localhistories.org/surgery.html ’. Accessed on 6th April 2011.

[5] – Aaron G Filler. ‘The history, development, and impact of computed imaging in neurological diagnosis and neurosurgery: CT, MRI, DTI’. Accessed on 6th April 2011.

[6] – http://mks76.com/x-rays_origin/1800s.html . Accessed on 6th April 2011.

[7] – Page, F.G. ‘Henry Hill Hickman a Shropshire Medical Practitioner’. Accessed on 7th April 2011.

[8] – http://www.nndb.com/people/601/000091328/ . Accessed on 6th April

[9] – ‘The Hutchinson Encyclopedia’. P 720. Century Hutchinson 1988. Accessed on 5th April 2011.

[10] – http://www.medarus.org/Medecins/MedecinsTextes/pean.html . Accessed on 6th April 2011.

[11] – ‘The Hutchinson Encyclopedia’. P 907. Century Hutchinson 1988. Accessed on 5th April 2011.

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History and Development of Miasmatic Theory in Homeopathy, from Samuel Hahnemann to Nowadays

Introduction

It is the intention of this study to give an in-depth and clear understanding of the theory of miasms, in order to comprehend them and identify its practical application.

Homeopathy society has always been divided over the question of miasms. Since the time of Hahnemann, this theory has remained controversial (Bathia, 2007). The dissidents have taken the position that this theory need not be an essential part of Homeopathy as it is still possible practises it successfully without accepting this theory (Pitt, 2008). Author will make a discussion here to recognize what led Hahnemann to enunciate his chronic diseases theory and to determine if it is useful in the management of chronic cases in Homeopathic practice.

Next it would be discuss its development, exploring the fact that a large number of homeopaths believe that miasms of Hahnemann are nothing but bacteria and viruses (Bathia, 2007). Then there are spiritual followers of Kent who believe in the non-material nature of miasms and call it a predisposition or dyscrasia (Pitt, 2008). Lately an approach of how are Miasms classified from the new perspectives such as genetic and epigenetic, embryology, Facial analysis, prototypes, periodic table, as all of them claim to follow the teachings from the Master (Klein, 2009). The other controversial issue to be look at is the number of Miasms, with two clear tendencies the three way model of miasms (psora, sycosis and syphilis) and from this up to eleven miasms as Sankaran have identify. (Klein, 2009) So the main objective of this project is to attempt to clarify and identify the different currents on the theory since Hahnemann make public his discovery until nowadays.

What are miasms?

The word miasm originates from the Greek word “Miasma” which means a stain, pollution, defilement of a noxious atmosphere or infective material.

It was first used by Hippocrates to refer to a certain taint in the air (Kiple,1993)The term “miasm” was commonly in use in Hahnemann’s day and referred to some noxious, unseen influence in the air that made one sick. A quick look to an early dictionary definition of the term miasm, closer to the time of Hahnemann’s use, show the follow meaning “Miasm, is the effluvia or fine particles of any putrefying matter, rising and floating in the atmosphere, and dangerous to health: noxious exhalations, emanations, or effluvia: malaria: infectious substances floating in the air ”. (Casell, 1902)

Germ theory was further developed by Louis Pasteur in the 1860s and Robert Koch in the 1870s, but it is important to understand that there is an abyss between Hahnemann’s dynamic conception of disease and the more material one of Pasteur and Koch (conventional medicine) (Verspoor, 1999) Sterner (2007) clarifies that the germ theory after revealed it soon prevailed over miasmic theory.

Hahnemann, during his lifetime, discovered that a “noxious agent” was responsible for the persistence of the disease condition. He named this a miasm. The chronic diseases originate on chronic parasite miasms or germs, now referred to as chronic parasitic microorganisms. (Tyler, 2007). In other words it is a contagion that can provide the foundation for chronic disease (Choudhury, 2007).

The Master (2003 ed.) in his last edition of the Organon on aphorism 78, postulates that veritable chronic illnesses are the ones that emerges from chronic miasms. If they are not treated properly with homeopathy CD becomes greater and tortures the patient until his death, regardless of the patients’ habits.

In analysing Hahnemann’s writings, Dimitriadis (2005), emphasizes Master’s own definition of miasm; that is in fact an infectious agent, meaning any ainfectious substance dangerous for health. Taylor (2002) proposed that Hahnemann was using the term miasm in the inclusive rather than the particular meaning, in addition Dimitriadis (2005) clarifies that Hahnemann stated precisely the word infection in a wide implication particularly when he expressed that after the external stimulus impact on the body the vital force is primarily affected.

Is been stressed that Hahnemann point out in all his works that miasms are not diseases themselves, if not the causation (Sarkar, 1968) Hahnemann also describes the gradually diminishing virulence via increasing immunity (Dudgeon, 1989: 166). On the other hand Dimitriadis (2005) states that any propensity to use the word miasm to describe tendency to disease (dyscrasia, diathesis or taint) is mistaken.

Instead Bathia (2007) points out that although Hahnemann truly believed in the infectious nature of disease and considered miasms as infectious agent, conversely he also considered disease as dynamic, non-physical and its origin as a dynamic predisposition to illness. He goes on argue that Hahnemann shows confusion on his last writings on the 6th edition of the Organon, as in one hand is stating that Cholera is caused by living microorganism but on the other hand he is saying that nothing material could be found in ill persons due to illness come from the dynamic perturbation of the Vital force. Bathia concludes that this and other statements on master’s writing confuse the next generations and the world of miasms has become more chaotic.

Moreover Vithoulkas (1980) the classic well known homeopath, defines a miasm as a tendency toward chronic disease underlying the acute manifestations of a disease, which is spreadable from generation to generation, and which may respond beneficially to the corresponding nosode prepared from either pathological tissue or from the appropriate drug or vaccine.

Further research by Dr. Banarjea (2006) lead him to define miasm as “an invisible, dynamic principle” which is absorbed into the human organism. This causes a stigma in the constitution, which can only be removed by the correct anti-miasmatic medicine. He goes on to argue that without the correct treatment the miasm will continue and will be pass on the next generation.

Heudens-Mast (2005) concurs that miasms are the basis of all disease. Miasms can be inherited or acquired from contagion or suppression. She concludes that the only way to truly help the patients is by addressing the miasms.

Alternatively, Dr. Tomas Paschero (2000) defined miasma as a vibratory alteration of man’s vital force, which regulates the constitution and behaviour, conversely he negates the infectious aspect of miasms.

In fact the definition of miasms during the course of the homeopathic history has marked the practice application, dividing the profession in two major groups, those who believed in the bacteria origin and those who believed in the spiritual nature of the miasms. After evaluating Hahnemann’s conception of chronic diseases, the differences between these two majors groups would be analysed.

The Beginning: Hahnemann Conception of Chronic Diseases

The Relapses

Hahnemann formulated the miasmatic theory of disease in his 7th decade, documented in his book The Chronic Disease (Watson, 2009).

After formulating the Law of Similar and developing the provings, he enjoyed early success treating acute and epidemic illness, however he came across cases which the initial improvement cease (Tyler, 2007, Handley, 1997).

His cases were overshadowed by old symptoms, which didn’t respond to the apparently well choose remedy (Haehl, 2003). He also experimented the emergence of new symptoms, which reacted inadequately to the remedies, and finally he states that the remedies were not better than palliatives, as the acute attacks tended to become more frequent and more serious over the time (Klein, 2009). In other words Hahnemann admitted that the Law of Similar although carefully applied doesn’t not always lead to success. (Whichmann, 2006).

According to Choudhury (2006) Hahnemann thought it could be five reasons responsible for this failure, firstly referent to the law of similar which may not be of general application, next the number of medicines may be too short to cover all kind of illness, following a misuse of the law of similar, after an oblivion in the totality of symptoms, and last there might be some obstacles which previse perdurable recovery.

Consequently, Hahnemann expended day and night working on long term patient’s cases to arrive to the root of the problem (Tyler, 2007), until he reached the conclusion that there is an obstacle in the organism that cannot be removed with medicines or the healthiest diet or disappear by itself. He named this obstacle a “miasm”.

The Missing Link

Hahnemann is know as very self-critic, and this censorious part of him, prevented him to be indifferent to the problem, he didn’t console himself with the magnificent acute cures, or looking for more remedies as many on the contrary followers urged, on the contrary Hahnemann knew that the problem lay not in the quantity but in the quality, in his lack of knowledge of illness. And so he took a though task to understand the disease (Decker 1999)

Thereby at his 73 years and after 12 years of analysis of thousands of trials, cases, analysis, reflection and hard work, he discovered the reason why the homeopathic remedies did not lead to true cure of the chronic diseases (Dhawale, 2004).

Thus he arrived to a profound notion in the treatment of chronic illness, which he first communicated to two of his most deserving disciples, in 1827, Staph and Gross, (Haehl, 2003) which for his surprise react with embarrassment, they were horrified, fearing for a further negative reaction to homeopathy (Handley, 1997). Not much later he wrote a letter to Baumgartner, declaring that his system was imperfect and defective without this missing link. (Bradford, 2004)

The Cause: infectious agents

It have to be stressed before continue with the history of Hahnemann conception of chronic diseases, that Hahnemann initially used the word miasm to refer to what we would know as infectious diseases (Tyler, 2007), she also draws attention that by chronic diseases Hahnemann didn’t meant those consequence from continual inadequate environment, overindulgence or too much worries, because those will disappear in its own, without any treatment if the circumstances change, so it would be inappropriate to call them chronic diseases. Tyler light up that Hahnemann conception of disease was a microorganism, which will not vanish even with the most accurately mental and body habits.

Is often quoted that Hahnemann when referring to infectious agents was talking about parasites, bacteria or viruses, without the help of a microscope, remarks and statements which went in advance of bacterial knowledge of many illnesses more than fifty year before of Koch’s discovery of the cholera bacteria. (Sarkar, 1968) Recent authors stressed similar views and even believe hat Hahnemann should be claimed as the Father of Bacteriology. (Choudhury 2006; Kanjilal 1977)

However the preliminaries had already been set in place in many directions, scientist had been discussing the idea for some time. The existence of microorganisms had become recognized in medical science even 75 years before Hahnemann’s births and sources of specific contagion had already been put forward as a causation of diseases, at least 130 years earlier. (Ott, 1996) So for Klein (2009) it was an evident step forward to grasp and seize the word miasm and encompass his theory on the origin of CD.

In fact Hahnemann’s theory of masked chronic illness, was very similar to the theory of diatheses, contemporary at Hahnemann’s time. However the exceptional stamp that Hahnemann marked his theory made it genuine and turned many people away from it (Handley, 1990)

Another common critic make to the Master’s theory, is the allopathic approach, that some identifies on it. Watson (2009) on his examinations of miasmatic theory states that Hahnemann acquired an allopathic mode of rationale within his theory of chronic disease, looking for cause and fighting against it.

The Underlying Predisposition

The conclusions that Hahnemann drew from his profound study, allowed him to identify a profound level of diseases, or on other words the cause of an underlying predisposition. He observes that infections that patients contracted in the course of their life left a vital impact that led to relapses of the initial symptoms or the rise of more serious and chronic diseases. (Klein, 2009)

While looking for these underlying diseases, Hahnemann look through the medical records of his patients searching for common factors in order to explain the nature of their illness. This was the beginning of his understanding into recognizing patterns of symptoms. (Haehl, 2003)

This led him first to recognize the two known venereal diseases, which were chronic, infectious and inheritable in nature, syphilis and sycosis, as two of the masked causes of chronic diseases. He treated venereal diseases as an acute infectious diseases and saw chronic consequences to these illness, nevertheless, these two cannot be reckon as the cause of all the chronic cases, so Hahnemann comprehend that the cause of the other chronic diseases does not lay on the venereal miasmas. (Verspoor, 1999)

In this way his dwells were on the cause behind of all non-venereal chronic diseases, he realized that the original malady had to be of a chronic and infectious nature, as the chronic venereal miasm already defined.

The Original Malady: Psora and non-venereal chronic diseases

In his research on patients’ chronic cases, Hahnemann observed a common eruption of itch in their medical history; on top of that he proposed that this itch influenced the start of the evolution of the whole chronic disease process. (Dimitriadis, 2005)

He declared Psora as the most primitive, common and dangerous and misinterpreted miasmatic disease. According to Hahnemann Psora is the sole and unique producer of non-venereal disease. (Choudhury, 2006)

Can be suggested that what Hahnemann stated is that all these non-venereal chronic diseases are apparently separate parts of a single, sound rooted chronic disease process (Internal Psora), which develops after an infection from the psoric miasm (infectious agent, stimulus) (Dimitriadis, 2005, p.15-17) thus we come to the unavoidable deduction that the miasm is an external stimulus, and so Psora Miasm is not the same as Psora the disease, and is not a predisposition to disease quite the opposite is the diseased condition itself (Sarkar, 1968) However a predisposition to emerge a variety of disease is related to the suffer of internal Psora, but is not a dyscrasia or diathesis (Close, 2005).

Hahnemann claimed that 7 of eight of human disease originated from infection of the Psora miasm, and the rest arose from infection with sycosis and syphilis miasm. It needs to be mentioned, that this state is highly speculative on Hahnemann’s side, as Dimitriadis (2005) lights up Hahnemann could not know that fact, even himself change his opinion on whether Psora was the cause of all or most non venereal diseases.

Much of the initial criticism with the miasm theory came from, the fact that Hahnemann attributed too many chronic disease to just Psora.

The symptoms attributed to Psora in Chronic Diseases (Hahnemann, 1998) are generally assigned to “leprosy” and “Scabies” which were experienced in some form or another by every living person and flourished through centuries without healing or being suppressed, progressing to secondary symptoms. The treatment of this illness were suppressive with lead, arsenic, calomel equivalent to antibiotic and steroidal medicines of today, which never cure the underlying disease (Klein, 2009) In addition D’Souza (2005) states that this treatments never brought any cure to the underlying illness. Instead the effect of those suppressions cause a deep taint on the vital force, compromising and weaken the vital force. Hahnemann (1998) attributed all diseases expressions such as inflammatory responses of internal organs and its further development as due to the suppression and incorrect treatment of symptoms of the primary psora over the centuries.

Hahnemann identified Sulphur as the main remedy for Psora.

Opinions on The Theory of Psora

The reaction in front of the new theory, from his contemporaries was as negative as Hahnemann expected to be (Verspoor, 1999). Wolf, Giessen, Jahr, Trinks, Schron and many more refused and criticized the itch theory. However Stapf, Boenninghausen, Hering, were supporters of the master and followed the new doctrine with enthusiasm. (Bradford, 2004, Haehl, 2003) In 1836 Griesselich summarized the judgment of the contemporary homeopaths on the Psora doctrine in one sentence: “I have enquired from all homeopaths, if they recognized Psora as the original evil, and must confess, that I do not remember ” (Handley, 1990, p.84) Hahnemann remained firm to his strict doctrine after all the comments received and break off friendly relations, he was very furious about it and reject all non-believing. (Haehl, 2003)

The Categorisation of Illness

Table 1.1

PsoraSycosisSyphilis
Mental
Physical





Sycotic Miasm

The Inheritance Factor

Founder wrote that miasms could be transmitted from generation to generation. He makes this discovery much before the science of genetic appears. So when a baby is born, he is got certain dormant illness, which in function of triggers during life can be aroused. The follow direct quotations from Organon 6th edition, constitute evidence that Hahnemann postulated that miasms are inherited. (Klein, 2009, Verspoor, 1999)

§284 Since Psora is usually communicated through the milk of the wet nurse to most nursing infants if they do not already possess Psora by inheritance from the mother, they are then at the same time protected anti-psorically in the indicated manner by means of the medicinal milk of the wet nurse.

But the care of mothers in their first pregnancy is indispensable by means of a gentle anti-psoric treatment, especially by means of the new dynamizations of sulphur described in this edition (§270), in order to extirpate in the mothers and in the fruit of their womb the Psora (engenderess of most of the chronic diseases) already imparted to the mothers through inheritance, and almost always present in them, so that their progeny might be protected against it in advance.

First Publication of The Theory

He first published the ideas in Chronic Disease in 1828, in his 4th edition of Organon and on the new title Chronic Diseases, Their Peculiar Nature and Their Homeopathic Cure, and shortly afterwards he starts to use this theory on his prescribing methods, therefore were the result of the new theory. (Handley, 1997)

The reactions were several, many who followed Hahnemann simply thought that wasn’t enough remedies, but Hahnemann rejected this idea and considered as a mere subterfuge. (Tyler, 2007)

According to Verspoor (1999) Hahnemann didn’t expect his new discovery or himself to be accepted with affection or enthusiasm and much less to be understood, not even by his followers.

Reception and Contradiction

Klein, 2010 – 2009

Interpretations

The Results

It cannot be stressed enough that this must have been an enormous work for Hahnemann at his 73 years old, however the contemporaries and successors have not hesitate to make her critics both positive and adverse on his CD clinical outcome.

A Hahnemann expert, after investigating the patient’s records of the master from 1836-1842, wrote: “It is an open secret that the progress of Hahnemann’s patients was generally not convincing” (Reinhard, 2006)

On this line, Whichmann (2009) states that Hahnemann had had little time after the postulation of his new theory to practice it and so he suggest whether we have to use the first draft of the theory of miasms or we have to keep to developing or even withdraw. Hahnemann was very flexible and self critic as is being pointed already, he was always questioning himself and his results, as matter of fact on his first edition of the Organon Hahnemann presents his law of similar as the most important thing, and twenty years later he change his opinion, expressed on his Organon and chronic disease. (Whichmann, 2009)

Controversially Klein (2009) states that master was recompensed and recognized with more success in the treatment of his patient suffering from long-term diseases.

In spite of the consideration has to be made whether Hahnemann’s case taking was as detailed as is today, to reveal the true chronic state of the person and therefore the most accurate remedy.

Another point to considerer on the results of Samuel Hahnemann is the influence of the other two miasms, syphilis and sycosis. Hahnemann described them from the miasmatic infectious origin given a clear picture, however he doesn’t make the connection between them.

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Understanding the history of a Biomedical scientist

Introduction

If one was to ask someone what a biomedical scientists was 15 years ago, the response would probably be pardon?, but now that we are in the 21 century it has become more of acknowledge role in the healthcare industry and amongst the public. However the term biomedical scientist is still not used, one is more likely to hear terms like virologist, haematologist, microbiologist, cytologist, and many others. Biomedical science is a broad term used to encapsulate a diverse range of professions in health care and other industries.

The first sign of viruses in history was probably discovered in the Egyptian times, when a dead corpse was found in tomb with abnormal tissues of smallpox. The body seem to show signs of yellow fever and other viruses and signs of paralytic poliomyelitis, which is caused from polio. As time went on people with polio viruses seemed to be successfully continuing with their life, however when the daunting HIV and Hepatitis B broke out there were more deaths. These viral diseases not only caused harm to humans but also to the planet, plants, fish, birds and other living mammals.

Conclusion

The word virus comes from the Greek meaning ‘poison’, the word virus has been commonly used in the English language for years. One of the very first people to identify invisible viruses that was able to cause infectious diseases, was a bacteriologist, unfortunately technology that we now use to recognise disease were not present. Edward Jenner was a as scientist who cleverly used materials from cowpox as a vaccine to prevent smallpox. Many other people of whom were not scientist were able to create vaccines to prevent other disease e.g. Louis Pasteur he created a vaccine for children that had been bitten from a rabid animal.

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A History of a Modern Empire: How Bill Gates Built Microsoft

INTRODUCTION :

The invention named Microsoft is found by a Harvard College Student named Bills Gates. The legender was born in a successful business family on October 28, 1955, William Henry Gates iii was his father and they were settled at Washington. Microsoft Windows Operating system was initially just an additional optional to the MS-DOS operating system.

Microsoft Corporation is a big name in the software companies. We are going to discuss some of the financial ratios with the same company for the Fiscal year 2010. The operating system of windows is one of the highly favourable systems for the users who are using personal use of computers. Microsoft Corporation is also making software for the different other applicability like Microsoft Office, Windows Media Player and Internet explorer which are generally given with the operating system itself or are solely sellable as well. That is not the end, along with that; the company is the manufacture and seller of mice, keyboards, and many other things.

As per one news article, Microsoft Corp. revenue of $16.20 billion for the Sept. 30, 2010, a 25% hike from the similar period of the previous year. Operating income, net income and diluted earnings per share for the quarter were $7.12 billion, $5.41 billion and $0.62 per share, which represented increases of 59%, 51% and 55%, parallely, when matched with the previous year.

The previous data showed the difference of $1.47 billion of revenue, because of the effect of $ 0.12 diluted earnings per share, which was because of Windows 7 upgrade Option program and the sale of Windows 7 to OEM s and retailers before that available generally in the year 2009.

In 2010, Office 2010 is going well with the growth in revenue of 15% in first year in the market.

Microsoft is looking ahead with the growth for further more with Xbox 360 with the increasing selling in the first quarter.

Financial Analysis :

Any firm, when starts the business, their intention is clear to make profit. Here through different ratio, we can analyse that the company is going in which direction in the future. There are different applications of the ratios for any organisation and their uses are different for the firm’s owners, employees and the public.

Ratios can be classified in given main areas.

2)Liquidity based Ratio

3)Asset management ratio

4)Gearing/Financial stability ratio

5)Cash Efficiency Ratio

We are going to discuss some of them below with reference to Microsoft Corporation Financial Fiscal year data for September 2010.

1) PROFITABILITY RATIO:

This ratio shows company’s transfer capacity from product to its sell. It gives an overall efficiency of the company for generating the shareholders returns, so provides useful information to the company. Let us calculate formula for the same.

Gross Profit Margi

This is a type of profitability ratio which represents the cost of goods sold at a sales percentage. The ratio shows the control of the company over its cost of its inventory and operational costs. If the gross profit margin is bigger, it’s better for the company.

The formula for Gross Profit/Net Sales

For this example, its, 24098/62484 = 0.39%

Net Profit Margin

This ratio is used more frequently when a simple ratio analysis is used. It shows the companies income after paid off all the expenses.

The calculation for net profit margin is: Net Income/Net Sales

For this example, its, 18760/62484 = 3.00%

Return on Equity:

This ratio seems to be the main one for the all financial ratios for the investors of the company. It provides the return on the investors money invested in the company. Thus can be decisive for the investors whether to invest or not.

The calculation for the company is: Net Income/Stockholder’s Equity

18760/46175 = 0.41%

Current Ratio:

This ratio shows the balance changes that the net working capital ratio will not be able to show with reference to the assets against the current liabilities.

The formula for the same is :

Current Assets/Current Liabilities

55676/26147 = 2.13%

It discloses the business ability of the company, but it should be supported with the other ratios as below.

Quick Ratio (Acid Test Ratio):

This ratio is very useful for the company as it shows that how quick company can convert their current assets into the cash. This shows the current company’s sufficiency. This ratio is pre minded by considering all assets are equal liquidity. And the account receivables are more should be considered as liquidity than the stock. The sales can be considered when amount is received against the credits.

Cash + Marketable Securities + Accounts Receivable (net)

= Quick Ratio

Current Liabilities

5505+62+13014/26147 = 0.71%

Efficiency Ratios:

Efficiency ratio shows the efficiency of the company to change their inventory, assets, receivables, sales or account payables. It helps company to find out the meetigants for short term and long term obligations. As it takes into account the principle that we can pay you when we are paid.

FIRST EFFICIENCY RATIO

The ratio includes the days sales outstanding calculation, which shows the cash and receivables are going to be occurred when. This is considered the test of the company’s efficiency, as it shows the conversion capacity of the company from receivables to cash.

The calculation takes current receivables, total credit sales period and the number of day’s period into consideration for the formula.

The formula for the same is

Days outstanding = Current Receivables/Total Credit Sales X No. of Day

=13014/24098*60 = 32.40 days

Solvency Ratio:

Solvency ratio refers to company’s capability to meet their long term obligations. It gives an idea for the investor whether to go for the investment in the company or not.

The formula for this is

Solvency Ratio = (After Tax Profits + Depreciation)/ (long term liabilities + Short term liabilities)

=18760+2673/13791+9564

=9.18%

Higher the ratio of solvency, higher company’s capacity to meet its long term obligations.

Gearing Ratio:

Gearing ratio compares the certain owner’s equity to borrowed funds, as it calculates leverage and shows the extent to which a company is funded with its own fund against creditors’. Higher the leverage ratio, more risk to the company.

debt-to-equity ratio shows company’s equity against debt which shows company’s risk.

The formula is : (total debt / total equity)

=39938/46175= 0.85%

The company has more equity than debt that means company is in the good position.

How company can improve?

Company is running so smoothly on the basis of financial statement we can say that company is creating a good amount of cash than it is needed to meet its debtors. The major problem since 2009 company is facing is the credit periods instability, it run through 50 to 200, for some of the debtors. So if it is in the control its better for the company.

One other problem with the company is in the recession time, it has been heard first time from the company in its history that it layoff its staff. Because of recession, there was a drop of 0.5% sale of the company in last quarter and hence fore company decided that. So for re-improve the sale they might need some more funding as its more laptops are used now a days, they need to initiate some more upgraded technique than windows 7, of course it will capture a good market as new windows 7 is upcoming, but company need to take into consideration the computer users converting them to laptop users.

Conclusion:

As from above case, we can conclude that the ratio analysis is the tool for the company to measure its financial conditions against market and the competitors. It is always useful for the company to look at the change of the every small change as it’s a company which is changing probably every day the market updating and the situations. The Microsoft Corporation is the pioneer and it has achieved that stage from where to sustain and maintain that level, it need a good effort in the information technology to be at the same stage. As the competition is at the ear that it cannot be underestimated the potential of any new comer as the competitors like Intel and others are coming up with something new every day.

Ratio analysis is handful tool for the company from company, investors and employee’s point of view as it gives the summary of the company’s operating ability, liquidity and profitability. The company like this has a niche area to check as it’s a well established company and do not need to check for a broad idea. But for the new coming firms, it is very much essential to keep a strong control over its ratios as it is the best the way to establish good reputation and development in the market in such a competitive era.

References:

http://www.microsoft.com/investor/reports/ar10/10k_fr_bal.html

http://mbadox.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/fin_rat.pdf

Managerial Economics And Financial Analysis By S. A. Siddiqu

Financial Ratio Analysis:

A Handy Guidebook Charles K. Vandyck

Fundamentals of financial management

By Eugene F. Brigham, Joel F. Houston

http://www.investopedia.com/terms/g/gearingratio.asp

http://www.scribd.com/doc/17318817/Financial-Ratio-Analysis-Formulas

http://basiccollegeaccounting.com/table-summary-of-financial-accounting-ratio-analysis/

http://www.microsoft.com/investor/EarningsAndFinancials/Earnings/PressReleaseAndWebcast/FY11/Q1/default.aspx

http://www.google.co.uk/images?hl=en&biw=1920&bih=979&gbv=2&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=financial+ratio+analysis+images&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=

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Health assessment is an evaluation of the health status of an individual by performing a physical examination after obtaining a health history.

Introduction

Health assessment is an evaluation of the health status of an individual by performing a physical examination after obtaining a health history. (Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 2009) At the followings, I choose abdomen case in health assessment to apply on a client I had been caring in my past clinical practice. To diagnose, monitor, and treat client’s conditions, abdominal assessment skills are essential and it can be anticipate a different outcome of care to this client.

Case

Here is the case that I choose in my past clinical practice. Mr. Lee, a 26-year-old male, complains of severe abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea since yesterday. States that he ate dinner yesterday at Eastern and Western restaurant and 5-6 hours later noted cramping, diarrhea and vomiting. Has had a watery, brownish stool about every hour since yesterday. No loner vomiting or crampy.

Vital signs

When Mr. Lee sent to our ward, I began the physical examination by taking his vital signs. Vital signs provide data that reflect the status of several body systems.

After taking his vital signs, I started to ask him some health history, his lifestyle & health practices. Health history is an excellent way to begin the assessment process because it lays the groundwork for identifying nursing problems and provide a focus for the physical examination. (Weber & Kelley, 2010)

Health history

The health history that I asked are included present health, past health history, family history, lifestyle and health practices. In present health I asked some questions such as “Are you experiencing abdominal pain?”“How did the pain begin”“Where is the pain located?”Those questions are want to ascertain the chief complaint. Then I asked something about nutrition, appetite, nausea and vomiting, recent change in eating pattern or foods, recent weight loss or gain. Allergies on food or medications.

Past health history that I asked are his previous gastrointestinal problems, such as peptic ulcer, intestinal obstruction or gallbladder disease. History of major illnesses, such as cancer (type), arthritis (specify steroid or aspirin use), kidney disease, cardiac disease, respiratory disease(steroid use), any blood transfusions, DM, hypertension, needle exposure and hepatitis vaccination status.

After taking past health history, I asked him something about family health history. “Is there a history of any of the following diseases or disorders in your family: colon, stomach, pancreatic, liver, kidney or bladder cancer; liver disease?”

And the last one that I asked in health history is lifestyle & health practices. Asked him about activities of daily living, his abilities for self-care, also asked his psychosocial history, such as cigarette smoking status (number of packs/day and number of years of habit) , alcohol intake(usual amounts and frequency), recent stressful life events.( Mcgough, 2003)

After checking Mr. Lee vital signs and his health history, I started to summaries some data that I collected, Mr. Lee had a watery, brownish stool about every hour since yesterday. No longer vomiting or crampy. Denies blood or mucus in stools. States is usually healthy. No chronic illnesses. Denies history of constipation, indigestion, weight changes, or change in appetite. Has not taken any medications. No family history of liver, peptic ulcer, or kidney disease. Smokes one packs/day x 8 years; non-drinker. Denies increased stress or major life changes; states family situation is good; lives with parents and his brother. His vital signs: Bp 116/72, pulse73, respiration18, temperature 37.7°C.

When I finished ask Mr. Lee’s health history and check his vital signs. I found that I am more understood Mr. Lee’s situation so that I can provide some appropriate care for him. However I think I am not doing enough health assessment on this case. To care this case again, I think I will ask Mr. Lee’s health history and check his vital signs, also try to have physical examination on Mr. Lee.

Physical examination

Physical examination of the abdomen includes all four methods of examination (inspection, auscultation, percussion and palpation). In the abdominal examination, auscultation is done before percussion and palpation because stimulation by pressure on the bowel cal alter bowel motility and heighten bowel sounds. ( Barkauskas, Baumann & Darling-Fisher, 2002)

First I will help Mr. Lee to relax. It is an important prerequisite to performing a thorough examination of the abdomen. Mr. Lee should have an empty bladder before the examination begins. He needs to be in a comfortable supine position with arms at the sides. To help him to relax the stomach muscles, place a small pillow under the head and ask the client to flex the knees slightly. The examination room should be warm enough so that the client will not shiver. The abdomen must be fully exposed. ( Barkauskas, Baumann & Darling-Fisher, 2002)

Moreover I need to prepare some equipment. Stethoscope(with bell and diaphragm) to listen to bowel and vascular sounds, Centimeter ruler to measure liver span, Marking pen to mark borders of organs, small pillows to position client.

To describe clearly the location of organs and the areas of pain or tenderness, the abdomen can be divided into four quadrants. An imaginary vertical line is drawn from the sternum down to the pubic bone through the umbilicus, and a second line is drawn perpendicular to the first line through the umbilicus. Start the assessment in the RLQ, proceeding in a clockwise direction. Different abdominal quadrant is stand for different organs, such as right upper quadrant stand for duodenum, gallbladder ( Barkauskas, Baumann & Darling-Fisher, 2002).

Inspection

First for inspection, it means systemic and thorough visual examination of the abdomen. Observe the coloration of the skin. Abdominal skin maybe paler than the general skin tone because this skin is so seldom exposed to the natural elements. Moles and striae (silvery-white lines caused by rapid stretching of the skin) are common findings. A network of fine veins may be seen around the umbilicus and abdomen and gently pinch and release a fold of skin to assess turgor( the skin should return quickly to normal) (Weber & Kelley, 2010).

The observation of skin lesions or nodules is of particular significance because gastrointestinal alterations are frequently associated with skin changes. Inspection of the abdomen for scars may yield valuable data concerning previous surgery or trauma. The size and shape of scars are best described through the use of a drawing of the abdomen on which the landmarks or quadrants are shown the dimensions are noted in centimeters ( Barkauskas, Baumann & Darling-Fisher, 2002).

To inspect Mr. Lee’s abdominal contour. Look across the abdomen at eye level from the client’s side, from behind the client’s head, and from the foot of the bed. Measure abdominal girth as indicated. In normal findings abdomen is flat, rounded or scaphoid. Abdomen should be evenly rounded. (Weber & Kelley, 2010)

Assess abdominal symmetry. Look at the Mr. Lee’s abdomen as he lies in a relaxed supine position. Abdomen is symmetric in normal finding. Inspect abdominal movement when the client breathes. Abdominal respiratory movement may be seen, especially in male clients because men exhibit predominantly abdominal movement with respiration.

Observe aortic pulsations and peristaltic waves. The normal findings are that a slight pulsation

of the abdominal aorta, which is visible in the epigastrium, extends full length in thin people. Normally peristaltic waves are not seen although they may be visible in very thin people ( Barkauskas, Baumann & Darling-Fisher, 2002).

Auscultation

Secondly, auscultation follows inspection and provides valuable information about gastrointestinal motility and underlying abdominal vessels and organs. (Cox C & Stegall M, 2009) Start auscultation, both the stethoscope and the nurse hands should be warm. If they are cold, they may initiate a contraction of the abdominal muscles. To listen to the relatively high-pitched abdominal intestinal sounds, use the diaphragm of the stethoscope, which accentuates the higher-pitched sounds. Use the bell of the stethoscope to listen for low-pitched arterial bruits and venous hums. ( Barkauskas, Baumann & Darling-Fisher, 2002)

Peristaltic sounds. Normal bowel sounds are high-pitched, gurgling noises that occur approximately every 5 to 15 to 20 seconds or roughly one bowel sound for each breath sound. The frequency of sounds is related to the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract or to the state of digestion. A silent abdomen indicates the arrest of intestinal motility. Flick the abdominal wall with a finger to stimulate peristalsis. Peristaltic sounds maybe quite irregular,

so it is essential to listen for at least 15 minutes before concluding the absence of bowel sounds. ( Barkauskas, Baumann & Darling-Fisher, 2002)

Auscultate for vascular sounds. Use the bell of the stethoscope to listen for bruits (low-pitched, murmurlike sound) over the abdominal aorta and renal, iliac, and femoral arteries. Furthermore, auscultate for a friction rub over the liver and spleen. Listen over the right and left lower rib cage with the diaphragm of the stethoscope. No friction rub over liver or spleen is present in normal finding. (Weber & Kelley, 2010)

Percussion

In addition, abdominal percussion aids in determining the size and location of abdominal organs. Percussion also aids in the assessment of excessive accumulation of fluid or air in the abdomen. As in auscultation, a systematic approach should be used in percussing all four quadrants. Percussion

sounds vary depending on the density of the organ and the underlying structures. Dull sounds are heard over dense structures, like the liver and spleen, and tympanic sounds are heard over air filled structures (Cox C & Stegall M, 2009).

To determine the size of the liver, begin percussion in the right midclavicular line at a level below the umbilicus. Start percussion over a region of gas-filled bowel and progress upward toward the liver. The first dull percussion note indicates the lower border of the liver. Mark the lower border on the abdomen. The usual liver span is 6 to 12 cm in the midclavicular line and 4 to 8 cm in the midsternal line( Barkauskas, Baumann & Darling-Fisher, 2002).

Percussion for tympany and dullness. Percussthe spleen. Begin posterior to the left mid-axillary line (MAL)., and percuss downward, noting the change from lung resonance to splenic dullness. (Weber & Kelley, 2010).

Morever, percussion note of the gastric air bubble is lower-pitched tympany than that of the intestine. Another percussion method used in the abdominal examination is fist percussion, which causes the tissue to vibrate rather than produce sound.

Palpation

Palpation is the final component in an abdominal assessment and is used to assess the organs of the abdominal cavity, to detect muscle spasm, tumours, fluid and areas of tenderness. It is a sophisticated skill that involves the use of the hands and fingers to gather information about

the size, shape, mobility, consistency and tension of abdominal contents through the sense of touch. Touch is considered therapeutic, and is the actuality of ‘laying on of hands’. Palpation of the abdomen is a particularly sensitive matter; therefore, the nurse’s approach should be gentle. (Cox C & Stegall M, 2009)

Different outcome of care

This selected assessment might anticipate a different outcome of care Mr. Lee, it is because it can let me know more information about him and it can find a source of his diseases.

After performing an inspection examination on Mr. Lee, he is flat no visible masses, pulsations or peristalsis. Also he has hyperactive bowel sounds in all four quadrants in auscultation. Tympany in all four quadrants on percussion. He has tenderness over epigastric area; slight tenderness in all four quadrants; no masses or organomegaly; negative Murphy and Mcburney’s sign.

Finally all health assessment is done; I found that he was suffering from acute gastroenteritis in rule out food poisoning. Sometimes the signs of symptoms in acute gastroenteritis are

10053848-Yim Wing Chi-NURS S305F10

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, malnutrition and fever (Mingpao, 2011).Compare with physical assessment, if only check Mr. Lee’s history and vital signs, the care that I provide surely is not enough, so that a complete health assessment can help me to find appropriate method to care Mr. Lee and make a professional clinical judgment.

After taking all health assessment, I know how to care Mr. Lee. I will maintain adequate fluid intake with appropriate rehydrating solutions. Never rehydrate with water alone because it does not contain adequate amounts of sodium, potassium, and other important nutrients. Take stool sample and blood for culture. Give ice pad when Mr. Lee has fever. (Hong Kong Hospital Authority, 2007)

Conclusion

All in all, a complete and well health assessment aids in determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan, it is useful to use in clinical field and it might anticipate a different outcome of care to client after all health assessment is done.

References

Barkauskas, V.H., Baumann, L.C. & Darling-Fisher, C.S. (2002). Health physical assessment (3rd ed.).Arizona: Mosby.

Cox, C., & Stegall, M.(2009). A step-by-step guide to performing

a complete abdominal examination. Gastrointestinal Nursing, 7 (1),10-17.

Hospital Authority.(2007). Gastroenteritis?Brochure?.Hong Kong:Hong Kong Government press.

Mcgough, K. (2003). Home health nursing assessment and care planning.(4th ed.).Arizona: Mosby.

Mosby’s Medical Dictionary .(2009). Health Assessment. From http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/health+assessment.

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10053848-Yim Wing Chi-NURS S305F12

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What is the history of UK tobacco taxation policy, what are the outcomes from the past to date?

Introduction

The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced (WHO). Research has shown that there are 1.1 billion smokers in the world today and if this current number continues to rise at the current rate, then that number is expected to rise to 1.6 billion by the year 2025 (WHO). Tobacco smoke is harmful to smokers and harms nearly every organ of the body, diminishing a person`s overall health. Millions of people have health problems caused by smoking tobacco and it is a leading cause of cancer causing cancers of the lung, larynx, mouth, pancreas, stomach, as well as acute myeloid leukemia and cardiovascular diseases. Around the world smoking causes not only diseases and disability, it kills enormous numbers of people. As research has shown tobacco is responsible for approximately 443,000 deaths – one in every five deaths – each year in the United States (U.S DoH, 2010)In the United Kingdom, it is responsible for more than 120,000 deaths a year, more than all other drugs combined (Peto et al., 1994). Treating smoking related diseases costs the National Health Service in excess of ?1.5 thousand million a year. Furthermore, a report by the Policy Exchange in 2010 estimated the total cost to society of the smoking to be ?13.74 billion (bn); ?2.7bn includes cost to the NHS but also the loss in productivity from smoking breaks (?2.9 bn) and increased absenteeism (?2.5bn). As the Policy Exchange estimated, costs also include: the cost of fires (?507m), the loss of economic output from the death of smokers (?4.1bn) and passive smokers (?713m)

In the 2011-12 financial year, the Government spent ?88.2 million on the stop smoking services in the United Kingdom alone plus additional ?66.4 million on medicinal aids.

The rise of tobacco taxation

The United Kingdom Government already intervenes in many ways to prevent, minimize the consequences of the harms caused by smoking. In an effort to reduce the number of smoking-related deaths, the Department of Health has introduced a number of measures including media and education campaigns about the dangers and harms of tobacco smoke, stop-smoking and nicotine replacement therapies – available through the NHS service, a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising and promotion and regulation of the contents and labeling of tobacco products. However, since evidence shows that price increases have a major effect on decreasing both smoking prevalence and consumption above all other tried and tested measure, increasing the price has therefore become the main tool in the policy of the United Kingdom to reduce smoking (BMA, 2010).

Cigarettes, which are the most popular of all tobacco products in England, are now sold at historically exorbitant prices. In order to understand how the prices of tobacco products have become so high, it is therefore necessary to first gain an overview of the history of the tobacco tax and its development. Somewhat surprisingly, the United Kingdom has a very long history of tobacco taxation policy. Excise tax on tobacco was first introduced only one century after tobacco first was introduced into the United Kingdom in 1660 – although the present framework of the specific and ad valorem excise duty on cigarettes was introduced in 1976 in order to ease tax harmonization within the EEC. However, it was then not until the past two decades that tobacco taxation really became the main tool and policy in fighting the ills of smoking on society.From November 1993 to November 1999 there was a clear commitment made by the government to increase tobacco duties annually in real terms, initially by at least 3% on average per annum. This was carried out diligently for a while until in July 1997 the Labour Government announced it would raise cigarette taxes by at least 5% above the rate of inflation each year. This new commitment was carried through in both the 1998 and 1999 budgets, but in November 1999 the Chancellor abandoned this policy. Instead, it was announced that extra revenue raised from future tobacco tax rises would be spent on health care of Great Britain. Thus, from 2001 until 2008 tobacco taxes rose only in line with inflation. However, in 2009, tobacco duties were increased again by 2% on the basis of a deflationary forecast in the Retail Price Index of – 3%, therefore representing increase an on 5% in real terms (HM Treasury, 2009) The Chancellor then announced in 2010, that tobacco duty would rise by 1% above inflation for the current year. Furthermore, a commitment was made to rising tobacco duty by 2% above inflation from 2011 to 2014. This was implemented by the current new Conservative-led coalition Government in the 2011 Budget. Moreover, legislation was introduced in the Finance Act 2012 to increase the duty rates for all tobacco products by 5% above the rate of inflation (based on RPI) from the 21st March 2012. This added 37 pence to the price of 20 cigarettes, 12 pence to the price of pack of five small cigars, 37 pence to the price of a 25g pouch of hand-rolling tobacco, and 20 pence to the price of a 25g pouch of a pipe tobacco (HM Treasury, 2012). Thus one can perceive that although it is not a consistent implementation of policy, there is a growing severity in the percentage of tax. Against the effects of increased taxation the tobacco industry, however, has been fighting back by keeping the price of its cheapest cigarettes almost static despite various increases in tobacco taxes. This therefore has had an effect in limiting the effectiveness of the United Kingdom’s public health policy to reduce smoking through higher prices (Bath University Tobacco Control Research Group).As a result, the price of cheaper cigarettes has remained almost unchanged since 2006 and their market share has doubled compared to expensive premium cigarettes. This therefore suggests that as cigarette taxes are raised, many smokers will down trade to cheaper cigarettes and just carry on smoking.

Criticisms of the tobacco tax

Since the Government started launching a full-scale attack on the tobacco industry, a lot has been written about the Tobacco taxation policy. A number of studies have shown that taxes can indeed be significant in reducing smoking. By way of example, John A. Bishop and Jang H. Yoo (1985) determined that the consumption of cigarettes is significantly affected by taxes that are levied on the tobacco products. The tax, they found, had more of an effect on consumption than did any other interventions previously implemented. Additionally, W. Kip Viscusi (1990) found that excise taxes discourage smoking by serving as a monetary cost for the risks associated with smoking.

From this it can be perceived that raising tobacco prices are therefore one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco use, especially among price-sensitive smokers such as younger member of society and people with low incomes. The specific question of whether the youth are more or less responsive to prices than adults, has been examined in a number of studies using individual-level data (Lewit, et al., 1981; Lewit and Coate, 1982; Grossman et al., 1983; Wasserman et al., 1991; Chaloupka and Grossman, 1996; Farrelly, et al., 1998, and Tauras and Chaloupka, 1998). However, findings from those studies are mixed. The earlier studies on this issue (Lewit, et al., 1981; Lewit and Coate, 1982; and Grossman et al., 1983) found that the youth are more sensitive to prices than are adults; however, they are far more likely to smoke. Interestingly, a recent study in the United Kingdom found that smoking cessation before middle age avoids more that 90% of the lung cancer mortality risk attributable to tobacco which may affect the younger members of society’s views on the risks associated with it and may lessen the health warnings (Peto et al, 2000).

It can also be seen that studies from high-income countries are consistent with those from low and middle-income countries, in that they both find strong and consistent evidence that increases in the prices of tobacco products lead to the significant reductions in cigarette smoking regardless of location or the country’s wealth. However, a number of other arguments have been raised for tobacco taxation policy and need to be considered. To elucidate, there are a number of political, economic, and social arguments that have long been used as arguments against significant tax increases in tobacco taxes.

It has been argued by critics that higher tobacco taxes will lead to increased smuggling and other related criminal activity such as black market cigarettes sold without tax, or even encourage fake cigarettes than can be even worse for health. A second common objection to tobacco tax increases is that they will usually fall disproportionately on the poor who have less expendable income to indulge such habits compared to wealthy individuals who will not notice the increase so much. Growing amounts of literature suggest that tobacco tax increases might be progressive (Gabe, 2009). As discussed above, several studies have concluded that people who live on a lower income are more responsive to changes in cigarettes prices than higher income persons, implying that high taxes reduce smoking by more in lower income groups. A final major argument that is often employed in the debate over increased cigarettes taxes is that these tax increases would lead to reductions in employment. As HM Revenue and Customs has estimated, in the United Kingdom the tobacco industry employs around 17,000 people in direct manufacture in the tobacco trade alone (HM Revenue & Customs, 2010).

As shown, the significant consideration on the current literature on tobacco has been the critical analysis of Tobacco taxation policy, but there has been shown to be little to answer the question about the actual stakeholders involved in the policy itself and what determines their actual positions and interest. Therefore, to shed some valuable light on this, the stakeholder analysis will be used in this essay. Moreover, the value creation framework will also be used in order to understand the hypothesized causal chain of how political policy can exert influence on tobacco use behavior. Finally, available empirical data provided by HM Revenue and Customs will be used to base the judgments on both quantitative and qualities data.

Identifying the stakeholders of Tobacco taxation policy

Tobacco control strategist’s need finely honed analytical skills in order to identify all the stakeholders involved in tobacco taxation policy and to determine their positions through research and interviews of each stakeholder. In addition, they will also need to assess each stakeholder`s relative power and influence over other stakeholders. On the basis of this analysis, strategists from tobacco control must therefore facilitate an alliance between the supportive and the neutral groups by accentuating common interests and goals, emphasizing the shared benefits of a tobacco tax increase. Chevalier identifies three key attributes to be examined in a stakeholder analysis. 1. Power (authoritative, command and control and legislative power) 2. Legitimacy (righteousness, impartiality or technical credibility)3. Sense of urgency or interests with regard to the subject matter. This will therefore be utilized in the examination of the different types of stakeholders this essay will identify.

Figure 1. Stakeholder typology.

Source: Mitchell et.al. (1997)

The possible combination of the attributes in Figure 1 above explains the different types of stakeholders in their main groups. In sum, definitive stakeholders possess all three of the attributes mentioned by Chevalier. Dependent stakeholders, however, they have keen interests and legitimacy but no power. Contrastingly, dominant stakeholders have power and legitimacy but have no urgency or interest. Dangerous stakeholders on the other hand have power and a keen interest but not legitimacy. Moreover, dangerous stakeholders do not possess the technical expertise and wisdom and as such could do more harm than good in the attempt to increase tobacco taxes. Figure 1. helps us to understand which of the stakeholders are likely to support, and which are likely to oppose an increase in excise tax for tobacco products. I shall now explain and elucidate the major four groups that appear from these six types:

Group 1: Bureaucrats

1. Excise Department within the Treasury.

2.National Tobacco Control office and Ministry of Health.

3.Local governments.

The first of this group, the Excise Department, is within the Ministry of Finance and is usually interested in revenue generation and thus supports the tobacco tax increases. The Customs Department Officers and their policy, however, can also overvalue the effect of tobacco tax rise on smuggling. Unless they are brought on board through incentive schemes and advocacy, they may be against tax increases. However, if confiscation incentives are attractive then they may also support tax rises on tobacco and tobacco related products. The Fiscal Policy Office and the Bureau of Budget might have a more conservative view about tax increases in general, but they would be likely to support an increase of taxes on tobacco products. The Ministry of Health and National Tobacco control office are usually strongly supportive of decreasing tobacco product consumption through economic and non-price measures. They are the most legitimate with keen interests but no power in law. They therefore have to form an alliance with the Excise Department and other stakeholders to ensure the adoption of a tax increase on tobacco products. Local Governments also generally supports an excise tax because it usually means more revenue for local government units.

Group 2: Tobacco Industry.

1.Local manufacturers.

2.Tobacco industry

3.Importers (the proxies of the transitional tobacco industry)

4.Tobacco growers group and association, local tobacco growing industry.

As evidence shows, as it is perhaps be expected, the Tobacco Industry resists any and all tobacco tax increases, because this results in a lower profit margin for its stakeholders. The Tobacco Industry`s own documents they disseminate prove that the industry can resort to dishonorable tactics to persuade governments to maintain the lowest possible retail price for tobacco products. For example, when ad valorem taxes are used, manufacturers have been known to sell cigarettes to a related marketing company at an artificial low price, therefore reducing their tax liability. In the case of absence of good governance the tobacco industry may provide direct and indirect incentives to government official to block or even delay actions to raise tobacco excise taxes. In this situation the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) is critical as an NGO can bring unethical practices to the attention of the public; they are also able to apply pressure on government officials to remain accountable to the population.

Group 3: NGO and media

1.Community-based organizations

2.Civic organizations

3.Media

4.Other special interests groups.

The NGO community can be characterized as a very demanding stakeholder, because they have a strong interest in protecting health against tobacco; therefore, NGOs will support tax increase measures. When, they are equipped with knowledge on the subject matter, they become legitimate dependent stakeholders. Thus, the crucial role of NGOs acting a society`s “watch dogs”. The media`s role is from a different angle and is to inform the public about the issues surrounding the debate on tobacco taxes, its increases and decreases. Accordingly, the media can have a huge influence on tobacco awareness and taxation as the media can shape and influence public opinion. Media that is accurately briefed on the benefits of tax increases to reduce tobacco consumption can, however, be transformed into legitimate stakeholders who support increasing the tobacco taxes. Although it should not be forgotten that the tobacco industry also had the ability to apply pressure on the media, through direct bribes or the threat of withholding advertising revenue, in order to discredit the value of tobacco tax increases. So they therefore are a group that could go both ways.

Group 4: Academia and professional associations.

1.Economists.

2.Physician`s groups.

3.Health associations (Cancer society, heart associations etc.)

4.Other health professionals group.

The academic community and the professional community are to be considered as dependent stakeholders. They have both legitimacy and an interest in the subject matter but no decision making power. However, this category of stakeholders can play significant role as credible experts in validating the evidence provided to the media and the general public.

Applying the value creation framework.

The value creation framework was developed by International Tobacco Control (2006) in order to measure the impacts of tobacco control policy.

Figure 2.

This is a conceptual model illustrating a hypothesized casual chain of how policy exerts influence on tobacco use behavior. The conceptual model (figure 2) assumes that policy ultimately has an influence on behavior through a specific casual chain of psychological events as can be seen in the diagram. It is a general framework for thinking about policy and its effects on a broad array of important psychosocial and behavioral variables, and for testing how policy distinctions relate to their effectiveness.From the framework it can be seen that policy potentially affects individuals due to a variety of psychosocial and behavioral variables, of which there are two classes.

1. The most immediate effects are those on the policy-specific variables – that is, price which affects perceived costs of cigarettes. This is the price of tobacco products, which has increased since policy-makers started interventions to date.

2. Psychosocial mediators, which are conceptually distant from the policy and which theorized to be affected by multiple means, not just policies. These are variables such as self-efficacy and intentions, beliefs and attitudes, which come from well-known psychosocial models of health behavior.

Accordingly, tobacco taxation is effective in a two-fold way: Policy-specific variables such as the price of cigarettes affect smoking habits as psychological mediators that affect psychological smoking habits themselves. The evaluation of the control policies used for combating tobacco at the population level is still in its fundamental stages of development, accordingly, studies conducted on the effectiveness of policies to control tobacco intake are hindered by the same limitations. Cross-sectional studies are lacking in validity as they are poor in their ability to contribute attributions – although longitudinal studies are naturally greater in internal validity. Sadly the limited number of such research into tobacco policy means there is a general lack of comparison available for analysis. Evaluation of tobacco smoking control policy data should come to fruition further once time has followed its natural course and there is more material to draw on from the new data that is currently emerging. Accordingly, it should indeed be not too long until a true evaluation analysis can be done so the theory can be analyzed properly. It is put forward that the positive accelerating trajectory of the use of tobacco and its effects in the 21st century signifies a foremost threat to global health, that requires a mobilisation and alignment of ‘researchers, advocates, and governments toward meeting the threat’ (Fong, 2006). By way of demonstration the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project) describes the challenges of evaluating the national-level policies of the tobacco taxation illustrating the application of the conceptual model in measuring policy effects on tobacco use behaviours and the psychosocial precursors of such behaviours. In so doing it was found that the tobacco taxation signifies an extraordinary landmark in global tobacco control over use and its terrors, however the path from the promise of effective tobacco control policies to the actual reality of strong implementation of tobacco taxation policies was not found to be easy.The ITC project found many countries have not yet ratified tobacco taxation policies, and in many countries that have, there is still residual pressure either to delay the implementation or to implement policies in ways that will render them less effective than their potential. The mission of the ITC Project was to conduct evaluation of such policies to establish the evidence base that will give policymakers throughout the world the evidence that will allow adoption of tobacco taxation policies in countries that have not yet ratified such methods, and also to provide for and encourage a strong implementation in those countries that have ratified.

Conclusion

It has been shown that tobacco has a long history of taxation in this country that has snowballed in severity over the last half decade. It has also been shown there are a number of different vital stakeholders that contribute to the molding of taxation policy. If the conceptual model is indeed correct, higher taxation will continue to reduce smoking substantially. However, as has been highlighted in the criticisms against the taxation policy, there are possible groups who will still continue to smoke regardless and it is indeed more likely that it is lower income groups who will be hit the hardest. Moreover, as smoking is an addiction, it is possible the dedicated and truly addicted lower income smokers will continue and merely resort to other means of paying for their tobacco fix. Regardless of the semantics of how this policy will finally play out, it is clear that the UK is committed to increasing tobacco taxes and as it continues to increase taxation numbers of smokers will continue to drop. This essay does, however, concede that the policy may plateau at some point wherein smoking is enjoyed by a dedicated minority and the increase in taxes can no longer be justified any further.

References

Baggott, R. (2004). Health and Health Care in Britain. 3rd Edition, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Baggott, R. (2007). Understanding Health Policy. Policy Press.

Boyle, S. (2011). United Kingdom (England): Health system review (Health Systems in Transition). At http://www.euro.who.int/en/home/projects/observatory/publications.

Crinson, I. (2009). Health Policy: A Critical Perspective. London: Sage.

Chaloupka FJ, Hu TW, Warner KE, et al. The taxation of tobacco products. In:

Jha P, Chaloupka F, eds. Tobacco control in developing countries. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc, 2001:237–72.

Borland, R. Tobacco health warnings and smoking-related cognitions and behaviours. Addiction 1997;92:1427–35.

Borland R, Hill D. Initial impact of the new Australian tobacco health warnings on knowledge and beliefs. Tob Control 1997;6:317–25.

The COMMIT Research Group. Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT): I. Cohort results from a four-year community intervention. Am J Public Health 1995; 85:183–92.

Hyland A, Li Q, Bauer JE, et al. Effect of state and community tobacco control programs on smoking cessation rates in adult smokers. Am J Health Prom 2005;29:85–90.

Wakefield M, Chaloupka F. Effectiveness of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in reducing teenage smoking in the USA. Tob Control 2000; 9:177–86.

Farrelly MC, Pechacek TF, Chaloupka FJ. The impact of tobacco control program expenditures on aggregate cigarette sales: 1981–2000. J Health Econ 2003;22:843–9.

Darzi, L. (2008). High Quality care for all: NHS Next Stage Review final report. CM 7432. London: Department of Health

Gabe, J. & Calnan, M. (eds.) (2009). The New Sociology of the Health Service. London: Routledge.

Ham, C. (2009). Health Policy in Britain. 6th Edition. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hunter, D.J. (2008). The Health Debate, Bristol: Policy Press.

King’s Fund (2005). An Independent Audit of the NHS under Labour (1997–2005). London: King’s Fund.

Klein, R. (2010). The New Politics of the NHS: From Creation to Reinvention. 6th Edition. Abingdon: Radcliffe Publishing.

Mahon, A., Walshe, K. & Chambers, N. (2009). (eds.) A Reader in Health Policy and Management. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Marmot, M. et al. (2010). Fair Society, Healthy Lives (The Marmot Review). At http://www.instituteofhealthequity.org.

Pollock, A. M. (2009). NHS Plc: The Privatisation of Our Health Care. 3rd Edition. Verso Books.

Pollock, A. M. & Talbot-Smith, A (2006). The New NHS: A Guide: A Guide to Its Funding, Organisation and Accountability. London: Routledge.

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Free Essays

Based on a long common law history and once an important measure in sales contracts, s.13 Sale of Goods Act 1979 has now become unnecessary and irrelevant.’

Introduction

Section 13 of the Sale of Goods Act 1979 was previously considered an important measure in sales contracts. It now appears irrelevant and unnecessary and therefore in need of abandonment.This essay will discuss why s.13 is no longer relevant by analysing its flaws and demonstrating how the requirement that ‘goods must match their description’ can be enforced elsewhere.

Overview of Section 13 Sale of Goods Act 1979

Section 13 of the Sale of Goods Act (SGA) 1979 states that where there is a contract for the sale of goods by description, there exists an implied term that the goods will correspond with that description. This section only applies to goods that are sold by their description only. If the buyer has the chance to see the goods before making their purchase, then this section cannot be relied upon. An example of this can be seen in the case of Harlingdon & Leinster v Christopher Hull Fine Art [1991] 1 QB 564 where goods were described as a Gabrielle Munter painting in an auction catalogue. Both the buyers and sellers were London art dealers, yet the sellers were not experts in German paintings whilst the buyers were. The buyers also sent there experts to inspect the painting before agreeing to purchase the painting for ?6000. The buyers sought to rely on s.13 when it was found that the painting was a fake, but it was held that the sale was not by description because an expert had been sent to inspect the painting. This indicates that even if goods are originally being sold by description, once a buyer has had the opportunity to inspect the goods they can no longer seek protection under s.13.

Rejection of Goods not Matching Exact Description

In Arcos v Ranaason [1933] AC 470 it was demonstrated that the duty of the seller is extremely strict (Atiya et al; 2010: 154). Here, a buyer was entitled to reject goods that were described as being 1/2 an inch thick on the basis that some of them were slightly less than this. Even though the quality of the goods was not affected, it was said that the goods were not as described and could therefore be rejected. This is likely to cause many problems as the purchaser in the Arcos case had simply changed his mind about purchasing the goods and then sought to rely on s.13 to reject them even though the description did not prevent him from using the goods for their intended purpose. As s.13 is narrowly interpreted, it is capable of being used in circumstances that would seem inappropriate. In Re Moore & Landauer [1921] 2 KB 519 it was held that the purchaser was entitled to reject goods that were described as being packed in cases of 30 when they were packed in cases of 24. This was despite the fact that the overall number of goods was correct. Arguably, s.13 is interpreted very strictly and a slight deviation from the description of the goods will be enough for a purchaser to reject them.

Narrow Interpretation of Section 13

As pointed out by the Department of Business Innovation and Skills; “Description takes on a very narrow meaning, referring only to the commercial characteristics of the goods” (BIS, 2010: 24). Statements that have been made about the goods, or aspects of the specification of the goods are not covered by s.13, illustrating it’s restrictiveness (Ashington Piggeries Ltd. v Christopher Hill Ltd. [1971] 1 All ER 847). This section also appears to conflict with the European Union Directive 99/44/EC which provides that the “description” of goods will also include the “description given by the seller”. The Directive thus appears to encompass a wider range of characteristics, thereby providing extra protection to the sale of goods. Sections 3, 8, 11C and 11I of the Supply of Goods and Services Act (SGSA) 1982 and s.9 of the Supply of Goods (Implied Terms) Act (SG(IT)A) 1973 also have identical provisions to s.13. Because of this, it is questionable why s.13 is needed given that its application is extremely rigid. The requirement that goods must match their description can be found in other pieces of legislation, thus demonstrating that s.13 is no longer necessary or relevant.

Section 13 Unnecessary and Irrelevant

Section 13 was originally only supposed to apply to commercial sales of unascertained or future goods (Brown, 1990: 561). In such instances, a description of the goods would have been a necessary requisite which sellers would have provided to purchasers before a sales contract was entered into (Sealey and Hooley, 2008: 401). Since the Harlingdon & Leinster case, however, it seems as though s.13 is now being applied to sales of specific goods. Reliance upon description is not an essential ingredient, which is unjustifiable in that contracts can be rescinded in circumstances which they would not otherwise have been. The parties will also be required to demonstrate that they intended for the description to be a term of the contract if they want to find a breach of contract; Drake v Thos Agnew & Sons Ltd [2002] EWHC 294 (QB). Consequently, s.13 is no longer relevant in the 21st century as protection can be sought against wrongly described goods through other provisions.

Conclusion

Overall, it seems as though s.13 is in fact irrelevant and unnecessary in the 21st Century. Whilst it was previously thought to be an important component is contract sales, it is no longer required as a result of superseding legislation and because of its narrow interpretation by the courts. It could be argued that s.13 therefore needs abandoning as it seems to prevent purchasers from rescinding a contract if they had a chance to inspect goods even if they were later found to be fraudulent. This is largely unfair as a fraudulent painting may not be easily identifiable at first and may require a more thorough inspection which could not be achieved without first making a purchase. Whilst goods must always match their description, goods which fail to do so will be protected through other legislative provisions. As such, s. 13 is no longer needed and does not seem as relevant as it once was.

References

Atiya, P. S. Adams, J. and Macqueen, L H. (2010) Atiya’s Sale of Goods, Pearson Education, 12th Edition.

Brown, I. (1990) ‘Forgery, Fine Art and the Sale of Goods’ Law Quarterly Review, 561-564.

Department for Business Innovation & Skills. (2010) ‘Consolidation and Simplification of UK Consumer Law’ BIS, accessed 08 December 2014.

Sealey, L. S. and Hooley, R. J. A. (2008) Commercial Law: Text, Cases and Ma terials, OUP Oxford, 4th Edition.

Case Law

Arcos v Ranaason [1933] AC 470

Ashington Piggeries Ltd. v Christopher Hill Ltd. [1971] 1 All ER 847

Drake v Thos Agnew & Sons Ltd [2002] EWHC 294 (QB)

Harlingdon & Leinster v Christopher Hull Fine Art [1991] 1 QB 564

Re Moore & Landauer [1921] 2 KB 519.

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Free Essays

Modern history of JAPAN

Distinct features of constitution:

1.According to Meiji constitution, all political power is in the Emperor’s hand.

2.The principle that sovereignty resided in person of the Emperor, by virtue of his divine ancestry “unbroken for ages eternal”, rather than the people, No other have chance to take position

3.The Emperor, nominally at least, united within himself all three branches (executive and legislative and judiciary) of government, albeit subject to the “consent of the Imperial Diet”.

4.Sacred and inviolable”, a formula which was construed by hard-line monarchists to mean that emperor retained the right to withdraw the constitution, or to ignore its provisions.

5.The Emperor’s commands (including Imperial Ordinance, Edicts, Rescripts, etc) had no legal force within themselves, but required the signature of a “Minister of State”.

6.The Emperor also had the sole rights to make war, make peace, conclude treaties

Democracy in Meiji constitution.

People’s right

1. Freedom of speech, assembly and association

2. Privacy of correspondence

3. Private property

4. Freedom of movement

5. Freedom of religion

6. Right to be appointed to civil or military or any other public offices equally.

Moreover, according to constitution, the Emperor’s commands (including Imperial Ordinance, Edicts, Rescripts, etc) had no legal force within themselves, but required the signature of a “Minister of State”.

Depart from Democracy.

1 All political powers in the Emperor’s hand.

2 The Meiji Constitution was founded on the principle that sovereignty resided in person of the Emperor, by virtue of his divine ancestry “unbroken for ages eternal”, rather than the people

3 The Emperor, nominally at least, united within himself all three branches (executive and legislative and judiciary) of government,

4 Ministers of State were appointed by (and could be dismissed by) the Emperor alone, and not by the Prime Minister or the Diet.

5 The Emperor also had the sole rights to make war, make peace, conclude treaties

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Modern US history

As an intellectual enterprise, contemporary social sciences are replete with claims of social collapse. Over the last 20 years, scholars have proclaimed “the end of history,” “the end of politics,” “the end of work,” “the end of the family,” “the end of liberalism,” “the end of medicine,” “the end of ideology,” “the end of individualism.” There is little doubt that we are experiencing massive social change. As we are approaching the year’s end, something new is emerging, helter-skelter, in our midst that bears little resemblance to any existing political, theological, or sociological model of how the world is supposed to work.

The social shifts are sufficiently different in character to have produced a new social form, one suitably widespread and anchored to become visible. This claim of a new social form lies at the heart of the postmodern contention that we have entered an era of ambiguity, and we argue that postmodernists advance this claim in a way that sociologist cannot ignore. While they are right on target in capturing the spirit of rapid social change that characterizes the present era, their embrace of the resulting “chaos” as a new social form is misguided: they mistake an era of societal transition for a new enduring social structure or even a hybrid of modern society.

In historical perspective, what we are now experiencing bears a striking similarity to the place on the cultural and historical map that created sociology at the end of the last century. Rising suicide rates, the growing prominence of Protestant countries and the subsequent demise of Catholicism’s hold on the Western world, and the movement from agricultural to industrial production all have their parallels in the current social era.

Rather than embracing the change and ambiguity they surveyed, and mistaking it for what “modern” society would be. One of the major tasks of sociology at the turn of this year is to struggle to understand the new institutional and personal structures that characterize contemporary social forms and not abdicate to other disciplines the task of making sense of emergent societal transitions and structures.

A widespread belief seems to be emerging that the U.S. economy is in the throes of a fundamental transformation. The true enthusiasts treat the new economy as a fundamental industrial revolution as great or greater in importance than the concurrence of inventions, particularly electricity and the internal combustion engine, which transformed the world at the turn of the year.

There is no dispute that the U.S. economy is awash in computer investment that productivity has revived. Economists have long been ambivalent about what social interactions constitute the proper domain of the discipline. The narrower view has been that economics is primarily the study of markets, a circumscribed class of institutions in which persons interact through an anonymous process of price formation.

Throughout much of the twentieth century, mainstream economics traded breadth for rigor. In the first half of the century, institutional economics, which thought broadly but loosely about social interactions, gradually gave way to the neoclassical theory of general competitive markets. A pivotal development was the transformation of labor economics from a field narrowly concerned with work for pay into one broadly concerned with the production and distributional decisions of families and households.

The important development was the emergence in macroeconomics of endogenous growth theory. Whereas classical growth theory assumed that the production technology available to an economy is exogenous, endogenous growth theory supposes that today’s technology may depend have been influenced by the past output of the economy. The broadening of economic theory has coincided with new empirical research by economists on social interactions. Unfortunately, the empirical literature has not shown much progress. Economics has sufficed with a remarkably small set of basic concepts: preferences, expectations, constraints and equilibrium.

Widespread literacy is alleged to be indispensable to popular government. Dramatic changes in communication technologies which are said to affect exposure to traditional print media-we need to look afresh at reading’s political impact. Learning to read is a political act. Inability to read limits an individual’s participation in community life. It was probably for this reason that slaves in the antebellum South were kept illiterate. Even today, a connection between literacy and citizenship exists in evidence showing that persons who read are more likely than those who do not identify with larger political communities.

American people are haunted by Old World hegemonies and hence are committed to individualism and modernism for philosophical and practical reasons. American people are a restless and contentious lot producing a kaleidoscope of attitudes about most social issues. The American people can be found in the election turnout figures and in gross economic indicators, to e sure, but they are more than that; they are also the meanings of their behaviors.

Raised on a diet of political supremacy and technocratic invincibility, the American people were shaken to the core by 9/11. Shortly thereafter, a number of bromides caught the national ear: “America has lost its innocence forever,” “this is the first war of the twenty-first century,” “the U.S. just joined the world of nations.” At some point, history may prove these claims true. But 9/111 has already shown something more heartening: the functionality of a longstanding communal discourse. Admittedly, that discourse is shot through with contradictions and impossible overstatements. That contradictions and overstatements can prove sustaining to a people is a curious fact-an American fact.

Reference:

Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United States. Available on-line:

http://www.historyisaweapon.com/zinnapeopleshistory.html.

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The life history anthropological perspective

An interview I had with my brother turned out to be very unusual that is to my surprise it was, for me, a new revelation of his inner self. The whole session became personal and sensitive. I came to know a new person, whom I did not know earlier, in him. That is about his condition and experiences of having muscular dystrophy. His perils and his optimistic views, in spite of struggling with the disabilities. It was astonishing to learn that after my thoughts of how I know him so well because he is my brother, there are still a lot of things that I do not know about him. This interview has definitely introduced me to a new person in my brother.

The life history anthropological perspective

At the age of 6, he was diagnosed with muscular dystrophy. The diagnosing of this situation in him was a hard one for mother to accept. She had always kept this factor to her heart and made sure he never even feel that he was sick. She tried and the rhythm of his routine was as normal as anyone else of the same age. At the same time the frustration of not being able to do whatever he wanted made him angry at everything in the beginning. He slowly began to realize that he could still have nice feelings. And that is where he could still try to do everything what the other kids did. The dramatic end they had was often embarrassing but he found them to be great fun.

This concept of having fun in the awesome and dramatic eventualities of an other ways routine for a kid of his age seems to me as the first step of his finding the life meaning full.

The perils of his condition took deeply toll of him. Its true that I have seen most of him in my life, this interview gave me a new perspective of him. The high school, like any other kid, was interesting to him. The presence of his brother was a solace. Brother had to live two years earlier than he did. That was the time he felt bad about the saying “Oh, yet defend me, friends; I am but hurt”. (Alexander, p 1071)

He even thought at the end of his high school that the high school was waste of time. I have a strong feeling that the lack of friends, after having to sit with older kids when his brother was there, made him lonelier than one could ever feel. A pretty librarian’s company was too limited an entertainment for boy of that age. His mindset, by the time he left the high school, might have greatly been influenced by the fact that he was a disabled, unlike other kids. It can be termed as the greatest disaster that happened in his life with the unhealthy

Physical condition he suffered from. Having met death face to face with pneumonia at the age of 23, he realizes the need of living life to the fullest. However this realization seems to be the positive out put completely derived from the life threatening situations he went through.

I would say it was a therapeutic experience for the both of us because somehow after that interview, he felt good having to share all his thoughts and feelings to someone who he can trust and depend on. In addition, for me I felt as if something good and special came out of it – within my self as a person and between the both of us and our relationship as family. From the first question alone, I was really dazed that he was willing to open up like that with regards to his diagnosis and learning from the doctors that he would not be able to live to see his twentieth year. His courage and strength really shows up by how he handles and is still handling his condition.

His openness to me, freely sharing the inner most feelings of his struggles, was really to be considered as an advantage to me because we had an intimacy of being the same family. My brother was open to the entire experience. It was not difficult to convince him to go through with a personal interview with me. He actually enjoyed it because he knew he was helping me out and he really liked the idea of reflecting on past events and experiences that he had in his life.

He prides me with joy knowing that he is not the kind of person who gives up. He was able to defeat his worries and fears and still made great efforts to do what most children did at his age from very early in his life. The interview has greatly changed our relationship as siblings. First, we know we have gotten closer because now I feel like I have evaded the person in him that I did not know all these years. My brother has opened up as new person himself. The moral of the Story is that it has developed in me a sense of self-acceptance. The conversation with him has taught me to accept and take things as they come.  Brushing aside all the limitations, he has the confidence to tell me that that there are a lot of things to do and that he wanted to live his life to the fullest makes me look at myself and rethink what my problems are and what my mindset was.

The world we live in has a lot more problems for its people. A lot of people complain about things, just like the poor boy complaining that ‘I have no shoes, I have no shoes.’ Until, he saw a man with no legs. If we as normal people complain about our lives and not having to succeed in situations where we want to accomplish many tasks, I guess we should think about those who unwillingly have disabilities, such as muscular dystrophy.

My brother’s out look towards life was one of great self-esteem and acceptance but the conversation gave me great cultural insight as compassionate side, in me sparked off like a matchstick. Everything that he said I took note off and from them I draw my inspiration in reinventing my life, and am compassionate in my society. I took note of his words as he said you’d never be able to make anyone else happy if you can’t look at yourself in the mirror and be happy at what you see.

Reference

Alexander, Peter (1985) A book on complete works of Shakespeare. English language book society.

 

 

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The History of the Noose and its Significance to African

The origins of the noose, also known as the hangman’s knot, has been associated with the capital punishment more pronounced during the Elizabethan times. The noose has strikingly evoked a kind of historical perspective quite commonly associated with death as a punishment for crimes committed. In Britain, the noose was often looped into one end where a man’s neck could easily fit and allowed to hang and apparently die of strangulation from the tightening loop or by a breakage of the hanged man’s vertebra. Its positioning is seen to coincide with the angle of the jaw in order to make sure that the head is thrown backwards by the rope so that the force is transmitted into the neck vertebrae rather than being thrown forward and the force taken on the throat which tends to cause strangulation.

In our modern era however, the noose signifies for many a corrosive ingredient to an otherwise risky social practice of racism. In the first part of the 20th century, the practice of lynching was ascribed to stifle mob violence due in part to an ineffective law enforcement agency (Apel, 2004:49). From the torturous slave trade era, the nooses of the Ku Klux Klan evoked a sign for the Black society to remain passive and stand defenseless in the face of any racist assault (Bobo et.al, 2004: 140). In the historical opposition to black voting rights, representation and summary punishments, the lyncher’s noose represented white supremacy (Grant, 2001: 101).

Purpose of the Study and Statement of the Problem

It is therefore to the best interest of everyone to be able to identify the origins of the hangman’s knot or the noose in the current period. Such knowledge leads to the understanding of how the hangman’s noose is currently associated to an issue of importance to the Black American society in the US. In the history of hate crimes and lynching against the Black Americans and other marginalized sectors, the rope has often symbolized hatred.

In the face of modernity and globalization, and equal rights for every American, the interpretation of the hangman’s noose as an action is still often seen as an over reaction in a climate full of questions relative to racism and supremacy. The meaning behind the noose and its presence has been seen by the Black community as denoting racial hatred and white power.

However, amidst a modern and diverse society that has publicized political correctness; every American is faced with the question on its proper interpretation and to discuss the rightful censorship of the act. Will there be a chance when people will stop reacting to the noose and somehow understand that this is just an overblown racial rhetoric or will the culture and climate of racism fit for censorship or punishment?

Review of Literature

When a white police officer placed a hangman’s noose on the motorcycle of a black policeman in Boston, the black policeman complained that he was being victimized by the white officer. Although investigative reports did reveal that no racial motives were behind the act, the black officer claimed that, “no one can just hang a noose near any black man who knew his history and say that it does not have a tremendous significance” (Blum, 2002:2).

The consequences for such an action in some states like Miami has allowed black employees who were subjected to an intimidating presence of a hangman’s noose in the office of Adelphia Communication’s manager to collect a $1 million settlement (Apel, 2004:17). Suddenly a spate of similar incidents are happening across the country where a noose was left for a black workman at a construction site in South Elgin while a woman in Queens, New York brandishes a noose to threaten her black neighbors. Pitts also reported for the Chicago Tribune how a noose was left on the door of a black professor at Columbia University that stands to investigate the recent spate actions (Pitts, Oct. 2007).

History had associated the noose as a tool for capital punishment against criminals during the Elizabethan times. The United States whose justice system was patterned after England’s has adapted death by hanging to convicted and ruthless crime offenders. The fall of slave trade after the Civil War marked a quest for civil rights that soon catered to the emergence of groups opposed to Black freedom and rights. The Ku Klux Klan became an effective and organized movement against Black rights who once exercised a reign of terror using the symbolic gesture of the noose to evoke fear among the blacks and other minorities (Grant, 2001: 100).

The memory of lynching still runs fresh on the hearts and minds of the targeted Black population along with other minorities (Reid-Pharr, 1999: 126).In the last few years of the 20th century, even after the successful allowance of equal rights for every American citizen, random incidents of lynching with the symbolic use of the hangman’s noose despite progress and modernization (Diuguid, 2007: 149).

Findings and Analysis

Despite progress and modernity, it is observed that the memory of lynching particularly with the symbolic use of the noose is seen as a persistent wound to the Black American society. Authors Bobo, et, al (2004) Apel (2004) Blum (2002) have a similar idea that the noose is seen as a predicament for the Blacks and other minorities in the societies whether they were intended as a joke or otherwise. The noose has seen an association and a symbol of white supremacy and hatred against the African Americans in the United States.

In light of the spate and re-emergence of noose lynching around the country, many Black populations could not bring themselves to understand despite comprehensive investigation that it was a prank (Pitts, 2007). Many look back to the atrocities committed against the blacks and other minorities and regard the handful of happenings as an apparent move to stifle violence perpetrated by the marginalized communities (Wallace, 1999:32).

Random incidents which have happened in relations to actions commonly associated with the hangman’s noose dismissed such incidents although an astonishing response that condemned such atrocity could be heard by both white and black communities who were both offended (Diuguid, 2007:19). Although nothing was done, many African-Americans were hurt about the incident (Diuguid, 2007:21).

In the exercise of political ideals in the face of diversity, such racial slurs and symbolic forms of hatred has no room in the American egalitarian society as the black population struggle to pursue a more decent and humane existence for their families (Wallace, 1999: 32). Such things that should be forgotten cannot simply be delegated immediately to the memory banks because many still experience feelings of hurt and marginalization after hearing of community members being subjected to such treatment. Although the youths have experienced minor blows to resulting from racism in comparison to their forefathers, Black culture still appreciates the deep roots of their black culture and will continue to feel hurt and rejection as a response to random and symbolic act of the hangman’s noose.

Conclusion

The notoriety of the noose however, lies not only in its use as a method of capital punishment. It has also been associated as a racial hate symbol, so far being used in the United States against African-Americans. This is in reference to the various forms of extermination performed against African-Americans in the rural South in the past. To address such, the use of nooses for the intention of perpetrating a hate crime, or using nooses as a racial hate symbol, was actually made illegal under U.S. law. Recently, there have been cases where the hanging of nooses was done at American universities in what many see may be a resurgence of the symbol.

In totality, nooses however can be said to be very significant to African-Americans, as it tries to represent a direct attack on their African American race. The move to make it illegal was definitely a step in the right direction. Just as the noose gained its reputation with being a form of capital punishment, it too has become a racially charged symbol that continues to affect African-Americans today.

It will therefore be a difficult option to encourage Black Americans to forget about the noose and its symbolism. Their deeply embedded culture is taught to every Black child in order for him to appreciate his importance in the struggle for equality.

Reference

Apel, Dora. 2004. Imagery of Lynching: Black Men, White Women, and the Mob. Rutgers University.

Blum, Lawrence. 2002. I’m Not a Racist, But.. The Moral Quandary of Race. Cornell University Press.

Bobo, Jacqueline, Hudley, Cynthia and Michel, Claudine. 2004. The Black Studies Reader. Routledge.

Diuguid, Lewis. 2007. Discovering the Real America: Toward a More Perfect Union.

Grant, Donald. 2001. The Way It Was in the South: The Black Experience in Georgia. University of Georgia.

Pitts, Leonard. 2007. The History of the Rope. Chicago: Tribune.October.

Reid-Pharr, Robert. 1999. Conjugal Union: The Body, the House, and the Black American. University Press.

Roberts, James D. 2005. A Black Political Theology. Westminster John Knox.

Wallace, Michele. 1999. Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman. Verso.

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News and History: Re-Inventing Iraq Through British Drawdown

Early this month U.S. Defense Department’s Secretary Robert Gates and British Defense Secretary Des Browne met in London to agree on the withdrawal of half of the British troops in  Iraq. They said that the pull out was not because of any mounting domestic political pressure from any individual or groups but because of the improved situation in the said region.

Des Browne said that Britain and the U.S. have the same aspirations for Iraq. But while the situation in Iraq continues to stabilize, in Afghanistan, however, it was the opposite. Des Browne is calling for additional international forces to be sent to Afghanistan which he said as part of the “long-term commitment” to pursue stability in those areas. That probably is the catch for the withdrawal because according to him all the 2,500 troops that would be taken out in southern part of Iraq would be diverted to Afghanistan to support the present force manning those territories.

The two powerful personalities agreed that there is no need for most of the forces in those parts of Iraq and that the withdrawal was agreed by Gen. David Petraeus who was the highest military personnel in Iraq.

Accordingly the situation in this part of the region has been neutralized and had been peaceful in the past few months and no major war can be foreseen. Also, Australian troops would be included among those to be withdrawn. These three countries have been blood allies from the beginning and such decision are always being agreed by these three powerful nations.

But that is not the end of the news, however. According to the New York Times, in reality there is still continuous fighting between the rival Shiite factions who are trying to gain control of the oil-rich section of Iraq. Just recently, politicians were assassinated in the provinces of Muthanna and Diwaniyah. These provinces were located in the southern part of the country and people say that these political killings are being done by certain groups to have control over all of the oil reserve found in these areas.

Britain’s Prime Minister Tony Blair was somewhat dismayed of the growing fractionalization and rebellion in Iraq. The Prime Minister has always been supporting the U.S. in its long time war with Iraq and ironically his decade-long tenure ended in June this year. Blair was questioning British Prime Minister Gordon Brown’s decision on the issue of withdrawal and for now Brown had to distance himself from the embattled ex-Prime Minister.

Britain has more than 5,000 troops particularly situated in Iraq while the U.S. has nearly 170,000 troops all stationed around Iraq. After the announcement of the withdrawal, Brown said those who will remain would be tasked to train Iraqi government troops and will only fight if necessary. They will also be withdrawn by the end of next year, he said.

The New York Times also reported that some U.S. Marines were proposing to be pulled out along with the Britons and also wanted to move to Afghanistan because they feel they are better suited to fight in that war (Youssef, 2007).

This news was more related with Toby Dodge’s book Inventing Iraq where in the old days the British colonizes part of the Ottoman territories in the now modern Iraq and built frontiers to keep natives from uniting and throwing them out of their colonies.

British has long been trying to conquer Iraq because of its vast oil resources and widening its territories. Although it has established itself temporarily, ultimately it failed to conquer the country due to Britain’s misguided policies plus the ever intervening attitude of the U.S. The result was a failure of governance and ultimately the assumption of rule by the Iraqis. The author has explicitly vindicated the fate of the oppressed as against the oppressor and implied that no one has the right to rule anybody because it is unjust and immoral.

Reference:

Youssef, N. A. (2007). Gates: British Drawdown In Iraq Due To Improved Conditions [Electronic Version]. Retrieved October 17, 2007 from http://www.mcclatchydc.com/homepage/story/20393.html.

 

 

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The history of Non Commission Officer ( NCO)

A non-commissioned officer is also known as an NCO or Noncom, is an enlisted member of an armed force. NCO is given authority by a commissioned officer. In general, the NCO corps includes all the grades of sergeant and, in some militaries, corporals and warrant officers and in naval some or all grades of petty officer. If we look at the history of NCO in United States, it began in 1775, with the birth of the Continental Army. As the years went by the American political system, disregard for the aristocracy, social attitudes, and the vast westward expanses further removed the U.S. Army noncommissioned officer from his European counterparts and created exclusively an American noncommissioned officer. During the early days of American Revolution, little standardization of NCO ditties or responsibilities existed.

From the American Revolution to World War II, there were a lot of transformations that happened. For instance, the noncommissioned officer received his promotion from the regimental commander. Besides, entire careers were often spent within one regiment and if a man was transferred from one regiment to the next he did not take his rank with him. The General in Chief of the Army was always required to give permission to be transferred noncommissioned officer from one regiment to another which was rarely done.

In the year 1825 the first attempt was made to establish a systematic method for noncommissioned officer selection. The selection of regimental and company noncommissioned officers remained the privilege of the regimental commander. Regimental commanders were expected to accept the company commander’s recommendations for company NCOs unless there were overriding considerations.

During the last half of the 19th Century the increase of technology accompanied modernization greatly that affected the NCO Corps. Besides, the number of NCO ranks grew rapidly and each new introduction of technology created another pay grade. Though till the 19th century the duties of NCOs were not clearly defined, in the last half of the 19th Century the duties of the noncommissioned officer were clearly defined.

The five or six pages of instructions, provided by von Steuben’s Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States in 1778 grew to 417 pages when the Noncommissioned Officers Manual was printed in 1909. Today as the Noncommissioned Officer Education System continues to grow, the history and tradition combines with skill and ability to prepare for battle. A NCO retains the duties and responsibilities given to him by von Steuben in 1778, and these have been built upon to produce the soldier of the present day (Arms n.pag, 1989).

A good NCO serves as administrative or training personnel and as advisors to the officer corps. Therefore they need to be faithful and ethically strong. Their most important function is as a link between the ‘common soldier’ and the (commissioned) officer. Senior NCOs are also often responsible for giving on-the-job training to the junior officers. Therefore a combination of knowledge, skills and attitude is essential for a NCO. Moral competence include five main components- the ability to recognize a moral dimension; The ability to define the moral dimension of a situation or dilemma and to describe which values are at issue; The ability to communicate the judgement towards others effectively; The will to act upon one’s decision; and To be accountable for one’s actions (Verweij 28).

The Non-Commissioned Officer is considered as the backbone of the Armed Forces. The NCO is expected to be a commander, trainer and combat leader. He also serves as a role model for his team of soldiers. Therefore, a good NCO need to have strong moral values (Wortel and Schoenmakers n.pag, 2006). An NCO must lead by example and train his team of soldiers to a high level of proficiency and readiness in their team skills. Therefore it can be said that an NCO’s job is to get things done without having to be told first by a commissioned officer.

Work Cited

Arms, L.R. A Short History of the NCO (1989) U.S. Army Sergeants Major Academy, Command and General Staff College. 27 October 2007. ;http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/arms/arms.asp;

Verweij D.E.M., Het belang van Militaire Ethiek voor de Krijgsmacht in Carré 7/8 (2005) p.28.

Wortel, E.M. and Schoenmakers, J.P.M Teaching Military Ethics, J-SCOPE January 26-27, 2006,  27 October 2007. ;http://www.usafa.edu/isme/JSCOPE06/Wortel-Schoenmakers06.html;

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Understanding Native American History

American history is filled with glorious accomplishments that Americans love to point out when saying how great a country this is. Certainly, America is a great country, and as countries go, it has probably done enough now to forever remain as one of the great countries ever to exist on the planet. Perhaps it will someday go down in history beside Ancient Rome, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and other great civilizations of the past that have made their mark on human history, but along with its greatness, America has enough faults and shame to give pause for thought. In a country of immigrants, America has historically mistreated its immigrants, especially the Chinese, the Japanese and today the Chicanos.

Despite their efforts to get away from religious persecution, the pilgrims were not so eager to avoid religiously persecuting others and forcing their religion upon everyone. Everyone is keenly aware of how America enslaved the blacks and then held them down as second class citizens or less after slavery was more or less begrudgingly abolished. Black Americans were not properly treated in American until the 1970s and even today blacks suffer from the vestiges of past slavery.

Yet, with all of the two-sided treatment and mistreatment of so many cultures that have today merged within the amalgamated American culture, with all of the irony and tragedy of those mergers, perhaps none is any more tragic than that of the American Indian.  With all the Native Americans who lived in this country when Europeans arrived, today there are only an estimated 2.75 million remaining.  They are probably the only ethnic group whose numbers in America have fallen since the arrival of Europeans.

While the number of Native Americans in the country when Europeans arrived is speculative, it is estimated that there were between 60 and 100 million Natives here when Europeans arrived and that by 1650, the Native population had already decreased by 90 percent due largely to the introduction of European diseases into the Native populations. (MacCleery, 2004)

While Black Americans have more or less assimilated into American society despite the mistreatment they suffered, nothing could be further from the truth for Native Americans.  Blacks can be found in large numbers all over the country with few exceptions other than the northwest where there are still areas where people have never seen blacks or rarely do, yet one would be hard pressed to find a Native American in the US away from the reservation.

When encountered, they would usually be mistaken for something other than a Native American and always, always they will be speaking a foreign language, usually English, Spanish or both.

Forced to abandon their native language, many young Indians today cannot speak their native language and others won’t speak it expect to other Natives, and while blacks can occasionally be heard asking for “reparations” for the wrongs that were committed against them during slavery (those who were wronged are dead) such that their ancestors (those now alive) get to reap the benefits for the suffering of their ancestors, nobody is available to speak up for the Native American who still suffers today in ways that blacks and other ethnic groups do not.

Certainly, blacks no longer have their native tongue, but it was not forced out of them in the same way and there was no effort to Americanize blacks.  To the contrary, blacks were maintained separate while the effort towards natives was more like the extermination of the Jews in Nazi Germany.  Whites on the Plains sometimes killed Indians just because they were Indian somewhat like the extermination of the aborigines in Tasmania who were actually, literally hunted down to extinction!

Between 1803 and 1833 the Aboriginal population of Tasmania went from 5,000 to around 300 and by early in the 20th century they became virtually extinct, their original languages lost.  Native Americans were intentionally subjected to a similar fate and today their languages are also being lost, this despite the fact that the language of the Navajo code talkers took part in every assault the U.S. assault in the Pacific war against the Japanese from 1942 until 1945.

The very languages which helped to save America were not allowed to be spoken among the Natives!  What right do blacks and others have for reparations for what their ancestors suffered when Native Americans are still living basically on reservations in the 21st Century and get virtually nothing?

There is no doubt that the survival of the first Europeans to America was due in large part to the ability of the native peoples already here to survive and thrive in this country—in their own land. Even today, each year we celebrate Thanksgiving because we realize that the new visitors to this country owed their survival and existence to the knowledge and ingenuity of the native peoples who were already here.

Yet, most Americans today fail to realize the true diversity of the native peoples who already existed here when Europeans arrived. It is estimated that humans lived in North America up to 12,000 years ago and perhaps as much as 40,000 years ago certainly calling into question Bible stories of Adam and Eve a mere 6,000 years in the past.

When Europeans arrived, the Native Americans were a vast diversity of cultures, nations and religions that ranged from one coast to the other, people living together in harmony with their environment and with their fellow Native Americans at times, living very much out of harmony with their fellow Native Americans at others.  As was true in Europe, all was not always calm and peaceful co-existence between the various a sundry “races” and tribes of the Native countries.

Native nations differed in terms of their religious beliefs, cultural habits, dietary habits, migratory habits, religions and more, sometimes bringing them at odds with one another, especially in terms of competition for food and perhaps at times for living space.

The American mistreatment of the Native peoples they found here began even before the Revolutionary war.  The very natives who saved the lives of the first colonists and pilgrims were treated like second class citizens or not as citizens at all.  By the time of the Revolutionary War, Native Americans had already felt the encroachment of the white Europeans on native lands.  When over two-hundred Iroquois, Shawnees, Cherokees, Creeks and others visited St. Louis in 1784, they were already feeling displaced.

One said, “The Americans, a great ambitious and numerous than the English, put us out of our lands, forming therein great settlements, extending themselves like a plague of locusts in the territories of the Ohio River which we inhibit.” (Galloway, p. 158)  In May 1830, the Indian Removal Act was passed in Congress. It authorized the president to negotiate treaties to remove all Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi.

This led to surveyors, squatters and a campaign of harassment against Natives such as the Cherokee. While the Cherokee Nation brought a suit against the Act, Chief Justice John Marshall declared that the court had no jurisdiction over the case since Cherokees were not U.S. citizens or an independent nation. (Garrison, pp. 1-12)  This is certainly a sad state of affairs for the Native peoples of American, one for which there has never been a true champion and which has great significance for the way in which Native Americans still live today.

Early in the 20th Century, Joseph Dixon wrote an aptly named book entitled The Vanishing Race that detailed many of the struggles and travails of the Native American. With all of the struggles and travails of the Native American, it was not until December 8, 1911 that President Taft signed a bill passed by Congress granting a United States Reservation and the erection of a National Indian Memorial (Dixon, p. xx).

Dixon speaks of an “Expedition of Citizenship to all tribes of American Indians”, an effort to extend friendship to all Indians and to have them unite so as “to raise the same flag and sign the same pledge of loyalty and receive at the hands of his representative an American Flag…that they might call their own.” (Dixon, p. xxii), but while at the time, this might have been viewed as a sign of advancement by white America, it was no more than further evidence of the forced assimilation and continued mistreatment of the Native Americans who were being robbed of their land, their customs, their language, their religion and forced to assimilate into and assume the American culture strange to them and certainly not their own.

For example, Calloway speaks of how the far ranging Comanche bands came together as a nation in the 1870s after they were confined to a reservation. (pp. 339-40)  These nomadic people became a “Nation” more or less because they were forced to do so.

In the 1870s and continuing through the 20th Century, native Americans in defense of their homeland who had once suffered military attacks (and still did in the 1870s and beyond) from invading Europeans suffered a different king of attack, the efforts to Americanize the Natives, an effort to reform the native “savages” as they were called by forcing them into the European ways of life.  Indians were relocated, forced to wear European attire, to cut their hair and to speak the European languages.

Christian missionaries played a large role in this effort as the missionaries simultaneously tried to convert the “savages” to Christianity and to Christ.  As reformer Helen Hunt Jackson put it in her 1881 book, A Century of Dishonor, those who believed that the United States should extend their blessings to the Natives could see that what was happening was just the opposite. Natives were being “(shot)…down in the snow.” (p. 335) It was a concerted effort to remake the Natives by transforming them into the image of white America and it was met with resistance by the natives.

Natives, many of whom migrated with their food supply, the weather and the seasons, were forced to adapt to and adopt strange, European ways. While Europeans claimed a kinship to the land, that kinship was very different from that of many natives. The idea of owning land seemed strange to the natives, and being tied to a specific region to till the soil as farmers was not the native idea of kinship to the land.

As Europeans pushed West in their quest for “Manifest Destiny,” they progressively displaced the natives by killing their food supplies, searching for yellow iron (gold), stealing the Natives’ horses and more. Chief Joseph said, “For a short time, we lived quietly. But this could not last…The white men told lies for each other. They drove off a great number of our cattle…

We had no friend who would plead our cause before the law councils.”  What Chief Joseph saw happening was common all across the new continent—new to Europeans.  After the Civil war, the efforts at Manifest Destiny continued and increased. “Winning the West” was a national goal that led European settlers to move into native lands in greatly increasing numbers.

So, the native peoples were being robbed, displaced, involuntarily acculturated, tied to the land in ways that were very un-native, and more. While Europeans forced natives into one compromise after another, the growing sentiment among the invading Europeans was that Indians should be treated as wards of the government rather than as independent nations. (Galloway, p. 271) Today Indian tribes enjoy the unique political status as sovereign nations within the United States, a status they already enjoyed before the arrival of Europeans. They have managed to regain what they lost at the hands of the Europeans, but only after paying a terrible price and being nearly exterminated and what they have today is only a shadow of what they had in the past.

Certainly, Americans are essentially oblivious to the plight of the Native Americans.  There has never been a successful spokesman for them, no eloquent Martin Luther King and Cesar Chavez for the American Natives.  Those who existed in the 19th century were quickly killed, imprisoned or ignored as were the few whites who stood up to champion the cause of the Natives, among them former President Herbert Hoover.

Therefore, today, while many Americans are at least vaguely familiar with the plight, suffering, indignity suffered and torture of the African slave, few Americans know the true story of the Native Americans and their suffering, suffering that continues even to the present time.  We need a better understanding of what they have suffered in the past and what they continue to suffer even in the present, how they were dispossessed from their lands, moved elsewhere and basically ignored even to the present.

Finding a reasonable way to compensate them will not be easy.  Indeed, compensation is probably impossible.  Who can compensate the Tasmanian peoples now that they have been exterminated?  Likewise, who can compensate the Native Americans not that they have been dispossessed and nearly wiped out?  Their story is one that is seldom told even today and is generally distorted when told.  Can we as Americans continue to live with this situation?  Perhaps we can, but should be?  I believe that the answer to that question is, “No!”

References

Dixon, Joseph Kossuth.  The Vanishing Race. The Last Great Indian Council.  Philadelphia, PA: National American Indian Memorial Association Press, 1925.

Galloway, Colin.  First Peoples: A Documentary Survey of American Indian History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, 2004.

Garrison, Tim Alan.  The Legal Ideology of Removal:  The Southern Judiciary and the Sovereignty of Native American Nations.  University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA, 2002, pp. 1-12.

Jackson, Helen Hunt.  A Century of Dishonor: A Sketch of the United States Government’s Dealings With Some of the Indian Tribes.  New York, NY:  Harper & Brothers, 1885.

MacCleery, Doug.  The Role of American Indians in Shaping The North American Landscape, Forest History Society, 2 November, 2004, 12 June, 2007.

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The History of the National Transport Safety Board

The National Transport Safety Board in the United States of America was established on the 1st of April 1967, basically relying on the Department of Transportation, for its funding and the administration maintenance. In 1974, the Safety Board Act (in P.L.93-633) was passed by the Congress, which thereafter, separated the board from the department of transportation which allowed the safety agency to carryout the unbiased investigations and also to make recommendations about the safety regulation sine then the NTSB has received a momentous respect from the Congress for its hard work in discovering the needed transportation safety enhancement and maintaining the civic confidence in transportation safety.

On 1st October 2002 the funding authorization for the National Transport Safety Board expired but in the second session of the 107th Congress, bills that is the CRS-43H.R. 1527/S. 579 grants for authorization of the funds that are necessary for the expenses of the board. Senator John McCain introduced the reauthorization of the safety board which was therefore prepared and reported positively without adjustments by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation.

We see that on 13th March 2003. Representative Don Young established a bill for reauthorization of the board that was to be done on 1st April 2003. Also the House Committee covering Transport and Infrastructure reported a bill on May 1, 2003 the two bills, were to authorize the boards’ appropriations from the year 2003 to the year 2006 in which the same funding was to be provided. [1]

Since its launch, the board has been given the responsibility of carrying out investigations on aviation and surface transportation accidents. Due to its high number of investigation recorded, the board is ranked as the worlds leading accident investigation agency.

These transportation modes include the highway, marine, pipeline and railroad, therefore, it core objective is presenting safety recommendations that are meant to prevent future transportation accidents, and therefore it comes up with capable causes of the accidents. These investigations are carried out by the boards regional and field officers though they are not the basic sources of information to the board. The board has headquarter offices for all modes of transportation in which various information is requested from.

The headquarter offices are situated at 490 L’Enfant Plaza, SW Washington, DC 20594 and they can be contacted by telephone (202) 314-6000 while its conference center is located at 429 L’Enfant Plaza, SW Washington, DC  20594 the location of the offices vary, depending on the mode of transport that the board deals with .

The board is also dependable for maintaining the governments records on transportation issues, these records are normally accrued from special studies on transportation protection that are conducted by the board,  these studies basiaclly come up with factual and safety recommendations that are of a nationalized importance. Under this, the board provides investigators who always serve as qualified legislative body which is specified in the international agreements for aviation accidents overseas that usually involve the United States registered aircrafts.

The National Transport Safety Board does not carry out regulations over the transportation apparatus, operation and the transportation personnel. The boards’ success in the formation of the transportation safety comes as a result of, its character for fairness and care. The National Transport Safety Board has five Board Members, who are normally chosen by the President and confirmed by the Senate to serve for a period of five years.

Therefore a member is nominated by the President as Chairman and another as Vice Chairman for a period of two years These Chairmanship requires a separate Senate verification. In a situation where the chairman is not designated, then the vice chairman acts in place of the chairman. [2]

Since the board has no power to regulate the transportation laws in the country it only causes change in the safety implementation of the transportation systems in the USA, therefore, it submits safety proposals to managers, workers, and the users of transportation systems. The safety measures include: improvement of child protection in automobile industry, reduction of fatigue of people from transportation operations, creation of event recorders that includes; video systems, commercial highway vehicle recorders, and an improved flight data recorder.

Averting runway incursions at airports; justifying the risks of structural icing on aircraft; and the elimination of the explosive fuel in fuel tanks from the aircrafts to prevent explosions. while on the rail roads, the board comes up with a suggestion of avoiding collision systems, it also improves the safety standards of trucks and buses on the roads, this may require the use of seat belts, it also implements the promotion of highway safety through licensing and also ensuring that the driving laws are adhered to by the members of the country, and in marine transportation, the board enhances the recreational boating safety; and the post-accident drug and alcohol testing.

Reports say that, these safety recommendations across all modes of transportation for over 35 years, through which about 82% of the recommendations has led to the implementation of acceptable safety improvements in the United States. The board normally works in collaboration with the department of transport agencies during the drafting of these measures so as to ensure that they are issued earlier and also in a satisfactory manner.

The national transport board is given the authority to sign contracts for facilities, technical services, and training in accident investigative theories and practices. Like in a case where the board was given a one year contract for a training site to the George Washington University, and in the year two 2003 it established the National Transport Safety Board(NTSB) Academy on London County Campus of the George Washington University in Ashburn, Virginia.

It is also allowed to engage in agreements and other dealings that are important in accomplishing its mission without undergoing the normal procedures of contracts, though the board has been criticized over its financial management it has been struggling to create a balance between the issuing of responsibilities to its investigators to complete their duties on time and efficiently and also providing a better financial management system that is effective in curtailing the fraudulent risks and wastages of resources. [3]

Despite the alleged financial mismanagement, the board had to establish a strategic plan that is meant to last for 4 years, the plan was established in the year 2006 and is expected to accomplished its objective in the year 2010, this plan is meant to guide the Agency’s work, by enabling the planning, budgeting and accounting for the work performed by the board.

This strategy is to cover various issues, including the accident investigation, support and the boards’ employee’s development and resource management. The current technological complex in the transportation system has made it hard for the agency to meet the challenge of accidents, thus making the agency to enter into a resource declination period whereby, planning is seen to be the most important factor in the utilization of the declining resources. For this reasons, the aircrafts, vehicles, trains, pipelines and marine vessels have safety features integrated in them.

Therefore the assignment of the National Transport Safety Board is to, recognize and converse the lessons learned from investigation of transportation accidents. this investigation is normally watchful, experienced and self-regulating in order to prevent the loss of possessions, individual injuries, loss of life and also the environmental harm. Apart from safety measures, the board also carries out the coordination of tragedy backing for, victims and families affected by the transportation accidents; it also arbitrates for the airman and mariner petition, this services are used to maintain the reputation that the transportation system of America  as the safest in the world. [4]

Therefore the national board of safety have set plans to have a careful use of the resources by maintaining a motivated, experienced, well trained, equipped and supported workforce which will enable it accomplish its mission this motivation is to be done through  intellectual selection of attempt and masterful implementation of objective; this goes hand in hand with the contribution of the private and public sector partners, who are always cooperative and supportive, the communication of these  recommendations for change in the directive and functions of the services of transportation is also considered.

The goals set by the transportation safety board in conjunction with its mission include: Accident investigation under this the board has been maintaining its reaction competence of the accidents and has also increased the examination of occurrence and other negative issues that predicted to be of consequences in the improvement of public transportation protection. The boards’ approaches to accident investigation involve the enhancing of the organizational capacities and investment of the resources to enable the board to recognize and analyze the incidents which will further identify the origin of the transportation accidents.

The second goal of the board is the support and Outreach this, objective is to enhance the presence of the national transport safety board in the transportation system whereby, leadership and technical support is used as a factor in giving support to the safety issues in transportation, thus promoting the safety recommendations of the board, this is normally done by, advancing the technical understanding and awareness of the safety issues which reflects the leadership role in the workforce performance.

The board also expands and performs procedures that always support the safety recommendations. The board also carries out the reviewing and analyzing the results of the recommendations, whereby the board chooses what measure is proved to be better. While playing its role of leadership the board usually solicit the support of external agencies which may be industries or the government, that assist in the bringing of the transportation issue to the awareness of the transportation society. [5]

The board also ensures that, its workforce maintains its knowledge by giving them a chance to play the leadership role with the board and other agencies locally and internationally. The board seeks to improve the productivity of the employees and their satisfaction through a vigilant recruitment, performance compensation, having an interest on their personal needs. It also maintains a working environment that facilitates the performance and the fulfillment of the boards’ workforce.

To deal with financial frauds, the board has come up with a resource management system, whereby it evaluates expenditures and fiscal commitments, so as to have an efficient asset management, to enable it have its mission accomplished, this course of management involves the budget implementation as a factor of performance for all stages of management.

The reviewing of all actions and costs is carried out whereby; the board members expect the board to finish its mission at a considerable time and with the use of limited resources therefore the national safety board is expected to carry out more investigations on accidents in shorter time and with fewer resources. The cost accounting tools and methods is normally provided by the agency to the program officers so that they can manage resources more effectively. The boards’ performance is usually evaluated by the office of the management and supplemented by the boards’ annual financial audit.

The national board of transportation safety provides a room for safety studies that is termed as an assessment of the effectiveness of rules, curriculum, program management and operational regulations and other government agency actions that are implemented to reduce the transportation losses; these studies result in the issuance of a narrative report on the information, conclusions and any valid recommendations on the safety of the travelers. They are normally scheduled irregularly about six weeks after a board meeting is carried out covering the same subject. The schedules for such meetings are usually presented under news and events on the boards’ website, and announced via a press release. [6]

Since the board is basically an investigative agency, it carries out a special investigation that is divided into two segments, whereby the first one is defined as an effort of gathering any information concerning the programmed focus selected in support of safety studies under this a report is usually issued, but a file is usually preserved, this file normally contains details, circumstances, and conclusions but will not include the possible cause of the accident.

While the second one is an examination of the mechanical issues and safety problems recognized in one or more accident investigations, under this a detailed narrative report is usually developed and approved by the Board, it contains the details, circumstances , conclusions and safety recommendations if necessary. All these records are always available from the boards’ records management division.

References:

Coyle, J.J.; Bardi, E.J. and Novack, R.A. (2004): Transportation. 5th Edn: Southwestern College Publishing, Cincinnati

OFCM (1999): Public-Private Partnership Symposium: Panel on Successful Transportation Partnership; Presentation at the Volpe Center, Boston M A.

TRB (2001): Critical Issues in Transportation 2002. Reprinted from TRB News 217; November-December 2001: Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C

TRB (2000): Highway Capacity Manual 2000. D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Washington

[1] Coyle, J.J.; Bardi, E.J. and Novack, R.A. (2004): Transportation. 5th Edn: Southwestern College Publishing, Cincinnati
[2] TRB (2000): Highway Capacity Manual 2000. D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Washington
[3] Coyle, J.J.; Bardi, E.J. and Novack, R.A. (2004): Transportation. 5th Edn: Southwestern College Publishing, Cincinnati
[4]
[5] TRB (2001): Critical Issues in Transportation 2002. Reprinted from TRB News 217; November-December 2001: Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C
[6] TRB (2000): Highway Capacity Manual 2000. D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Washington

 

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Pepsi History

1. 2- INDUSTRY HISTORY OF PEPSI-COLA INDUSTRY. The Pepsi-Cola story itself begins with a drugstore in New Bern, North Carolina, and a pharmacist named Caleb Bradham. Bradham’s aim was to create a fountain drink that was both delicious and healthful in aiding digestion and boosting energy. It would be free of the impurities found in many bottled health tonics, and it would contain none of the stronger narcotics often added to popular fountain drinks. As most pharmacies in 1896, Bradham’s drugstore housed soda fountain where the small-town clientele would meet to socialize.

Bradham’s establishment even featured a kind of primitive jukebox, which for a nickel would entertain the listener with the latest musical selections rendered by violin or piano or both It was at such convivial gatherings that Bradham would offer his latest concoction. Over time, one of his recipes became known as Brad’s Drink. A member of the press declared, “It has sparkle and just enough acidity to make it pleasant. ” Soon its popularity would exceed the boundaries of New Bern.

The cellar of Bradham’s drugstore served as the original site of Pepsi-Cola syrup manufacturing. Electing to start his new business on a small, manageable scale, Bradham based his operation on familiar territory. Ingredients were hauled downstairs to cramped quarters where they were mixed together and then cooked in a large kettle. The syrup was subsequently poured into one-gallon jugs and five-gallon kegs to be shipped to customers. By 1902, the demand from surrounding drugstores increased so dramatically it dawned on Bradham that Pepsi-Cola was something special.

On December 24, 1902, he filed incorporation papers with the state of North Carolina; in these, he indicated his plans for corporate branches in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York. PepsiCo, Inc. is currently one of the most successful consumer products company in the world with annual revenues exceeding $30 billion and has more than 480,000 employees. PepsiCo, Inc. began as a successor to a company incorporated in 1931, known as Loft Inc. Once known as PepsiCo Cola, the company expanded its business and adopted its current name, PepsiCo, after a merger with Frito-Lay in 1965.

Currently, PepsiCo divisions operate in three major US and international businesses: beverages, snack foods, and restaurants. In each of these businesses, PepsiCo believes their success depends upon the quality and value of their products by providing a safe, whole some, economically efficient and a healthy environment for their customers; and by providing a fair return to their investors while maintaining the highest standards of integrity. PepsiCo headquarter PepsiCo world headquarters is located in purchase, New York, approximately 45 minutes from New York City.

Edward Durrell stone, one of America’s foremost architects, designed the seven-building headquarters complex. The building occupies 10 acres of a 144-acre complex that includes the Donald m. Kendall sculpture gardens, a world- acclaimed sculpture collection in a garden setting. Masters such as august Rodin, henrys Laurens, Henry Moore, Alexander Calder, Alberta Giacometti, Renaldo pomander and Claes Oldenburg focus the collection of works on major twentieth century art, and features works. The gardens originally were designed by the world famous garden planner, Russell page, and have been extended by Francois goffinet1.

The grounds are open to the public, and a visitor’s booth is in operation during the spring and summer. 1990 saw the coming of the multinational Pepsi cola company founded by Cleb Badham in 1890 at north Crolina in USA now it is ked 86th (1998) in the world with the asset of around $25000 million, having its head quarter at Atlanta. Its CEO is roger enrico and Pepsi co. India holding chairman is Mr. Rajiv Baksi. Pepsi co. India’s is at gurgaon. Presently is operating in 196 countries. In India it has 34 bottling plant of them 8 are cobo and 26 are fobo of which one in PepsiCo India Holdings Pvt. Ltd.

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Education in Nazi Germany – History Change

Education in Nazi Germany – Change and Continuity Assessment When Hitler became Chancellor of Nazi Germany, in 1935, he proposed many changes in education and throughout the country. He believed that these changes would influence people and indigenise them of his beliefs and reforms that should happen in the country – to praise his glory and make Germany the most powerful country and its rule to continue forever. One of these integral changes was education.

Hitler strongly believed that, younger minds were easier to infiltrate and indoctrinate, as they were developing and imposed this sudden change amongst schoolchildren to provoke stronger Nazism in the future generation of Germans. Older generations, could oppose and have opinions to disapprove Hitler’s ideas. So, the Nazis changed education drastically to mould these children for the future of Germany. However, some parts of education were vital for basic human needs and could not be changed.

In contrast, they were continued but they were portrayed in such a way, which would influence the way a German child thought, in that time. They introduced a lot of changes to education, from the days of teaching to the subjects that had to be taught or taken out of the curriculum; which also had a lot of Nazi indoctrination in them. All of the changes that were introduced had a major impact on children, as Dr Bernhard Rust pointed out that, “The whole function of education is to create Nazis” which highlighted that indoctrination was a key fundamentality in education to induce Nazism.

One major change was starting school at 8:00 am sharply and a higher emphasis on sport and keeping fit. This is because, Hitler wanted to create a future generations of tough and strong soldiers, that would fight for his country – so unfortunately for most boys, this would be the discipline in the army and Hitler exactly wanted then to be ‘trained for the army’. Hitler had always said that,’ boys had to be as swift as a greyhound’ which highlights the idea of leadership, strength and power amongst boys. Moreover, boys had to play football, rugby, and boxing to toughen them up.

PE was also heavily enforced upon girls, as they were the future mothers and wives of the future generation of soldiers. Also, they needed to be fertile and to be able to have the strength to give birth to healthy children. Furthermore, PE took up 15% of the education and boys who failed to pass fitness tests were to be expelled from schools and could be discriminated by the older students as a laughing stock. This attitude, inspired children to be tough and strong to serve their ‘Fatherland’ (Germany) and in a way frightened them. Also, it can be interpreted that this also invoked discrimination against the Jews.

Further evidence to support the idea of keeping fit, is a line from a German newspaper which suggests that the ultimate aim of sport was to have enough men fit for the army. This deploys the idea of that Hitler purely wanted the future generation to fight for him. We can trust the provenance of the source, as it’s from a German teacher’s newspaper and we know that, Hitler arranged teachers into the League of Teachers so this is a valid piece of evidence. Exceedingly, a picture from a children’s textbook in the 1930s from Nazi Germany denotes a sketch of children in army uniform with weapons.

This is clearly a heavily signified indoctrination, as it connects with the sports and inspires children to become like that. It can be interpreted that, Hitler and the Nazi party knew that children could be infiltrated through play and education and visual learning; so included subliminal messages in their learning to become Nazi. In addition, another change that the Nazis introduced was a change to the lessons itself and the days of education to supply enough deployment of brainwashing that would mould their character. New lessons were introduced and lessons that were thought of unnecessary were removed.

Eugenics, Race Studies, Ideology and P. E were some of the new lessons introduced. These lessons had a lot of Nazism in them, such as Eugenics and Race Studies which taught children that German (pseudo Aryan race) were superior than others, and how others were inferior – Jews, Gypsies, Black, Czech, Slavs etc. Moreover, R. E was removed and replaced by Ideology as Dr Rust and Hitler had pointed out that the main thing was to focus of patriotism and the ideas of Hitler, to be reinforced amongst students. Evidence to support this is, is a German speaking about her life story and said it was really boring to learn about Hitler’s ideals.

This source is useful, as it supplies information of experiences; however it can be said that they may have difficulties remembering and often the German people don’t want to take the blame for Hitler’s tyranny, so this is a source worth considering. Also, to reiterate, religion amongst German children was changed as in a girls’ timetable singing is a lesson that is taught a lot. In singing, Dr Rust enforced prayers and songs of praise that highlighted Hitler’s glory. Also, the amount of time on religion was reduced and attendance at school prayers was optional.

This suggests that, the sole purpose was to only strive for Hitler. These songs, such as a German man remembered, were praises to Hitler and gave a goal to the children to ultimately fight for Hitler. To point out, women were also considered inferior to men, as they couldn’t continue their further education to obtain jobs. Also, the girls’ timetable shows the attributes of a housewife – such as domestic science, hygiene, sex education, childcare – eugenics and biology were heavily taught for the purpose of selective breeding amongst all races – the perfect ‘Aryan’ match.

Similarly, Dr Rust was called unstable as he used to immediately change school-days and curriculum to pressurise propaganda and Nazi attributes on children. For example, he made Saturday as a Youth Day, where children from the Hitler Youth went for school tests, army camping, and ‘fun activities’ where the main idea was to completely brainwash children to become robot-soldiers for Hitler. Moreover, some evidence suggests that children used to turn in their own parents if they said anything against Hitler.

According to interpretations, this would more likely to be true as they were mostly propagandised by their education and became like soldiers – to fight for ‘justice. ’ Moreover, many teachers that opposed were sacked and others were in the League of Teachers. Some opposing teachers stood there in the silence; however, they couldn’t do anything. Dr Schuster, a geography teacher (1938) highlighted that he wanted to teach real geography and create non-Nazis with other similar teachers – however Nazi soldiers were in the way.

He also said that they cannot have a newspaper or a conference. This denotes the tight security of the Nazis in the school as they didn’t want anything to get in their way. In my opinion, children would be heavily indoctrinated that they might not have the willingness to oppose or might be in the fear of persecution by the Nazis. Notwithstanding, not all lessons could not be changed but the way they were delivered had a lot of impact. Such as, the clip on indoctrination of Nazi Germany shows that Maths was taught by measuring the angles of shooting and had a lot of military twist.

Similarly, chemistry and physics were taught constructing the efficiency of warfare weaponry and devising new guerrilla, military aviation science and chemicals. Also, geography and history talked more about Germany’s glorious past and it needed a lot of living space (Lebensraum) by conquering nearby countries as they were a superior race. This would be conditioned in a child’s mind and they would think it is right to invade other countries for Germany; as they’re highest of all. This is source is more useful, as it is itself a recording from an actual lesson with photographs of textbooks.

So, there was continuity in the lessons however, with a great impact of the way Hitler wanted it. Also, some lessons were taught more of – to reiterate the greatness of Nazism. In my opinion the questions to ask the pupils are- why were you against your parents and turned on them? Why didn’t you oppose and protest – you were the future generation, so your generation with the help of other voices could’ve protested. However, this was not possible, as children wanted to join the Hitler Youth as there were activities and enough influence was done, to mould them.

Moreover, anti-Semitism, hatred towards Germany’s ‘infidels’ was forever show in textbooks. Further evidence suggests that, textbooks such as maths textbooks contained the right theory, but had a twist. For example, a question would be written to discriminate Jews and mentally ill people as a burden in society. In addition, textbooks would show these ‘infidels’ as sinners i. e. a German textbook of1935 showed Jews being laughed at and bullying the Aryans. This would gradually strengthen in a child’s mind to show hatred towards them and increase their dedication on Hitler and the Aryans.

Moreover, a modern textbook on Nazi Germany explains that children having different opinions on Jews from home put a family in trouble. A quote – ‘My daddy says not all Jews are vile. His daddy was put into prison. ’ This was practiced to reinforce anti-Semitism in all and so that people notice this and are possibly in fear to support Hitler. This can be trusted, as we know that the Nazis were mentally dehumanised and so persistently cruel, that they would do this. The Jews would’ve been significantly affected, as there was a lot of adverse discrimination on them, and with the growing indoctrination of children, the hatred would increase.

Finally, change and continuity of education in Nazi Germany aimed to literally create a sense of discrimination, an acceptance of Hitler’s ideas, and to create willing soldiers to fight for Hitler. From 1933-1945 Nazi Germany changed a lot, from increasing its empire and destroying Jews, to the loss of the war. This education had a big impact on how children thought, and how they would think. In my opinion, P. E. was not an issue that gave a major impact, as children are meant to be active and they have to play. However, the most significant change was the continuity with a lot of military impact and the way it was taught differently.

Logical subjects such as maths and science, would already impact people to think logically, so the addition of Nazism would have a greater impact on the children making them think more about this. More to the point, the introduction of the new subjects would also massively impact the children, as they have not thoroughly studied the older ones so they couldn’t differentiate between fact and opinion or truth and false. The most significant evidence is of the textbooks as they were actually written and directed by Dr Rust and his quotes support the idea of Nazism so that is reliable. Also, the filming is actual evidence of what happened.

Despite of the technology, we cannot always rely on the filming. The anti-Semitism indoctrinated people the most, and influenced them a lot having hatred and dehumanisation sense against the Jews to become blindly loyal towards Hitler and to fight for him. Germany’s population at the beginning of WWII was approximately 70 million -, 12. 5 million served in the German Army. This just shows that, how many men were selected and joined the army after so much indoctrination. We can see the result of the teaching; which created Germans with new inventions such as the Blitzkrieg, new weapons etc. ??

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History 202, United States History from 1865 to the Present

The Building of a New Nation Following the Civil War, the United States was a country that had experienced great loss and had gone to great lengths to either maintain or abolish slavery. As a nation, they were given the difficult task of repairing the damaged country as a whole, but especially the south and its economy. Their job was to not only to restore the country, but to modernize it and make it stronger compared to other nations. The task presented to the United States, its president, and its government as a whole was one that probably seemed impossible, but it would only prove to be difficult, not so much impossible.

The United States faced many challenges after the end of the Civil War. Few of which include the assassination of Lincoln, rebuilding the destroyed southern economy, the federal government’s role in helping the 4 million freed African Americans, how to treat the former states of the Confederacy, and conflict over which branch of government should decide on how to reconstruct the south. Reconstruction is the process of readmitting Confederate states to the Union, rebuilding the south, and granting or protecting the citizenship rights of African Americans.

Before Lincoln was assassinated, his plan for reconstruction was to make it simple for the south. He believed the southern states did not technically secede because no state could leave the Union, and also that secession was the fault of a disloyal minority in the South. President Johnson clashed with Republicans over reconstructing the Union and liberating African American slaves. With the disfranchisement of all former Confederate leaders, office holders, and Confederates with over $20,000 in taxable property, Johnson kept Lincoln’s plan’s power to grant individual pardons to southerners.

By the summer of 1865 all seven of the remaining Confederate states met Johnson’s reconstruction requirements, but none of the constitutions extended voting rights to African Americans. By the fall of 1865 Johnson had granted 13,000 pardons to many former Confederate leaders. Many debates arose due to southern governments under presidential reconstruction limiting the rights of African Americans. Southern state legislatures passed “black codes” to limit the rights of African Americans, which prohibited blacks from testifying in court, renting land, or borrowing money to buy land.

Work contracts also forced freedmen to work cotton fields under conditions similar to slavery. Black codes combined with Johnson’s reconstruction plan widened the rift between Johnson and Republicans in Congress. What resulted from this and the fact that Republicans were unhappy with Johnson’s “soft” treatment of the south, was Congressional Reconstruction. Congressional Reconstruction was meant to be harsher on southern states and more protective of African American rights. In 1867, the south was under military rule, and each state had to write a new constitution fulfilling Congressional requirements and elect new state governments.

The Freedmen’s Bureau was created by Congress in March 1865. It was the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, and it acted as a type of early welfare agency providing food, shelter, and medical aid for blacks and whites in need after the Civil War. Originally it had the authority to resettle freedmen on confiscated Confederate land, but the resettlement power was removed when President Johnson pardoned Confederate land owners and the courts restored the lands to their original owners.

The Freedmen’s Bureau’s greatest success was in education. It established 3,000 schools for African Americans, established black colleges, and taught an estimated 200,000 African Americans to read. The Amnesty Act of 1872 removed restrictions on ex-confederates and allowed Democrats to retake control of state legislatures. By 1876 Congress had removed federal troops from all but three states: South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana, and Democrats returned to power in all southern states but those three.

Republican governments in the south made many adjustments during reconstruction such as universal male suffrage, property rights for women, internal improvements, and state supported public school systems, hospitals, and asylums for the care of the handicapped. The end of Reconstruction meant the beginning of intense discrimination against African Americans in the south. The Gilded Age was a time of dramatic transformation in the nation, and African Americans were seen as an inferior race during the Gilded Age. The only active organization for the blacks was the NAACP founded by W. E. B.

Du Bois and others in 1910. It wasn’t until the 1950s that the civil rights movement started in earnest to bring the rights of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments to the U. S. Constitution passed shortly after the Civil War during Reconstruction that said blacks were free, made citizens, and given the right to vote. Some people would say that although American society was advancing after the Civil War, many problems were not resolved beneath the surface. It’s true, the overall level of richness and power of the country was increasing for example, but so was the level of poverty.

Not to mention the struggle to find legal rights to defend the individual was often made difficult. Big companies and powerful writers and politicians were able to defend the ‘American dream’ even while others were suffering, losing their rights, or being exploited in the workplace. The political history of the Gilded Age is usually reduced to a tale of corruption and scandal, and indeed there were plenty of both to go around at all levels of public life. This was the age where income inequality was an increasingly pressing issue in the Unites States and around the world.

The United States was experiencing a widespread of economic growth, due to the expansion of railroads, factories, and mines, which lead the nation in industrialization. Most big businesses supported the Republican Party and they favored monopolies, trusts, and the spoils system. Farmers created a movement called Populism, and supported increased money supply using silver. The population of post-Civil War America boomed with a new tide of immigration. This made The U. S. the third most populous nation in the Western world after Russia and France.

While farmers struggled and barely maintained their numbers, business and industry boomed with America’s increasing demand for goods and services. The Gilded Age saw the United States shift from an agricultural to an urban, industrial society, as millions of Americans flocked to cities in the post–Civil War era. Even though there was much corruption people were supposed to believe that with enough willpower and determination, anyone could be a success, even become wealthy, if they just tried to fit in. However, this was not really possible.

It is crazy how someone could believe that they could become successful just by trying to ‘fit in,’ yet everyone was expected to ‘buy’ the story of the golden American dream anyway. Concern with gold was certainly heightened by U. S. money being minted in scarce gold coins. In addition, gilding, in the sense of gold plating, is often done to make objects beautiful that must also be strong and durable, because gold itself is a soft metal. This might reflect an American sentiment of that era that their efforts toward culture and refinement were just a veneer over a strong but coarse base.

In the 1800s America was a second-rate power. Most Americans who looked overseas were interested in expanded trade, not territorial possessions. In 1893, the depression that heightened the belief that a more aggressive foreign policy was necessary to stimulate American exports began. At the time, Cuba had been fighting for independence since 1868, and the United States intervened and went to war with Spain to gain Cuba’s liberty and freedom. This resulted in The Splendid Little War. The most highly publicized land battle of the war took place at San Juan Hill, outside Cuba.

This is where Teddy Roosevelt charged up the hill with his fleet known as the Rough Riders, only to find a black regiment had already preceded them. In the treaty with Spain ending the war, the United States acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific island of Guam. America’s interest in its new possessions had more to do with trade than gaining wealth from natural resources or large-scale American settlement. Many believed that American participation in the destruction of Spanish rule would lead to social reform and political self-government.

The American rule of more territory also brought with it American racial attitudes. America’s triumphant entry into the ranks of imperial powers sparked an intense debate over the relationship among political democracy, race, and American citizenship. The Foraker Act of 1900 declared Puerto Rico an “insular territory,” different from previous territories in the West. Americans spread racial views to new colonial possessions and embraced the idea of the white man’s burden paternalism while other nations influenced by U. S. attitudes and policies The cost of the Spanish American War was 6. billion, but the growing economy gained also, a permanent lease on naval stations in Cuba, including what is now Guantanamo Bay. America’s interest in its new possessions had more to do with trade than from gaining wealth from natural resources or large scale American settlement. The Philippine War cost the lives of well more than 100,000 Filipino’s and 4,200 Americans. The aftermath allowed for the expansion of railroads, harbors, brought in school teachers, public health officials, and sought to modernize agriculture. The Progressive Era in American history was a time of great change and reform in the United States.

It was marked by a series of political and social reforms aimed at problems that arose as a consequence of urban growth and the Industrial Revolution. Activism, new federal laws, and a series of constitutional amendments marked this era of change. There were many problems during the Progressive Era. They included poverty and unsanitary slums in American cities, poor working conditions including child labor in factories, corporate trusts that eliminated competition and raised prices with impunity, discrimination against women and ethnic minorities, and corruption in the so-called urban political machines.

During the Progressive Era, women and African-Americans were effectively barred from political participation. In addition, African-Americans in the South were subjected to mandatory segregation and “Jim Crow” laws. Susan B. Anthony led the movement for women’s suffrage, which resulted in the 1920 ratification of the nineteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, which extended voting rights to women. Labor unions grew in opposition to unfair labor practices and dangerous working conditions in American factories. Journalists began writing stories about unsanitary meat packing facilities.

In result, “The Jungle,” an expose of America’s meat-packing factories written by Upton Sinclair, intended to generate public sympathy for America’s working class; instead, the attention focused on the safety of meat. Congress later passed food-and-drug safety legislation. In addition to the various reform laws passed by Congress during the Progressive Era, this period of history saw the ratification of four constitutional amendments: the sixteenth, the seventeenth, the eighteenth, and the nineteenth. The sixteenth authorized a graduated income tax to fund government operations, and the seventeenth provided for direct election of Senators.

The eighteenth amendment banned the sale and importation of alcohol, and the nineteenth amendment extended voting rights to women. The eighteenth amendment failed because prohibition fueled the rise of organized crime and had little public support as time passed. It was repealed in 1933. The Progressive Era included other reforms as well. The U. S. government exercised greater control over the banking system through the creation of the Federal Reserve System. After multiple wars, conflicts, and controversies, the United States is well on its way to becoming and advanced and industrialized new world.

The Progressive Movement was an effort to cure many of the ills of American society that had developed during the great spurt of industrial growth in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Although not all individuals were equal, it is still not even that way today, but what mattered was that there were improvements being made. African Americans were no longer enslaved, and were free to start their own business, open their own schools and churches, and educate themselves; something that would have been unheard of just forty years ago.

The nation had also grown tremendously in the aspect of modernization and industrialization. New factories were popping up along with coal mines, and railroads were being built all across the country to transport goods and create national brands. A downfall to this was that the rich were becoming richer, and the poor were becoming poorer. The nation was also making itself stronger by acquiring more territory such as, Guam, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Not to mention gaining permanent naval stations in Cuba. As a whole, the United States grew quickly and prospered tremendously, regardless of their rocky start.

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NAACP history

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in New York, 1910 by Ida Wells-Barnett, W.E.B. DuBois, Henry Moscowitz, Mary White Ovington, Oswald Garrison Villiard and William English Walling. They felt that an organization is essential to fight for the rights of African-American. Before the NACCP was founded, Mary White Ovington had done extensive research on the lives of African-American in the New York City.

Mary Ovington had a big concern over the African-American’s unsuitable life in the country. She did four years of extensive research on the lives of unhealthy housing conditions and the lack of work opportunities for African Americans. In summer 1908, Springfield race riot shocked America where many African American were killed or injured. It was from this event that initiated the formation of NAACP.

Soon articles concerning the Springfield riots appeared in the newspapers and magazines. William English Walling wrote the Independent of September 3rd, entitled “Race War in the North. In his declaration, he mentioned that America has to start treating the ‘colored people’ equally like the white people or the race war will never end in America. He  summoned the  civil rights activists to meet and form an organization that would fight for the Black civil and political rights and  give an end to the racial discrimination in America.

A few years before 1905, a group of prominent, African American gathered to discuss the problems that African American faced in that era. The group later called as the Niagara movement. In January 1909, Walling and Ovington met in New York along with Dr. Henry Moskowitz, John Purroy Mitchell to found the NAACP.

The Niagara movement conference held on May 30 1909 in New York attended by  40 individuals from National Negro Committee including  a Harvard scholar W.E.B. DuBois, American journalist and anti-lynching crusader Ida Wells-Barnett. The name National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was chosen later at the second congress in May 1910.

The mission of this organization was to promote the equality of rights; and to eradicate caste and race prejudice among the citizens of the United States; to advance the interest of colored citizens; to secure for them impartial suffrage; and to increase their opportunities for securing justice in the courts, education for the children, employment according to their ability and complete equality before law; mentioned in its charter. This NAACP in the progressive era and soon it became the dominant and effective organization for Black people in US.

The progressive era (1890-1920) was meant to reform the social economy and political aspects in America. However there were some drawbacks in the racism issues, even among the progressive scientists; such as Lester Ward, Charles H. Cooley, and E.A. Ross, who believed that the dark races inherent inferior IQ or intelligence. Many Black leaders joined the white socialist movement, including Du Bois, Cyril Briggs, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph as many middle class felt ignored in their existence in the larger America.

There were a number of White liberals in the NAACP, however the organization became a Black parallel system to the liberal White system of power distribution.  Thus it can be concluded that NACCP brought the African into the main stream movements helping in projecting the issues that African American were facing in the White majority through protests paving the way for future civil right movement in the 1960s.
Reference

Gilbert Jonas, Freedom’s Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America. Routledge, 2005.

NAACP Org, “History.” 6 May 2007 ;http://www.naacp.org/about/history/index.htm;.

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American History Study Guide Ch. 15-18

Chapter 15 Elizabeth Cady Stanton: One of the most prominent leaders of the 19th century and leading figure of the early woman’s body; social activist/abolitionist Opposed the 14th and 15th amendment because it did nothing to enfranchise women Leader of the National Suffrage Association Crop-lien/Sharecropping:

Growing of cotton and pledge a part of the crop as collateral Sharecropping: initially arose as a compromise between blacks’ desire for land and planters’ demand for labor discipline System allowed each black family to rent a part of a plantation with the crop divided between worker and owner at the end of the year Guaranteed the planters a stable resident labor force Black Codes:

Laws passed by the new southern governments that attempted to regulate the lives of the former slaves Granted blacks certain rights: legalized marriage, ownership of property, and limited access to courts Denied them rights to testify against whites, serve on juries or in state militias, or to vote Declared that those who failed to sign yearly labor contracts could be arrested and hired out to white landowners Thaddeus Stevens:

Radical who represented Pennsylvania in the House of Representatives Wanted to confiscate the land of disloyal planters and divide it among former slaves and northern migrants to the South; plan proved to be too radical Hiram Revels: Mississippi representative for the U. S. Senate during Reconstruction Served as chaplain in the wartime Union army and became the first black senator in American history Enforcement Acts of 1870-1871: Outlawed terrorist societies and allowed the president to use the army against them Continued the expansion of national authority during

Reconstruction. Defined crimes that aimed to deprive citizens of the civil and political rights as federal offenses rather than violations of state law Klan eventually went out of existence U. S. v Cruikshank overthrew the Enforcement Acts U. S. v Cruikshank: Ruled that the due process and equal protection clauses applied only to state action and not to actions of individuals Case that gutted the Enforcement Acts by throwing out convictions of some of those responsible for the Colfax Massacre of 1873 Election of 1876/Bargain of 1877:

Republican nominee: Rutherford B. Hayes Democratic nominee: Samuel J. Tilden Election so close that whoever captured SC, FL, or LA would win Bargain: Congress appointed a 15-member electoral commission Members decided Hayes carried the disputed southern states, and therefore, won Reconstruction Act of 1867: Temporarily divided the South into 5 military districts and called for the creation of new state governments, with black men given the right to vote Passed by Congress over Johnson’s veto Chapter 16 Railroad Strike of 1877: ka Great Railroad Strike: first national labor walkout When workers protested a pay cut that paralyzed rail traffic, militia units tried to force them back to work The strike revealed a strong sense of solidarity among workers and close ties b/w the Republican party and the new class of industrialists Aftermath: government constructed armories to ensure troops would be in hand in the event of labor difficulties Henry George, Progress and Poverty: Influential writer on social issues during the Gilded Age

He identified the monopolization of land as the cause of social inequality Progress and Poverty: offered a critique of the expansion of poverty amid material abundance Book proposing more optimistic remedies for the unequal distribution of health His solution: “single tax”which would replace other taxes with a levy on increases in the value of real estate; it would be so high that it would prevent speculation in both urban and rural land George rejected the traditional equation of liberty with ownership of land; saw government as a “repressive power” Sherman Ant-Trust Act:

Banned combinations and practices that restrained free trade; impossible to enforce Helped to establish the precedent that the national government could regulate the economy to promoted the public good Lochner v New York/Liberty of Contract Ideal: Supreme court voided a state law establishing ten hours per day or sixty per week as the maximum hours for bakers Battle at Wounded Knee: Soldiers opened fire on Ghost Dancers encamped near Wounded Knee Creek, killing b/w 150 and 200 Indians Marked the end of four centuries of armed conflict b/w the continent’s native population and European settlers and their descendants

Andrew Carnegie: Established a “vertically integrated” steel company – one that controlled every phase of the business from raw materials to transportation, manufacturing, and distribution. Dominated steel industry Knights of Labor: First group to try to organize unskilled workers as skilled, women alongside men, and blacks as well as whites Wanted to end the use of public and private police forces and court injunctions against strikes and labor organizations Thomas A. Edison:

Era’s greatest inventor; Invented the phonograph, light bulb, motion picture, and a system for generating and distributing electric power Opened first electric generating station U. S. Steel Company: Founded in 1901; maintained labor policies held by Andrew Carnegie – lower wages and opposition to unionization Chapter 17 Omaha Platform, 1892: Party program adopted at the formative convention of the Populist Party Represents the merger of the agrarian concerns of the Farmers’ Alliance with the free-currency monetarism of the Greenback Party while explicitly endorsing the goals of the largely urban Knights of Labor.

Tom Watson: Georgia’s leading Populist who worked the hardest to forge a black-white alliance Made vicious speeches whipping up prejudice against blacks, Jews, and Catholics Kansas Exodus: Some blacks sought a way out through emigration from the South 40, 000 to 60, 000 African Americans migrated to Kansas seeking political equality, freedom from violence, access to education, and economic opportunity Exodus derived from biblical account of Jews escaping slavery in Egypt Ida B. Wells:

Nation’s leading antilynching crusader; insisted that given the conditions of southern blacks, the US had no right to call itself the “land of the free” “New Immigrants”: 3. 5 million newcomers seeking jobs in the industrial centers of the North and Midwest Described by native-born Americans as members of distinct “races”, whose lower level of civilization explained everything from their willingness to work for substandard wages to their supposed inborn tendency toward criminal behavior “Business Unionism”: ?????? Women’s Christian Temperance Union:

Largest female organization; comprehensive program of economic and political reform including the right to vote “must abandon the idea that weakness and dependence were their nature and join assertively in movements to change society” Frances Willard: President Election of 1896: Republicans met the silverite challenge insisting that gold was the only “honest” currency Republican nominee: William McKinley Sometimes called the first modern presidential campaign because of the amount of money spent Democrats and Populists supported: William Jennings Bryan McKinley was the winner Platt Amendment:

Drafted by Senator Platt of Connecticut Authorized the US to intervene militarily whenever it saw fit; US also acquired a permanent lease on naval stations in Cuba Had to be approved before Cuba could recognize their independence Chapter 18 Muckraking: The use of journalistic skills to expose the underside of American life; Theodore Roosevelt came up with the term New Immigration: Began around 1890 and reached its peak during the Progressive Era People came from southern and eastern Europe; 13 million came to the US, the majority from Italy, Russia, and the Austro-Hungarian empire

Fordism: Concentration on standardizing output and lowering prices Moving assembly line: car frames brought to workers on a continuously moving conveyor belt Fordism: economic system based on mass production and mass consumption Lawrence, Mass. , strike of 1912: When the state legislature enacted a 54 hour workweek, employers reduced the weekly take home pay of those who had been laboring longer hours Workers spontaneously went on strike and called IWW for assistance Children strikers left the city, and city officials ordered that no more children could leave Lawrence

Samuel “Golden Rule”Jones: Gilded Age mayors who pioneered urban Progressivism Instituted 8 hour day and paid vacations at his factory that produced oil drilling equipment Founded night schools and free kindergartens, built new parks, and supported right of workers to unionize Jane Addams: Era’s most prominent female reformer Believed woman’s life should be governed by the “family claim” – the obligation to devote herself to parents, husband, and children Founder of the Hull House in 1889 – settlement house devoted to improving the lives of the immigrant poor

John Muir: Organized the Sierra Club to help preserve forests from uncontrolled logging by timber companies and other intrusions of civilization Federal Trade Commission: Second expansion of national power in 1914 Established to investigate and prohibit “unfair”business activities such as price-fixing and monopolistic practices Welcomed by many business leaders as a means of restoring order to the economic marketplace and warding off more radical measure for curbing corporate power

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History of Baseball Informative Speech

Did you know Babe Ruth wore a cabbage leaf under his hat to keep him cool? Did you know the odds of a fan getting hit by a baseball are 300,000 to 1? And did u know the shortest baseball player that ever played was recorded to be 3 feet and 7 inches? These are interesting facts I stumbled upon research, but I bet most of you did not know. There are many interesting facts that people like you and I don’t know about baseball throughout its history. Have you ever asked yourself where did baseball come from, who created it, or even ask what baseball went through in the past to receive its highly respected title?

We watch baseball games for the sake of enjoyment like every other sport but most people, like myself, don’t know how it all began. For the past week I researched various websites about the history of baseball and found interesting facts about how baseball was created, what baseball itself has gone through up until today’s date to earn the title of “The American past time”, and how special its Hall of Fame really is. Babe Ruth once said that baseball was is, and always will be the greatest sport ever played.

Baseball athletes and the baseball community as a whole continues to grow year after year as young athletes and sports fans gain respect for the hardship and practically year round battles players endure for the love of the game. From the little league series held annually in Williams Port Pennsylvania all the way to the major league, where every player has the same dream to hoist the world series Commissioners Trophy in front of their home crowd as they cruise the streets of their home city during the traditional World Series Championship parade. Baseball is based off of the English games of rounder’s.

Alexander Cartwright founded it here in the United States. He would host games at Elysian Fields in New Jersey. The first major league wasn’t created until 1871 and it was called the National association. Baseball began as what is known as the “Dead ball” era. It was a time period of larger fields, less home runs, and speed was a vital importance. The ball that was used to pitch with was typically used to the point where it began to unravel clever tricks. With that ball pitchers were allowed to scuff, cut, and spit on it, affectively being able to make the ball “dance” and harder to hit.

People put the end of the “dead ball” era on the 1919 season when Babe Ruth hit an unheard of 29 homeruns. People began to pack the stands to see the long ball, so owners decreased the dimensions of the fields thus increasing the odds of someone hitting a homerun. They also added rules to the pitchers against scuffing and cutting, and the balls were switched out more frequently too. The MLB didn’t start until 1876 with the National league and then they brought in the American league in 1901. The first World Series was held in 1903 with the Boston Americans beating the Pittsburg pirates 5-3.

Baseball hasn’t always been glorified as it was though. It experienced rough times in the 1940’s when African Americans weren’t allowed to play in the major league but thanks to Jackie Robinson and Larry Doby, they eliminated the racial discrimination in baseball and outside the baseball world. Baseball has also experienced rough times during the WWII and Vietnam era. During the time of war, players would go and serve in the military and baseball would have to replace them with less talented players. But Upon return, baseball returned to its once prestige self.

The major league today consists of 30 teams. 29 spread across the U. S. and 1, the Toronto Blue Jays in Canada. We are now in what is called “the power age” because homeruns are much higher than what its worth and pitching is not as great. Every baseball player dreams to have their name put in the national baseball Hall of Fame. The Hall of fame is located in Cooperstown New York. Several feet’s are intoed there. 27 players hit 3000 hits in their careers. The most recent was Houston Astros Craig Biggio and only 3 players Hank Aaron, Babe Ruth, and Barry Bonds have more than 700 homeruns.

But it’s not all about the hitters. There are great pitching sets Too. Only 2 pitchers have more than 400 wins and also there are only 4 with more than 4000 strikeouts. One of which Nolan Ryan, has 5000. So as you can see Baseball is a growing sport from the dead ball era all the way until the World Series today. Baseball has a long history. Understanding where baseball came from, what it went through, who created it, and mainly knowing its history and its impact it made is important to know in order to understand baseball.

Work cited Wikipedia contributors. “History of baseball in the United States. ” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 8 Oct. 2012. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. “Weird Facts, Interesting Facts, Fun Fact, Trivia, Photos and Videos. ” Weird Facts. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://weirdfacts. com/weird-fact/3240-baseball-facts. html>. “History. ” Baseball Hall of Fame |. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://baseballhall. org/museum/experience/history>.

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History Paper 1877 – 1900

Over the years of 1877 to the 1900’s many changes were occurring. The Southern cities were changing faster than anyone could’ve imagined with new transportation, growing industries, and the end of slavery. Not to mention, the changing role of women. In the New South by the year 1880, steel and iron mills were progressing across the North. Railroad construction was fast paced in the 1880s. Comparing 1880 to 1890 the tracks had doubled with Texas and Georgia having the biggest growth. In 1886, an agreement was made to have a standardized width on the railroad tracks.

This would help create a national transportation system. By creating this, the increasing demand of buying and selling goods would be fulfilled at a faster pace. Also, with this new transportation came new land for families to move into for work. The textile industry was growing significantly also because more people were traveling to the South. With immigrants and Southerners needing a steady form of income entrepreneurs took on the textile business not only to build good relationships with the people of the South but also to be less dependent on capital and manufactured products from the North.

Tobacco was also a growing business with Virginia leading in the sales of chewing tobacco across the nation. When the discovery of bright-leaf tobacco was made, tobacco habits were changed into the form of cigarettes by James B. Duke. He had the first cigarette-making machine installed in his plant and by the year 1900, Duke’s tobacco company was controlling eighty percent of tobacco manufacturing in the United States. With these booming industries came low wages. The South experienced a downfall with the rise they were experiencing.

Since the workers of the South were poorly paid they could not afford to buy much so the market in the South for manufactured goods was kept low as was the consumer demand. Low wages only brought in immigrants that were low-skilled so skilled laborers were more likely to go north and work complicated machinery to produce high-quality goods. The South had close to no capital reserves to expand leaving Northern financers to purchase the five major rail lines serving the South at a bargain after failing during a depression in the 1870s.

Since the South was such a risk to invest in the textile industry stayed small-scale. On the other hand, the South’s largest industry, the lumber industry grew. Since it required little capital and provided unskilled laborers with a job, these raw materials were quickly produced. The tobacco industry unlike the textile industry avoided some turmoil. James B. Duke’s tobacco company was profitable enough to become its own bank. With enough capital to have the latest technologies on his plants, he was fortunate enough to buy out his competitors.

In the late nineteenth century women began fighting to improve the status of women, sometimes by joining with men. Because women in the South were left with providing for their families when the South lost the war, some never wanting to depend on men again and others who dealt with Southern men who were shaken by defeat, they were not as motivated to campaign reform and threaten gender role changes. Despite such battles, southern women found opportunities in schools, and stores for example that expanded their social role twenty years after 1880.

Women of the South, both black and white of the middle class, played important roles in civic work and reform. These middle class women began performing in activities ranging from lobbying for various causes, taking leadership on plenty of important issues and organizing clubs. Some of the first women’s clubs starting in the 1880s were self-improvement societies that did not care for reform. Women’s clubs grew and by 1890, most towns and cities had several women’s clubs. Some of the club’s and its members even began taking part in political issues.

While both black and white women had their clubs, the activities of black women’s clubs were slightly different in comparison to the white women’s clubs. Black women’s clubs looked out for the women and children in their cities, supporting daycare facilities for working mothers and settlement houses in poor black neighborhoods. They also established homes for single black women so that they would not be an easy victim to sexual exploitation. Atlanta’s Neighborhood Union founded playgrounds, a health center and also received a grant to improve black education.

These women also worked for woman suffrage. While both groups of women had strong beliefs and motives to speak their minds they rarely communicated with each other. Some white women would even use racial solidarity as a weapon to promote white women’s right to vote. They did this to prove the point that with white men and women’s votes combined they could further white interests. The black generation that came of age in this environment where blacks and whites could maintain cordial relations expected many privileges in society like the right to vote, work and attend school.

Among these, they also wanted self-respect, dignity and to be considered equal to the white men and women. White southerners who came of age in this same environment saw blacks as the enemy. They wanted to preserve white purity and dominance. Because the tensions between blacks and whites continued to grow, not only on the view of equality but in jobs as well, violence against black people boomed in the 1890s. Some of these violent crimes included lynching. After two of the unspoken rules had been violated the lynchings started.

White men began to see themselves as protectors of the weak, but it more importantly reinforced white solidarity and reminded the blacks that white supremacy ruled the South. When the Fifteenth Amendment guaranteed freedmen the right to vote, poll taxes, literacy test, understanding clause and grandfather clause were all some of the disfranchising legislation that began to prevent blacks from voting. Blacks began moving to cities in the South where they could be somewhat free from white surveillance after feeling like American democracy had hung a “whites only” sign.

Blacks began to create their own rich communities and the businesses and institutions they built during Reconstruction began to grow and some even flourish. By the year 1900, black southerners had less political power than they had before and were far more isolated from white southerners. Despite every obstacle, they were successful in building a comfortable community life and a rising middle class, all while being in a restricted environment.

The changes brought over the time frame of 1877 to the 1900’s were the framework for some of the opportunities we have today. The South had plenty going on over the years, from building and trying to keep industries, to men and women moving into the Southern cities with new opportunity that their ancestors did not have and Blacks fighting for their rights when white solidarity was having such a heavy effect on their lifestyles. The South was fast growing but holding itself back with segregation, and black disfranchisement.

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Music History: Renaissance Era

The Renaissance was the great age of vocal polyphony, music consisting of a number of equally important voice parts all woven together to create a complex tapestry of overlapping melodies and beautiful harmonies. In religious music, the primary compositional forms were the Mass and the motet, while in secular music they were the French chanson, or song (for three or four voices), and the Italian madrigal. Instrumental music was not, for the most part, as formalized during the Renaissance as it would later become.

Instruments were used in varying combinations to accompany singers (in both religious and secular music), to provide music for private entertainment and dancing, and to provide festive or ceremonial music for towns and royal courts. Principal instruments of the period included the lute, organ, and harpsichord, viols, recorders shawms (double-reed precursors of the oboe), cruhorns (also double-reed instruments), trombones and trumpets (Gangwere).

Among the most important composers of the Renaissance were Guillaume Dufay, of the so-called Burgundian school, centered at the court of the dukes of Burgundy in Dijon France and Johannes Ockeghem, Jacob Obrecht, Josquin des Prez, and later, Orlando di Lasoo of the Flemish school (Pen).

The Mass

The unvarying structure of the mass, the constancy of the text, and the solemnity of function were not conducive to musical experimentation in mass composition. Flemish masses still used the cantus firmus techniques of the earlier Burgundian masters. In the hands of exceptional composers such as Giovanni da Palestrina the mass was a highly devotional and serene expression of the liturgy, perfectly suited to the austerity demanded by the Counter Reformation. Palestrina’s flexible arched melodic lines, his studied use of consonance and dissonance, and his beautifully constructed harmonic sonorities became the model for generations of counterpoint teachers (Hoffman).

The Motet

The early motet (from the French word meaning “word”) frequently contained different texts in various languages for each voice parts. Complexities of word setting and tone painting were simply not an important aspect of the music for early motet composers. As the humanism began to exert its influence, composers grew more attentive to text setting. The single text was the motivating force for the motet. Each section of music was presented as a separate musical episode that attempted to highlight the clarity of the text as well as to convey the emotional impact of the words.

This style of sensitive text representation came to be known as music reservata. Composers developed specific techniques for the musica reservata style. Second, the natural speech rhythm was matched by melodic rhythm so that the words were correctly accented. Third, syllabic treatment of text and expressive figures were used to portray the message of the text (Hoffman).

The Chanson

Chansons were three-voice secular works in which the music closely mirrored the meaning of the French poetic text. The text, usually an expression of love, was in rondeau form with a two-line refrain (A B a A a b A B). Although they may have been performed entirely by voices, the usual presentation probably featured a solo voice on the top (superius) line with the bottom two polyphonic lines played by instruments (Hoffman).

Other musics such as chorale, anthem, psalm settings, frottola and madrigal are legacies of Renaissance period. It was only during the Renaissance that musicians begun to recognize the idiomatic potential of instruments and consequently began composing in particular genres intended for instrumental rather than choral performance (Pen).

Works Cited

Gangwere, Blanche. Music History During the Renaissance Period, 1520-1550: A Documented Chronology. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004.

Hoffman, Miles. The Npr Classical Music Companion: An Essential Guide for Enlightened Listening. Houghton Mifflin Books, 2005.

Pen, Ronald. Introduction to Music. McGraw-Hill Professional, 1992.

 

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Art History: Mask of Agamemnon

ANCIENT ART 200 Was the Mask Of Agamemnon Edited by Schliemann and his Workers? 5/14/2011 Sandra. Baah | Schliemann was a German archeologist who excavated the shaft graves of Mycenae. He found a mask which has been claimed to be the mask of Agamemnon. This has brought up endless debates about the authenticity of the mask. The mask is said to be one of Schliemann’s forgeries. Some scholars claim the mask is too new or does not have any qualities that prove that it is Mycenaean. It is difficult to know whether the mask is authentic or fake. William A. Calder and David A.

Traill are two archeologists who challenge the authenticity of the mask. They have come up with arguments that try to prove the mask is a forgery. Some scholars claim that their arguments are not valid and lack scholarly reasoning to support their arguments. Some scholars believe that the mask is a mixture of different styles from different places and times. No one can really tell if the mask is authentic or fake. I believe that the mask was edited by Schliemann and his men. The mask of Agamemnon is not authentic due to its lack of Mycenaean qualities that would prove its authenticity.

The mask of Agamemnon is not authentic; therefore it was edited by Schliemann and his workers. The mask of Agamemnon was found in Shaft Grave V by Schliemann on the Treasury of Atreus it is one of the most famous artworks that have been found. The mask of Agamemnon is a gold funeral mask. It was made using the repousse? method. This technique makes it look like it was hammered. The hair on the mask looks like it was engraved. The mask is crooked. The ears are not in proportion, the moustache looks like it was put on wrong and everything on this mask looks wrong.

The beard on the mask is V shaped. Most funerary masks are flat, but this one is not.. The mask is three dimensional and it looks like the ears were cut out rather than made together with the rest of the mask. The hair on the mask is very detailed; one can almost see every strand of his beard. The eyes on the mask appear to be open. The eyelids are made in a way that makes the eyes seem to be both open and closed at the same time. Compared to the mask of Agamemnon, other objects found in the graves look Mycenaean and authentic.

One example is image three, which is the inlaid dagger, was found in grave A Mycenae, Greece, 1600-1500 BCE. The dagger is about nine inches long. It is made of different metals such as gold, silver, and niello; niello is a chemical that is rubbed into the needle- like cut to make the texture of the dagger. The daggers were difficult to make, and are very detailed. One depicts a scene of a lion hunt; the lions look heraldic and symbolic, this explains why they were found in graves because only important officials were buried with expensive ornaments.

The lions on the dagger are in the flying gallop pose, which is a convention started by the Minoans then adapted by the Mycenaean’s. The figures on the dagger are wearing shorts but not helmets and carrying a shield. I believe the figures represent the people buried in the graves, because they look heroic and important people were buried in the graves. It is possible that Schliemann made a similar assumption in finding the mask of Agamemnon since he was a Trojan soldier. The two artworks described beforehand are different even though they are claimed to be from the same civilization.

Figure three shows more Mycenaean qualities than the mask of Agamemnon. Most of the Mycenaean metal works were not made of pure gold. Like the inlaid dagger, most of them were mixed with metals like silver. They are both inlaid but the dagger has signs of the Mycenaean convention of depicting animal scenes. It is believed that the funerary mask Schliemann found is a forgery. The funerary mask does not look like some of the other Mycenaean gold funerary mask. A local reporter of the Argolis News reported the “mask had no mustache”.

Compared to figure two found in shaft grave A, the facial features on mask of Agamemnon does not match all the others. It is believed the facial hair does not look Mycenaean. According to Harrington Spencer the mouth on figure 2 is short and thick with ill defined lips and no discernible chin, but the mask of Agamemnon has a wider mouth, thin lips and a well define chin. The eyes on the mask of Agamemnon are different from the other masks found in the shaft graves of Mycenae. The eyebrows on figure two are not shown in detail, but the eyebrows on the mask of Agamemnon the look as if they have been engraved on the mask.

The eyelids on the mask of Agamemnon seem to be open, while those on figure two are closed. Schliemann edited the mask because it does not have any similarities with other metal work found in Mycenae. The mask looks too perfect compared to the other masks found in the grave; it looks like it was made at a later date. It is not severely faded like the other artworks found in the shaft graves of Mycenae. The Mycenaean’ did not make their metalwork purely out of gold. Most of their artwork was made with different metals, such as silver and bronze.

I believe the mask was edited because the mask of Schliemann found was believed to be made of pure gold and according to Calder “no ancient object was ever made of pure gold”. Some scholars like David Traill, have questioned the authenticity of the mask of Agamemnon and requested for the object to be tested. Traill has asked for it to be tested to see if the mask is really made of gold but his request has been denied. If the mask is said to be authentic, then why has it not been tested? The answer is not known.

If the mask is believed to be an authentic piece, then it should be tested. Testing the mask to know if it is pure gold does not ruin the mask instead testing it will enable scholars to find out the truth about the mask’s authenticity. Some Scholars believe Schliemann planted the mask. The dates at which the mask was found bring about questions as to whether the mask is a forgery or not. According to Calder “the Mycenae excavations took place between August seventh and December third 1876, the mask was discovered November 30. Only three days before the site was closed”.

It seems like the mask was planted in the grave to be found. Why would Schliemann close the site right after he found the mask of Agamemnon? It might be that he planted the mask in the grave so he would become famous for finding the mask of Agamemnon. It could have been that Schliemann was looking for a plan to advance his career and in order to do that he planted the mask and got his fame from supposedly finding it. It is claimed the excavations were closed on November 26th and 27th . His absence could have made it possible for him to plant the mask.

Some archeologists do not believe that Schliemann planted the mask, instead they claim that “it is difficult to see how the insertion of the mask could have been achieved when Schliemann was working under the constant supervision of Panagiotis Stamatakis the director of Antiquities, who was assisted from November 28 by other archeologists sent from Athens, and by a guard of Greek soldiers on the site”. Under this strict supervision it is highly doubtful that Schliemann planted the mask in the grave so he could find it.

Due to the reasons stated beforehand, I believe the mask of Agamemnon was edited because it does not relate to other Mycenaean art. It is different compared to the other artworks found in grave A and B. The mask of Agamemnon does not follow the convention of Mycenaean art. Traill states that “the mask of Agamemnon does not show any trace of Mycenaean norm or convention”. According to Calder “the mask of Agamemnon is stylish and innovative. It is far away from the Mycenaean convention and looks fairly new.

I believe the mask of Agamemnon was altered by Schliemann. There is not much prove that shows that it was edited, but the mask does not look authentic. William Calder and David Traill try to prove that the mask is a forgery, but they do not have substantial evidence to support their argument. It looks like it was made in a hurry, and ancient artworks were not made purely of gold. I also believe the mask was edited because Schliemann was not an honest man, he admitted that he bought some of the objects he claimed to have found.

The mask of Agamemnon should be removed from textbooks because archeologists do not have enough information on it, it is based on observations and on an individual’s perception of it. It should not be added to art history books before it is tested. I believe for something to be studied, one should have background knowledge of the object. Figure 1 Mask of Agamemnon 1550-1500 BCE Figure 2 Funerary Mask from Shaft Grave IV 1550-1500 BCE Found in Grave Circle A by Schliemann and his workers. Figure 3 Inlaid Dagger Blade, 1550-1500 BCE

Dagger from grave circle A at Mycenae. Found in the national archeological museum, Athens. BIBLIOGRAPHY Christopulous, George A, and John C Bastias. Prejistory and Protohistory. University park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania state univveristy press, 1974. Dickinson, Oliver. “The ‘Face of Agamemnon. ‘” Hesperia: The Journal of the      American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 3rd ser. , 74 (July-August      2005): 299-308. Accessed May 2, 2011. http:///www. jstor. org/stable/      25067959.

Elliot, Alexander. The Horizon Concise of Greece. New York: American Heritage,      1972. Harrington, Spencer P. M. “Behind the Mask of Agamemnon. ” Archeology 52, no. 4      (July-August 1999). Accessed May 2, 2011. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/      delivery? sid=1d53bfed-ae35-45c6-8097-2d4bcffa3301%40sessionmgr10;vid=7;hid=18. Hilson, Muriel. “Studies in Art Education. ” Neolithic Art and the Art History      Clas 32, no. 4 (1991): 230-238. Accessed April 27, 2011. http://www. jstor. org/stable.

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Study Guide History 17b

History 17B-13 Second Midterm Study Guide This exam (November 1) will be closed book and closed note. Please bring a small bluebook or greenbook, a Scantron form #882E, #2 pencils, and pens. You will need to use pencils for the Scantron form and pens for the blue/greenbook. If you must write in pencil in the blue/greenbook, make sure it is dark and sharp enough to be read clearly. I will not allow any electronic devises to be visible during the exam.

If I see one out in the classroom, you will flunk the exam. I strongly prefer that no one leave the room while they are still taking the exam. If you must, you will need to ask permission. Once you have completed the exam, turn it in and you may leave. Part I (50 points) In this section of the exam you will be given twenty-five true/false and multiple-choice questions based on the lectures only. These will only cover lectures SINCE the first midterm. Each answer is worth two points. Part II (50 points)

In this section of the exam you will be given two of the following questions on the day of the exam and asked to write on only one of them. Your essay should be well developed, with an introduction that contains a precise thesis statement, an essay body that proves that thesis, and a conclusion that summarizes your argument and points out its historical significance. I expect the essays to be based on the lecture material. 1. The home front period of World War I and the year following the war (1917-1919) was marked by wide-scale patriotism, mass unity, and relative peace and calm.

Write an essay that explores if and why the historical evidence supports or refutes that statement. 2. Many Americans in the mid-1920s could not have imagined in the near future an end to the economic prosperity, Republican dominance of national politics, and cultural conflict. Describe why they would have thought that why (that is, what were the 1920s like for each of these issues), how these issues were already changing prior to the Great Depression, and how and why the Great Depression fundamentally changed them. . After briefly describing how and why the Great Depression affected the United States, discuss how both Presidents Hoover and Roosevelt dealt with the Depression. Which approach proved more popular and effective and why. 4. Write an essay that addresses what the New Deal sought to accomplish. You will want to discuss what it broadly sought to do, and particularly how it addressed issues such as housing, workers, the elderly, and electrification. What is its legacy? . Why did the United States become involved in World War II? You will want to discuss both the issues drawing the United States into the European conflict and how it became involved with Japan in the Pacific. How did both the European and Pacific wars come to an end? Reading Quiz Attached to the exam will be a reading quiz, covering Beals through page 154. There will be twelve, multiple-choice and true/false questions. Answer them on the back of the Scantron form.