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Canadian Immigration: Why does Quebec ignore the central Canadian Immigration Policies?

Introduction

As my current job is providing UK immigration and welfare advices to international students, looking at the current UK immigration climate, UK Border Agency is becoming stricter when selecting the migrants. I wanted to find out what immigration situation is like in Canada and when I was doing the research, I found that Quebec in particular has a different immigration system when choosing its migrants. Specifically, I have found that the reasons behind this are that there are historical perspectives, different legislation, culture and language utilised in Quebec and in the rest of Canada. This written project will explain the rationale of this using a variety of literatures and combined with some personal experiences from Quebec with the aim of finding a close answer to ‘why Quebec has its own immigration system when choosing the migrants rather than using the central Canadian immigration policies’

1. Findings

There are many reasons determining Quebec to have its own immigration systems and also owns many French characteristics and in the following paragraphs, I will demonstrate how history, culture and language play an important part of influencing Quebec to have its own immigration systems.

1.1 Immigration legislations

According to Young (1998), since 1971, Quebec and Canada had an agreement towards the immigration and Quebec has its own immigration system in selecting the migrants. However Canada has the responsibility for establishing the levels of immigration by taking Quebec’s advice and it also has the control of the admission of the immigration to central Canada and Quebec areas. The Canada-Quebec Accord is known as the most comprehensive of the provincial agreement. This agreement also allows Quebec to have exclusive responsibility of selecting migrants and refugees who are wishing to move to Quebec. After migrants being selected, Citizenship and Immigration Canada issues the actual visa to them.

Young (1998) also pointed out that Quebec should be getting the same portion of immigrations as of the Canadian numbers. Yolande (2010) presents in a news programme called ‘Immigrant Policy in Quebec: Successes and Lessons Learned’, she stated that Canada has a very good reputation of its immigration systems however Canada also encountered a lot of difficulties such as making sure the migrants have the language skills they need to survive in the community. And Quebec is being able to design its own immigration policies and select its own migrants due to different historic reasons which will be discussed in the following paragraph.

1.2 History

In 1763, Quebec was created by the residents of New France and it leads to the French Canadian who lives in Quebec’s rights of the language and religious. Kosel (2009) states that at that time there are around 70,000 Frenchmen lived in Quebec, mainly in Montreal and Quebec City.

In Canada, it is always a difficult task to increase the number of French-speaking migrants to Canada. Quebec is a French-speaking province, therefore in Quebec, most of the people speak French and the culture and life style in Quebec is tends to be more like that of a francophone community. Quebec set up its own Department of Cultural Communities and Immigration in 1968 with the purpose of bringing more French-speaking migrants and the migrants who have understand more about French to make sure they can easily settle down in Quebec and get used to the local French-speaking community. (http://answers.yahoo.com) Therefore, with the great need of French-speaking migrants to Quebec, it decided to separate from the general Canadian immigration system and to choose its own migrants so that they can set the language requirements.

Moreover, Wikipedia states that Quebec has a mixture of a lot of different cultures such as Canada, America, France and United Kingdom, therefore Quebec always considered as a meeting points for different cultures and it provides a platform for people to experience a taste of European and American cultures. (http://en.wikipedia.org)

1.3 Culture

Wikipedia describes how Quebec’s culture has formed over a few hundred years. Quebec is the only area in North America where the most of the population speaks French. (http://en.wikipedia.org)

In view of my personal perspectives, when I travelled to Quebec in September 2009 and October 2010, I visited Montreal which is located in southwest of Quebec and has the nickname of ‘Paris in North America’. In the following sections, I am going to discuss the impact of the culture to Quebec’s immigration from my personal insights based on when I visited Quebec in the last two years.

I went to Saint Joseph’s Oratory of Mount Royal. Please take a look at the following picture taken in October 2010 at Saint Joseph’s Oratory, you can tell that there are a lot of French elements in the design of the church.

Picture One: Saint Joseph’s Oratory of Mount Royal (outside and inside)

In addition, I went to Basilique Notre-Dame Cathedral located in Montreal’s old city centre, and it is known as the largest church in North America. It was built in 1829 and it is a neo-Gothic Catholic Church which can accommodate 5000 people. If we look at picture two as follows: the fascinating blue ceiling and the new representative of Gothic architecture – stained glass, we can tell that decorative details are full of art and according to Bony (1983), Gothic architecture originated from France. Therefore, we can tell that there are few French elements in the Quebec architecture.

Picture Two: Basilique Notre-Dame Cathedral

Behind the church, the chapel as below (Sacre-Coeur Chapel) is magnificent, the locals nicknamed it the wedding hall, the famous Canadian singer Celine Dion’s wedding was held here.

Picture Three: Sacre-Coeur Chapel

I also went to the Quebec City centre and experienced the true feeling of being in France.

There is a famous Hotel called Chateau Frontenac located in Quebec and it was built in 1893 and it is near the St. Lawrence River shore.

Picture Four: Chateau Frontenac

There are a lot of tourists all year around here. Most of the shops here are all named in French and I had a chat with a shop owner and being told that all the commercial signs must be in French only. However, when looking into the literature, I found out that this is not true, as long as the French is marked bigger, it can be in both French and English. (http://www.travelexpertguide.org)

Picture Five: ‘Little French Street’ in Quebec

I noticed that a lot of architecture and the living style there are quite similar to France. In fact, there is a street located in Montreal is called little French street as above picture five and it owns similar culture to France. At night, we also had our French dinner in Quebec and they served all sorts of different French cuisines and also French red wines as well.

Picture Six: Dinner @ Quebec

1.4 Language

Recent statistics show that 82% of the people living in Quebec speak French as their first language and French is also the official language in Quebec and more than 95% of the people in Quebec use French in their daily life. Please see the below chart adapted from the Statistics Canada.

Province Total populationEnglishFrench
Quebec7,435,905787,885 (10.6%)6,085,152

(81.8%)
Ontario12,028,8959,789,937(81.4%)304,727(2.5%)
Canada31,241,44620,840,74366.7%6,691,928(21.4%)

Source: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census Profile of Federal Electoral Districts (2003 Representation Order): Language, Mobility and Migration and Immigration and Citizenship.

The situation of English and French in Quebec is very special, people lives in Quebec stressed the importance of speaking French and in fact it is governed by law. According to Boberg (2010), the impact on supporting French in Quebec had badly influenced Quebec’s English Speaking Community. Edwards (1998) also adds that English speakers in Quebec find it difficult to get a job in Quebec and many graduates end up leaving Quebec and go to other places in Canada to seek work.

I have been to Quebec twice and both of the time I noticed that most of the people are speaking French only. Whether it is to order food in a restaurant or asking directions on the street, the people of Quebec are speaking French and I tried to ask them do they speak English and their responses are always they can only speak French.

In Quebec, most educational institutions give instruction in French. The children of immigrants must attend a francophone school. According to Government du Quebec (2006), Quebec chooses its own migrants and the government also offering French courses to help the immigrants to integrate into their new environment.

Conclusions

In Conclusion, due to the long French dominated history in Quebec and the French language popularity in Quebec as well as its cultural similarities to France, Quebec has its own immigration policies but under the tight control of Central Canadian government. From the literature and the personal perspectives, it clearly shows that Quebec’s immigration situation is becoming better and better and it will attract more immigrants to migrate to Quebec and to continue its unique style in Canada.

References

Boberg, Charles (2010). The English Language in Canada: Status, History and Comparative Analysis. Cambridge University Press.

Bony, Jean (1983). French Gothic Architecture of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Edwards, John R (1998). Language in Canada. Cambridge University Press

Yolande, James (2010) Immigration Policy in Quebec: Successes and Lessons Learned World Policy Institute

Kosel, Jochen (2009), The Language Situation in Canada with Special Regard to Quebec, RWTH Aachen University

Young, Margret (1998) Immigration: The Canada-Quebec Accord Law and Government Division

Statistics Canada, 2006 Census Profile of Federal Electoral Districts (2003 Representation Order): Language, Mobility and Migration and Immigration and Citizenship.

Websites

http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20101208095302AAoH8sh accessed on 21/03/2011

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada-Quebec_Accord accessed on 26/03/2011

http://www.travelexpertguide.org/forum/Canada/Why-does-Quebec-still-speak-French-381788.htm accessed on 06/04/2011

ALL PICTURES USED IN THIS WRITTEN PROJECT WERE TAKEN BY THE AUTHOR WHEN SHE WAS IN QUEBEC IN SEPTEMBER 2009 AND OCTOBER 2010

Categories
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Critical Analysis of Immigration and Migrant Workers

Introduction

For many years, migration, perpetrated by the quest for career advancement by skilled labour, asylum seeking by refugees and interest in greener pastures has been going on internationally. Some countries have faced challenges and setbacks due to international migration of skilled labour/personnel and some have gained significantly by being recipients of such personnel. This essay will seek to address the issue of teacher migration/exodus in Zimbabwe. Human Capital Theory in conjunction with the theoretical perspective of Globalisation will be used to analyse this issue in the aforesaid country.

Zimbabwe is a landlocked country located in the Southern part of the African continent. Its neighbouring boarder countries are South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique and it is a former British colony. For the past decade it has been going through a challenging political climate characterised by violence, poor economy, introduction and an ongoing land reform programme which was poorly implemented and resulted in the country going downhill as agriculture was one of their main foreign currency earners and attracted the imposition of economic sanctions.HIV and AIDS is also prevalent in Zimbabwe. According to the preliminary results of the 2002 census, Zimbabwe has a population of 11.6 million against a projected figure of 14.7 million. This would mean that the estimated number of Zimbabweans in the Diaspora is 3.1 million which was worked at the assumptions that, mortality had remained at the 1990 level, fertility had declined and there had been a negligible international emigration. Zimbabwe uses the neighbouring South Africa’s Rand and the US dollar as its main currency. Its education system consists of 8 years of primary education and 6 years of high school before a student can be admitted to university. The wealthier population normally send their children to private schools which follow the Cambridge exams curriculum and the others send theirs to government run schools which use the national curriculum. In 1980, education was declared free and for all, but since 1988 the government introduced and gradually increased charges attached to school enrolment. Zimbabwe has eleven universities that are internationally accredited that serve the whole nation and 8 teacher’s colleges.

Each year Zimbabwe loses thousands of skilled professionals crucial to the development needs of the country. They migrate mainly to South Africa, Botswana, UK, Australia, and USA. Crush et al (2005) assert that Zimbabwe is experiencing a crippling flight of professionals and skilled people that has escalated to levels that have serious implications for growth and development. Included in this list of professionals are teachers, who play a pivotal role in the continuity of the learning and education process.

Chetsanga (2003) argues that, it is difficult to properly determine the accurate statistics of the Zimbabweans that have migrated as the plight of teachers in particular dates far back to year 1998, with teachers going on strike because of low pay. Teachers were also one of the main targets of political attacks then, as the ruling party accused them of supporting the opposition party. Between 2000 and 2002 the Ministry of Education recorded a high influx of teacher resignations and absconding, with teachers migrating to other countries, mainly United Kingdom and South Africa to claim asylum, fleeing from political violence, and some moving to other departments.The study he did established only 479348 Zimbabweans in the Diaspora (including teachers) and is aware that a large number is not accounted for in that figure. He says, of that figure, most hold Bachelor’s degrees, followed by polytechnic graduates, 20% hold Masters Degrees, while 5% hold PhDs. He says the health and teaching personnel account for more than 75% of that figure. Chanda,cited in Chetsanga (2003) explains Zimbabwe’s teacher exodus from another dimension, where she describes it as, the concept of ‘survival migration’ which focuses on the situation of people who are outside their country of origin because of an existential threat to which they have no access to a domestic remedy but who fall outside of the dominant interpretation of a ‘refugee’ under international law. He says, it focuses on people who cross borders fleeing some combination of, environmental disaster, livelihoods failure, and state fragility.

Chetsanga (2003) conquers that the reasons why teachers are leaving Zimbabwe appear to be diverse ranging from professional, political to economical. Crush et al (2005) also say, the teachers unhappiness goes deeper than economic circumstances, to include, housing, medical services, education and a viable future for their children. The number of people living below the poverty datum line has surged in the past three years because of economic crisis and spiralling of inflation. Over 75% of Zimbabweans are now classified as poor, while 50% are living in abject poverty. As of December 2002 the unemployment rate was between 75% and 80% and has even got worse. All civil servant salaries are uniform in Zimbabwe at present regardless of experience, education background, geographical location, or genders and they are pegged at US190 (?126) a month against a high cost of living that needs at least US510 (?340) a month to meet the poverty datum line.

Around one in ten of the population live with HIV, Zimbabwe is experiencing one of the harshest AIDS epidemics in the world. In a country with such a tense political and social climate, it has been difficult to respond to the crisis. President Robert Mugabe and his government have been widely criticised by the international community, and Zimbabwe has become increasingly isolated, both politically and economically. The country has had to confront a number of severe crises in the past few years, including an unprecedented rise in inflation which reached 100,000% in January 2008, a severe cholera epidemic, high rates of unemployment, political violence, and a near-total collapse of the health system. The situation in Zimbabwe got so bad that between 2002 and 2006, the population decreased and Infant mortality has doubled since 1990.Average life expectancy for women, who are particularly affected by Zimbabwe’s AIDS epidemic, is 47 and 40 for men. Zimbabwe has a higher number of orphans, in proportion to its population, than any other country in the world, according to UNICEF. In fact, as many as 1 in 4 children in Zimbabwe are orphaned as a result of parents dying from AIDS. Teachers are relied on to counsel their students about Aids, but statistics indicate they are no more knowledgeable about avoiding infection than other Zimbabwean adults. Teachers are at high risk of getting infected with HIV and Aids, and already one-third of them are likely to be infected with the virus. According to a report presented by a state-appointed education assessment team, the rate among teachers mirrors Health Ministry statistics showing that an estimated 27% of Zimbabweans aged 18-49 are infected with HIV, with at least 3 000 deaths a week. The teacher migration adds to the depletion from the AIDS affected population, worsening the already depleted labour force.

Through migration, Zimbabwe is losing the value of its investment in education because a large number of highly trained Zimbabweans who include teachers have left the country. Efforts in trying to reach out to Zimbabwe with specific skills through improved educational opportunities may go to a waste unless measures are taken to offset the pull factors attracting the highly educated Zimbabweans to other countries. If the Zimbabwean government does not do anything by making staying at home attractive it will continue to lose its highly skilled personnel to other countries and the brain drain unabated because the brain drain in Zimbabwe is based on the global phenomenon associated with man’s quest for better opportunities in life. De Villers (2004) says, the trend and high magnitude of the brain drain cripples the country’s capacity to engage in sustainable development and it is a well established fact that knowledge is the most important instrument in the creation and accumulation of wealth and the primary factor in international competitiveness. Therefore Zimbabwe’s migration of the skilled and knowledgeable personnel has had and is continuing to have a clear negative impact on the country’s development system as evidenced by its inflation rate, HIV and AIDS statistics, exclusion from major international dealings, and poor education and health systems.

The aforesaid teacher migration/exodus challenge faced by Zimbabwe can be analysed using the Human Capital Theory (HCT) in ascertaining Zimbabwe’s position in the global world, marrying it with the theoretical perspective of Globalisation.

The Human Capital Theory (HCT) is a model that is widely used in the economic analysis of education worldwide. It is used as a background assumption in many areas of economics like in the theory of economic growth. HCT is commonly linked with education and thus theorists in human capital tend to marry the two and view education as investment in human capital. The concept of HCT boarders around that the economic growth, prosperity and function of a nation mainly depends on its physical and human capital stock. The investment people make on their individual selves education wise enhances the productivity of the economy and that is what human capital theorists endeavour to point out.

The human capital theorists emphasise on the rate of returns to education. They argue that, educate yourself and the returns to education will be higher, hence uplifting you as an individual and you uplifting your nation, the returns are both economic,(for example-the more you invest in years of schooling, the better pay you are likely to earn),and non economic (eg-acquired knowledge through education may help you to understand and deal with issues better, like HIV and AIDS).Kingdon and Theopold (2008) emphasise that, similar to this, returns to education may be private (accruing to the educated individual) or maybe social (benefiting the individual and their community).She however does not dispute that, the returns might be influenced by the level of education that one has acquired, type of education, education institution attended, field of study and other things, hence even some universities tend to charge more for other courses compared to others, simply because of their estimated rate of return. Psacharopoulos and Woodhall (1997) infer that, investment in people education wise is as or more important to economic growth as investing in machinery as education enhances a workers productivity. The screening hypothesis challenges that interpretation of education and argues that, education is only used by employers to screen employees. The screening hypothesis is true to an extent, because for example in the Zimbabwean situation, where the Ministry of Education has reported an influx of teachers in areas like, language teachers compared to maths and science. Only teachers with qualified teacher status specialised in languages are employed, when areas like maths and science recruit even personnel without qualified teacher status to fill in vacant posts. If that requirement was not put in place in the languages department, it would be difficult for recruiters to recruit and this is one of the reasons why some personnel that are capable of teaching in the languages department have migrated.

Robert (1991) asserts that education and the creation of human capital creates the differences in labour productivity and the differences in overall levels of technology that we observe in the world. This meaning that education plays a critical input for innovations, research and development activities, thus being seen as an intentional effort to increase the resources needed for creating new things like technology. In this generation we are living in, a technological nation tends to be better successful as it is advanced and quicker. Psacharopoulos and Woodhall (1997) confirm that, by saying that in East Asia, education has given them their success in economic growth and development. Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan have achieved high rates of economic growth due to their investments in education. In the Zimbabwean context, due to the migration of teachers, areas like technology advancement are so crippled, because the skilled personnel to impact this knowledge to learners is limited.While the problem is not mainly limited to this, skilled personnel migrate as well due to their worry on how their skills might remain stagnant and not match the global need which calls for technological knowledge nowadays. Skilled labour migrates to go and advance their skills in other countries and in a quest to make sure their children and families acquire the best education and skills too. Muchemwa (2009) argues that on this same score, a country like Zimbabwe will be left with insufficient personnel to run its own education systems and shortages in the education sector will impair transfer of skills to the next generation of citizens.

According to Fagerlind and Saha (1997) HCT in both developing and developed countries, just provides a basic justification for large public expenditure on education because if its notion which is derived on the presumed economic return of investment in education both at the macro and micro levels. Individuals then tend to think such investment is worthwhile as it was seen to provide returns in the form of individual economic success and achievement. At a bigger level, efforts put to promote investment in human capital would result in economic growth, that is, ‘educate part of the community and the whole of it benefits’ (Schultz 1971).Morgan et al (2005) argues that in contexts like the Zimbabwean, teacher training is often highly subsidised, which due to migration it technically means that the governments are funding the training of teachers who serve other in other countries, usually developed countries where they can earn a much higher salary, thereby leaving Zimbabwe with little labour to run their affairs. While it may be argued that the Zimbabwean government takes measures like bonding to curb this, to make sure that for example a teacher stays and serve in the country for at least two years before migrating. From personal experience, the measures are not so strictly implemented and the money is affordable to pay back as long as you have migrated to a country that has a valuable currency. I completed my teacher training in Zimbabwe in year 2000 and moved to England a year after that.When I had left the Ministry, my parents who I had assigned as my guarantors during my teacher training, received letters that I was supposed to pay back the government money. I managed to send three hours worth of wages from my cleaning job in England, and it covered the whole debt.

While in general terms human capital theorists argue that an educated population is a productive population, Ayara (2002) reports that it is not the case with countries like Nigeria, Zimbabwe and other African countries who have engaged in too much corruption and have not had the expected positive growth impact on economic growth .He says educational capital has gone into privately remunerate but socially unproductive activities, like fraud, prostitution and many more. In countries like Zimbabwe, the education system is failing due to economic and political instability that has led to the prevalence of corruption. Gaidzanwa (1999) assumes that, the core of a country’s problems and success lies in its government, that is, the choice of its leaders and how they run the affairs of the country. If the migrated emigrants, like teachers and other professionals would be allowed to vote, from their countries of board, their informed and education influenced choices of leaders would contribute to the turnover of the poor economy and its sustainability.

At the individual level, it has become an issue, to what extent education as a form of human investment can be directly related to improvement and income. For example, in the Zimbabwean situation, a non qualified teacher, a post graduate teacher and a qualified teacher with 20years teaching experience are all bracketed under the ‘civil servant pay scale’ and all receive the same salary of US$190 currently. Low pay rates and poor living and working conditions have been the major causes for teacher exodus. This goes on to explain how the HCT’s philosophies are not always the case especially in countries and individuals that are facing challenges. Robert (1991) also conquers that education; from a HCT perspective can create inequalities and social class stratification. Education can in this instance be used as a tool to measure poverty against wealth. The HCT reinforces that, the educated one has a likelihood of a better job, leading to better income, better life and better class.

It can therefore be concluded that while individuals, societies, countries and the world look up to education as a means of a better life and investment in agreement with the HCT. It is not always the case that investing in education can bring the expected returns. There are some external factors that can hinder those expectations like the politics and economy of a given country. On individual basis, things like ill health, discrimination in education systems and poverty which is the case in Zimbabwe, where HIV/AIDS is having a highly negative impact to its human stock together with skilled labour migration.HCT always assumes well functioning economies and employs a, one size fits all approach, paying a blind eye on countries and individuals that are struggling for different reasons.

The framework does not take account of segregated labour markets where people are allocated jobs on the grounds of race, gender or assumptions about class or cost. It should address beyond investment education wise as there are other uneducated personnel with no qualifications, who contribute to the welfare of the nation’s economy and do well as individuals, things like health as well should be incorporated and any form of knowledge deemed appropriate for enhancing economic growth should be incorporated in HCT.

While the government of Zimbabwe has invested a lot in training and educating their teachers who have migrated to other countries, hence leaving the country with a shortage of labour in that field (especially maths and sciences) and a possible, crippling effect on the transfer of skills to the next generation. The theoretical perspective of ‘Globalisation’ will also be used to critique this issue of teacher migration in Zimbabwe, comparing and contrasting it with HCT.

The businessdictionary.com, defines globalisation as, the worldwide movement towards economic, financial, trade, and communications integration. It implies the opening of local and nationalistic perspectives to a broader outlook of an interconnected and interdependent world with free transfer of capital, goods, and services across national frontiers. However, it does not include unhindered movement of labour and, as suggested by some economists, may hurt smaller or fragile economies if applied indiscriminately. Park (2003) asserts that, globalisation, has just been turned into a buzz word in recent times, which has been used even by people who have no understanding of the economic term, which mainly reasons on why commodity flows and divisions occur. He says, globalisation is about creating a set of competencies that enable companies to utilise resources on an optimal basis to meet differentiated customer demand profitably and cost-competitively without regard for geography, which simply means, getting an organisation into a position of doing business in any market it chooses. However Kingdon and Theopold (2008) conclude that there is no single agreed definition of globalisation and there are many ways to summarise the vast literature on this subject. She says that, the forces of globalisation affect the lives of most people all over the world, be it business people or villagers, well paid workers or labourers as well as desperate migrants in transit in the hope of better lives, with the migrating Zimbabwean teachers as an example. She says, globalisation is an often discussed and seldom understood phenomenon, which entails an increase in human activities that cross national boundaries. These may be economic, social, political, technological or biological.

The theory of globalisation together with HCT and teacher migration in this essay will lean a lot on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 8,which addresses, the development of global partnership for development, which encourages the further development of an open, rule based, predictable, non discriminatory trading and financial systems. Kingdon and Theopold (2008) have grouped approaches to globalisation into four clusters, that is, world- systems, global culture, global polity and society and global capitalism. She assumes that the approaches to globalisation endeavour to create what is famously called the ‘global village’, where the basic idea is that, the spread of the mass media, especially television and the internet, means everyone can be exposed to the same images at the same time and the ever increasing integration of people in societies around the world has influenced human evolution. While this perspective is acknowledgeable to an extent in the migration of teachers in Zimbabwe, where the use of the internet and media and information passed on by others who have migrated already to those that are still in the country on how to migrate and improve lives has been used, however Khadria (2005) argues that when goals and targets were set for global goals for education, they were more politically than technically determined.

The migration of teachers has been one of the human activities that have been crossing national boundaries for a long time. Appleton (2006)says that, though there has been international movement of educators since the ancient Greeks first tutored the Romans, the advent of globalisation in the 1990’s has seen such migration return to prominence. Like Zimbabwe, some countries have seen net losses of educators and have expressed concerns leading to, for example, things like, introduction of visas, adoption of a protocol of teacher recruitment by the commonwealth in September 2004 to try and put this migration under control. He argues that by 2000,for example in some parts of England, some schools were already relying on the recruitment of overseas teachers to fill in the gaps, with some, teacher supply agencies moving into the market to supply teachers, this however denotes the difference between HCT which emphasises on the nation gaining from their human stock, to the human stock crossing the national boundary to a wider world(global).It can however be concluded that, unlike HCT that emphasises on individual and national gains, Globalisation, embraces both individual, national to the whole global village. It does not limit human capital stock and returns to national level, it reflects that things move away and come back some how.HCT uses, rate of returns to individuals and the nation while globalisation is often interpreted in terms of economic actors and economic institutions.

Khadria (2005) and Grace (2003) agree that, If countries like Zimbabwe would manage its affairs well, the beneficial effects of teacher migration would impact and reflect positively on its economy and even have a multiplier effect on the economy as a whole. They explain that, migrated personnel send part of their earnings home in form of remittances hence providing the home country with a source of valuable foreign currency which is pivotal in trade dealings.(See appendix 1.0). It is estimated that an overseas worker on average can remit home over US$500 per month. Studies have shown that the propensity to save is usually higher among emigrants than local people, in preparation for their possible returns to the home country. Therefore if 35% for example, is sent to Zimbabwe monthly, more than $25billion dollars will be availed to the Zimbabwe economy and through various expenditure mechanisms, government can be able to raise substantial amount of revenue for public coffers. According to the Zimbabwe Revenue Authority (ZIMRA), 70% of the cars in the Zimbabwean roads have been shipped from the Diaspora. The taxes paid on the clearance of those cars, if managed properly without corruption can as well provide Zimbabwe with a lot of revenue significant to the country’s economic growth and global trades.

Skeldon (2005) argues that, the emigration of skilled workers is not new but has taken on greater urgency in the context of globalising economy and ageing society. He says the developed world is viewed as poaching the best and brightest from the developing world, thus prejudicing home countries of their chance of development, but he strongly believes that any movement of labour is as much internal within any country as it is among countries and that skilled labour migration should not be seen differently from other types of migration and movement of other goods. Statistics show that not all teachers that moved from the teaching field in Zimbabwe, migrated, some moved to other departments like NGO’s due to attractive salaries, and whilst Zimbabwe, employs some of its personnel like technology engineers from countries like Botswana, or send some of its personnel abroad on government scholarships for training. Zimbabwe should acknowledge that, it as well benefits from other educational global dealings too. It can therefore be argued or speculated that, teacher migration should be viewed as a global necessity, to assist those in need and curb unemployment in countries with excess personnel than poaching skills. The theory of globalisation, does not hinder the fact that, for example, if Zimbabwe gets back on its feet and does well economically, maybe tomorrow or in a decade, if it can attract skilled labour as well, it can attract teachers from other countries too, as was the case in the 80’s where use of expatriate teachers from, Germany, Sweden etc was common.

HCT emphasises on the number of years invested in schooling, yielding better returns. An average qualified secondary teacher in Zimbabwe currently invested 7 years to primary schooling,6 years in high school and 2 years training at a teacher’s college, which equates to 14 years and Zimbabwe considers him/her as their highly skilled labour. When that teacher migrates, for example, to England, he/she cannot qualify for a qualified teacher status, she has to do another 3 years for a PGCE, to meet the local standard, and hence most of these migrated people have had to further their education or do other menial jobs. Skeldon (2005) says the question of who are skilled labours at global level has been raised. What an individual country might view as their skilled labour might not be what the host country perceives. Using the example mentioned above, of teachers who might opt to do the PGCE in England. One can question that, has there been a truly brain drain as the brains have been retrained again in the destination country. This highly denotes an advantage brought about by migration and globalisation. In HCT, highly successful entrepreneurs and businessmen/women are excluded on the basis that some of them do not even have any tertiary education even though they posses skills essential for economic growth, but globalisation accommodates them.

Both HCT and globalisation, though in different ways, agree that education has become a multimillion dollar migrant industry, particularly at global level. Teacher migration has had an effect on quality of teaching in Zimbabwe. Most parents wish that their children could access the quality of education that would make them employable worldwide, with some affording parents sending their children to expensive private colleges(teachers earn higher) that examine children, through the, Cambridge Schools Examination Certificate than the Zimbabwe National Schools Examination Certificate(ZIMSEC) which is not recognised worldwide and used in Government and Council schools(teachers earn very little),so as to prepare them for life in the globalising economy. Some individuals even enrol for expensive online courses with foreign universities. So one can hypothesise that, people opt for certain types of education or training for individual returns or to specifically increase their chances of migration. Though there is no guarantee that these individuals will definitely migrate, this contributes to better educated and trained people for the domestic market as well.

Statistics show that most people who have managed to migrate from Zimbabwe are the skilled and educated, with teachers and health professionals on large numbers, because chances of them making a living in another world are high and they are employable. Skilled personnel are likely to have the knowledge (how to apply for visas, what the host country requires and contacts of already migrated colleagues or relatives) and means (money to apply for Visas, purchase travel tickets, etc).This even goes far beyond individual or small society level but rather to a wider world, where countries have been labelled as underdeveloped, developing and developed because of their economic power and growth. Even when it comes to manpower planning needs, parents strongly feel that in an area of scarce skilled manpower, the better educated their children, the better chances of getting well paid jobs. The poor ones even look up to the education of their children as a means of alleviating their poverty.

Babalola (2003) is of the notion that, the main problem associated with the belief that education is good for economic growth and development lies in how to maintain an equilibrium position in terms of ascertaining the evidence of either too little or too many educated people in a society. He says that a shortage of educated people will limit growth whilst too much of them will create unemployment hence limiting economic growth and development. The Ministry of Education in Zimbabwe confirms, that there are other teaching fields like languages and social sciences in Zimbabwe, which tend to have excess trained personnel compared to maths and sciences. Therefore migration of these teachers might be necessary than a hindrance and this is evidently a challenge to HCT but a bonus to Globalisation.

While teacher migration has been a burning issue in the Ministry of Education and Zimbabwe as a whole. It is difficult to argue out why the teachers should have stayed in the country of origin given the economic, political and social climate and considering that it is not the only department that has registered a high movement of personnel. The problems associated with teacher migration need to be addressed at government level. Although the destination countries benefit from this migration, it is difficult to conclude that their economic successes depend on these migrants and that countries of origin’s development is prejudiced by this. However the issue of brain drain seems like it will be debatable for long.

REFERENCES

Appleton, S., Morgan, W. J. & Sives, A (2006) THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL MOBILITY OF TEACHERS-CONCLUSIONS FROM A FOUR COUNTRY STUDY , paper presented at the Development Studies Association Conference. Open University, Milton Keynes

Ayara, N .N (2002) THE PARADOX OF EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE.Ibadan, Polygraphic Ventures Ltd.

Babalola, J.B (2003) BUDGET PREPERATION AND EXPENDITURE CONTROL IN EDUCATION.Ibadan,Ibadan Awemark Industrial Printers.

Chetsanga, C (2003) AN ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSE AND EFFECT OF BRAIN DRAIN IN ZIMBABWE, Harare, Scientific and IndustrialResearch and Development Centre

Crush, J. W, Tevera, D and Pendelton, W, (2005) DEGREES OF UNCERTAINITY:STUDENTS AND THE BRAIN DRAIN IN SOUTHERN AFRICA, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 35,

2005.

De Villiers J.J.R (2004) SOUTH AFRICAN TEACHERS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM SCHOOLS: EXPECTATIONS AND EXPERIENCES. Journal of Educational Studies, 3(1), 49-66.

Gaidzanwa, R, (1999) VOTING WITH THEIR FEET: MIGRANT ZIMBABWEAN NURSES AND DOCTORS IN THE ERA OF STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT, Research Report No. 111,

Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala

Grace, J (2003) MY FAMILY SEND ME MONEY TO GET BY. The Guardian. [Online]. Available url: http://education.guardian.co.uk/egweekly/story/0,5500,883206,00.html. Accessed 5 March 2011

Fagerlind, A and Saha, L.J (1997) EDUCATION AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS. New Delhi. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd

Khadria, B (2005) MIGRATION IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-WEST ASIA:A PAPER PREPARED FOR THE POLICY ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH PROGRAMME OF THE GLOBAL COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION.Jawaharlal.Nehru University.

Kingdon, G and Theopold, N (2008) ‘DO RETURNS TO EDUCATION MATTER TO SCHOOLING PARTICIPATIONEducation economics 16, No 4.329-350 Morgan, W. J., Sives, A. and Appleton, S. (2005) MANAGING THE INTERNATIONAL RECRUITMENT OF HEALTH WORKERS AND TEACHERS: DO THE COMMONWEALTH AGREEMENTS PROVIDE AN ANSWER?, The Roundtable, 94(379), 225–238

Muchemwa, F (2009) FREE EDUCATION FOR ALL IN ZIMBABWE:MUGABE’S PRIMARY SCHOOL EXPANSION POLICY WAS A DISASTER.http://modern-african-history.suite101.com/article.cfm/free_aducation_for_all_in_zimbabwe(Accessed 19/03/11)

Park, D (2003) WHAT IS GLOBALISATION?:A WHITE PAPER BY DANIEL PARK,ASSOCIATE CONSULTANT,B2B.

Psacharopoulos, G and Woodhall, M (1997) EDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF INVESTMENT CHOICE. New York. Oxford University Press.

Robert, B (1991) ECONOMIC GROWTH IN A CROSS SECTION OF COUNTRIES. Quarterly Journal of Economics 106(2) pp 407-414

Schultz, T.W (1971) INVESTMENT IN HUMAN CAPITAL. New York. The Free Press.

Skeldon, R (2005) GLOBALISATION, SKILLED MIGRATION AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION: BRAIN DRAINS IN CONTEXT: WORKING PAPER T15.Sussex.Sussex Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty.

http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/globalization.html (ONLINE) Accessed 12/04/11

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Free Essays

Critically evaluate policy and practice on asylum and immigration for debates about racism and anti-racism.

Introduction

Policy and practice on asylum and immigration in Britain, in particularly through legislation, have tended to be predisposed towards racial discrimination. The term ‘race’ is commonly used to refer to physical differences such as skin colour. However, shifts in the meaning of racism tend to reveal it is increasingly experienced by those who are isolated from the nation due to their non-citizen status within a nation. In the UK, the proportion of non-UK born population has risen from 7% in 1991 to 13% (Office for National Statistics, 2011). Despite the increase, ethnic minorities remain a relatively small proportion of the UK population. In light of increased migration and the benefits of migration from increased economic activity and cultural diversity (Home Office, 2002), it is thus important to critically engage in the debates about whether asylum and immigration policy and practice have been ‘racialised’. As this essay focuses on the concept of racism, the definition of racism will be explored to begin with. This will involve accounting for its long history including the influence of Christianity, the Enlightenment period, the emergence of the slave trade, scientific theories, colonialism and more contemporary definitions that have developed in the aftermath of the MacPherson report. This will be followed by a discussion of the ways in which these definitions have influenced immigration legislation between the 1960s and the 1980s as well as the recent wave of asylum legislation that Britain experienced in the 1990s. The control of white immigration in Britain will be considered as a challenge towards the claim that immigration and asylum policy has been racialised. However, this will be flipped on its head with evidence suggesting that white immigrants still experienced stigmatisation. It will become overwhelmingly apparent that asylum and immigration policy and practice is still mired by racism due to the identification of group boundaries.

At the foremost, an analysis of the concept of racism and its varied definitions needs to be made in order to inform a discussion of asylum and immigration law, policy and practice. Its meaning has shifted in different ways throughout history which indicates racism is a complex social construct. The term race entered the English language in 1508. There were no significant implications of inferiority of races because “the Bible was accepted as the authority on human affairs” (Banton, 1998, p.17) and therefore it was commonly believed that all humans descended from Adam and Eve. Any difference that may exist between people was regarded as the result of geographic and environmental factors.

During the Enlightenment period, it became important to classify people. Linnaeus divided homo sapiens into 6 categories although only 4 are racially significant. He described americanus as red, choleric and erect; europaeus as white, and muscular; asiaticus as yellow, melancholic and inflexible, and fourthly afer as black, phlegmatic and indulgent (1735, cited in Banton, 1998, p. 20). The use of skin colour as the basis for classifying people became even more prominent in defining race as capitalism developed, and brought the need to address the shortage of labour through the slave trade. The concept of blackness was full of meaning – it symbolized dirty, foul, wicked and malignant which was juxtaposed against the association of ‘white’ with purity. As a result, Bulmer and Solomos observe that this may explain “why black Africans…were thought particularly suited to being enslaved, and how justifications for the slave trade were often couched in this way…” (1999, p. 59).

Scientific theories of race had also emerged in the late 19th century. Charles Darwin theorised that Africans were related to Europeans and that all humans descended from apes. He claimed that differences and varieties in species were due to “maintenance or elimination of these varieties by natural selection” (Solomos and Black, 1996. p. 44). Although Darwin’s theory did not confirm the hierarchal structure of race but rather challenged the fixity of species, his ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest were reworked to signify that the struggle between the races best represents the survival of the fittest amongst humans in order to accommodate colonialist and imperialist ideologies (Solomos and Back, 1996). Colonialism employed similar images as slavery previously did but encompassed a different approach. Rather than the nature of the inferior races being rigid, black Africans and Asians were considered as needing help to move away from their primitive cultures and become civilised which only the civilised White were able to offer to them (Lawrence, 1982).

The decolonisation period saw an increase in immigration from colonies and ex-colonies of Britain, due to labour shortages and the need to rebuild the country in the aftermath of the Second World War. In contrast, the post-decolonisation period brought with it the idea that Blacks and Asians did not belong in Britain. Both Lawrence (1982) and Hall (2000) observe that this period is characterised by ‘historical forgetfulness’ of the Empire and the ‘collective amnesia’ of British society respectively due to the sudden uncertainty around where these immigrants came from and why. This demonstrates that the concept of racism shifted from one where black people can be ‘owned’ through slavery because of their inferiority to something where they can be used as required and then thrown away when no longer needed.

Physical differences are still prominently present in more recent contemporary definitions of race. According to the MacPherson Report, racism “consists of conduct or words or practices which disadvantage people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin” (Home Office, 1999, para. 6.4). Comparatively, Pilkington (2003) defines racism as identifying groups who are perceived to have biological differences between each other which are maintained throughout generations. These differences allow for a representation of ‘others’ based on negative features and inferiority which results in group boundaries. It gives way to the idea that to preserve one’s identity, the identities of others need to be belittled.

Upon reflecting upon the numerous definitions of race throughout history, it is apparent the concept of racism is a social construct. Since Linneaus’ (1735, cited in Banton, 1998) classification of people, physical differences remain a major component to defining racism even to this day. It will become clear that these definitions of racism, particularly those that were developed within the context of capitalism, colonialism, post-colonialism as well as in the aftermath of the MacPherson Report, inform the rest of the discussion and debate around contemporary policy and practice.

Within policy and practice, racism has certainly played a significant role in immigration legislation from the 1960s. The various legislations introduced a series of measures to control immigration from the New Commonwealth through redefining citizenship. With a significant wave of immigration in the 1950s from the New Commonwealth, the government made the first attempt to control immigration through the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 (Solomos, 2003). It required Commonwealth citizens who were neither born in the UK nor held, or were included, in a passport issued in the UK to obtain labour vouchers. The implications of using immigration to address labour shortages during the post-war period is apparent here and how the government in particular forgot about their responsibilities towards the welfare of migrants; migrants who were encouraged to come to the UK but suddenly seemed to have appeared from nowhere (Lawrence 1972; Hall 2000) when they were no longer of any use. While this implicitly was justified as a way of controlling immigrations, this undermined civil rights of black settlers who had their passports issued outside of the UK (Solomos, 2003). It is thus evident that the 1962 Commonwealth Act was racially discriminatory in particularly against black settlers.

Similarly, the 1968 Commonwealth Immigrants Act and 1971 Immigration Act introduces ‘patriality’ where all citizens who were not born in the UK or do not have a UK grandparent/parent, were subject to control. This particularly had an impact upon Africans and Asians as it denied almost all non-white commonwealth citizens the right to enter and settle in Britain while it did not have the same or similar negative impact upon White Commonwealth citizens (Solomos, 2003). The latter legislation further introduced the control of secondary immigration which limited the reunification of migrants with their families. This meant that Black and Asian people experienced delays and separation that would not have been acceptably imposed upon White families (Parekh, 2000, p. 208). Thus, it is further evident that immigration policy and practice in Britain was influenced by concepts of racism that were contextualised in the period of post-colonialism.

In addition, the 1981 Nationality Act deprived British citizens of Asian origin, who were effectively categorised as British Overseas Citizens, the right to live in the UK. Skellington and Morris’ observation confirms that the impact of such immigration legislations had resulted in a reduction of migrants from New Commonwealth and Pakistan countries; from 136 000 in 1961 to 68 00 in 1972 and astonishingly to 22 800 by 1988 (1996, p. 69). Consequently, it further compounds upon the argument that up to this point, immigration policy and legislation was coloured by racism.

In more recent times, there has been an emergence of multicultural and anti-racist approaches in policy and practice to address racism. As a result of the MacPherson Report in 1999, which brought institutional racism to the forefront, the government made an attempt to bring all its activities within the remit of the Race Relations Act (Parekh, 2000, p. 217). However, the government has not gone far enough in its efforts. Parekh stresses that immigration, nationality and asylum law was exempted as the Home Secretary and his officials under his direction had the power to discriminate on grounds of nationality and ethnic origin (2000, p. 217). The wave of asylum legislation from the 1990s introduced measures to reduce the number of asylum seekers and refugees claiming sanctuary. In particularly, the 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act enforced a housing dispersal system scattering asylum seekers across the country and further introduced a voucher system. The result was that it led to stigmatisation of asylum seekers, racist violence and left many people with limited language skills and lack of support in areas of Britain which are not ethnically diverse (Solomos, 2003). Effectively, it encouraged notions of asylum seekers as not deserving the support of communities and without any protection. The way that racism played out in the context of capitalism and slavery is in a similar sense prevalent here. While black Africans were perceived as foul, malignant, and wicked during these periods, asylum seekers are now to the same extent prejudged as bogus and deceiving. In other words, ‘foreigners’ cannot be trusted because their only interests are supposedly to swamp the country.

The issue of white immigration, however, challenges the contention of policy and practice as racialised. Technically, asylum and immigration policy, as discussed above, applies to all who immigrate or seek asylum regardless of race and colour – whether they are from Europe, Asia or Africa. Although Immigrants have been significantly White from European countries and Old Commonwealth countries such as Australia (Skellington and Morris, 1996), Britain has also been recently concerned about white immigration which can be illustrated by its response to the EU’s incorporation of the ‘Schengen acquis’ which generally allows free movement of people within the internal EU frontier in order for the EU to function as one. Britain has rather negotiated a special opt-out protocol from the common EU immigration and asylum policies which permits Britain to selectively implement EU immigration policies (Flynn, 2005). Further, a need has emerged to address the rise of new opportunities to abuse immigration controls such as through smuggling. The government has thereby been investing in the use of advanced technologies such as heartbeat sensors that would indicate the presence of humans (Home Office, 2002). This demonstrates that Britain wants to control not only ‘white immigration’ but even immigration in general and therefore challenges the idea that immigration and asylum policies have been racialised.

However, racism is not necessarily based upon colour as such an argument like this seems to assume. Pilkington notes that, despite being White, the Irish and Jewish groups who migrated in the 19th century were seen as an inferior race in Britain (Pilkington, 2003, p.15). In a similar sense, asylum seekers who may be largely from Britain may also be seen as an inferior race due to their lack of ‘Britishness’ and a preconception that they do not belong to the British nation. It is thus apparent that the definition of racism as defined in the MacPherson Report to include culture and ethnic origin echoes strongly in the phenomenon of white immigration. The process of drawing boundaries between ‘us’ and ‘them’ (Pilkington, 2003) is also strongly evident here. This can be further demonstrated by the introduction of assessments of knowledge of UK life and English as well as citizenship ceremonies which are now part of the process to become a British citizen. These practices were established through the most recent Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002. It suggests that the government is attempting to narrow the gap between ‘us’ and ‘others’ by requiring ‘others’ to assimilate into and adopt the ‘British’ culture. Assimilating ‘others’ into the British culture in turn also seems to similarly echo the idea found in definitions of racism during the colonialism period that sought to civilise the ‘inferior’. This clearly demonstrates the way in which traces of the concept of racism can be found in policy and practice in immigration and asylum even though it may no longer be recognised through differential treatment based on physical differences.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the ways that immigration and asylum policy and practice in particularly through legislation has been racialised is not through one single discourse. The social construct of racism has changed vastly depending upon the predominant ideology of the time, whether within historical periods or more contemporary times. Although there have been some moments where ‘racial’ differences have been explained away by environmental factors, the social hierarchical structure of races has unfortunately been present throughout history and which undoubtedly has informed immigration and asylum policy and practice. Immigration legislation between the 60s and 80s was clearly based upon colour, controlling African and Asian immigration in the UK. While White immigrants groups may have found it easier to migrate to Britain, they still experienced being categorised as an inferior race. Although policy and practice on immigration and asylum is no longer explicitly mired by colour, it still has resulted in the stigmatisation of immigrants in the UK.

While such analysis illustrates how the concept of racism has informed and influenced immigration and asylum policy and practice, most people are not aware of how it reifies the impact of racism in contemporary society. For example, immigration and asylum policy that disproportionately affects ethnic minorities perpetuates a wealth of stereotypes ranging from Blacks are less intelligent, Asians are trapped by their backward ways of life and asylum seekers are scrounging off the British social welfare system. Even though terrorism policy needs to be explored in terms of how it may also inform debates about racism as it tends to target Muslims immigrating from Asia or the Middle East, the policies and practice examined in this essay have clearly shown that immigration and asylum policy and practice in Britain have been largely racialised. In a far more globalised world, immigration has ensured that every culture and race in existence has become much closer than was ever imaginable. The need to discuss the way that racism runs through immigration and asylum policies and practices is therefore now important more than ever because it challenges societies like Britain which are championed as multicultural societies for all. It determines how fellow members of society are treated, by putting many at a disadvantage through discrimination and by highlighting how they are different. By analysing such debates, we can shape social constructs such as race in ways that encourage equality, respect and dignity.

Bibliography

Banton, M., (1998) Racial Theories, 2nd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bulmer, M., and Solomos, J., (1999), Racism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Flynn, D., (2005) “New Borders, New Management: The Dilemmas of Modern Immigration Policies” in Ethnic and Racial Studies. Vol. 28 No. 3. pp. 463-490.

Hall, S., (2000) “The Multicultural Question”, in Hesse, B., (ed.), Un/Settled Multiculturalisms, London: Zed Press.

Home Office (1999) The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry: report of an inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny. The Stationary Office. [Online] Available at: http://www.archive.official-documents.co.uk/document/cm42/4262/sl-00.htm (Accessed 21st March 2012).

Home Office (2002) White Paper: Secure Borders, Safe Haven. The Stationary Office.

Lawrence, E., (1982) “Just Plain Commonsense: the “roots” of racism”, in CCCS The Empire Strikes Back. London: Hutchinson.

Office for National Statistics (2011) 2011 Census shows non-UK born population of England and Wales continues to rise. [Online] Available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/key-statistics-for-local-authorities-in-england-and-wales/sty-non-uk-born-population.html (Accessed 21st March 2012).

Parekh, B. (2000) The Parekh Report: The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain. London: Profile.

Pilkington, A. (2003) Racial Disadvantage and Ethnic Diversity in Britain. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Skellington, R. and Morris, P. (1996) ‘Race’ in Britain Today (2nd Edition). London: Sage.

Solomos (2003) Race and Racism in Britain (3rd Edition). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Solomos, J, and Back, L., (1996) Racism and Society. London: Macmillan.

Categories
Free Essays

Need for Immigration Reform

Immigration refers to the movement of people from one country to settle in another. In the United States of America, foreigners have since time immemorial been moving in and settling in the U.S. Immigration brings about culture change as different people have varying cultures. There has been sharp disintegration between those who are naturally in the U.S and those who came to settle there. In most cases they were excluded from the U.S citizenship.

The Mc Carran-Walter Act, which is also known as the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, establishes the basic laws of citizenship and immigration in the U.S. over the years this law has undergone several changes. The law initially admitted a certain number of immigration of each nationality. This means that on attaining the specified number of immigrants other people were excluded from U.S. (Bromwell 225)

In 1965, the congress passed a law that paved way to immigrants with certain skills needed by the U.S. It also allowed close relatives of U.S citizens the preference to live in U.S. In 1990, a law was passed that reinforced the 1965 one.

Aliens were allowed to attain U.S citizenship but after being admitted as legal immigrants. Again, those who fled to the U.S after being officially certified as refugees could receive immigrant status. The legal system in the U.S was racial discriminatory. The sequence of laws from 1882 through 1934 excluded immigrants from China, Japan, India and the Philippines. It was therefore biased.( http://www.umass.edu/complit/aclanet/usMigrat.html)

The Chinese exclusion of Act of 1882 prohibited citizenship for Chinese immigrants in 1884, 1886 and 1888 other acts were passed to reinforce this act. It was the only act that was so explicit on race-based immigration. The Immigration Act of 1917: Exclusion of Asian Indians Act. This Act was passed basing on the fact that their racial and ethnic status was not well elaborated.

In 1922, Japan born applicants who had lived in the U.S for most of their lives could not get U.S citizenship. This was done with the argument that their language differed very much from the U.S and this would create problems. However, so as not to create problems based on color, the court defined white as ‘Caucasian’.

In 1923, as immigrants from India and Bhagat Singh Thind attempted to claim that they were ‘Caucasian’. The court changed the definition. It sidelined anthropological and historical issues to coin a word that would not cause much attention. It also separated the desirable immigrants form the undesirable ones. (Josiah 57)

The Immigration Act of 1924 excluded Japanese from U.S citizenship. This act totally excluded Japanese and other Asian who had been barred by the 1790 Naturalization law that stated that only whites could be naturalized as citizens. It was aimed at reducing or balancing ethnic distribution as immigrants from Europe and Asia were increasing drastically. (Miller et al, 304)

The Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1932 excluded Filipino’s easy access to its citizenship it reduced the number of persons to be taken in to ¼ of 50 persons per year. Filipinos living in the U.S were named or titled ‘aliens’. The U.S reaction against the Filipino’s was connected with issue of Philippine independence from U.S colonization. This was like a hit back gesture towards the Filipinos. (http://www.umass.edu/complit/aclanet/usMigrat.html)

In 1913, 1920, 1923 alien land laws prohibited the Asians, immigrants’ from owning any form of property including land. The U.S considered those who were not whites ineligible to acquire citizenship and consequently could not own property.

The Asian Barred Zone Act of 1917, denied people from South Asia to South East Asia and the islands. In the Indian and Pacific oceans surprisingly, it excluded American possessions of the Philippines and Guam.

The Magnuson Act of 1943 brought a significant change to the plight of immigrants of Asian origin. It repealed the 1882 exclusion act that prohibited immigrants of Asian origin from gaining U.S citizenship. It established a quota for Chinese immigrants and made Chinese eligible for citizenship. (Bromwell 225)

The Mc Carran Act of 1952 abolished the 1917 Asia Barred Zone Act and allowed Asian immigration into the United States based on ethnic quotas. The quotas were not specified on nationality but through racialized ethnic categories. 100 ethnic persons were allowed to enter U.S annually. These were from diverse nations. The Cold War effects made the U.S to have strict quotas that were based on strategic territorial mapping. Any alien who engaged in questionable activities would be deported on the claims of ‘public interest ‘or ‘national security’ threat issues. (Miller et al, 57)

The 1965 immigration act removed ‘natural origins’ as the basis of the U.S immigration legislation. This is say that considering citizens only by birth was eliminated. It was an amendment of the 1952 Mc Carren Act. It gave preferences to people of the Eastern Hemisphere and allowed their adult unmarried sons and daughters to be citizens. Spouses and unmarried sons and daughters of permanent residents could also gain U.S citizenship. Professionals, scientists and artists who had extreme capabilities were allowed in too.

Other categories of people who got U.S citizenship were married adults sons and daughters of U.S citizenship, brothers and sisters of adult citizens, workers both skilled and unskilled who would fill the deficient labor supply in the U.S as well as refugees who came from communist based countries. Those affected by natural calamities were also allowed.

After 1965, legal regulations on immigration shifted their focus or refocused on how definition was put. For instance ‘alien’ was replaced with illegal. The Asia immigrant history is reflected in the Asian American culture and they do remember how the U.S segregated them.

The Indochina migration and refugee Assistance Act of 1975, the Refugee Act of 1980, and the Amerasian homecoming Act of 1987 facilitated the immigration and settlement of Southeast Asian refugees. The Asian immigration comprised immigrants from South Korea, Philippines, South Vietnam and Cambodia and was due to U.S colonialism, war and neocolonialism. Most Asians immigrated due to disruption by colonialism or distortions form neocolonial practices like capitalism or due to war.

In 1986 the Immigrant Reform and Control Act was put in place. It was to reform the current situation on immigration. The Immigration Act of 1990 reinforced it. Illegal citizens got citizenship those who were there before 1982. It was a crime to hire illegal immigrants. Immigration today is still a sensitive mater than creates, contradictions between the capital and the state, economic and political imperatives.  Californians Proposition 187 was passed in 1994 and it denies education and medical care to illegal immigrants. It is observed that groups aimed here are Mexicans and Latinos.

Latinos and Mexicans have provided semi-skilled labor to the U.S since the 1950’s. They work in farms, hotels and domestic services in U.S and they get low wages for that. They work under poor conditions. The U.S does not improve their working conditions and those positions do not attract its own citizens. This perpetuates the movement of illegal immigration in search for low wage jobs. (George 52)

The 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 made significant changes on asylum law, immigration detention, and criminal-related immigration.

The Real ID Act of 2005 was aimed at barring terrorism. National standards were established, waiving laws that interfered with construction of physical barriers at the borders. It entailed frightening laws on application for asylum and alien deportation for terrorism activity. The government funded reports with security and changing visa limits for temporary workers.

After the 9/11 U.S had to reform the immigration laws. Entry of civil immigration was to be put into the national crime information center, a computer crime database to criminalize it. Deportation was to take place. People supporting immigrants would be jailed. Employees will be required to verify their employee’s eligibility to work through the employment eligibility verification systems. Illegal workers were to be granted guest workers visas. H-1 B visas would be designed for comprises to employ temporary skilled workers.

There is need to reform the current, immigration rules and regulations in U.S. the rule of verifying ones immigration status even in churches is an extreme. It reduces the work of the church leaders to immigration enforcement officials. Being penalized for helping immigrants who in most cases are poor is jeopardizing with Christians faith of a call to help. It will create conflict between the church and the state. (Bill Ong Hing 79)

Today, the system will fail to attract and retain legal permanent immigrants who are most able to contribute valuable human resources to the country. Reforms ought to be done to legal permanent and temporary systems to promote recruitment and retainment of migrants who can contribute to the U.S national interest in immigration.  Reforming of changing the institutional and regulatory structure governing the employment of immigrants within the U.S to ensure migrants contribute maximally to development of U.S and at reduced costs. Immigration control policies should be changed and immigration should not be used as a tool of foreign policy.

( http://ccis-ucsd.org/publication/wrkg132.pdf)

The government should tackle long-term issues regarding to the immigrants role in the economy instead of tackling new temporary worker program. The immigration bill will cost the country a lot of money and this would be jeopardized if ID theft were carried out. Creation of Employment Eligibility Verification (EEV) systems that will entail high levels of sharing of information across many electronic databases can be easily tampered. EEV’S will expose people’s personal information like social security records, passport and visa records and even birth and death records, all of which can be used for identity.

The 2005 House of Representatives bill 4437 (H.R 4437) about creating a fence along Mexico and criminalizing the aiding of illegal immigrants and mandatory detention of illegal aliens is an in called for measure. It is against the international human rights as the immigrants are people who have rights.  Detaining someone without evidence of crime committed is an unfair act. Although the H-1 B visas will allow immigrants to work in U.S companies temporarily is not good enough. There will be extreme competition for the visas provided. The industries that benefit a lot from foreign expertise will not optimize their production, as they would want the number of visas increased.

( Bill Ong Hing 79)

More rational and long-term solutions should be sought to replace the harsh penalties that have been put in place. The process of legally attempting to enter the U.S and the workforce is not only complex but also expensive and time consuming even for those who would could add value to the country’s human resource.

Immigration to Australia is different from the U.S. the country has a strong economy and attracts highly skilled young people who are willing. It uses fair criteria in absorbing immigrants into its workforce. It applies one’s qualifications, work experience as well as language proficiency. It has established immigration programs like the Humanitarian Program and Australian Family Migration.

It emphasizes on attracting people who can contribute positively to the economy. It assists immigrants in settling by helping them reside in areas of their choice. Canada is one of the world’s top immigration destination and more than 200,000 new arrivals come under the Canada immigration system annually. It is easier to settle in Canada and obtaining a visa is not very difficult. Like Australia, Canada encourages people with skills and experience and those who are to venture into business. A large proportion of immigration to Canada is under family re union and refugee programs. It also allows for people who are on holidays.

Germany on the other hand attempts to encourage the highly skilled workers low skilled workers will therefore find its accessibility difficult. Professors, natural scientists, engineers and scientific qualified personnel in high technologies find immigration easy. They are also given permanent residence and their family members allowed working in Germany as well. Self employed immigrants or entrepreneurs are also allowed as long as they create jobs for Germans and makes profits. Through the Schengen Agreement people can travel through the Schengen countries with one schengen visa.

Policy makers should see the global market for immigrants as an opportunity. The visa laws should take advantage of the situation by ensuring that the recruitment process is beneficial to the country through enabling retainment of needed immigrants. Economic migration will be beneficial to the country’s economy.

The legal visa system fails to meet its goals. It is outdated and waiting lists for some family visas take more than 20 years. This hinders family members who applied at the prime of their lives to be eventually denied the chance until they are at their retirement age and can add very little if any economic contribution.

(http://ccis-ucsd.org/publication/wrkg132.pdf)

The logic of family reunion is at times not realized and this is a cause of illegal migration due to frustrations experienced. Setting numerical limits of how many are to be accepted in the system will not be a successful measure unless there is an establishment of flexible numerical limits with mechanisms put in place for adjusting the limits up or down.

The criteria used to come up with the limits as to which one should not exceed is also questionable. There could lack consensus on how much the number should be causing loopholes in the system. Immigrants have been beneficial to the U.S economy and they contribute to majority of the new jobs. The issue of immigration is a politicized issue and the point is lost when politics outshine facts and economics. Immigrants should not be harshly treated.

Family based visa rules should be restructured to attain the sole purpose of family reunion visas. However this should not outshine the economic function role. Temporary visas are not the best to attract the most outstanding immigrants. Very harsh measures on immigrants who are basically looking for better lives in lesser paying jobs are uncalled for. The many undocumented immigrants do not actually cause a threat to the U.S security. They suffer a lot due to the limited access to social and political services. Criminalizing undocumented immigrants will be a problem as it will encourage more activities in the black market and it won’t be economically viable for the U.S.

Tightening security at the borders is a brilliant idea but the rate at which deaths are registered is alarming. If policies were more accommodating this should not be occurring. Increasing the staff and the technology to speed up legal entries will be an appropriate measure in ensuring that immigrants are cleared up faster.

According to the conservatives deportation act will not be economically viable to the country. They support the immigrants in fighting for their rights through numerous strikes and demonstrations. The libels support the government in enforcing its sanctions. They are willing and ready to support the government in fighting its enemies be it foreign or domestic.  Conservatives advocate for creation of new legal channels for immigrants. However, protection of national security should not be neglected. To prevent future illegal border crossing the congress should grant immigrants already in U.S form of legal status.

Works cited:

Jana Evans-Braziel.History of migration and immigration laws in the United States.

General premises of US Citizens.Retreived on 29th October 2007 from

http://www.umass.edu/complit/aclanet/usMigrat.html

Marc R.Rosenblum.US Immigration Reform can the system Be repaired. Retrieved on

29th October 2006 from

 http://ccis-ucsd.org/publication/wrkg132.pdf

Bromwell W. Jeremy. History of Immigrants to the United States, A M Kelley, 1969.pp

225

Miller E Willard and Ruby M: United States Immigration. A Reference handbook 1996

JV6465 M55.pp304.

Josiah M Herman: Finding a Moral heart for US Migration policy. An anthropological

Perspective.pp57

Roy H.Beck: The Case Against migration NewYork, 1996,pp40

George J.Borjas: Heavens doors. Princeton University Press.1999, pp52.

Bill O. Hing: The immigrant as criminal: Punishing dreamers.9 Hasting women’s law

1998 Journal 79

 

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Wwii and Immigration

Following decades of isolationist policy, World War II was an essential time in the United States history because it gradually opened up American society to once again receive immigrants who are in search of better opportunity and refuge. In the early 19th century, the United States began to re-think about its stance on immigration. As the numbers of immigrants increased, questions about the leniency of the American government on immigration were raised by the “Progressive Movement”. Consequently, the United States began to employ a closed door policy of immigration.

Chinese male immigrants, who had been coming in masses, inspired the implementation of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which forbade further immigration of laborers of Chinese descent. This act forced prohibited Chinese males from bring over their families and destroyed possibilities of citizenship for Chinese immigrants by making them permanent aliens. Furthermore, in 1907, adding to the isolationist stance of the U. S. , the city of San Francisco attempted to remove Japanese students from white schools and put them in segregated schools with Chinese students.

The Japanese government was infuriated by with this comparison to the Chinese; this led to the establishment of the Gentleman’s Agreement. This was an informal agreement stating that the Japanese government would restrict further immigration of their people to the United States and, in return, Japanese children in San Francisco would be able to attend school with white children. Over the next half century, further restrictions on immigration were implemented, many based on racist assumptions that immigrants were inassimilable and could not be Americanized.

However, we see examples in Nisei Daughter, where the children like Monica and her siblings became Americanized and came to detest the strict Japanese culture their parents were raised in. this contradicts the assumption that immigrants would not assimilate. Continued pressure to limit immigration in the United States eventually led to the Immigration Act of 1917, which created the Asiatic Barred zone. This meant that people from the Asiatic zone, which included Japan, Korea, India, and Arabia were barred from coming to the United States. Furthermore, the Act restricted people who were illiterate and above the age of 16 from immigrating.

As a result of the 1917 Act, the immigration process included a literacy test that only allowed people of a certain educational background to enter the United States under the assumption that they would be able to assimilate better with America’s progressive ideologies, provide skills for the work force, and contributing to the economy. Despite increased restrictions, in between the First and Second World War, immigration to the US was relatively high due to the scarcity of unskilled labor needed in mines and factories in the United States.

After WWI, The Immigration Act of 1924 was passed which set a quota of a 165 thousand immigrants per year allowed into the United States. While there had been restrictions placed on Asian immigrants before 1924, there were still ways for students to come into America. Thus, the Second Quota Act was passed which stated that no Asians were permitted to come to the United States. There was an exception of 50 people per country provided those who came were racially white, jut just happened to be living in Asian countries.

This act made it easier for people from Germany, France, and Great Britain to migrate to the United States because they were white and as such were thought to be able to assimilate more easily into the American Culture. The only region these quota restrictions did not apply to was the western Hampshire. These limitations did not apply to Mexican immigrants because there was a high demand for their labor in the south, and employers made it difficult for congress to restrict that labor. Overall, Before World War II, it was extremely hard to immigrate to the United States unless there was demand the labor of immigrants.

By 1924, there was a clear racial hierarchy among immigrants in the United States based on skills as well as race. In Homestead: The Households of a Mill Town, Margaret Byington mentions the difficulties immigrant communities, such as the Slavs, faced as they tried to assimilate into the American culture. The government did not take any steps to address the hardships of these communities or help them assimilate into American culture. This is important because, after WWII, the United States went out of its way to welcome immigrants and develop programs to ease the adjustment process.

The United States was very dissatisfied with their involvement in WWI; thus when the Great Depression occurred, they dealt with it by further isolating themselves from the rest of the world. The United States government focused on solving its economic difficulties at home and dealing with the decade long depression. Even after WWII began in Europe, the United States stayed true to its isolationist policies and wanted nothing to do with the war. However, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 forced the United States to enter WWII. Success in WWII made the United States the leading power in the world.

After the United States witnessed the devastation Hitler had caused in WWII, the American government vowed to never allow that to happen again. As a result, immediately after WWII, the lessons learned from Hitler were applied to Stalin in the cold war. Instead of turning away from communist Russia, the United States engaged in the Cold War. Their goal was to contain communism around the world. The United States began strengthening their relationship with their own allies by building programs that would help these countries with education and health in order to get their assistance in containing the spread of Communism.

After WWII though, Americans, especially those in the executive branch who dealt with foreign policy, increasingly saw immigration and naturalization policies as tools for shaping foreign relations and advancing American interest. One of the first acts passed in the interest of immigration reform was The McCarran Walter Act of 1952, which not only illuminated the category of aliens ineligible for citizenship. This was the category many of the Issei Parents in Nisei Daughter were placed in but now they were permitted to become American citizens like their Nisei children.

Also, the restrictions of The Asiatic Barred Zone, was lifted. Now, all Countries including China, who had previously was not been allowed to send any immigrants to the United States, unless they were white, now have a small quota to send people to the United States regardless of their racial background. Also, there was recognition among Americans that there were more people who wanted to come to the United States than the country could accommodate. As a resold priority was given to those who had family in the United States and needed to be reunified with them.

Although some of the restrictions on immigration were loosened with The McCarran Walter Act, the country still allowed only a small number of people to immigrate. President Truman was pushing for immigration reform for years and was not fully satisfied with the new policy so the United States government sought out ways to expand immigration while still keeping what was best for the country in mind. President Johnson, who succeeded Kennedy, signs in the passage of the immigration and nationalization act of 1965.

This act reforms the country and erases the old system of discriminatory and restrictive quotas based on national original and race while replacing it with a much less racist system. It was a new way of thinking, not just about immigrant but toward the American society. To manage immigration now, the United States divided the world into western hemisphere which constituted North, Central and South America, and Eastern hemisphere which was everything else. Over 300 thousand immigrants are allowed to come to the United States yearly with this new cap.

Certain people were given preference with 80 percent of the groups under the new cap coming under different forms of family unification. Because of our involvement with different wars around the world and our efforts to end communism, the United States was increasingly allowing people to come above the set cap to find refuge in our country. These new loose policies on immigration coincided greatly with the civil rights movement. The movement comes at the same time the US becomes conscious of its role as a world leader.

When the United States sought out to stop communism, they needed to show the world that their system was better but they could not do that when the world saw America as segregated and racist against some of their own people. Unequal treatment among Americans led some countries to want to turn to communism as a better policy. Immigration reform and the Civil Rights Movement reinforced one another and eventually left. In 1950s, more than half of immigrants came from Europe and there were more Canadians coming into the country than Mexicans but beginning with 1965, Asians and Mexicans have began to come in mass.

Congress did not understand when they passed act of 1965 was just how large the number of immigrants coming in would become. This unexpected increase in immigrants scared some Americans. There was especially great number of people coming from Mexico who many entering the country illegally and not being counted in the quota. The Mexican population in the US jumped from 60 thousand people in the 1940s to 1. 6 million in the 1980s. Even though this high number of immigrants was brought up concerns about the current immigration policy, the country’s new understanding after WWII would not allow then to close their doors once again.

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Immigration During the Industrial Revolution

Immigration during the Industrial Revolution Immigration was a huge part of the industrial revolution, some migrated legal, some illegal. Either way, many immigrants came to the United States searching for a dream, the American dream to be precise. This leads to the question; Why did people immigrate to America? There can be many answers to this question, but some of the most important answers are: political, others economic, while yet others religious, whatever the case was, the United States became a mix of different cultures.

However, the main reason for immigration was because of the “Industrial Revolution” Industrial Revolution is basically the changes in industry from the 18th century to the 19th century that started in Britain and then other Western European countries and spread to the Unites States. Without the growth in Industry however, Many Immigrants cannot migrate to the United States. For example without the technology improvements in shipbuilding, many ships could not make it past the long journey through the ocean.

The industrial revolution gave many Immigrants the chance to travel to the United States where they were able to get jobs working in railroads, factories, potato picking, or any other jobs industries enabled them to do. In the 1750’s, most people in Europe lived on small farms and made most of their needs by hand. As the industrial revolution started, many people lived in cities and most of their needs were produced by complicated machines. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to Belgium, France, Germany, the United States and Japan.

It was an important change in the way goods were produced, and improved the way people lived. The Industrial Revolution is a major turning point in world history. I’m sure by now you are asking What caused industrial revolution? Agricultural Revolution or farming revolution was a change in farming methods that allowed greater production of food. This huge change was caused by the use of new farming technology such as seed drill (Machine that plants seeds) and improved fertilizers. The outcome of this farming change was higher access of food.

The enclosure Movement also forced people into Industrial Revolution for example; farmers who worked in the farming industry where replaced by farming machines and where left homeless forced to find new jobs in the industrial revolution. Big business was also a change that created Mass Production. Mass Production shifted people from production at home, to production in large factories in cities. Mass production also allowed for lower prices on the good produced. In 1892, the government made an immigration station on Ellis Island, in a bay between New York and Jersey City, New Jersey.

Every day, hundreds or even thousands of people arrived by boat and pass through inspections as they arrived, potential immigrants were escorted through a quick health exam. As immigrants climbed up a set of stairs, officials watched for symptoms of illnesses, heavy breathing, and signs of mental disturbances. These were indications that the person might not be able to find or maintain a job. Doctors then gave a “six second physical” and checked for diseases, including a contagious eye infection called trachoma.

Sick people were sent to a hospital on Ellis Island to be treated, and escorted through the same immigration process again. After the physical checkup, potential immigrants were asked a series of questions by immigration inspectors. Life as an immigrant in the U. S was not all that great. First, they had to learn English for many immigrants; they had to put up with going to school and at the same time working which was very exhausting in a situation like this. No one put up signs or notices in other languages for them. This is why learning English was the most important process.

Then, they had to get work, because the government didn’t give money to anyone. They had to earn it themselves! No one cut them any breaks if you were a different nationality. The Italians and Irish were especially subject to cruelty and where paid less sometimes because of their nationality. Swedish and German immigrants: many of these made their way to Wisconsin and Minnesota. They established dairy farms, in particular, and also grew wheat. In this part of the country, there are hundreds of Lutheran churches that they founded, as most of these immigrants were, if not Lutheran, Protestants.

In conclusion, many immigrants migrated to the United States for various reasons and went through the hardest situations to live the American dream. Some immigrants where successful and managed to live their dreams as an American but others struggled through the hardest situations and went through cruelty and discrimination. All of this was caused by nothing more than the changes in the industrial revolution and the huge impact on many people that had to migrate to places like cities to not be affected by this change.

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Mexican immigration

Mexican immigration has been considered as a distinct event that occupies a place in the history of United States immigration.  There are currently millions of Mexican Americans in the U.S., occupying almost all regions of the country.  Their immigration started in the 20th century and the influx of Mexicans is still continuing to date.  The culture of Mexico and its US immigrants is complex, representing a combination of Spanish, Mexican and other indigenous tribal traditions and beliefs.

The significant migration of Mexicans to the US has influenced the judiciary and public systems of the US.  In addition, legislative rulings regarding immigration have been constantly changing since the 20th century, mostly due to the Mexican migration.  Interestingly, the US society has also experience variations in reception of these migrant individuals, ranging from a warm welcome to a cold feeling for unsolicited migrants.  In return, the Mexican immigrants have learned to adapt to an ever-changing treatment in the US and have become skilled at defending themselves from US citizens that show prejudice towards them.

Today, a huge portion of the US population is composed of Mexican immigrants.  Their numbers in the US have made them prominent social and cultural group, influencing the employment of the Spanish language in most of the public services and commercial products.  The Mexican food has been around the US for hundreds of years now, with its meals being a staple even to non-Mexican US citizens.

The growth of the Latino population in the United States has resulted in the significant observation of social and economic risk factors that are associated with health.  Mexican-Americans or the Latino population comprise the largest group of immigrants in the United States.  Studies have revealed that the concept of having Mexican origins was an independent risk factor that influences conditions of being uninsured.  Even though the word “Latino” is an acceptable descriptor for this specific population, other groups categorized this ethnic group as “Hispanic.”  Several studies have attempted to describe and evaluate the socio-demographic features of Mexican-Americans, including the health conditions and healthcare needs of this specific population (NIH, 2006).

The Mexican-American population is considered an immigrant population, hence it should also be noted that it takes time for this population to totally settle down in the United States (Schmidley, 2001).  Studies show that first-generation Mexican American families experienced a more difficult living condition than subsequent generation.  These include family income level, educational attainment and language.  It has been generally observed that approximately 65% of the first-generation Mexican-Americans lived in poverty, and 75% of the heads of Mexican-American household possessed less than 9th grade education.  It is also interesting to know that less that 10% of the Mexican-American households had a good command of English.

First-generation Mexican American children had the highest rate of being uninsured (64.2%), which was significantly higher than the percentage reported for Hispanics as a whole. Significant differences persisted for the second- and third generation groups. In fact, each generational group of Mexican American children was more likely to be uninsured than either non-Hispanic white children or black children.

It is also interesting to note that, among first-generation Mexican American children, there were almost equal proportions of children with private and public health insurance. This is not surprising, because 70% of the heads of household were employed.  A significantly greater proportion of first-generation children could be insured if their parents worked for employers who provided health insurance. Even when insurance is offered, however, many employed Hispanics in poor and low-income households decline coverage because

of lack of affordability.

Previous reports that immigrant children as a whole are less likely to have health insurance, less likely to have a usual source of care, and less likely to have had a doctor’s visit in the past year were limited in that they did not differentiate Hispanic subgroups

or generations.  First-generation Mexican American children had much worse health care access than previously described for Hispanic children as a whole. Previous studies

show that majority of Hispanic children had a usual source of care.  With regard to immigrant children, 51% of all foreign-born children (including Latino, white, black, and

Asian children) in working-poor families were uninsured and that 65% had a usual source of care, suggesting that first-generation Mexican American children may also fare worse than immigrant children considered as a whole. Even when first-generation Mexican

American children were insured, they had the lowest likelihood of having a regular source of care or a specific provider.

First-generation Mexican American children also demonstrated the lowest levels of utilization of health care services, as assessed by visits to a physician, use of prescription medications, and screening for hearing and vision problems (Holl et al., 1995; Weinick and Krauss, 2000).  Poor health care access is a known predictor of poor health care utilization; however, the data also suggest that the first-generation group might have had decreased needs.  For example, fewer reported earaches/infections in the first-generation group and lower levels of treatment for ear infections were consistent with fewer visits to a physician for earache/infection.

First-generation Mexican American children also had lower rates of reported cold or flu, pneumonia, and ear infections, which were consistent with lower rates of prescription medication use.  Better health outcomes in recent immigrant populations form the basis of what has been described as the “epidemiologic paradox” (Trevino et al., 1991).  Despite the presence of demographic and socioeconomic risk factors, foreign-born Mexican American women have low birth weight infant birth rates and infant mortality rates similar to those of white women.

It has not been confirmed that any advantage at birth persists into early childhood, and study results are conflicting.  Mexican American mothers report low rates of asthma, coordination problems, psychologic and behavioral problems, speech problems, and mental retardation among their children, suggesting that immigrant children may fare better with regard to specific illnesses.

A substantially higher number of first-generation Mexican American households reported Spanish as the primary language spoken and also had lower levels of health care access and utilization, compared with the other groups (Kurzon, 2000).  Hispanic parents identify language problems, long waits at the physician’s office, lack of health insurance, difficulty paying medical bills, and difficulty arranging transportation as the greatest barriers to care (Halfon et al., 1997).

However, several may not bring their children in for care if the medical staff does not understand Hispanic culture.  This is an important realization that points to systemic factors, as opposed to individual patient factors, as causes of racial/ethnic disparities in health care. The cultural shortcomings of clinical staff, including lack of Spanish language proficiency, lack of knowledge of Hispanic culture, and lack of Hispanic staff members, cannot be underestimated.  Additional research is required to identify the specific barriers to health care access and utilization for specific population subgroups, the benefits of a culturally competent and language-friendly clinical environment, and the costs of creating and maintaining such an environment.

Indeed, culture, cultural perspective, and/or cultural differences may account for a portion of the difference attributed to generational status (Jackson and Heroux, 1999). One of the most studied measures of acculturation, namely, language, reflected the first-generation Mexican American households, with most being primarily Spanish-speaking. Although the definitions of acculturation varied, past studies that used language preference as a measure of acculturation showed increased use of preventive services and decreased perceived barriers to care for Hispanics who spoke English.

A substantially higher number of first-generation Mexican American households reported Spanish as the primary language spoken and also had lower levels of health care access and utilization, compared with the other groups.  The language and culture of the medical office may have disproportionate effects on utilization of health care for first-generation immigrants (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4389/is_200410/ai_n15294610).

Hispanic parents identify language problems, long waits at the physician’s office, lack of health insurance, difficulty paying medical bills, and difficulty arranging transportation as the greatest barriers to care. However, many may not bring their children in for care if the medical staff does not understand Hispanic culture.  This is an important realization that points to systemic factors, as opposed to individual patient factors, as causes of racial/ethnic disparities in health care. T

he cultural shortcomings of clinical staff, including lack of Spanish language proficiency, lack of knowledge of Hispanic culture, and lack of Hispanic staff members, cannot be underestimated.  Additional research is required to identify the specific barriers to health care access and utilization for specific population subgroups, the benefits of a culturally competent and language-friendly clinical environment, and the costs of creating and maintaining such an environment.

First-generation Mexican American children also demonstrated the lowest levels of utilization of health care services, as assessed by visits to a physician, use of prescription medications, and screening for hearing and vision problems. Poor health care access is a known predictor of poor health care utilization.  The first-generation group might have had decreased needs.  For example, fewer reported earaches/infections in the first-generation group and lower levels of treatment for ear infections were consistent with fewer visits to a physician for earache/infection.

First-generation Mexican American children also had lower rates of reported cold or flu, pneumonia, and ear infections, which were consistent with lower rates of prescription medication use.  Better health outcomes in recent immigrant populations form the basis of what has been described as the “epidemiologic paradox.” Previous studies of perinatal outcomes showed that, despite the presence of demographic and socioeconomic risk factors, foreign-born Mexican American women have low birth weight infant birth rates and infant mortality rates similar to those of white women.

It has not been confirmed that any advantage at birth persists into early childhood, and study results are conflicting.  Previous studies suggested that Mexican American mothers report low rates of asthma, coordination problems, psychologic and behavioral problems, speech problems, and mental retardation among their children, suggesting that immigrant children may fare better with regard to specific illnesses.

The generational status alone may account for lower developmental scores among Mexican American children.  Lower rates of specific illnesses among first-generation Mexican American children seem to support the epidemiologic paradox, suggesting that first-generation Mexican American children had decreased health care needs with respect to the conditions reported. This might have translated into decreased utilization of health services for this group.  The theory that Mexican American children become less healthy as they become more acculturated has now been assessed and reviewed.  Subsequent generations reported higher prevalence of the illnesses tested, adding to evidence in the literature that Hispanic immigrant children have health outcomes and indicators that worsen with greater acculturation and each successive generation (NIH, 2007).

References

Halfon N, Wood DL, Valdez RB, Pereyra M and Duan N (1997): Medicaid enrollment and health services access by Latino children in inner-city Los Angeles. JAMA 277:636–641

Holl JL, Szilagyi PG, Rodewald LE, Byrd RS and Weitzman ML (1995): Profile of uninsured children in the United States. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med.  149:398–406

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4389/is_200410/ai_n15294610

Jackson M and Heroux J (1999):  Program to address sociocultural barriers to health care in Hispanic communities.  National Program Report.  Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/19/d5/46.pdf

Kurzon VP (2000):  Mexican-American culture and antepartum management.  Grad. Res. Nursing.  Retrieved from http://www.graduateresearch.com/kurzon.htm.

National Institutes of Health (2007):  Health disparities.  Bethesda: NIH.

National Institutes of Health (2007):  U.S.-born Hispanics may have poorer health than immigrants.  Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_52026.html

Schmidley AD (2000): Profile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States.  Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. US Census Bureau Current Population Reports, series. p23-206.

Trevino FM, Moyer ME, Valdez RB, Stroup-Benham CA (1991): Health insurance coverage and utilization of health services by Mexican Americans, mainland Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans. JAMA  265:233–237.

Weinick RM, Krauss NA. Racial/ethnic differences in children’s access to care. Am. J. Public Health. 90:1771–1774.

 

 

 

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The Nativist’s Response to Immigration

Immigrants have been seeking salvation or just new opportunities in America for hundreds of years. Even Americans originally started off as immigrants. They came to settle in this New World to seek opportunities. These types of immigrants were white, strong, leaders and felt they were superior. In the mid nineteenth century, the “new” immigrants were also welcomed. According to President Grant, these “new” immigrants were the weak, broken, and crippled people who had nowhere else to go.

Grant thought these “new” immigrants would ruin the tone of the American life into a more vulgarized tone now that these immigrants are filling up the jails and asylums (Document 4). They mostly came from Southern and Eastern parts of Europe and were poor, ignorant, and illiterate. They were needed for working power and employers liked to use them because they were able to give them cheaper wages. Soon there was an economic boom when machines came to replace the workers. Resentment soon arose since job offers were scarce and immigrants received the jobs over the Americans.

Certain groups of Americans opposed open immigration. Many of these people did not want new arrived immigrants to have the right to vote until they have lived in the United States for 21 years. These were often referred to as the Nativist groups. These Nativists were the old type of American immigrants who looked down on these new immigrants and wanted to shield America from them. Nativism did speak out against the Chinese immigration on the West Coast. Nativist arguments say that Chinese immigration would create race antagonism throughout the entire public.

This means there will be hostility among the races so there would be separation among the country. In 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act suspended Chinese immigration for ten years and prohibited the naturalization of the Chinese. The Chinese were once a great asset to America. They came over from China and helped build the railroads. After the railroads were finished, the Chinese were supposed to leave. Instead, they stayed in America for good. The Chinese immigrants now wished to assimilate their own culture and ideas with the American ideas.

Americans, mostly Nativists, were extremely bothered by this because the Americans did not want the Chinese to bring their alien culture to America (Document 1). Other groups, who resented other races from assimilating, organized classes so the immigrants can learn the American language and way. They said immigrants should become citizens by learning the “American language. ” They thought if the people that come to America and don’t learn the way of the Americans, then this country will soon be just like the old country, the country which they have already left (Document 3).

Resentment over immigration still arose within the United States. Many writers began to blame immigrants for problems regularly occurring throughout time. E. A. Ross wrote that immigrants had a strong influence on American politics and government. He said that the simple minded foreigner is the tap-root to the main issue. The tap-root is the source of the problem. Ross said that once that simple minded foreigner unleashes his ideas, the foreigners get a stronger grip on the situation.

They soon broaden and entrench their power by intimidation at the polls; they have ballot frauds, saloon influence, and much more. This will all start from one foreigner and will soon increase till the foreigners have a larger vote (Document 7). Other writers like Rev. Josiah Strong blamed certain “diseases” on immigrants. These were not actual diseases but more like problems in the country. He blamed immigrants on the lack of holiness in the Sabbath and how it is now a holiday. He also blames the liquor traffic on the immigrants too (Document 2).

Whether the immigrants came to America or not, these problems would still be here. It’s human instinct to attack a different race or religion when a problem comes about. That is exactly what the Americans were doing to the immigrants. There was always a large amount of immigrants arriving into the United States. The greatest danger of unrestricted immigration is that the immigrants can overrun the master race and they can have more control then the Americans (Document 5). When a lower race mixes with a higher race in sufficient numbers, history proves that the lower race will prevail.

If the Americans continue to let unrestricted amounts of immigrants enter the United States, their thoughts and believes would soon alienate the Americans and the Americans would soon become the strangers in their own country (Document 6). Once Americans began accepting that there is no way to completely stop the flow of immigrants into America, they began to find ways to limit the amount arriving. In 1921 the National Origins Act was put into effect. It looked at the immigration record to find a base year. They looked at the year that the fewest immigrants arrived and called that the base year.

They used the base year as the quota for immigrant arrival. Illegal immigration continued and the immigration and Naturalization office spent a good deal of time tracking down and deporting illegal immigrants. Finally the immigration Act of 1985 was passed which said that an illegal immigrant who has been in America for at least five years, and who can prove it, can apply for citizenship and become an American citizen. As long as the flow of immigrants is carefully regulated then immigration should be no problem, maybe even beneficiary.

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Funny in Farsi Immigration

America has often been called “The Land of the Free”, where opportunities are like the bounteous fish caught at sea; the catch may be large or small, may come sooner or later. Just as the Gold Rush prompted for many miners to come about, the promising opportunities have prompted for immigrants to pour into in America. Although this chance for a new beginning has vastly beckoned immigrants, there are sacrifices immigrants must make along with newfound chances. Succumbing to social alienation is one of the sacrifices that immigrants must make.

In the memoir, Funny in Farsi, by Firoozeh Dumas, and the studies of Djuro J. Vrga on Differential Associational Involvement of Successive Ethnic Immigrations: An Indicator of Ethno-Religious Factionalism and Alienation of Immigrants, the depths of social alienation and its influence on immigrants are reviewed. Dumas’ memoir describes the experience of an Iranian growing up in America, whilst Vrga’s study is applied to different sociocultural aspects of life immigrants may encounter.

Cultural differences in morality, ethics, values and political standings all play an substantial role when discussing social alienation. However, more often than so, the Americans are the social alienators while the immigrants are the socially alienated. Though Americans were once so to speak—immigrants, as if Americans are rotten crops from the harvests of heritage, immigrants are the freshly picked fruits of culture and tradition, and a batch of flawless tomatoes obviously stand out amongst the rundown veggies.

Firoozeh Dumas highlights the awkward feelings entailed with social alienation as a theme throughout the memoir. Dumas recalls on several occasions how uneasy and disturbing it is to be singled out, “I cringed. Mrs. Sandberg, using a combination of hand gestures, started pointing to the map and saying, “Iran? Iran? Iran? ” Clearly, Mrs. Sandberg had planned on incorporating us into the day’s lesson. I only wished she had told us that earlier so we could have stayed home. ” (Dumas 6).

Merely because it was a tad unusual to have an Iranian family join the community, Dumas’ teacher decided it would be perfectly normal to use people of a unique heritage for the lesson as though they were show-and-tell puppets when they are after all, people. Daily ‘encounters’ with other Americans through Dumas’ experiences epict how the lack of geographic knowledge has further contributed to alienation and its bond with immigrants, “ Inevitably, people would ask us where we were from, but our answer didn’t really matter. One mention of our homeland and people would get that uncomfortable smile on their face that says, “ How nice.

Where the heck is that? ” (Dumas 37). Despite the seemingly minor extent of social alienation found in Dumas’ more humorous examples, the isolation of cultures does occasionally meet with a rather unreasonable but inevitable high tide. As the Iranian Revolution took place, the media fed its always starving Americans with the news that Iranians had violently taken a group of Americans hostage, “ For some reason, many Americans began to think that all Iranians, despite outward appearances to the contrary, could at any given moment get angry and take prisoners. (Dumas 39. )

This kind of media induced prejudice created an unsafe social environment for Iranians, ultimately forcing them to lie about their ethnicities, “ My mother solved the problem by claiming to be from Russia or “Torekey. ” (Dumas 39. Other than lying about one’s ethnicity, finding and keeping a job was nearly impossible during these sorts of times, “ Even worse, with the turmoil in Iran, the value of my father’s pension dropped to the point of worthlessness. At fifty-eight, my father found himself unemployed and with no prospects.

Nobody wanted to hire an Iranian. ”(Dumas 117. ) Coinciding with the urgency of unemployment due to societal prejudices, Djuro J. Vrga’s views on the matter are quite blunt, “ An immigrant must make two kinds of adjustments: (1) to his own ethnic group, and (2) to the larger ociety. ” (Vrga 239. ) Without restriction to the Iranian Revolution, Dumas’ experience and Vrga’s analogy reveal a now unearthed concept that social alienation is composed of both a minority and a versing majority.

All throughout her life, Firoozeh Dumas was forced to contend to a traditional upbringing contrary to the contemporary surroundings she lived in. These two opposing factors were the necessary ingredients creating the recipe for social alienation, whereas if Dumas were not Iranian and born purely American there would be a missing ingredient. Even in marital matters, Dumas faced the same kind of discouraging social issues, “ Francois and I had agreed that we would be married both in the Catholic Church and in a traditional Persian ceremony.

The tough part was finding a Catholic priest who would be willing to officiate at a mixed marriage. ” (Dumas 145-146. ) The interracial circumstances binding the wedding like a serpent does its prey, Firoozeh Dumas consistently meets with American shortcomings. In 1977, Washington, D. C. , Iranians were invited to welcome the Shah, or Iranian leader, who was cheduled to meet Jimmy Carter, a newly elected president. Unfortunately, anti-Shah demonstrators interfered with the event, “The demonstrators had crossed the road.

They were stampeding toward us waving sticks with nails driven into them. People were screaming and running. Instead of Iranian flags, the lawn was covered with bloody and injured Iranians. My parents and I ran and ran and ran. ” (Dumas 113. ) The segregation of Iranians uprooted into a violent and gruesome scene, agreeable with Djuro J. Vrga’s perspective on such issues, “The ethnic group is a social system through which its members atisfy many of their social needs and express frustration resulting from unsatisfied expectations and aspirations in the larger society. (Vrga 239. )

The larger society in Dumas’ case was composed of the anti-Shah demonstrators, whom successfully destroyed a political event with their distaste for Iranians. Regardless of the many stages social alienation has set, it appears that time has an influential hand when it comes to deciding whether the stage will be a dandy garden, or a gloomy swamp. Funny in Farsi is a memoir that not only shows how growing up an immigrant can be, but how t affects one’s social standings in society.

Djuro J. Vrga’s Differential Associational Involvement of Successive Ethnic Immigrations: An Indicator of Ethno-Religious Factionalism and Alienation of Immigrants serves only further in accentuating the conditional aspects an immigrant must face. Though social alienation may be a recurring theme in Dumas’ memoir, it is truthful and consequently a recurring theme in possibly any immigrant’s life. Humorous indeed, it could be Funny in Any Language; there are no restrictions on where social alienation might pop up, but Dumas provides a great example nonetheless.

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Immigration to the United States

The controversy over immigration policy has become one of the most pressing issues in the United States. There are many misconceptions when it comes to immigration but the United States actually benefits from immigration by allowing foreigners to live study and work here. There are immigrants who have earned their citizenship in this in this country and are making the best of it and then there are those who come to this country just to cause harm. We as a people need to understand the difference between the two and to realize that there are some benefits to immigration.

Those who are opposed to immigration always claim that immigrants take on jobs, lower wages and drain too much tax money. According to a study by Public Policy Institute of California, “immigrants who arrived in the State between 1990 and 2004 increased wages of native workers by an average of 4%. ” What they do not realize is that jobs that immigrants take on are jobs that most people in America would not take whether immigrants were here or not. There are plenty of economic benefits to immigration reform.

I’ve learn that “immigration reform would increase U. S. GDP, which is Gross Domestic Product by at least 0. 84 percent. This would translate into at least a $1. 5 trillion cumulative increase in GDP over 10 years. ” Immigrants contribute to our society, maybe not as much as those who were born here but there are some positive things that come out of immigration. Not all immigrants are here to cause terror and threaten the lives of other human beings. A study that was done by the Immigration Policy Center in Washington D. C. howed that “immigrant men between the ages of 18 to 39 had an incarceration rate five times lower than people born in the United States. ”

There are people who have worked hard to earn to citizenship and should not have to be placed into a certain category just because they were not born here. Also there is a diversity value to having immigrants living in the United States. Having people live here who were not brings about cultural and social changes along with opinions and ideas for new developments. The benefit of immigrants moving here is to have a better life.

They would not have moved here if they did not imagine a better standard of living. The benefit may not be for the United States but there is a benefit for the immigrants. Immigration has its advantages and disadvantages. Some of the disadvantages include” greater poverty, increase in crimes, lower unskilled wage, education costs, and a few others. ” On the other hand, the positive benefits of immigration far outweigh the disadvantages in many ways such as the economic advantages and the cultural advantages.

More often than not most immigrants come to the United States looking to make a better life for themselves. Some immigrants go through so much trouble just to be turned away. When applying for citizenship there is a lot of paperwork and intense interviews. Immigrants who are here illegally and just wanted to cause harm do not deserve to live here in America, but those who have worked hard to earn their citizenship deserve the same rights as someone who was born here.

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Illegal Immigration: Claims Making Analysis

I. Introduction and Background Illegal immigration from Mexico to the United States is a social problem that has caused a great deal of debate. There are several pros and cons to having illegal immigrants in the U.S., and many people have very strong opinions on the topic. From traditional news organizations to members of special interest groups, there have been a great deal of news articles published on this issue. I chose this topic because it has recently become a very popular social problem in California, which is where I currently reside. Particularly in my hometown of San Diego, illegal immigration from Mexico is very prevalent.

I grew up seeing illegal immigrant workers outside of home depot, working in small taco shops by the beach, and doing various low paying jobs. Illegal immigration into the United States is a topic that is frequently discussed and covered by the media, and I thought it would be interesting to explore the different ways illegal immigration claims are covered and packaged by traditional news sources and members of special interest groups. Many individuals consider illegal immigration to be a social problem for various reasons.

To start, according to the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), it is believed that illegal immigration costs U.S. taxpayers billions of dollars each year. Money the government has received in the form of taxes is used to pay for illegal immigrants’ medical care, education in public schools, and imprisonment (FAIR, 2011). Also, illegal immigrants take jobs that could be occupied by unemployed American citizens. Due to the fact that these immigrants do not need to be paid minimum wage, employers are able to pay them much less than people living legally in the U.S. Another reason illegal immigration is considered to be a social problem is because it is often linked with identity theft. Finally, illegal immigration is considered a problem because many of these aliens commit serious crimes and endanger US citizens.

According to Liberty Pundits, “In the population study of a sample of 55,322 illegal aliens, researchers found that they were arrested at least a total of 459,614 times, averaging about 8 arrests per illegal alien,” (Liberty Pundits, 2010). For these reasons, many people consider illegal immigration in the United States to be a serious social problem. The news articles that I have selected to analyze for this paper come from a variety of sources. Half of them are from traditional news sources including ABC News, the Union Tribune, the examiner.com, buzzle.com, and darwinsmoney.com. I chose the articles from these sources because for the most part they presented the social problem without making a clear argument on the topic for the most part.

In general, these news sources presented the social problem of illegal immigration and showed both the pros and cons. The main focus of these articles is to draw attention to the claim. The rest of the articles are from special interest group members such as Liberty Pundits, FAIR, and three different blogs. I selected these articles because the authors had a very strong opinion on the social problem of illegal immigration. As a whole, the target audiences of these articles are very similar. The middle and lower classes are the main target audience because they are the ones who are most directly affected by illegal immigration. The middle and lower classes are losing jobs, paying to support, and dealing with the crime of illegal immigrants in the United States.

While the lower and middle classes are the target audience, many of the news sources also attempt to grab the attention of a much larger group, all U.S. citizens. By saying that illegal immigrants are costing all taxpayers lots of money and committing many crimes, some of these sources target the entire U.S. population. In my paper, I will analyze the different ways by which these articles present the social problem of illegal immigration. From the book “Social Problems” by Joel Best, I will specifically be talking about statistics used, domain expansion, balance, and the use of counterclaims (Best, 2008). Even though these articles all cover illegal immigration in the United States, the way the topic is presented and covered by each source is different.

II. Traditional news articles Overall, the traditional news articles tend to bring up and draw attention to the claims without giving their input or personal opinion on the topic. While certain articles may make it seem obvious that illegal immigration is a social problem by stating some of the downsides, they never outright say that something needs to be done. In fact, a couple of the articles not only state the claims, but also illustrate the counter claims as well. These articles are simply stating the facts in a way that draws the most possible attention from the target audience.

The ABC editorial “Expensive Aliens: How Much Do Illegal Immigrants Really Cost?” is a perfect example of an article that brings up a claim about illegal immigration, but also recognizes the counter argument. Instead of simply stating that illegal immigrants are costing the “U.S. taxpayers more than $100 billion each year,” this article also recognizes the positive economic impact that they have on our country (Fahmy, 2010, p. 1). By addressing both sides of this debate, ABC is able to capture a much broader audience. People on both sides of the social problem, as well as people who do not know much about this claim will be interested in reading the article. The article posted on Darwin’s Money is very similar to the ABC article in many respects.

The article starts out by saying, “There are two sides to every story…” and states that the article will attempt to be as objective as possible. The purpose of this article is to address both sides of the illegal immigration dispute and make the audience aware of this social problem. As stated in Best’s book “Social Problems,” these two articles attempt to have balance because they are written about a very controversial issue (Best, 2008). The articles want to address and bring up a problem without upsetting anyone in an effort to keep the largest possible audience. My next article from a traditional news source, “Illegal Immigration Problems,” takes a slightly different approach.

All but the last paragraph of this editorial are focused on the problems with illegal immigration. What Best calls domain expansion is used to draw attention to the fact that illegal immigration is a problem (Best, 2008). In this article, the problem is expanded to include disease, crime, deprivation of rights, and insufficient recourses. However, at the end of the article, the author says, “Is there a need to solve the issue of illegal immigration or are there illegal immigration pros and cons? Is it right to take immediate action about illegal immigration?” (Borkar, 2010). These questions imply that illegal immigration might not be a problem at all.

By doing this, the writer acknowledges the counterclaims and adds balance to the article. Although this editorial does not completely recognize illegal immigration as a social problem, it does spend the majority of the time discussing why illegal immigrants are such a problem to the United States. The final two articles from traditional news sources are written in a much different way. These two articles believe that illegal immigration is a problem, and fail to mention anything about counterclaims. The article in the Examiner, written by Joe Campana, focuses on the claim that, “There is an insidious connection between illegal immigration and identity theft,” (Campana, 2010) This tactic of using domain expansion helps to attract a wider audience of people not only interested in identity theft, but also illegal immigration.

The Union Tribune article, “The human, financial costs of illegal immigration,” also makes it much more clear to the audience that illegal immigration is a problem. The reason the Union Tribune is able to write about how terrible illegal immigration is for our country is because the audience of this newspaper is comprised mostly of people living in San Diego, where illegal immigration has many negative affects on the people. In San Diego, many individuals have lost jobs due to the recent economic downturn, and the high prevalence of illegal immigrants gives the unemployed someone to blame.

Domain expansion and statistics, specifically, are used in this article to help show the negative effects of illegal immigrants on the people of San Diego. By saying that uncompensated emergency room costs alone are around $154.9 million a year, it makes people upset that they must pay this money in the form of taxes (Bilbray, 2011). It almost creates resentment towards the illegal immigrants. The domain expansion is also exemplified by bringing in job loss and unemployment and saying that at least part of it is caused by illegal immigration.

III. Special Interest Articles Special interest articles tend to use a much different approach than traditional news articles when writing about the social problem of illegal immigration. In general, special interest articles are likely to be much more radical in the way that they address the social problem. Rather than just stating a problem and trying to gain attention, they also attempt to persuade the audience that something must be done to fix the issue or there will be negative effects on society. The articles written by Liberty Pundits and FAIR use crime and public safety as a way to convince people that something must be done to stop illegal immigration. FAIR even calls illegal immigrants a, “public safety issue,” in the article (FAIR, 2011).

By using domain expansion, the articles are able to gain a larger audience by instilling fear in the U.S. citizens who read this article. Saying that illegal immigration causes crime will make people want to get rid of illegal immigration because it will make them feel as though their safety is being jeopardized. FAIR also makes the audience scared that illegal immigrants cause danger and crime by giving a very long list of crimes that illegal immigrants have committed. Liberty Pundits also uses statistics to convince the audience that illegal immigrants, as a whole, are mostly criminals. In a study of 124 alien arrests, Liberty Pundits reports that 103 had prior arrests, 85 of the 103 had a felony, and 49 of those had multiple felonies (Liberty Pundits, 2010).

Although these statistics may not be a good representation of all illegal immigrants, to the average reader these statistics seem very convincing and makes it seem as though almost all illegal immigrants are dangerous. In these ways, the two articles cause people to believe illegal immigration must be stopped, which also causes some of the audience to become activists on the issue. By using statistics and domain expansion, the blogs “Where Do All the New Jobs Go?”, “Economic costs of illegal immigration”, and “Illegal Immigration” attempt to convince its audience that illegal immigration needs to be stopped. The article “Where Do All the New Jobs Go?” use statistics to show how illegal immigration almost doubles the number of jobs that need to be created to support the number of people in the labor force.

Two million jobs need to be created to support U.S. born labor force entrants, 5.7 million jobs must be created when legal immigrants are added to that number, and a staggering 10 million jobs need to be created per year when we add illegal immigrants to that number (Stop Illegal Immigration Now, 2007). The article “Economic costs of illegal immigration” states that, “An estimated 1,880,000 American workers are displaced from their jobs every year by immigration,” (The American Resistance, 2003). Along with piggybacking the social problem of unemployment, these statistics are intended to magnify the number of jobs illegal immigrants are taking from U.S. citizens.

Expanding the domain by piggybacking the social problem of unemployment helps to gain the support of the unemployed and those whose jobs are threatened by illegal immigrants. In addition, it is interesting that the blog “Where Do All the New Jobs Go?” not only attempts to gain support on the issue of illegal immigration, but also attempts to gain activists by saying, “Ask your Congressman and Senators and local elected officials exactly what they are doing to stop our problem with illegal immigration and vanishing borders.” (Skymail, 2010). Unlike the traditional news sources, this article makes its views on illegal immigration clear and states that people need to do their part to fix the problem.

IV. Comparison, Analysis, and Conclusion Traditional news sources and articles written by activists had many similarities and differences in the way that they discuss the issue of illegal immigration. While traditional news articles tend to simply bring up an issue to the audience and let them form their own opinions, the blogs and articles written by activists not only attempt to spread information about the issue, but also try to convince people that something needs to be done and to get the audience more involved with the problem. The goal of the activists is to gain support on an issue, and ultimately to have something done to eliminate the problem. On the other hand, the goal of traditional news articles’ goal is simply to find and write about interesting stories that will appeal to the largest possible audience.

These articles often have balance and discuss both sides of the problem. Instead of just saying that illegal immigration is an issue and it must be solved, traditional news articles also talk about the positives that illegal immigrants bring to our country. On the other hand, the two types of articles also had many similarities. For example, both traditional news sources and articles written by activists used domain expansion and statistics. Both types of articles attempted to use these techniques in order to show the magnitude of this social problem and to gain the audience’s interest.

By using domain expansion, both types of articles are able to relate the problem to a larger group of people on a much more personal level. By doing this, the editorials gain the interest of a much bigger audience, which is equally important to both types of articles. In addition, both traditional news articles and articles/blogs written by activists have similar audiences. Illegal immigration most directly affects the lower and middle class, therefore those are the people that these articles attempt to attract. Traditional news articles and articles written by activists also shape the public perception of illegal immigration. For articles written by activists, shaping the public perception is very important.

The goal of these articles is to make the audience believe that illegal immigration is a serious problem and something needs to be done to stop it. By using various methods, the activists shape the public’s opinion about the issue and convince them that illegal immigration is a serious problem. On the other hand, traditional news articles tend not to do the same.

These articles present the issue, and let the public form their own opinions on the problem. Overall, it is clear that the way in which social problems are constructed directly relates to the writer of article. While activists attempt to gain support for their cause and beliefs on an issue, traditional news sources simply attempt to present an issue and captivate the largest possible audience. Even though articles written by various sources may cover the same topic, the way the issue is constructed is generally very different.

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Mexican Immigrant Life and Americanization in the 1920’s

In his book, Major Problems in Mexican American History, Zaragosa Vargas describes the Mexican Immigrant experience from 1917-1928. He begins by assessing the Protestant religious experience for a Mexican in the early 1920’s, and then describes Mexican life in both Colorado in 1924 and Chicago in 1928. After defending Mexican Immigrants in 1929, he includes an outline of an Americanization program, followed by an anecdote of a Mexican immigrant in the 1920’s.

Vargas uses these documents to show the evolvement of Americanization of Mexicans from a community goal to a societal demand. Vargas begins with the Mexican Immigrant experience in the early 1920’s, and describes it mostly as a community project spearheaded by the Church and called for the aid of volunteers. The children learned and studied English in school, so the programs focused mostly on courses in English for the wives and mothers of the community. These English courses consisted mostly of vocabulary for familiar and most frequently seen objects.

Sunday schools resulted from this process, and in turn made way for the development of night schools, clinics, an employment bureau, and a boys and girl’s club. In Colorado in 1924, Mexicans played a respectable role in society as not only a decent part of the population, but also the labor force. Spanish-Americans took a notable part in politics, and were involved in many occupations that included mostly agriculture, mining, and steel works. The recreation was also important to Spanish-American life in Colorado; the somewhat newly developed buildings were a source of community for many.

Mexicans in Chicago in 1928, Vargas argues, lived a very different lifestyle and endured different hardships than the Mexicans in the Southwest. They were a much smaller part of the community, consisting of small, well-defined neighborhoods and several smaller less defined colonies. These Mexicans lived in the poorest houses in these neighborhoods, and most buildings guaranteed poor living conditions for these families. Employment only came certain times during the year when demand for labor was high, and it was the Mexicans who suffered most when certain industries reduced labor.

In the words of Anita Edgar Jones, “They are the last to arrive and the first to be laid off” (Vargas). Mexican Life in Chicago during this time period served as a temporary solution for many families as they moved from recent arrivals to a more desirable place with better opportunity as they became more established and stabilized. Some neighborhoods were poorly organized for recreation, and even lacked Spanish-speaking employees at their community or recreation centers.

Communities also lacked a Spanish-speaking priest, which is evidently different from early Americanization programs implemented in the Southwest in the early 1920’s. After addressing and defending most of the problems of Mexican Immigration in 1929, Vargas moves on to an outline of a typical Americanization program in 1931, where the Mexican Immigrant experience evolved from a community project that supported and encouraged Mexican assimilation, to a list of demands and requirements for Mexican and Spanish Americans to be acceptable members of society.

Vargas uses these documents to show the progression of assimilation of Spanish Americans and Mexican immigrants into American society in the 1920’s. The life of a Mexican Immigrant during this time was very taxing, and these Americanization programs were used as a tool to attempt to create a society that operated under certain ideologies and values. As a result, this created an even stronger division between cultures, and prevented assimilation of the two groups.

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Asylum Seekers

Imagine you live in a country with an oppressive government and even worse your enthnic group is being persecuted by that government, would you not want to leave even if it means selling all your possessions? This is a scenario faced by thousands of people every year who are classed as asylum seekers. Brindha, the 9 year old Tamil asylum seeker who on a crowded boat off the Indonesian coast, made a heartbreaking plea to Australian journalists to please save them, the prime minister delivered a cold reply: “I make absolutely no apology whatsoever for taking a hard line on illegal immigration to Australia.

The 253 asylum seekers – not illegal immigrants – on that boat had sacrificed everything they had to make a desperate bid for safety from the systematic slaughter being wrought on them by the Sri Lankan government. They are fleeing a situation where the Sri Lankan government is killing 1400 a week of the 300,000 detained in concentration camps. This is a horror that drives people to flee with nothing other than the clothes on their back, is what politicians and media have taken to calling a “push factor.

There is absolutely nothing illegal about seeking asylum, about arriving without authorisation or papers, or about coming by unregistered boats as long as there is a legitimate reason states the United Nations. However the Australian Government still labels them illegal immigrants and places them in Detention Centres which in most cases results in the emotional and psychological damage to a refugee. In 2002, the Medical Journal of Australia described the extreme psychological and emotional damage done to people detained in immigration detention in Australia.

The pattern they describe includes “the development of a psychological state characterised by severe depression, despair, hopelessness, paranoia, chronic rage, persecutory delusions, sub-syndromal psychosis, characterological change and persistent self harming behaviour”. In their sample, “all but one of the detained asylum seekers displayed symptoms of psychological distress at some time during their period of detention”. Eighty-five per cent had “chronic depressive symptoms” and sixty-five per cent had “pronounced ongoing suicidal ideation”.

Refugees should not have to stay in conditions conducive to mental disorders and suicidal tendencies. If the Australian government wishes to fix the problem they should fix detention centres, make the facilities more humane and turn off the electric fence,( The electric fences around such centres are more harmful than that of Auschwitz concentration camp). The government should also provide faster processing of refugees so these people are not subjected to what is incarceration with committing a crime.

In 2002 protesters tore down the fences of Woomera Detention Centre, assisting people inside to make a courageous and inspiring breakout. They would not hesitate to do it again. Asylum seeking is an issue that cuts right to the heart of everything that’s rotten and inhumane about capitalism – its racism, its hypocrisy, its brutality and its utter contempt for humanity. We should all stand firmly for the rights of asylum seekers.

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Do We Need Mass Immigration?

According to the author Anthony Brown (“1Britain does not have a declining workforce, but the fastest growing workforce in Europe. This is largely due to the increase in retirement age of women from 60 to 65between 2010 and 2020. The Government Actuary Service predicts that, with zero net immigration, the workforce will grow by 1.2m by 2020, from 36.89m in2000 to 38.127 in 2020”.)  In his point of view immigrations currently configured increases inequality-ties in the UK because it causes a massive redistribution of wealth from those who compete with immigrants in the labor market (who tend to be poor, and suffer lower wages), to those who employ them (who tend to be rich, and enjoy lower costs and bigger profits).

This effect swell documented in the US. In addition, in the UK, with its tight property market, those who win are those who already own property, particularly those who rent it out; and those who lose are those who rent their homes and those trying to get on the property ladder. Again, this is generally a redistribution of wealth from poor to rich Immigration. in allowing people to move to where the can maximize their welfare and get maximum return on their skills, is a definite force for good in the world, so longs it doesn’t lead to unbalanced, unsustainable and destabilizing population flows. Therefore, the UK government should aim at policies that allow as free a movement of people as is compatible with having balanced and sustain-able migration, as has been achieved within the EU. Britain

1. This is taken from the book of Do We Need Mass Immigration by Anthony Browney.

Should initiate negotiations on having an open border policy with other high-income countries such as Japan, where migration flows are likely to be limited, balanced and beneficial.

The Human Rights Principles that Underlie this Work:

The author assumes that in this book certain human rights principles,Which I believe should be inalienable and should not beCompromised for political expediency.

• Everyone has the right not to be subjected to discrimination of any sort, including racial discrimination.

• Everyone has the right to be accepted as a full and equal citizen in the country they were born and grew up in.Ethnic minorities born in the UK are as British as a white person whose family has been here for centuries. It is deeply unjust that in certain Middle East states, and formerly in Germany, immigrant workers’ children who are born in the country and have lived in it all their lives are denied citizenship. White Zimbabweans who were born there, and indeed whose families emigrated there generations ago, have a right to be considered full Zimbabweans.

• Every nation has the right to decide who can move there and who can’t. States have a fundamental right to protect the integrity of their borders.

• Everyone with a genuine fear of persecution by their government should have the right       to asylum.

The result is that Immigration is more characterized by distortion, denial and hostility to debate than any other public issue. Such a distorted, one-sided debate would be

Inconceivable in any other area of such national importance, whether economics, law and order, or defence.As public concern about immigration has grown, so the

Pro-immigrationists imperative to promote more immigration has meant that all counter arguments have had to be neutralized, even if that means a complete U-turn on Previously held positions. (“2In the late 1990s, governments of all major industrialized nations signed passionate communiqués about how mass unemployment was the biggest problem facing modern society”). Then immigration reared its head, and suddenly it is mass  labor shortages that are the biggest problem of our time. From labor surplus to labor shortage in a few short years—how intellectual fashions flutter in the political wind.

In the US, there is an anti-immigration group made up explicitly of ethnic minorities, called the Diversity Alliance, founded by an immigrant from Vietnam who worked in the immigration industry before concluding it was getting out of hand. They conducted an opinion poll which showed that 65 per cent of black Americans favour a moratorium on

legal immigration. One of the leading immigration reform journalists in the US is Michelle Malkin, an Asian-American, and author of Invasion. Many of the founders of the black rights movement in the US were anti-immigrant,because of the effect immigration was having in undermining African-Americans in the labour market

There are many other motives to oppose immigration which are honourable and nothing to do with racism. Samuel Gompers, the founder of the American Federation

of Labor, was a Jewish immigrant who supported the early twentieth-century immigration cut-off in the US. In a 1924 letter to Congress, Gompers wrote(“Every effort to enact immigration legislation must expect to meet a number of hostile forces and, in particular, two hostile forces of considerable strength”). One of these is composed of corporation

Employers who desire to employ physical strength at the lowest possible wage and who prefer a rapidly revolving labor supply at low wages to a regular supply of American wage-earners at fair wages. The other is composed of racial groups in the United States

who oppose all restrictive legislation because they want the doors left open for an influx of their countrymen.

The brief description in his point of view  is not anti-immigration or anti-immigrant, but argues that the current record wave of immigration is unsustainable and both detrimental to the interests of many people in Britain and against the wishes of the majority of people in Britain. It argues that Britain does not have a moral duty to accept immigration, and that immigration is ineffective as a global development policy. It argues for immigration that is balanced, with equal numbers of people coming and going and that is in the interests of people in Britain rather than Justin the interests of potential immigrants, recent immigrants and businesses that like cheap labor.

The immigration system should command the acceptance and confidence of the people of Britain. It also argues that the government should pursue an open borders policy in so far as this is compatible with balanced and sustainable migration, such as negotiating an open border policy with Japan.

The UK is experiencing the highest levels of net immigration in its history, quadrupling the rate of population growth and adding 543,000 to the population in the last three years, and 1.02m to the population between 1992 and2000.The level of net legal immigration has grown from 35,000in 1993 to 183,000 in 2000 (the difference between 482,000 (   2. This is also from the same source as above mentioned page no 23)

arriving and 299,000 leaving). On top of this is an unknown amount of illegal immigration .Unless immigration declines, it will add more than two million people every ten years. The Government Actuary Service estimates that with immigration of 195,000 a year(very close to the present level of legal immigration), the UK population will grow from 59.8m in 2000 to 68.0m in 2031.On present trends, around 6m of the 8m increase in population will move to London and the South East. This is a completely different phenomenon from earlier waves of immigration, such as Huguenots, Jews and

Ugandan Asians, all of whom were forced to leave their

Bibliography

1. Brittain, A.W. (1991) ‘Anticipated Child Loss to Migration and Sustained High Fertility in an East Caribbean Population’, Social Biology Vol. 38 No. 1-2 pp. 94-112

2. Coleman, D. (November 2000) ‘Migration to Europe: critique of the new establishment consensus’, speech to Workshop on Demographic Specificity and Integration of Migrants, Federal Institute of Population Research, Germany.

3. By James Antle:  ‘The Myth Of Mynority Natural Republicans.”

4. Shaw, C. (2001) ‘United Kingdom Population Trends in the 21st Century’, Population Trends 103 London: The Stationery Office.

5. Webs.

 

 

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The Worker Next Door

In the essay “The Worker Next Door” written by Dr. Chris Chiswick, the author addresses the illegal immigrant problem in America, and gives several questionable reasons how if the flow of illegal immigrants were deterred, jobs would still be filled, and life would go on as usual, or even better. Dr. Chiswick wrote a not too convincing essay, having many places where he could have improved or even left out certain parts of his essay that would have made this writing better, and more realistic to his audience.

I spotted a couple areas where the author went on a tangent of barely related areas to illegal immigration. Along with that, it doesn’t really seem like he tried to appeal to ethos too much, but gives some attention to logos and pathos early on in the essay and at the end. The first paragraph of this essay is a rhetorical question that asks how different life would be if illegal immigrants were not in the country doing low-class, low-skilled, and low-wage jobs that most Americans would not do.

This question is a good way to start the essay, making the reader think a little, and get more interested in the topic while also revealing the authors purpose; to persuade the reader into thinking that illegal immigration is not necessary for the American economy. This purpose is hinted throughout the course of the essay, but is most obvious in his thesis in paragraph eight. As the essay progresses, it becomes clearer that Chiswick’s audience is the American public who live in states with high illegal immigration, specifically from Mexico, as his title so subtly states.

Not so subtle in his essay however, is his claim in the third to last paragraph, where he states that “Less frequent lawn mowing and washing of hotel sheets and towels would reduce air, noise, and water pollution in the bargain. ”. Chiswick can have all the Ph. D. s in the world, but its not going to make illegal immigration from Mexico a realistic strain on pollution in America. While the author may not do too well on appealing to ethos, he does make an attempt to make up for it on logos, when he gives data from the U. S. ensus, saying that 64% of lowskill jobs were done by native born Americans while only 36% were foreign born.

The problem that I had with this is that no where in this statistic does it mention illegal aliens, which this essay is supposedly about. If illegal immigration is such a big concern for this man, then why does he have to resort to a barely related statistic to get support from? This leaves us to the last appeal available, pathos. Chiswick used pathos most evidently and strongly in the last paragraph, with a hint of ethos, to give a final attempt in convincing his readers.

His entire essay up to this point is about how America would be far better off economically without illegal immigration from Mexico, but then he quickly turns from criticizing and blaming aliens to praising the genius of the American public and economy. If his strong attempt at the use of ethics by showing he knows a little American history does not impress a simple high school student, I can’t imagine what his informed, educated, and mature audience would think. Have you noticed how in this very essay, there doesn’t seem to be a nice flow between topics, and that things may at times, seem fairly irrelevant to the subject at hand?

This is how i felt while reading “The Worker Next Door”. Chiswicks organization is flawed, jumping from claim to claim without any real connection between the two. It might be just me, but I don’t really see the link between suggesting bad hygiene (“ Hotels and motels could reduce the frequency of changing sheets and towels… to every third day”) and how home owners could switch grass species. If Chiswick knew his audience properly, he would know that Americans are generally lazy, and we are getting lazier(CNN).

At first, I thought Chiswick was a reasonable guy. He pointed out how places with little to no illegal immigration still had groceries bagged, lawns cut, and hotel sheets changed. But what he failed to point out was that these places are usually small towns out in the middle of nowhere, where the standard of living is lower, and the local economy is stagnant. Not fully thinking his statement through hurt the credibility of his essay, and the ridiculous claim that illegal immigration contributes to our pollution is absurd.

Chiswick’s essay could have been much better than this. Someone who has a Ph. D. in economics and is writing a persuasive essay should have many more sources, facts, and realistic examples. The strongest case Chiswick could come up with is that immigration is driving down the living standards for low-skilled workers, as if he were writing his essay to help them out. But these workers aren’t immigrating to a lower standard of living. They’re immigrating to a country that has a much higher standard of living, even for low-income workers.

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Italian Immigration vs Irish Immigration

This paper will contrast the two dominant populations of immigrants to the United States in the 19th and early 20th century. These two groups of immigrants were from Italy and Ireland. The reasons both of these groups immigrated to the United States are very similar, but their cultures were vastly different, and the marks they left on our society are still felt to this day. At the beginning of the 19th century the dominant industry of Ireland was agriculture. Large areas of the country were under the control of landowners living in England.

Much of this land was rented to small farmers who, because of a lack of capital, farmed with antiquated implements and used outdated methods. The land was unable to sustain the population and many began to look for new lands to live. In 1816 around 6,000 Irish people sailed for America. Within two years this figure had doubled. Early arrivals were recruited to build canals and do other labor intensive jobs. In 1818 over 3,000 Irish laborers were employed building the Erie Canal. By 1826 around 5,000 were working on four separate canal projects.

The peak of Irish immigration occurred in the 1840s, when half of all immigrants to the United States came from Ireland. Ireland had the highest population density in all of Europe during this time period, but the country was unable to sustain its citizens. This resulted in widespread starvation and difficult living conditions, and many Irish immigrants chose to leave their homeland and make their way in America. In 1850 there were 960,000 people in the United States that had emigrated from Ireland. The vast majority lived in New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Illinois, Ohio and New Jersey.

The Irish Immigrant Society tried to persuade immigrants to move to other parts of the United States, but the vast majority were very poor, and had no money for transportation or to buy land. They therefore tended to settle close to their port of entry into the United States. One of the largest factors in the large numbers of Irish Immigrants was a serious disease affecting Irish potatoes, which ruined about 75% of the country’s crop. This was a major disaster because over four million people in Ireland depended on the potato as their main food.

The disease returned in 1846 and over the next year an estimated 350,000 people died of starvation and an outbreak of typhus also decimated the population. Despite good potato crops over the next four years, people continued to die from rampant diseases, and in 1851 the Census Commissioners estimated that nearly a million people had died during the Irish food crisis. The Irish food shortage stimulated a desire to immigrate. By the end of 1854 nearly two million people (about a quarter of the population) had immigrated to the United States. Another major factor for mass immigration was the political situation under British rule.

Many bad political decisions made by the British, affected the quality of life of the Irish citizens and contributed to the massive disease outbreaks and crop failures. The dream of many Irishmen was the chance to own their own land. Freedom and a democratic government that promised a voice in their government also had a romantic appeal to the hordes of Irish Immigrants. Religious freedom was another important factor. Of course it was really tough for new Irish immigrants in the US, but they proved themselves to be a hardy and resilient group of people. Thousands of Irish laborers worked on building the railroads in the United States.

Some were able to save enough money to buy land and establish themselves as farmers along the routes they had helped to develop. This was especially true of Illinois and by 1860 there were 87,000 Irish people living in this state. Other Irish immigrants became coalminers in Pennsylvania. Working conditions in the mines were terrible with no safety requirements, no official inspections and no proper ventilation. When workers were mistreated for trade union activity, they formed a secret society called the Molly Maguires. Named after an anti-landlord organization in Ireland, the group attempted to frighten mine-owners and their supporters.

The group was not broken-up until 1875. The Irish tended to support the Democratic Party rather than the Republican Party. They had little sympathy for slaves as they feared that if they were given their freedom they would move north and threaten the jobs being done by Irish immigrants. However, on the outbreak of the Civil War general an estimated 170,000 men born in Ireland joined the Union Army, whereas only 40,000 were in the Confederate Army. One Irish immigrant, Thomas Meagher, became a highly successful general in the war. Before 1870, there were few Italian immigrants in the United States.

Italy was one of the most populated countries in Europe and many began to consider the possibility of leaving Italy to escape low wages, high taxes and little opportunity to better themselves. Most of these immigrants were uneducated and from rural communities. From 1890 to 1900, around 650,000 Italian immigrants arrived in the United States, of whom two-thirds were men. Most planned to return to Italy once they had built up some savings, but many realized the opportunities that existed in their new country and sent for their families to join them.

The earliest Italian immigrants to the United States were from Northern Italy, who became prominent as fruit merchants in New York and wine growers in California. Later, more and more immigrants came from Southern Italy and the communities and institutions they formed reflected the region’s of Italy they came from. The main push factor for Italians was poor economic opportunities in Italy during this period, particularly in the southern regions, and pull factor of easily obtainable jobs in the United States.

Italians settled in cities and often dominated specific neighborhoods, called “Little Italys”, where they could cooperate with one another and find favorite foods. Most arrived with little cash or education since most had been peasant farmers in Italy. They lacked craft skills, and therefore generally performed manual labor. With a strong interest in food, they became fruit peddlers and gardeners, and opened neighborhood groceries and restaurants that catered to fellow Italians. Most Italians found unskilled work in America’s cities.

There were large colonies in New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Baltimore and Detroit. From 1900 to 1910 over 2,100,000 arrived. Of these, around 40% eventually returned to Italy. Willing to work long hours on low wages, the Italians now began to rival the Irish for much of the unskilled work available in industrial areas. This sometimes led to hostilities breaking out between the two groups of workers. Italian neighborhoods were typically older areas with overcrowded houses and poor sanitation. Tuberculosis was very common.

Italian immigration peaked from 1900 until 1914. In the American South, Italian immigrants met hostility and violence, sometimes even becoming the victims of violent crimes from other immigrant populations who resented the vast numbers of them invading their communities and taking jobs and resources away. For Italians, like other immigrant groups, politics, entertainment, sports, crime, and especially small business served as ladders for upward mobility. Italian American politicians, however, were hindered by a lack of ethnic organization.

Italian Americans achieved notable success in both classical and popular music. Italian Americans were particularly successful in areas that did not require extensive formal education such as sales and small business ownership. In conclusion, The United States has greatly benefited from the many contributions of both Irish and Italian Immigrants. They have been instrumental in helping to build the infrastructure of the United States during the 19th and 20th century, and both of their cultures have been woven into the basic lifestyles that most of us enjoy today.

Reference

www.latinamericanstudies.org/italian-immigrants.htm

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Should Illegal Immigrants Be Allowed to Receive Social Services

Immigration is a large and controversial topic as far as the United States is concerned. However, there is one subject in question that isn’t quite openly addressed and up for discussion, as say border control. American citizens face many difficulties dealing with the admission of people in the United States illegally. The primary obstacles facing the system today include overcrowding in schools, availability of jobs and the unnecessary usage of Americans’ tax dollars. Unless every immigrant pays taxes, I do not believe they should receive health and social services.

Some people argue that although illegal, immigrants still pay taxes (Carabelli 2-3). Numerous immigrants get false Social Security numbers in order to find jobs. Having these Social Security Numbers, employers are able to withhold all types of taxes. According to the internal revenue service, “… about 6 million unauthorized immigrants file individual tax returns each year [thus confirming] estimates that between 50 percent to 75 percent of unauthorized immigrants pay federal, state, and local taxes” [ (Carabelli 3) ].

However, according to the united States General accounting office, a report they did shows that even if illegal immigrants do pay taxes, benefits provided to them cost more than they contribute, causing the United States a huge loss of money [ (Carabelli 4) ] Referring to Table 1, California spent a total of $1,770 million dollars on education, incarceration, and emergency services for illegal immigrants. In contrast, California only received $732 million in tax money from them. California lost $1038 million dollars.

Also, Florida spent $461 million dollars in education, incarceration, and emergency services, losing $184 million dollars (Carabelli 4). (Carabelli 118) California tried to keep a handle on the costs of illegal immigrants by refusing to give social services to them. Illegal immigrants in the state were not supposed to be allowed state funded health care, public education, and other benefits. Some people had issues with this proposition; supporters of it made a point that Californians are suffering from the existence of illegal persons in their area and the violence they cause.

Legal citizens have every right to safety and protection against these people who have entered the United States illegally from the government [ (Carabelli 6) ]. One of the biggest issues having to do with education is overcrowding in schools [ (Crisis 1) ]. In California, there have been reports of overcrowding to the point that schools are forced to reject students. Some people say there is a deficiency of teachers, but the truth is there are just too many immigrant students [ (Crisis 1) ].

According to usimmigrationlawyers. com, “The share of students in the U. S. ho are immigrants or the children of immigrants has tripled in the past 30 years; in 1970, they were only 6. 5 percent of the student body” [ (systems 1) ]. Immigrant students overwhelm around fourteen percent of schools by up to twenty-five percent. To accommodate overcrowding, a lot of schools have come up with alternatives to classrooms such as, portable classrooms, and using other facilities like cafeterias [ (systems 1) ]. Sometimes, having class in foreign rooms or places can be a distraction to students, especially if there are other things going on around them.

Many towns and cities have resorted to building new schools because of the amount of students they are gaining [ (systems 1) ]. It is hard to keep track of exactly how many illegal pupils are in the school systems and determine the correct amount of funding needed. Some programs used to help educate non- English speakers; help to keep count as to how many there are [ (Carabelli 9) ]. However, other programs aren’t made specifically to meet the needs of Immigrants. Many schools find the need to hire bilingual staff to help immigrants.

They also purchase special tools such as books and computer programs [ (systems 1) ]. One source of education, English Language Learner, needs extra funding to help it function correctly. This makes the teaching of immigrants more expensive, especially in areas where immigrants are dense [ (Carabelli 9) ]. One solution that has been brought to the table many times is amnesty. President Reagan signed the Simpson-Mazoli Act in 1986, which forgave about 2. 7 million immigrants for entering illegally, and allowed them to stay [ (Mcmanus 1) ].

The reason for this generous agreement was the hope that it would stop more illegal aliens from coming into the United States. This accord didn’t exactly help the problem. In fact, it became more intense, and more illegal aliens crossed the borders into our country [ (Mcmanus 1) ]. Since the big amnesty in 1986, the US has let about three million additional immigrants in. The authorities responsible for allowing them to stay neglect to admit it was them who did it because it attracted more newcomers [ (Mcmanus 1) ].

Even if the United States attempted amnesty again, it would fail for the exact same reason. Granting them amnesty is giving them what they want and in the long run, that costs the US more money than just deporting them. During the Second World War, many immigrants came across the borders to take the jobs of those who were a part of the army. When the war ended, service men came back to find that most of their jobs were taken, immigrants were committing many crimes that ruined the communities, and their millions of children were enrolling in school causing them to become overcrowded [ (McGrath 1) ].

A lot of people say that immigrants do all of the dirty jobs no Americans would do. However, a study done shows that if Americans were paid a reasonable, average wage, they would indeed choose to do those jobs as well [ (Immigration:Jobs) ] It is fair to say that immigrants have distorted the way people see jobs today. It used to be that citizens would do construction, bricklaying and other strenuous job like those, now it is not uncommon to find a Hispanic or other immigrant doing those jobs. Employers lowered pay for illegal immigrants because most of them are willing to do work for any amount.

Which, in turn, makes the employer happier because they can hire more help for less so of course they would rather have undocumented workers than legal citizens. (Immigration:Jobs) One immigration case the Supreme Court had to face, dealt with schools in Texas turning away immigrant children. In 1975, Texas lawmakers chose to ban the use of state education funds to pay for the education of illegal immigrant students [ (Unmuth) ]. Some schools turned away all illegal immigrants; some accepted them but forced them to pay tuition.

One man brought his family to the United States to get them a better education and his children were turned away because they were illegal [ (Unmuth) ]. The family chose to fight this in court with a couple of other people and won with a 5-4 vote. The spokeswoman for the Federation for American Immigration reform stated that people do not want to watch any child be denied an education, but they want to find a way to stop parents from coming over illegally in the first place. Many taxpayers are feeling as though they are being used; they are forced to pay taxes that support and pay for services and education or illegal beings in the United States.

The Tyler vs. Doe case has ensured that all people, illegal or not, will be guaranteed an education. Also, under the fourteenth amendment, all illegal immigrants are promised equality and every civil right a natural citizen has (Unmuth). Asking natural citizens of the United States most will admit they do not like the fact that Illegal Immigrants receive benefits paid for by our taxes. Only one out of every four people believes it is okay for immigrants to receive food stamps and Medicaid [ (Staff 2) ].

Also, only eighteen percent are okay with illegal immigrants getting public housing. A little fewer than eighteen percent of citizens that took this poll decided that illegally admitted people should be allowed state grants for college. The goal for the senate is to come up with something to fix border control so more illegal immigrants cannot enter and catch people that employ illegals to stop providing them with jobs. With these laws in hand, hopefully immigrants will stop wanting to enter the United States [ (Staff 2) ].

So far, the United States has not found an effective way to prevent people from entering illegally. The first step that should be taken is being stricter with the borders. Currently, we have a fence along the US-Mexico border to attempt keeping people from crossing. It is 335-350 miles in length along the approximately 1969. 13 mile long border. That leaves around 1,619-1,634 miles of border un-blocked, wide open for crossing. Congress has ordered for the fence to be extended. Considering the fact that there are plenty of issues with land ownership, there are many problems with law faced with extending the fences.

In addition to the fences, along the border we have several different types of electronic security systems. There are cameras and sensors that are monitored twenty-four hours a day by border patrol (Practice). Another strategy is worked from the inside. We are trying to prevent illegals from wanting to come over. This is preventing employers from hiring them in the first place. The United States uses a program called “E-verify”. It helps employers confirm that the people they are hiring are legal citizens.

So far, “A study conducted in May 2008 by the Center for Immigration Studies estimates that the illegal immigrant population of the United States may have dropped by about 11 percent from the previous summer. It suggests that the total illegal immigrant population went from 12. 5 million in August 2007 to 11. 2 million in May 2008. ” (Practice). According to writer Roger McGrath, there should be no problems deporting Illegal Immigrants back to their countries. In 1954 the US held a large deportation sending around two million immigrants back to their home countries [ (McGrath 1) ].

He says it was “done swiftly and cheaply by a relatively small force, proving that arguments we hear today about such an operation being logistically impossible are nothing more than a mask concealing a lack of political will”. I believe that the United States’ immigration problem will never be one hundred percent resolved. We can try building fences, or walls but there is always a way around, under or through those. We can try upping security along the borders with cameras and sensors, but there is a way to seem invisible to those.

The matter of fact is that we have to come up with laws that make it impossible to get benefits, impossible to get a job and places to live. If we have to play dirty to get what we want, so be it. The American people worked hard to get where we are today and even with that, we struggle. Illegal is illegal we can’t make excuses to get out of our lives neither should they. I feel bad for those struggling in other countries, we have our problems too. The United States tries to help out other countries as much as they can, it is hard. So why should Americans have to pay for them to come into our country and live?

Works cited

http://www.usillegalaliens.com/impacts_of_illegal_immigration_jobs.html

http://athens.usembassy.gov/dcm_immigration.html

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Immigrant Families in the US

1) Immigrant families in the United States Immigrants feel that their roles, beliefs, values, etc. are not as effective as the Unites States’, thus becoming stressful. “Therefore, in addition to the typical normative (e.g., family transitions) and nonnormitive (e.g., family natural disasters) stressors that families encounter, immigrant families experience unique stress and change relates to migration and acculturation” (Bush et al., 2010, p.287).

Immigrants feel that they have to change their ways and it not only becomes stressful to the family members but also to the whole family system. The best way that immigrants have adapted is with integration. By combining their old ways with the new ways of the United States culture, they find comfort. Another common stressor is language barriers. “The inability to read signs, posted warnings, food labels, job applications, and materials related to children’s schooling is a frustration experience for many immigrants and can lead to increased pressure to learn English” (Bush et al., 2010, p.289).

For adults who don’t have English classes to attend or the transportation to get to one, don’t get the social support they need in the United States. A lot of women, especially in Asian cultures, are not prepared for social skills outside of the family. On the up side stressors from the family system can be very positive and increase adaption. “Religion, spirituality, ethnic communities, and enclaves, shared cultural values, and informal and formal social support can serve as resources that aid immigrant families in adaption” (Bush at el., 2010, p.305).

2) “The ability to meet debt obligations, credit card use, and frequency of late payments made by credit users are all important factors in assessing subjective economic stress. Financial satisfaction appears to be directly related to credit practices and attitudes” (Bartholomae et al., 2010, p.193). Couples balance their financial differences by coping to deal with these matters. Social support and financial resources help to do so. Couples are also better equipped to deal with economic stress when they have a high self esteem and control over their finances. However some family members lose their job, get divorces, sick, or in debt so bad that bankruptcy takes place. This becomes severe economic stress.

3) I agree 100% that same sex marriages should be able to have legally bound assets, especially if they have children together. “Widespread legal recognition of LGB-parent families will help foster acceptance of these families, ensure the protection of these via the provision of standard rights and benefits and promote the stability and security of LGB-parent families and their children, thereby contributing to their health and well being” (Goldberg, 2010, p.279).Not granting legal recognition also questions a couples ability to commit and their stability.

4) When immigrants live in an ethnic enclave they find it easier to cope with their surroundings and face less prejudice and discrimination. Women also find it easier to work because most can bring their child to work because most can bring their child to work with them. Although there are a lot of benefits within enclaves I don’t necessarily believe it will completely help a family with their problems. What if their child/children leave the enclave someday? Will they be prepared for the outside world? And what if the enclave was destroyed? I feel that they would have an easier time in the long run if they gradually introduced themselves to the outside world. When children become interpreters for serious matters such as applying for social service benefits, it is stressful for them.

“In such a situation, children are likely to feel the stress of adult responsibilities, whereas their parents may feel the stress of role reversal that comes from relying on children for their survival and well being” (Bush et al., 2010, p.290).When children take on these tasks they are not allowed to mature normally and they can become more dependent than their parents. Children can also misinterpret language. For example, saying “she fell off a latter” when really meaning “she fell down the stairs”. Immigrant families adjust to their new home better when living in familiar surroundings. The communities can also give social support by making it easy to meet friends with similar experiences and backgrounds.

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Prospectus on Immigration

Aly Anderson 11/17/12 Turkan Deperlioglu English 105 Prospectus and Annotated Bibliography In today’s day of age, Illegal immigration is becoming a huge issue. With laws constantly changing and people’s views becoming more obscure about the idea, Illegal Immigration is becoming a harder issue to tackle. Illegal immigration has many issues including economic spread, population growth, political stances, and difficult immigration processes. Both sides of the political arena are fighting effortlessly to get there point across.

The Republicans believe that immigration should be stopped going into the United States of only poor immigrants, while prosperous immigrants are allowed. This is an example of racial profiling which is illegal in the US. The Democrats want to make the Immigration process easier to help bring economic prosperity to all. I agree with the Democrats, we should allow everyone in including the Mexican farm workers to the British pop stars (Ethier 67). No longer should race, ethnicity, or amount of money made be a factor of getting into the country (Tolbert Hero 815).

As a growing country, the more people we can have can mean a growing economy with prosperous people throughout. Carney, Dan, (1996). ” Social Policy ” Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 54, (36): 2531. In this article the, which is taken from the Congressional Report of the US Representatives, has many ideas that are brought to the front about immigration. It takes a good look at both sides of the congressional office. It is good article because it utilizes all of its resources and it helps the reader understand the different sides of the issue.

It uses examples from different parts of the past to help explain the changing ideals about the issue. The article explains the congress ideas on the situation at hand and how it can affect the changing economy. With the economy in the state it is now, this article helps the reader understand the congresses point of view of the issue of immigration. This article has many different views to the idea of changing Illegal Immigration. With either views of the Congressional Report, I truly learned the different stances of the Government of immigration.

Ciobanu, Ileana M. and Thomas C. Green. (2006). “Deputizing – and Then Prosecuting – America’s Businesses in the Fight against Illegal Immigration,” American Criminal Law Review, 43, (3): 1203+. In “Deputizing- and Then Prosecuting- America’s Businesses in the Fight against Illegal Immigration”, the reader gets a good hard look of the business prospective Illegal Immigration. American businesses are getting hit hard by both Illegal Immigrants taking jobs and the American government trying to hunt them down which is causes quite the controversy.

This article is taken by the American Criminal Law review, which is a group of government-funded people who search for Illegal Immigrants throughout the US. It gives you an in-depth look at todays government officials ideas about Immigration. The article used a lot of it’s own businesses troubles to explain the situation and how it affects others. Using its own problems as examples helps you realize the bad in immigration. It allows a look into the large business side of the immigration. It helps and gives good ideas of what is going on with immigration in the US.

Fullinwider, Robert, (2005). “Affirmative Action”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2005 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed. ), http://plato. stanford. edu/archives/spr2005/entries/affirmative-action/ This article explains immigration and what is trying to be done with it. It lists many different types of solutions and ideas to help get both sides of the argument involved. Not only does it does it explain the issue but with the solution ideas, this article is one of the best. “Affirmative Action” helps the reader understand the different sides of the issue.

It does not bad mouth either side of the argument and the author is good at keeping the opinion to himself unlike some of the other articles that are being presented. This article also utilizes all the resources from the congress to business and other forms of small government. It makes sense to use this as a resource because it explains and gives examples why immigration is both bad and good. Robert Fullinwider uses his studies of philosophy and uses it to help explain why people migrate into the US and why people in the government do not like it.

Graham, Hugh Davis, (1990), The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy 1960-1972 (New York: Oxford University Press): 413. This earlier article explains how immigration is similar to the Civil Rights Era. Racial profiling is still used today on immigrants coming from all around the world. Hugh Davis Graham explains the cruel happenings due to immigration and how it is affecting other people’s view of immigrants entering the US. He explains the relationship of the civil rights movement and the immigration process.

Racial profiling is becoming a large problem for immigrants who come up from the south, similar to African Americans back in the sixties. The many examples given helps the readers completely understand the parallelism between the two. It uses history as en examples to give good explanations. With immigration being such a present day topic, this article is an excellent source for the paper because how much it discusses the issues at hand. Hayes, Ted, (September 25, 2000 ). “Illegal Immigration Threatens U. S. Sovereignty, Economy and Culture,” Insight on the News, 16, (36): 46 In “Illegal Immigration Threatens U.

S. Sovereignty, Economy and Culture,” all the cons about Illegal Immigration are brought to the surface. A major one is over population. Though this is not a major problem within the US, people believe it can really hurt our country. Some citizens believe that immigrants can take away or really change the voting in America. They only problem is that people do not realize that within the constitution that voting can neither be changed nor taken away. This article is a good source because of how it explains the cons of the issue, also how it give good, descriptive examples. Howell, Llewellyn d. July 2006). “Ironies of Illegal Immigration,” USA Today, 135, (2734): 19 In the “Ironies of Illegal Immigration,” Llewellyn Howell talks about how the government contradicts itself with the ideas of immigration. She uses many different examples like money and laws. With the example of laws, there are many different theories on how to make immigration easier but the laws contradict themselves in the sense they both help and stop immigrants from getting into the US. Though this isn’t the best for helping Americans promote their country, it also allows many to keep the country they so proudly built.

In the end of this controversial article, Howell states that the US Government needs to get a congress and President that agree on the idea of Immigration and how it should have never gotten this far. The article was a good source for many explanations in the paper because of how well the examples explain the issue of Immigration. Lempres, Michael T. (1994). “Getting Serious about Illegal Immigration,” National Review, 46, (3): 52+ Michael T. Lempres explains immigration through the eyes of a congressman. He utilizes his skills and gives examples about immigration in many in depth ways.

The author gets very descriptive about the points of immigration. He discusses both sides of the of the issue in ways that make the reader a lot more settled because they can understand the political terms. This is a good source because it brought forth the issue of economic status and how immigration really affects our country. He goes on to explain how making the immigration process easier can help make our economy thrive because more money is being cycled through our system. Also, immigration can help people with their cultural view and help Americans stop being so one sided.

This article really helped when understanding the pros to the issue of immigration and what is does for our country. LMD, (Summer 1992). “How to Avoid Immigration-Related Employment Discrimination,” Labor Management Decisions, 2, (2) This article is very useful when it comes to understanding the discrimination in the work force due to immigration. Most people do not realize that it is harder for immigrants to find a job because they are different. Many immigrants come over with a lot of the same schooling as us Americans or even more.

Sometimes immigrants even have more schooling because some other countries have a higher standard of education. Now, with jobs being more limited in the US. People play favorites when offering jobs to others in the work force and that makes it harder for people coming over looking for jobs. This source has a lot to offer and really made immigration easier to understand. Website, “Immigration Problems in the US,” Online, http://www. cyberessays. com/Politics/32. htm “Immigration Problems in the US” discusses the major difficulties within the immigrating processes in the US today.

It also looks back into the past US problems with Immigration like overpopulation over economic status. This article brings up the government views as well as the views of the American population. It allows for people to read the article and understand the why making the immigration process for entering the US should be easier and how it can benefit our country. Though the author is not stated in the website, they clearly explain why immigration is such a big issue to people within our country and throughout the world.

This article is an amazing source for one who is trying to learn more about immigration and how it affects our world. White, Deborah, “Analysis of Immigration Reform Proposal,” Liberal Politics: US, Available Online: http://usliberals. about. com/od/immigration/i/BushImmiReform. htm This article looks at the political reforms that are set in place for immigration. It has a deep explanation into the government view of immigration and how it being stopped. It does not look at either side of the political arena like other articles being presented.

This is a true understanding of the reform recently written to make immigration a more difficult process and why this is not acceptable to our constitution. Deborah White makes a good attempt to understand the minds of the politicians involved with this reform and why it was written just so recently. With White’s view being more on the Liberal side, she focuses more on the conservative side of things and trying to understand their views and why they have them. This was a helpful article because it gave good representation to both views of the issue.

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Illegal Immigration

Americans on a daily basis are bombarded with broadcasts from newspapers, television, and special interest groups on the economic burdens created by illegal immigrants. Reports and statistics of growing state and local deficits; is it fact or fiction? In reality, undocumented Mexicans are necessary to the health of our economy. They provide a workforce in agriculture they keep the costs down; they contribute millions in taxes annually they help to stabilize the economy. Immigrants after all, are not just workers, but consumers and demand for products and services which in turn creates new jobs.

In fact our economy needs illegal immigrants to help in stabilizing our economy. The negativity towards the millions that cross over our borders illegally has been expressed in a multitude of ways. Broadcasted across the nation are accounts of the economic burden of illegal immigration. The net fiscal cost of immigration ranges from $11 billion to $22 billion per year, with most government expenditures on immigrants coming from state and local coffers. (Center for Immigration Studies, 2007). Network news promote stories on the economic burdens of illegal immigrants.

Local newspapers mirror stories on the costs illegal immigrants have on healthcare and education for local and state municipalities. Some other real statistics Americans look at that fuel their distaste for illegal immigration were found and posted by the Illegal Immigration Statistics are: * Real Statistics Less than 2% of all illegal immigrants in the US are working crop fields, but 41% are on welfare. Over 43% of all issued food stamps go to illegal immigrants.

* Over 41% of all US unemployment checks go to illegal immigrants. Nearly 1/3 of all federal and state prisons are illegal immigrants – costing taxpayers over $1. 6 billion annually. 58% of all US welfare payments go to illegal immigrants. (Bruce, Mauriello, 2010) Americans of all backgrounds are still seriously concerned about the negative impact of illegal immigration, such as with the number of bankrupted hospitals, overcrowded schools, and increased crime. Taxpayers pay dearly for this, the high cost of so-called “cheap labor” for some unscrupulous employers and their political allies who for decades have watered down immigration laws.

For example, in California alone, as of 2004 the net cost of illegal immigration to taxpayers is estimated to be nearly $9 billion annually. Strong feedback from focus groups of citizen activists who take some part in the struggle to have America’s borders secured and existing immigration laws enforced, tell us these reasons why they are so alarmed: * Anchor Babies: Birthright Citizenship Exploited * Depreciated Wages for Americans and Legal Immigrants

* Not Speaking English, loss of common language * Stolen American Taxpayer Resources: Tuition, Welfare, Licenses * Closed and Overcrowded Hospitals and Emergency Rooms Document Fraud In recent polls taken 78% of likely voters were opposed to legalizing the status of the estimated 12 million illegal immigrants in the U. S. (Pulse Opinion Research, LLC, September, 2009). 61% of likely American voters oppose providing a path to US citizenship for those illegal immigrants who entered the United States illegally, and who fraudulently obtained green cards and Social Security numbers, when millions are playing by the rules and waiting in their countries to enter the United States legally, (April 2007, McLaughlin and Associates Poll).

Yet this controversy over the economic burdens illegal immigrants have on local state municipalities is one that can be subjected to debate. In states where there are high numbers of illegal immigration you will find low percentages of unemployment. In fact the overall economy of states such as California, Texas, and Arizona has somehow remained fairly stable throughout the past few years. Time and again news worthy stories will outwardly display the attitude that millions of dollars in state funding goes towards the education of the children of illegal immigration not to mention the burden they have on our health care systems.

All true and yet, rarely spoken is the flipside of this coin where statistics from the Bloomberg Business Week has stated: Each year, for example, the U. S. Social Security Administration maintains roughly $6 billion to $7 billion of Social Security contributions in an “earnings suspense file” — an account for W-2 tax forms that cannot be matched to the correct Social Security number. The vast majority of these numbers are attributable to undocumented workers who will never claim their benefits.

If those funds could be earmarked for local support, they would make a sizable dent in education costs. Local school districts are estimated to educate 1. 8 million undocumented children. At an average annual cost of $7,500 (averages vary by jurisdiction) per student, the cost of providing education to these children is about $11. 2 billion. That means roughly half of the education costs for undocumented immigrant children could be met if these Social Security funds could be redirected. (Robert McNatt, Frank Benassi, 2006)

The politics of these types of unused benefits and how they are used will probably never resolve themselves. It clearly might be a tremendous offset to the overburdened municipalities. Undocumented workers on the clock seem to be giant contributors to our social security administration. With those deductions comes a bank of millions in state, local, and federal taxing. But for every dollar on the clock you will find two dollars off. After living in Southern California for twenty years it’s not a secret that every home depot is a jackpot of day laborers at the ready.

For $40 a day and the price of a lunch you’ve bought yourself a day laborer. Here is a recent graph of their contribution to the workforce: Agriculture alone houses and employed thousands of illegal immigrants. Without whom farmers could hardly afford to harvest their crops. Regardless of the debate over illegal immigration, we have to weigh the advantages over the disadvantages. Sure they contribute millions of dollars to our economy on every level. From sales tax to real estate tax and every other tax out there they are by far an asset.

Illegal immigrants help to stabilize low-paying job markets; they pick up the slack of citizens who are unwilling to work in trades that require little or no education and pay very little. Agriculture alone without migrant workers and undocumented workers would not be able harvest their crops at a cost acceptable to the overall market. Without their efforts in this workforce every citizen would burden the elevated costs of our produce. Without their numbers crops would die on the vine. Farmers everywhere would suffer and perhaps have to park their trackers permanently.

If every undocumented worker currently filling those jobs on farms be suddenly unavailable America would be in a crisis. It would be an undaunting task to hire new workers to replace them. The cost increase at the super markets would put our economy into a tailspin. Farm labor contractors and most other employees in the California’s multibillion-dollar agriculture industry rely almost exclusively on illegal immigrants. Fake documentation is readily available with farm workers pretending to be legal residents and employers pretender they don’t know any better.

As stated by Joseph Riofrio, a city councilman for the town of Mendota, California, “It’s a necessary game. If this game doesn’t continue, then the fruit isn’t picked, the vegetable aren’t picked, and the vibrant agriculture industry stops. ”(Chris Collins, 2010) And yet without these very immigrants the building of our great nation would have suffered greatly. I will help you take a journey throughout a brief part of American history concerning illegal immigration and look in depth into the economic effects it has on the United States.

With facts and figures along with individual testimony you may find yourself having the very subject you were once definitive about, and the stand you once took start to sway. Try to leave behind your thoughts on the subject matter, consider and listen while I share with you compiled research on the subject matter. This paper will present a different account of illegal immigration that will convincingly argue their presence as more beneficial than Americans would have been led to believe; which in fact, our economy needs immigrants and relies on them to help stabilize aspects of our economy.

Undocumented workers overall create new jobs through living here and having the same life-style demands as we do. They have cell phones, enjoy cable TV; they purchase vehicles they require fueling up on a regular basis. They buy food, cigarettes, liquor; they get haircuts, and go to restaurants. Illegal immigrants seem to have very little impact on unemployment rates. Overall, illegal immigrants don’t have a big impact on U. S. wage rates. That’s because most Americans don’t directly compete with illegal immigrants for jobs.

Also, by filling these unskilled labor openings, illegal immigration contributes to keeping the U. S, economy prosperous and affluent. Those undocumented workers represent $56 billion dollars in earnings, $6 billion in Social Security, and $1. 5 billion for Medicare. The economic benefits of illegal immigration are two-fold: taxes and spending, (Andre Tartar, 2009). The U. S. economy indeed benefits from illegal immigrants in who supply foreign workforce that complements rather than competes with the local workforce in the United States. It’s hard to imagine that illegal immigrants contribute in a positive way to our economy but they do.

Bibliography

http://immigration.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000788

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The United States Illegal Immigration Dilemma

The United States throughout its history has been built by the hard work and contributions of immigrants. Immigration has always been a vital part of the development of this nation from Colonial days until now; however, Illegal Immigrations has become an issue that is not just discussed by the politicians in Washington, DC and those Border States that are been affected most by it. The issue of Illegal Immigration over the last decade or so is now an issue that seems to be affecting more aspects of the Nation than most seem to be aware of.

Illegal immigration has the United facing a situation that it has not had to deal with in over two centuries. The issue of illegal immigration is poses several questions that need to be addressed; how did we get ourselves in the predicament that we are in? Was it the Government Policies and Laws that were or are not being enforced? Maybe, the lack of border security or could those employers who hire known illegal immigrants be the cause. Another, topic that needs to be address when considering the dilemma facing the US is; What impact does Illegal Immigration have on the countries overall Economic System?

How does this problem affect our Health Care System, our Educational Systems and Employment opportunities for legal Tax-paying citizens? The most important topic of all is; what is a viable solution to the problem of Illegal Immigration? What type of Immigration Reform will work for all parties involved? Will allowing States to come up with their own laws, instead of relying on the Federal Laws be the right answer, or will revising the 14th Amendment, or Amnesty is the solution?

Congress’ major intent when creating Immigration Laws and Policies both early in US history and recently was to accomplish the several goals; “First, to reunite families by admitting immigrants who already have family members living in the United States. Second, seeks to admit workers with specific skills and to fill positions in occupations deemed to be experiencing labor shortages. Third, it attempts to provide a refuge for people who face the risk of political, racial, or religious persecution in their country of origin.

Finally, it seeks to ensure diversity by providing admission to people from countries with historically low rates of immigration to the United States” (Congressional Budget Office, 2006 p. 8); however, there are others actions, or lack of action by government agencies that seem to counteract the very intent of the laws and policies created. One example is the lack of funding and enforcement of our countries border security system. Another example is the non-enforcement of laws and policies governing employers who knowing hire illegal immigrants.

Statements like the following by then President Bush, sums up the US governments state of mind and the country’s National Interest concerning the Illegal Immigration issue; “the U. S needs more cheap labor from south of the border to do the jobs Americans aren’t willing to do, there are uncalculated cost involved in the importation of such labor – public support and uninsured medical costs” (Costs of Immigration, 2007, para. 1). Illegal Immigration’s impact on the US economy can be seen in the following areas: Our Health Care System, our Education System and in Employment Opportunities for legal citizens.

The net fiscal cost of immigration ranges from $11 billion to $22 billion per year, with most government expenditures on immigrants coming from state and local coffers, while most taxes paid by immigrants go to the federal treasury. The net deficit is caused by a low level of tax payments by immigrants, because they are disproportionately low-skilled and thus earn low wages, and a higher rate of consumption of government services, both because of their relative poverty and their higher fertility. This is especially true of illegal immigration.

Even though illegal aliens make little use of welfare, from which they are generally barred, the costs of illegal immigration in terms of government expenditures for education, criminal justice, and emergency medical care are significant. California has estimated that the net cost to the state of providing government services to illegal immigrants approached $3 billion during a single fiscal year. The fact that states must bear the cost of federal failure turns illegal immigration, in effect, into one of the largest unfunded federal mandates.

Yet we still have those who believe that illegal immigrants do not have an adverse effect on the economy (“Center for Immigration Studies”, 2006, para. 1). The Health Care system here in the US has probably seen the biggest impact of illegal immigration when looking at the overall picture and considering the dilemma as a whole. An example of these effects in Texas is the statement made by “Rick Alleyer, director of research for the Health and Human Services Commission, said illegal immigrant health care – mostly emergency hospital care – cost the state over $100 million last year” (Illegal Immigrant Care, 2010, para. 5).

Throughout the country in states like Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California hospitals have had to either closing their doors completely or file bankruptcy because of federally mandated programs requiring free emergency room services to all illegal immigrants. The effects of illegal immigration on the US educational systems may not be as profound as they are for the health care system, the impact is noticeable enough for educators, politicians and state governments to consider when they receive yearly reports of how poorly their schools are performing, the increase in student population, and how the cost of education continues to increase.

According to Edwin Rubenstein, “Immigrant children are poorer than native-born children, and their numbers have increased far faster. At least 19 percent of all K-12 enrollments are the result of immigration. In excess of 9. 2 million are immigrants or the children of immigrants. Because of their lack of language abilities, they take 25 percent of funding. Out of $499. 1 billion in the 2008 school year, $125 billion was spent on foreign born children” (Illegal Alien Education Impact, 2008, par. 7).

Notice this was just considering secondary schools in the state of California. There are numerous states and schools that are rewarding illegal immigrants for enrolling in the schools, yet they are denying the same subsidies to lawful students or legal immigrants. The ever increasing number of illegal immigrants flowing into the US every month plays a dramatic role in displacing American workers, over the past five years it is estimated that 1 million legal citizens have been replaced by immigrants allow to come this country on work visas.

Another area for concern pertaining to illegal immigration and its effect on employment opportunities is, the trend among illegal immigrants changing from the traditional few industrial area and parts of the country, integrating themselves into all sectors of the economy throughout the nation. The concern here is the increasing widespread demand for their labor. Having discussed some of the areas that our country are faced with, and most do something about, we now will look at some possible solutions on how to deal with this dilemma.

Realizing that Immigration Reform is must do, what areas need to be addressed, and what adjustments need to be made is the question at hand. One of the many Immigration Laws and Policies that has been created over the years is the 14th Amendment and the “anchor baby” concept. This amendment has been in the news and on the mouths of politicians almost as much as Immigration Reform itself. The question that needs to be addressed is will amending this amendment provide enough assistance to drastically decrease the flow of illegal immigrants into the country?

If we look at the direct effects that the 14th amendment has on the country some feel very strong about amending this amendment. For example some believe that rescinding the citizenship of anchor babies; “American hospitals welcome anchor babies…Anchor babies are citizens, and instantly qualify for public welfare aid: Between 300,000 and 350,000 anchor babies annually become citizens because of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution: ‘All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the State wherein they reside. ’” (Illegal aliens threaten U. S. economic system, 2008, para. 12).

The concept of individual states enacting their own laws and initiatives could be the short term solution. Arizona’s AZ SB 1070 law, even though not fully implemented, is one such example of states taking matters into their own hands not waiting on the Federal government to enforce the laws they created. Arizona Senator Russell Pearce (2010) “characterizes the illegal immigration problem as one of invasion and quotes the Constitution: “The United States shall guarantee that every State of this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion” (p. ).

Arizona is not the only state that has come up with laws to help deal with the illegal immigration population in their states; you have states like Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, and Oklahoma. The state of California has a bill that has begun the signature process, the California Taxpayer Protection Act of 2010, Initiative 09-0010. This bill is for “real world citizens, “The people of California have an opportunity to curb the illegal immigration. Many in California may not have seen the grass lately, but we’ve been seeding our roots” (Dvorak, 2009, p. )

The Illegal Immigration Amnesty bill was signed into law by President Reagan in 1986 in an effort to provide amnesty to illegal immigrants that entered the country before 1982. The intent was to be tighter security on the borders and stricter penalties for employers hiring undocumented workers. Needles to say, this law seem to accomplish the exact opposite.

There are some who believe that with the proper oversight and funding this could prove to be a viable solution to the illegal immigration problem that the U. S. aces today. There are also those who believe that the Amnesty Law is a major cause of illegal immigration, many immigrants believe that once they get here to the U. S. they will qualify for amnesty in a matter of time. “Many in California believe the federal government has dropped the immigration ball over the last 40 years. “In Washington D. C. they have a few nicknames; reform is code word for amnesty” (Dvorak, 2009, p. 2) It is without a doubt that the US was founded on immigration and its many contributions over the years.

The dilemma that we face today brings into question if the laws and policies of the past are serving their intended purposes, if they are still beneficial to the country, and if there are new laws that need to be created to address some of the issues that have been created because illegal immigration. Even though actual numbers of illegal immigrants were not discussed because of inaccurate data; the issues concerning how did we get to this point; what are the impacts of illegal immigration on the countries social and economic systems, and probably the ost the most import issue is what are we going to do about it.

The solution to this dilemma should include, not just the enforcement, of the policies and laws established but, it should also make sure they are properly funded as well. The solution should contain initiatives that address those topics that negative effect the country as well as initiative that reward positive effects of illegal immigration; keeping in mind the countries national security and national interests in mind.

References

http://www.redstate.com/renny/2010/08/17/az-sen-russell-pearce-on-his-states-immigration-law-and-the-rest-of-us/

http://www.theamericanresistance.com/articles/art2005mar13.html

http://www.rense.com/general81/illega.htm

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Does Immigration Contribute to a Better America

Does Immigration Contribute to a Better America? Ever since this country was first discovered and settled, people from countries all over the world left their homelands and migrated to the “New World”. People from Spain, Germany, France, England and Asia traveled great distances to reach a new land of opportunity, to perhaps escape religious persecution or tyrant rulers. For centuries America has been viewed as a place for a fresh start, a place where anybody can come and begin a new life and follow their hopes and dreams. Even today people come to America for the exact same reasons that they did all those years before.

However unlike the immigration of our ancestors, the immigrants of today aren’t able to just come here and do what they want without anybody noticing. Today most people view immigration as a problem to the United States. One of the most easily recognizable groups of today’s immigrants comes from Mexico. The Mexican immigrants often come here for better economic and living opportunities than they had at home. But no matter how much these immigrants want to better their lives for themselves and their families, most Americans feel that they are trouble and a drain on our resources.

Despite what many think, the Mexican immigrants are helping our nation. The immigrants take many low end jobs that Americans do not want or are over qualified for, they can also boost our economy with the money they earn from working, and they diversify the nation. Immigration does and will contribute to a better America. Most of the immigrants that come to America from Mexico are just looking for a better life for themselves and their families. The immigrants know that there are plenty of jobs in America for them and they are willing to risk being arrested just for a better opportunity.

With all these people eager to work, you would think the immigrants would be more accepted by the American people. There are many jobs that most Americans simply will and do not want to take due to low pay and amount of work. But thanks to immigrants that would love to have the opportunity to work in our country these jobs are taken. With each immigrant that comes and gets a job, more money is spent within the American economy. The more money spent in the economy will eventually help it grow making us a more prosperous nation financially.

The more money the immigrants spend in the US the more demand they cause for the people who make the goods they purchase. But the immigrants do not only help our country when they make money in the US, many send money home to their loved ones to help pay for things they need. Immigration does not only help the economy of the US, it also benefits the country that the immigrant comes from. According to Philippe Legrain, a journalist and economist, “migrants from poor countries working in rich ones send home much more – $200 billion a year officially,” (The Case for Immigration).

With all this money coming and going from immigrants, it’s unbelievable that we look down on immigration. The people who make the immigration laws are blind to the fact that the migrants help our economy. Instead of trying to keep migrants out we should allow them easier access into our nation for work, and then when they are ready they should be allowed to leave. Once immigrants get into the US many become stuck and unable to go home because it is too risky. If we allowed them to move freely most would just come temporarily to get enough money for what they need back home.

According to Legrain, “Most migrants do not want to leave home forever: they want to go work abroad for a while to earn enough to buy a house or set up a business back home. ” (The Case for Immigration). Of course some of the migrants would want to stay, but there wouldn’t be an overwhelming number of them. The immigrants that do settle would not only contribute to our work force and economy, they will add diversity to our country. Having many people from all over the world is something that can be beneficial to any country. Many of America’s venture-capital backed start-ups have immigrant founders. Legrain) With introduction of new peoples come new ideas, cultural experiences, and skills that can all be used to benefit our country. High skilled people from other countries could help American companies develop new drugs, technologies, appliances and even new architectural ideas. ” Twenty-one of Britain’s Nobel-prize winners arrived in the country as refugees. ” (Legrain) The foreigners with new ideas could spark the next big American innovation with their different ways of thinking and perspective. Since they are new to our country they see differently than we do, and can have a completely different view on things.

This cultural diversity can also transform little towns into cities with the new people inhabiting them. The immigrants could bring in their cultures and help build our towns into culturally diverse cities that would maybe attract tourists and new residents. Although there are many benefits of immigration, many believe that the immigrants would take away from American workers and steal jobs. However this is not true, many immigrants cannot compete with American workers due to skill differences and jobs they are willing to do.

Also, there aren’t a fixed number of jobs going around for everyone, and immigrant workers are not substitutes for American ones. These fallacies are really what deter many American people from lowering the immigration laws and allowing more immigrants into the country. If the people of our country knew the benefits of having more immigrants, the laws wouldn’t be so strict and more migrants would be allowed to come and work in our country. It is time that the government really recognizes the benefits of immigration to our country.

More immigrants means more working people, more working people means a lower unemployment rate and more money being spent in our country. The more money spent in the US means a better economy which is something that this country needs. We need to allow the immigrants into our country not only to help us, but to help them make money for themselves and their families. If America truly is an equal opportunity country, then we need to give all people the same opportunities. Sources: “Philippe Legrain. ” The Case for Immigration :. N. p. , n. d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. http://www. philippelegrain. com/the-case-for-immigration/.

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Illegal Immigration: Too Large a Burden on America

Illegal Immigration: Too Large a Burden on America “Households headed by illegal aliens imposed more than 26. 3 billion dollars in costs on the federal government…and paid only 16 billion dollars in taxes, creating a net fiscal deficit of almost 10. 4 billion dollars, or two thousand seven hundred dollars per illegal household” (Miller 1). Some people would argue that immigrants come to America to take jobs that no one else will do, but the illegal immigrants are in fact draining social services and stealing free health care benefits.

In addition, immigrants pay little or no taxes to benefit the social services and health care providers that they drain. By doing so, the American tax payers must take on the high price of the American government turning a blind eye to the illegal immigrants rushing in. Yes, illegal immigrants take not so pleasant jobs, but it’s not worth the high price of social services and health care they impose. Although legalized immigration is what this country was founded on in the 1700’s, in modern day America many feel it is becoming too large a burden on the American tax payers to stop the influx of illegal immigrants to the United States.

The problem of immigration can be solved if we place more restrictions on who is allowed in to our country, and let more able bodied, skilled workers in instead of letting every sob story have priority. Paul Hina, author of Illegal Immigration ( Contemporary Issues Companion), states that due to “illegal immigration and because U. S. immigration policy slants toward admitting relatives rather than immigrants with needed workplace skills, our immigration system literally imports poverty” (Hina 2).

So instead of benefiting America with skilled workers, uneducated, poor immigrants are admitted and given full benefits of the social services they don’t deserve. Rachel Alexander, lawyer and coeditor of IntellectualConservatives. com, argues “illegal immigration is a major problem in the United States because illegal immigrants pay no taxes yet consume welfare resources at the tax payers’ expense…Border security has not stemmed the tide of illegal immigrants, so the government should focus instead on depriving them of social aid so that they will not be disinclined to sneak in to the country” (Haugen 1).

Providing illegal immigrants with social aid is wrong, because not only should they not be in our country, they are supported here by citizens’ tax dollars. The social services of this country is one of the reasons immigrants rush over here in the first place, so if we place more restrictions on who can receive social aid, they won’t be so encouraged to hop the border. The massive amounts of immigrants who enter this country illegally make American citizens suffer economically and physically.

Jamuna Carroll, author of many young adult books, stresses “how can we ask working families of California – many of whom have taken out sizable loans to finance their children’s education and many of whom will never be able to afford to send their children to college – to subsidize the education of those who should not be in our country at all? ” (Carroll 2). Citizens in some states are now obligated to pay taxes to help illegal immigrants pay less for the same college education.

It is unfair to provide immigrants who are here illegally, with discounts to public colleges and held as a priority over American citizens, who are burdened with taxes that pay for their discounts, in fact, the immigrants should not even be able to attend public colleges since they are breaking the law by being here, and colleges shouldn’t grant acceptance to them. Carroll further suggests “no one needs a college degree to sustain health and welfare and education is not a human right, as some of the proponents of this goofy attitude about tuition subsidies for illegals suggest” (Carroll 2).

Education is not an inalienable right. Nowhere in the constitution does it state education is an essential and necessary right the government must provide all who live within the borders. California should not enforce this view on their state residents because illegal immigrants should not benefit from education discounts when California citizens have to pay the hefty bill. Also by placing more restrictions on social aid programs, the tax payers won’t be so burdened with useless taxes to pay for illegal aliens, who don’t provide any benefits to the country.

The United States should make educated skilled workers a priority in the immigration policy and place more restrictions on social aid to solve the immigration crisis. Lori Newman, writer for the Greenhaven Press, reminds us, “every legal immigrant before 1924 was examined for infectious diseases upon arrival and tested for tuberculosis. Anyone infected was shipped back to their country of origin…today…illegal aliens simply cross our borders medically unexamined, hiding in their bodies any number of diseases’ (Newman 3). In 1924, only the healthiest and most educated could be admitted ntrance in to America, the land of opportunities, now the poorest and least educated immigrants with innumerable amounts of diseases flood into our country every day. Those with diseases once rare in our country infect and burden the American health care system. The United States should enforce more restrictions on social and the immigration policy so we can stop these diseases from infecting our people. America should stop trying to enforce rights that do not exist on people who should not be in our country and pay more attention to those dying because of the people who bring the diseases in illegally.

Many Americans agree the United States needs to stop trying to provide for illegal immigrants within our borders and focus on legal citizens who give back to the country through taxes. Statistics show “approximately 480,000 family-based immigrants and 140,000 employment based immigrants, as well as around 80,000 refugees and 20,000 immigrants seeking asylum” come in every year and stay because they are given health care, welfare and discounts on colleges with no costs to them (Haugen 1). Tax paying Americans are suffering while illegal aliens are given health care and welfare.

The government needs to crack down on social services and help their fellow countrymen rather than uneducated and poor immigrants from which American reaps no benefits. Immigrants are what America was founded on, but citizens express that today they come in and take advantage of what America has to offer instead of those who first came to our country, ready to work and provide for their country. America needs to realize they can’t help everyone who asks, there is simply not enough resources or money, especially in these discouraging economic times. Help those who give America, not those who take advantage. Works Cited Carroll, Jamuna. Subsidizing college Tuition for Illegal Immigrants is Unfair. ” Opposing Views Resource Center. Gale. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. Haugen, David. “Illegal Immigrants Should be Stopped From Draining Public Services. ” Opposing Views Resource Center. Gale. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. Hina, Paul. “Illegal Immigrants Are Abusing the Public Health System. ” Opposing Views Resource Center. Gale. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. Miller, Debra. “Illegal Immigrants Create a Drain on the U. S. Government. ” Opposing Views Resource Center. Gale. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. Newman, Lori. “Illegal Immigrants Threaten U. S. Health Care. ” Opposing ViewsResource Center. Gale. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.

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Argumentative Essay on Immigration

Illegal Immigration Amnesty There are many problems that the United States faces and the one that is causing several debates is illegal immigration. Thousands and thousands of illegal immigrants have come from many different places. All of them have different desires. One might want a safe future for their family, one is probably looking for a fresh start, or even a place to spread their knowledge. The big question is should illegal immigrants be granted amnesty? After the resources and argument, it is believed that Amnesty should be given to illegal aliens. What is amnesty?

Amnesty is a pardon for someone who was convicted in a crime. Amnesty is tangled with the term “Illegal Aliens”. Illegal aliens according to the law are people who are undocumented and not originally from the country they are currently residing in. There are different points of view on this issue. Nathan Thornburgh, Times Magazine Reporter states, “Whether you fine illegal aliens or stick them in English classes or make them say a hundred Hail Marys, at the end of the day, illegals would be allowed to stay and become citizens… That’s amnesty. And that’s a good thing for America.

Amnesty won’t depress wages – globalization has already done that. Amnesty will not undermine the rule of law. It sounds counterintuitive, but with immigration, forgiving a crime may be the best way to restore law and order. Amnesty won’t necessarily add to the social- services burden. Amnesty would offer millions… a fighting chance at self- sufficiency and social mobility. ” Everyone deserves a chance to show what they are capable of. Granting amnesty will also reduce the abuse these immigrants face. Many don’t complain about labor exploitation and substandard working conditions in the fear of being deported.

Arnold Schwarzenegger, 38th. Governor of California has his own views on this Amnesty situation. “I am writing to urge Congress to act this year to pass comprehensive immigration reform. We must find a permanent solution to our broken i mmigration system, and I believe that this is our chance to restore America’s status as both a country of immigrants and a nation of laws…” Arnold Schwarzenegger also believes that instead of fighting this crisis of amnesty, it should be resolved in a way where everyone agrees to amnesty. A huge part of the economy depends on the illegal immigrants such as agriculture.

Natives have a mindset that they are too good to be working at such lowly ranked jobs so such labor depends on these immigrants. Without the support of the increased population of the illegal immigrants, the economy would be in a condition that’s worse than it already is. Granting amnesty will also reduce crime because these immigrants will not fear about reporting crimes to authorities, therefore helping to reduce the crime rate to an extent. With legalization of these aliens it will strengthen and revitalize the nation and it will increase the nation’s security.

Granting amnesty will help the nation focus on more important resources such as militia. These resources that are focused on capturing illegal immigrants who enter the country for work could be redirected towards homeland security or funds for war. Not all agree that the “illegal aliens” should be able to get a chance to prove themselves. According to Heritage Foundation “Do not grant amnesty to illegal aliens. Regardless of the penalties imposed, any program that grants individuals who are unlawfully present the legal permission to remain here rewards illegal behavior and is unfair to those who obey the law…”

Heritage Foundation believes that it is unfair to grant illegal immigrants the same rights that legal citizens have. They believe this because the illegal immigrants did not follow the laws when they entered the country and the legal immigrants did. There are many cons to the legalization of illegal immigrants. Illegal immigrants shouldn’t be granted amnesty because it can increase further illegal immigration at the nations border. This can also encourage trafficking and smuggling of illegal aliens who will pay high prices to enter a country who’s granting amnesty.

This also means that the crime will increase and by not granting amnesty it can be avoided. It is also very costly for to tax payers to grant illegal aliens amnesty especially regarding education, healthcare, welfare and social services. Education isn’t at its peak because cuts are always made and increasing kids in the public education system will obviously make it more costly than it has to be. Health care has also been a big issue tax payers definitely don’t want to pay for costs they can avoid. The job market will take a toll with the increasing population of documented aliens.

The unemployment rate will increase which means that millions of more people will be looking for work without positive results. By providing amnesty, it shows that the people who are following the rules have the same status as the illegal aliens who should be penalized for their wrong doings. The Heritage Foundation has come to the conclusion that “…Those who enter the United States illegally should not be rewarded with permanent legal status or other such benefits, and they should be penalized in any road to citizenship.

Those who enter and remain in the country illegally are violating the law, and condoning or encouraging such violations increases the likelihood of further illegal conduct. ” Which means, the person who comes to the country legally should be let go however the one who comes illegally must be harshly reprimanded and shouldn’t be allowed to have the same luxuries as a person who follows the rules. . Believe it or not, but amnesty is bound to benefit America. Amnesty works politically and socially. It helps with the economy and it provides a safe journey for future generations whether they’re illegal or not.

There are many people mostly students who are intelligent who want to seek a better future. Amnesty will help provide a future for these young people. They will be able to go to college, have a professional care. Even community organizer, Julio Flores says “There’s a great human potential in this town that doesn’t see the light of day because of the legal status. ” All in all, even though there are any pros and cons towards the decision if amnesty should be granted or not, we are still stuck on the same question “should illegal aliens be granted amnesty? There are many different points of view on this situation. Amnesty, to a great extent is a resolute by the certain circumstances in which the country find themselves in. Citations Page 1. MLA (7th ed. ): ProCon. org. “Is amnesty a good solution to illegal immigration? ” Immigration. ProCon. org. ProCon. org, 22 May 2009. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. 2. Thornburgh/Beardstown, Nathan, and Ill. “Immigration: The Case for Amnesty. “TIME [Beardstown] n. d. : 1+. Web. 3. “Immigration Amnesty. ” US. N. p. , n. d. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <http://www. usamnesty. org/>.

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Letter to Home – History American Immigration

Mr. Iam Nobody 8 Howling Lane Hackney London E15 6PP United Kingdom Mr. Iam Nobody 8 Howling Lane Hackney London E15 6PP United Kingdom Dear Iam Nobody, Early today I arrived in Ellis Island, as you know I went via steamship which was crowded with all different kind of people from all different places. On the way there I was talking to a German man his name was Kurt even though he was German he spoke very good English I would even say he spoke better than me to a certain extent.

When we finally arrived there they took us into the Baggage Room of the Main Building, winding its way up to the second floor where we were met by a team of doctors and inspectors who would decide which way the Golden Door would swing as they called it. Although many did not know it, I could see that the inspection process had already begun. Doctors Scanning the moving line for signs of illness, Public Health Service doctors looked to see if anyone wheezed, coughed, shuffled, or limped as they climbed the steep ascent.

There was another door which about 2/10 people went through I assumed that was the ‘unlucky door’ which meant people didn’t pass the health test. A few hours later I had passed my health test now and I said I would wait for Kurt to come through as he had no place to go and I was going to take him to Uncle Poe. Behold to me that was the last day I saw him; he must have failed the health test. So I carried on once I reached New York I quickly found that there was a lot of segregated area for different religions or nationality’s.

When Uncle Poe picked me up he showed me to his diner where once again people segregated from each other blacks in one corner, Polish in another I thought this was madness as I thought one of the main reason why people immigrated to America was to escape discrimination. I will be working in Poe’s diner from now on and living above the diner. I’ve only been working there for a couple of days now there’s already been 3 fights and a multiple of hate speech’s and just down the road 2 Irish men were shot and robbed. It’s rough here so when I make enough money to move then you can immigrate over here. Sincerely, Tyler Wakefield.

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Immigration, Social Problem

Immigration, A Social problem People believe that immigration is generally a problem to the economy. Resorbing a negative abstract and a source of taking up valuable resources. The government has kept a social problem amongst the economic impact of the immigrants around us. Illegal immigrants, also known as aliens, are still being observed and noticed as racial profiling and being noticed as a minority groups still occur. One of which is the country closest to us, Mexico, whom is believed to start controversy to the US citizens as they are believed to create alliance to the Mexican drug war.

Even thought there are still immigrants in this county, there are believes that the number of immigrants coming from Mexico to the United States has sharply declined. America is a country based and built by the immigrants. We are all immigrants in this country but it is true that some immigrants hurt the country but in many ways it was the immigrants that improved United States in the first place. Some immigrants are small business owners whom try to survive and live up to the American Dream.

Even if some immigrants build the country there are always people who impact the social structure. Now day’s immigration has become a political factor and not observed as a human being struggling to better him or her selves from the life they used to live, these are citizens not criminals. Much of the perception about immigrants triggered by competition at the job market, and pressure on housing market are due to high numbers of in coming immigrants but not necessarily the immigrant’s government so keenly want to control.

The reason why there has been valid and real concern about immigration is because of the unfettered immigration allowed by labor and the obvious failure of their policy’s in the inner cities. The aspect of letting fewer immigrants in will be more manageable and easier to integrate, instead of mass immigration creating disenfranchised environment and the immigrant populations cannot possibly make the most from being in the US at this time of low job resources.

Over the year it seems that the number of the immigrants coming to the United States from Mexico has been sharply declined which could be do to the lack of jobs, higher risks of border crossing, low resources more risks and so on. Many factors are probably behind the trend but mostly its being believed that the number one thing is the lack of job in United States. It really shows how bad it has become here when people are leaving and others do not want to immigrate. Also believed that people aren’t immigrating because they can’t even afford the gas, food, utilities, rent, mortgages, one in every seven Americans are on welfare.

They come here for work, but people here are losing jobs everyday. In the end the solution to immigration has already occurred, which is the lack of jobs. The immigrants only want to provide better future for there children and I really don’t believe that we should stop them from coming over. I immigrated to this country for a better future from a country that was in a war for ten years and living in United States has given me a better percentage of survival then if I lived in any other country.

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Migration, Immigration, and Emigration, and Their Effects

Vietnam has a wide variety of religions practiced in their country. Nine point three percent of Vietnams population are Buddhist, six point seven percent are Catholic, One point five percent are Hoa Hao, one point one percent are Cao Dai. Less than one percent are Protestant and Muslim. Even though Vietnam has a lot of variety of religions over eighty percent claim no religion (East and Southeast Asia, 2012). Even thought there is a wide variety of religions in Vietnam, most of the people who live there have a sense of the richness and variety of traditional Vietnamese religion.

In older tradition the majority of Vietnamese people believed they inhabited a world alive with gods and spirits. They didn’t make a distinction of the living world and the spirit or dead world. They also didn’t make a distinction between the world human beings, nature, vegetable, an animal. the believed that the energy of these worlds are all connected. Because of this religion plays a big part in the daily life of a Vietnamese person. In addition, your social status also affects how and what you believe. or example, Confucian scholars, who prided themselves for their rationality, often scoffed at what they considered the superstitious nature of peasant religion. But they, also had religious believes that they lived by. Where you work also determines what you believe. Fishermen, were notorious for the variety and richness of their beliefs. Some beliefs were shared by all Vietnamese. Others were adhered to only in one region or a small locality. Some were so deeply embedded in the culture as to be considered a part of tradition, holding sway over believers and non-believers alike.

Maybe because of the many religions or the way the Vietnamese people think, religion doesn’t play a big part in their country as a whole, but it does play a big part in the lives of the citizens of Vietnam. Even though, half of the world’s population lives in The Asia region people aren’t migrating to Vietnam (Stephen Castles, 2009). Vietnam is a very traditional country with allot of different ethnic groups. Vietnam is home to fifty-four official ethnic groups, the majority of which live in highland areas. Although some large groups such as, the Cham or Chinese, live in lowlands or urban areas.

I will go over a couple of the most known ethnic groups. There are eighty-five point seven percent of the Vietnamese are Kinh, which is said to be the native people of Vietnam. There are one point nine percent Tay people, who originates from the Chinese side of the Vietnamese – Chinese border. One point eight percent are Thai and are from Thailand. One point five percent are Muong which are the people who live in the mountains in Vietnam, and Khmer who come from Cambodia. One point two percent are Mong and they come from Mongolia. Less than one percent are Nung which are considered to be the “poor” people of Vietnam.

The last five point three percent are labeled as other (East and Southeast Asia, 2012). Most people in Vietnam are natives to that land but their ancestors migrated from china long ago. Because of this migration doesn’t play a big part in Vietnams present but it does play a big part in its history. Even though they have been ruled by other countries most of the time, they kept a strong belief in their country and culture. Migration in Asia isn’t a new thing for them. Asians from these regions have been migrating for centuries. But in the 1970s and 1980s, international migration from Asia grew dramatically.

The main destinations were North America, Australia, and the oil economies of the Middle East. Since the 1990s, migration within Asia has grown, particularly from less-developed countries with massive labor surpluses to fast-growing newly industrializing countries (Stephen Castles, 2009). In today’s society migration has dropped. The reason for this is the Asian government wanted to control migration and migration rights were limited. They also made migration temporary in that region so people were prohibited to have family reunions.

Even though migration has dropped, emigration has risen six percent over the past ten years (Stephen Castles, 2009). There are about 2. 6 million people leaving Asia to look for work. In the 21st century over 6 million Asians are employed outside of their own countries within the Asian region. This has grown a great deal since the 1980s and has helped the Asian region grow. A lot of Asia’s were able to find work in the Middle East after the oil prices rose in 1973. This also contributed to the migration and emigration in Vietnam. The referred to these workers as contract labor.

The companies that employed them made it clear that they couldn’t bring family with them. In the 70s most of the works who migrated were male so the men of the house had to leave their families just to find work and provide for them. In the 1980s the economy was growing so rapidly and fertility was declining it cause a strong demand for labor workers. Even though they in Asia, most of the workers aren’t Asian. While existing flows from countries like Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines have continued, new source countries like Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Burma have become more significant (Stephen Castles, 2009).

In the 1990s there was a demand for female domestic workers that started in the Middle East and then Asia. If women didn’t work in the domestic sector they often had the “typical female” jobs. Some examples of these jobs are entertainers(mostly prostitutes), restaurant and hotel staff, and assembly line workers in clothing or electronics. These jobs were poor paying and had terrible conditions. They were also associated with patriarchal stereotypes of female docility, obedience, and willingness to give personal services (Stephen Castles, 2009).

Another big form of female migration in Asia is female migration marriage. Since the 1900s, foreign brides have been sought out by farmers in areas likes Japan and Taiwan. This is one of the only permanent forms of immigration in Asia that is permitted. From the Asian government sand point it seem that these practices with women help their country, but it is sexist and will put the government in a terrible situation with women rights groups. The diversity in the religion and culture have shaped the Vietnamese people into who they are today.

Even though it doesn’t play a big part in the economy or government, religion is still a big part of the lives of the Vietnamese citizen. The religion is mixed in with their culture which makes the citizens of Vietnam a pride people. With the ever growing Asian economy Vietnam is in a good place to grow also. Even though the country has had allot of adversity, it has overcome it all. In the future maybe they will work on their women’s rights issues and continue to grow its economy. If that is done I have no doubt that the citizens of Vietnam will be happy and the economy will grow. ?

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Immigration Problem in Istanbul

The immigration problem has always been one of the most important debated issues in Turkey, especially after1950s. It makes big cities more crowded and it also brings many problems together. These problems include economic, social, and environmental issues. Particularly Istanbul is in a great danger with the huge rate of immigration it takes. The city has not enough area for sheltering its continuous growing population as it has not also enough resources to feed them.

It is very unhealthy to enlarge as rapidly as Istanbul with immigration because it brings economic, environmental, and social problems. Istanbul is the most urbanized and crowded city of Turkey. For almost 20 years, it takes internal migration with its economic and social opportunities; therefore, the city, which becomes one of the urbanized cities around the world, grows in an uncontrolled manner day by day. The population of Istanbul, which was not even 1 million in 1950, is now over 14 million.

After a rapid industrialization, a high level of immigration is normal and unavoidable for cities and it has some advantages as providing labor force but the migration to Istanbul get over the limits. According to Istanbul Governorship’s data, over 62% of people who live in Istanbul were born outside of the city. Since it is common that Turkish families are crowded, most of immigrant families have more than two children generally.

This year, the prime minister of Turkey, Tayyip Erdogan advised the community to make at least three children in order to protect the nation’s young population, at the time of his speech about International Women’s day. The elite class of Turkey may not affected by these events but the rural side of Turkey, and the lower class of the cities, mostly immigrants are influenced by the people whom they see as their idol. According to the high fertility factor, the native Istanbul population has become a minority in their homeland (Erman 541).

It causes many identity problems beside its social and economic aspect. The mass migration to Istanbul caused economic problems such as inadequate shelter and unemployment. In “The Human Declaration on Human Settlements”, it is underlined that deterioration of conditions of shelter and human settlements particularly in developing countries has reached crisis proportion (591). As we know that Turkey is a developing country with its industrializing economy, the problems as I mentioned above are common in Turkey, especially in urbanized cities.

Istanbul, the most industrialized city of Turkey, owns problems related to the excessive population concentration such as homelessness, increasing poverty, unemployment, inadequate resources, lack of basic infrastructure and services (592). Migrants who come to Istanbul for its job opportunities generally belong to the low educated agrarian society. They come to this big city with the dream of being a part of rich and modern urban. However, migrants compose the lower class of Istanbul with their lower education and economic situation.

With their inadequate qualifications, they can work in low wage jobs. The squatter settlements issue begins with this problem. People who can’t earn enough money to buy or rent apartments they live in squatter settlements. Moreover, the other side of Istanbul, the welfare class which manage the industry becomes richer continuously. Because of this dual economy in Istanbul as all other urbanized cities in third world countries, the difference, and consequently the tension between rich and poor increase continuously.

The labor class, which works hard, however cannot sustain their family become more aggressive day by day. The bloody 1 May (Labor Day) incidents can be explained with the rebel of this class. Crime rate. The mass migration to Istanbul and the rapid social changes occurred in the city caused the problematic issue “integration” of rural migrants into the urban society (Erman 541). They move into Istanbul, they become physically “urbanite” but since they cannot accommodate themselves in city life, continuing their rural traditions, they cannot become urbanite socially.

They resist changing or they are forced to be an alien. As they live in communes, generally in squatter settlement areas, with the group psychology, they live their own culture as a synthesis of the rural and the urban. As they cannot become an urbanite, they don’t detach their relations with their rural villages and community. The concept of “hemsericilik” in Turkish language, it means clientalism, became one of the most important characteristics to evaluate a person. Largely, migrants compose the lower class of Istanbul with their lower education level and economical conditions.

Their economic situation and their education have a strong correlation. Since their language and qualifications are lower, they cannot find high-wage jobs to increase their economic level. Poverty strengthens the alienation of them. They see the luxurious houses, cars, and lifestyles on the streets or on TV and as they can’t reach this lifestyle by working, they start to search the short way to own this shining life. The growth rate of crime in Istanbul is the result of this desire.

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Immigration Reform

Immigration Reform Team C – Sivi Contreras, Jenifer Navarro, Angela Hernandez BCOM/275 February 5, 2013 Gloria Flores ABSTRACT The debate over immigration has become one of the most heated arguments. Immigrants leave their home countries desperate need for food to feed their families, unemployment purposes, their poverty conditions environment, for those who are employed are tired of the below market wages, and the unequal treatment. Today they are about 11 million undocumented workers in the United States and Americans fear that because of this matter, immigrants will increase cost, overwhelm the country, and change American society.

Immigration Reform Immigration statistics will prove how rapidly immigration is increasing, including the importance of the Dream Act, the Immigration reform, and its pros and cons. Systems that will help families that want to be in the United States, but in return help the economy. The purposes of the new Immigration reform are to accomplish a new economic picture, by creating ideas of improving our border security; workplace enforcement; to help those whom are seeking permanent residence; and new ways to improve the immigration system. Statistics

They are about 12 to 15 million undocumented workers and families illegally in the United States and about 1,042,625 are obtaining legal permanent resident. California and Texas are the top states with the highest population of immigration. New York Times article included that this year’s cost of immigration was 13,000,000,000, including 52,000,000,000 for education, and 1,400,000 number of illegal immigrant households that use at least one welfare service. In a (2007) report the heritage foundation added that “For every $1 they contribute to Social Security, low-skilled illegal aliens withdraw $10 in total government benefits.

Just looking at one federal benefits program, Social Security, is sure to lead a person to a wrong answer because there are more than 60 different federal benefit programs. Their children born in the US are, or one person in the household is legal and can get benefits that help everybody in the household, or the individuals use fraudulent documents to obtain benefits. ” What will charts look like in the future with this matter? Most of us that consider “green card” are a legal document allowing an immigrant to live and work in the United States.

Another form for immigrants that does not require labor purposes is a Refugee. A Refugee is known as a form of protection for those whom cannot return to their original hometown because of fear of being harmed. In 2011 a total of 56,384 persons were approved to go to the United States as refugees. Part of the immigration reform is to bring a better life to any human who fears their country because of persecution of race, religion, and nationality. About 9,550 individuals who applied were approved for asylum with travel documents to enter the United States and 24,988 individuals were granted asylum.

These statistics were based on 2011 reports and are rapidly increasing because of this matter we are starting to worry. The Heritage Foundation addressed that the illegal alien lobby frequently touts the statistic that illegal alien workers contribute $7 billion each year to Social Security. But it costs $14. 2 billion each year to imprison illegal aliens for other crimes they commit. It’s as if they are putting money into one of Uncle Sam’s pockets, while pilfering twice the amount from the other (2007 report). If this immigration continues to grow at this level nation’s population will increase from 301 million today to 468 million.

Dream Act What is Dream Act? It is the legislation that provides immigration status to undocumented immigrants who entered United States while being minors. During 2001 the original bill was called the development relief and education for alien minors act. The public engagement of the white House posted on their web 10 reasons why they needed the Dream Act. Summarizing argument’s that two secretaries including other people have made for the act. The dream act will help our economy marketing easier for immigration enforcements efforts on undocumented immigrants “Who pose a threat to our country” (Zehr, 2010,).

The development relief and education for aliens minors act or dream act provide a path for legalization for undocumented high school graduates who meet the requirements of completing two years of college, military service, have entered United States before the age of 16, must be between the age of 12 and 35 to complete the application, good moral character, and no criminal record. If the congress passed the dream act it would add $329 billion to U. S. economy impacting it by $181 billion creating 1. 4 million new jobs and more than $10 billion increase revenue by 2030.

Many Dream Act opponents call it an immigration amnesty. They say the proposal would immediately reward immigrant children with conditional lawful permanent resident status – and, in just a few years, they would become U. S. Citizens. Their criticisms do not reflect how immigration agencies operate immigration reform will be addressed by the Obama administration this year. Republican senators they were ready to announce the outline of a broad immigration reform bill that would include a path to “earned legalization” for immigrants living illegally in this country.

The pros of the dream act is that there are currently 13 to 20 million illegal immigrants in the United States we cannot deport them all but there is a solution The Dream Act will make a difference having a highest portion of graduates by 2020 increasing taxes and the service. Nelger Carrera is a writer of theroundupnews. com he is describing the con of Dream Act. “He thinks that President Barack Obama gain votes from Hispanics so he could win the presidency. ” ” (Carrera, 2011,) an article online had a quote from columnist George Will saying that we are importing poverty from other countries.

That is why poor people from other countries are coming to United States for the reason that the money they make here is a fortune compared to where they use to live. Illegal immigrants come to U. S. to make or ask for money example welfare, financial aid or any dream act benefits. We all are to benefit from The Dream Act for the reason that the economy will rise for everyone not just immigrants. The Dream Act is a common sense proposal that would benefit not just those who qualify for it but all Americans as these young people they can one day become leaders in our communities, churches, and Nation. “Five Moral Arguments Against The Dream Act”, Copyright © Townhall. com. All Rights Reserved. ). Five moral arguments against The Dream Act were, The Dream Act fulfills the parents principle reason for breaking the law in the first place, The Dream Act would touch-off an even greater wave or illegal immigration, The Dream Act absolves illegal aliens of their fundamental responsibilities as parents, The absence of a reward or benefit is not the same as a punishment, and Adults have the obligation to do the right thing, even if their parents have done the wrong thing. (Sen. Dick Durbin (D-Ill. There will always be different points of views and opinions on any type of legislation especially when it comes to a controversial topic such as immigration. Pros and Cons to Immigration Reform. As with any debate there are pros and cons to this issue, and immigration reform is no different. According to “Procon. org” (n. d. ) website “The top ten areas that create a lot of debate are: Using the term “illegal alien”, Amnesty, Deportation, Mexican Border Fence, Civilian Border Patrols, Terrorist Threat, Economic Burden, Drivers licenses for Illegal Aliens, Using State and local Law Enforcement vs.

National Only, and Border Militarization. ” Two of the areas that we will discuss are Amnesty and Deportation. Amnesty has been a sore spot for many Americans who feel that the undocumented immigrants would get a free pass to becoming citizens. Others feel that due to the volume of people that fit the category of undocumented immigrants, there should be a reform, and Amnesty is an option. On the PRO side of this debate, According to Thornburg (2007) “Whether you fine illegal aliens or stick them in English classes or make them say a hundred Hail Mary’s, at the end of the day, illegals would be allowed to stay and become citizens. “That’s amnesty, and that’s a good thing for America. Amnesty won’t depress wages – globalization has already done that. Amnesty will not undermine the rule of law. It sounds counterintuitive, but with immigration, forgiving a crime may be the best way to restore law and order. ” (Thornburg, 2007). Amnesty won’t necessarily add to the social-services burden. Amnesty would offer millions a fighting chance at self-sufficiency and social mobility. ” (Thornburg, 2007). On the CON side: “Do not grant amnesty to illegal aliens. Regardless of the penalties imposed, any program hat grants individuals who are unlawfully present the legal permission to remain here rewards illegal behavior and is unfair to those who obey the law and go through the regulatory and administrative requirements to enter the country legally. ” (Heritage, 2007). “Those who enter the United States illegally should not be rewarded with permanent legal status or other such benefits, and they should be penalized in any road to citizenship. Those who enter and remain in the country illegally are violating the law, and condoning or encouraging such violations increases the likelihood of further illegal immigration. (Heritage, 2007).

In regards to deportation we have heard many positions, especially during the Presidential debates. Governor Romney wanted for illegal immigrants to “self deport” meaning make things so difficult for them that they have no choice but to go back to their country. Some of the views on the PRO side, According to (Guzzardi, 2007) “deporting aliens is as easy as one, two, and three. The next time you hear U. S. President George W. Bush or U. S. Secretary of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff say how impossible immigration enforcement is, remember this simple formula: one, go to where you know aliens are; two, arrest them; three, deport them.

Don’t bother asking where aliens hang out. ” The better question is where they aren’t hanging out. Go to a bus stop, a taco truck, a convenience store, the post office or an auto repair shop. (Guzzardi, 2007). “No need to round them all up at once. Just arrest one or two every day at different locations around town and the message will soon get out. ” (Guzzardi, 2007). On the side of CON: “I have listened to and understand the concerns of those who simply advocate sealing our borders and rounding up and deporting undocumented workers currently in residence here.

But that’s easier said than done. ” (McCain, 2005). I have yet to hear a single proponent of this point of view offer one realistic proposal for locating, apprehending, and returning to their countries of origin over 11 million people. How do we do that? It would take 200,000 buses extending along a 1700 mile long line to deport 11 million people. That’s assuming we had the resources to locate and apprehend all 11 million, or even half that number, which we don’t have and, we all know, won’t ever have. ” (McCain, 2005).

The country has been divided for decades, however with the new Immigration Reform initiatives that have unfolded over the past two weeks, it is apparent that President Obama, wants to make a decision on this issue. The politicians are coming together to put a plan together and do what is right for the country. The teams consensus believes in Immigration Reform and we want to see something passed where those that are in this situation, can remain in the United States legally, and that will not tear apart families. We believe we all have the right to a better future and that our country was founded on immigrants.

In the pros and cons, the human factor is what persuaded us to be in favor of immigration reform. References Balanced Politics. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. balancedpolitics. org/immigration. htm Carrera, N. (2011, September 28). Con: DREAM Act. theroundupnews. com. Retrieved from http://theroundupnews. com/2011/09/28/con-dream-act/ Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Retrieved from http://www. dhs. gov/immigration- statistics Dream Act 2013. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. dreamact2009. org Five Moral Arguments Against the DREAM Act. (Copyright © Townhall. com. All Rights Reserved. ).

Retrieved from http://townhall. com/columnists/iramehlman/2011/07/01/five_moral_arguments_against_the_dream_act/page/full Guzzardi, J. (2007). Procon. org. Retrieved from http://www. procon. org Heritage Foundation. (2007). Retrieved from http://www. heritage. org McCain, J. (2005). Procon. org. Retrieved from http://www. procon. org Policymic. (2012). Retrieved from http://www. policymic. com/articles/21399/immigration ProCon. org. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. procon. org Thornburgh, N. (2007). ProCon. org . Retrieved from http://www. procon. org US Immigration Reform. (2011). Retrieved from http://www. usaimmigrationreform. org

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Immigration Reform

Immigration Reform “The early North American Indian made a great mistake by not having an immigration bureau,” (Anonymous) Besides the United States upon immigrants that migrated from Europe. If we are saying that legal immigration should not be permitted, then, maybe most of the American white population should not be permitted to live here as well. For United States, the term immigration reform is usually used to describe proposals increase legal immigration while decreasing illegal immigration.

While a lot of thought had been given to deal with various aspects of illegal immigration, very little attention is given to legal immigration. Questions are asked like, “Is immigration the general good of the country? ” or “Most immigrants work the low-paying jobs, how are they given any opportunity? ” Immigration reform should be used to increase legal immigration because it is beneficiary to both the U. S. and the immigrants. Legal immigration is best for immigrants because it gives an opportunity of an improved life for struggling people all over the world.

It gives the legal immigrants a chance to get paid enough to feed their families when job opportunities were few, and show their skills. Many groups throughout history had sought opportunities, and had immigrated all over the world and have had success that helped grow them into a better and prospering nation and people. For example, this country, the United States was built on immigrant who sought opportunity, political, and religious freedom. (http://www. balancedpolitics. org/immigration. tm) If our country has grown from the foundation of such people, why wouldn’t immigrants come to America to achieve a better opportunity? Many opportunities are given to legal immigrants such as the right to citizenship and job opportunities for unemployed workers. Legal immigrants can gain citizenship through the process of naturalization. This allows them to have the same rights as the people of the country and people that fewer job opportunities in their own country, causes that may vary to population etc. , can shine their skills in America.

Also, after World War II immigrants poured into the United States and formally accepted refugees that usually marked by war. (Opening and closing doors, pg 8) They have escaped from Hitler’s rein, from the endless persecution of the Jews. These refugee immigrants escaped the clutches of death, persecution, and torture to find a place to live where they have the opportunity to live in peace. Many lives can be improved if the kindness of America can extend to the legal immigrants who seek opportunity; sometimes we have to place ourselves in their shoes and we should want what is good for everyone.

Legal immigration is beneficiary to the United States because some of the most intelligent and ambitious individuals bring their skills to America. Legal immigrants can get good jobs and make a difference with their knowledge that is to the advantage of the U. S. It offers limitless ways for a “nobody” to become great. Many individuals come here to study and eventually migrate. For example, many U. S. universities try to seek the best international students from all over the world. They want the best to come into the country because they might help and build U.

S. ’s future someday. It also helps the U. S. be technologically advanced. U. S. gets these smart and skilled people that build and research many things. The ideas floating in all those heads that come from different places of the world help solve many common problems and come from different perspectives. These perspectives revolutionize technology because they are added into a general and common knowledge that resolves everyone’s concerns. Many third world countries also stifle entrepreneurship.

People become fed up of living in poverty, corruption and try to seek better lives. They come here to make something better of themselves so, they will try their best with their skills that will help the U. S. Carlos Alberto Montaner, Cuban writer, journalist, and former professor states the question, “…why is it that creative people don’t emerge in the Third World, capable of developing innovative products and building companies that market those products, create jobs, generate large profits and influence decisively the fate of this planet? He comes to the conclusion that the Third World countries stifles entrepreneurship and “… offers only hindrances, corruption, parasitic bureaucrats who demand bribes to not paralyze people’s projects; it is manned by individuals well connected with the political power, who protect their businesses from free competition, thus harming the consumers. ” (http://bandwidthbarn. ordpress. com/2008/09/02/third-world-crushes-its-entrepreneurs/) So, who will want to live in these harsh conditions and suffer when they have the ability to do more by immigrating? The best will come, because they know they will be able to survive with their skills. The ambitious and skilled individuals will most likely want enter the “land of opportunities”